9.

B Workers’ Compensation
Table 9.B1.—Coverage, benefits, and costs, 1940–98 1
Benefits paid during year (in millions)
Type of insurance

Estimated
number of
workers
covered
per month
(in millions)

Total

1940...............................
1946...............................
1948...............................
1949...............................

24.6
32.7
36.0
35.3

$256
434
534
566

$135
270
335
353

1950...............................
1951...............................
1952...............................
1953...............................
1954...............................

36.9
38.7
39.4
40.7
39.8

615
709
785
841
876

1955...............................
1956...............................
1957...............................
1958...............................
1959...............................

41.4
43.0
43.3
42.5
44.0

1960...............................
1961...............................
1962...............................
1963...............................
1964...............................

Type of benefits

Employers’
self-insurance
payments 6

Medical and
hospitalization

Compensation
payments

Cost of
program as
percent of
covered
payroll 2

$73
96
121
132

$48
68
78
81

$95
140
175
185

$161
294
359
381

1.19
.91
.96
.98

0.72
.54
.51
.55

381
444
491
524
540

149
170
193
210
225

85
94
101
107
110

200
233
260
280
308

415
476
525
561
568

.89
.90
.94
.97
.98

.54
.54
.55
.55
.57

916
1,002
1,062
1,112
1,210

563
618
661
694
753

238
259
271
285
316

115
125
130
132
141

325
350
360
375
410

591
652
702
737
800

.91
.92
.91
.91
.89

.55
.55
.56
.58
.58

44.9
45.0
46.2
47.3
48.8

1,295
1,374
1,489
1,582
1,707

810
851
924
988
1,070

325
347
371
388
412

160
176
194
207
226

435
460
495
525
565

860
914
994
1,057
1,142

.93
.95
.96
.99
1.00

.59
.61
.62
.62
.63

1965...............................
1966...............................
1967...............................
1968...............................
1969...............................

50.8
53.7
55.0
56.8
59.0

1,814
2,000
2,189
2,376
2,634

1,124
1,239
1,363
1,482
1,641

445
486
524
556
607

244
275
303
338
386

600
680
750
830
920

1,214
1,320
1,439
1,546
1,714

1.00
1.02
1.07
1.07
1.08

.61
.61
.63
.62
.62

1970...............................
1971...............................
1972...............................
1973...............................
1974...............................

59.2
59.4
62.3
66.3
68.0

3,031
3,563
4,061
5,103
5,781

1,843
2,005
2,179
2,514
2,971

755
1,098
1,379
1,998
2,086

432
460
504
592
724

1,050
1,130
1,250
1,480
1,760

1,981
2,433
2,811
3,623
4,021

1.11
1.11
1.14
1.17
1.24

.66
.67
.68
.70
.75

1975...............................
1976...............................
1977...............................
1978...............................
1979...............................

67.2
69.6
72.1
75.6
78.6

6,598
7,584
8,630
9,796
12,027

3,422
3,976
4,629
5,256
6,157

2,324
2,570
2,750
3,043
4,022

852
1,039
1,250
1,497
1,848

2,030
2,380
2,680
2,980
3,520

4,568
5,204
5,950
6,816
8,507

1.32
1.49
1.71
1.86
1.95

.83
.87
.92
.94
1.01

1980...............................
1981...............................
1982...............................
1983...............................
1984...............................

78.8
78.3
77.0
78.0
81.9

13,618
15,054
16,407
17,575
19,685

7,029
7,876
8,647
9,265
10,610

4,330
4,595
4,768
5,061
5,405

2,259
2,583
2,993
3,249
3,671

3,947
4,431
5,058
5,681
6,424

9,671
10,623
11,349
11,894
13,261

1.96
1.85
1.75
1.67
1.66

1.07
1.08
1.16
1.17
1.21

1985...............................
1986...............................
1987...............................
1988...............................
1989...............................

84.3
86.0
88.4
91.3
93.7

22,217
24,613
27,318
30,733
34,316

12,341
13,827
15,453
17,512
19,918

5,744
6,248
6,782
7,477
7,965

4,132
4,538
5,082
5,744
6,433

7,498
8,642
9,912
11,518
13,424

14,719
15,971
17,406
19,215
20,892

1.82
1.99
2.07
2.16
2.27

1.30
1.37
1.43
1.49
1.58

1990...............................
1991...............................
1992...............................
1993...............................
1994...............................

95.1
93.6
94.6
96.1
109.4

38,238
42,169
44,660
42,925
44,586

22,222
24,515
24,030
21,773
22,306

8,658
9,711
10,987
11,294
10,753

7,358
7,944
9,643
9,857
11,527

15,187
16,832
18,252
17,521
17,194

23,051
25,337
26,408
25,403
27,392

2.36
2.40
2.31
2.30
2.05

1.66
1.79
1.82
1.68
1.52

1995...............................
1996...............................
1997...............................
1998...............................

112.8
114.6
117.7
120.9

43,373
42,065
40,586
41,693

21,145
20,510
20,617
22,215

10,996
10,700
10,097
10,352

11,232
10,855
9,872
9,126

16,733
16,609
15,447
15,884

26,640
25,456
25,139
25,809

1.83
1.67
1.46
1.35

1.39
1.28
1.14
1.08

Calendar year

Insurance
losses paid
State and
by private
federal fund
4
carriers disbursements 5

Benefits as
percent of
covered
payroll 3

1 Beginning in 1959, includes Alaska and Hawaii.
2 Premiums written by private carriers, and state funds

and benefits paid by self-insurers increased by 5–11 percent to allow for administrative costs; also includes benefits
paid and administrative costs of federal system for government employees.
3 Excludes programs financed from general revenue—most federal Black Lung benefits.
4 Net cash and medical benefits paid during calendar year by private insurance companies under standard workers’ compensation policies.
5 Net cash and medical benefits paid by competitive and exclusive state funds and by federal system for government employees and, beginning in 1970, cash benefits paid
by federal Black Lung program.
6 Cash and medical benefits paid by self-insurers, plus value of medical benefits paid by employers carrying workers’ compensations policies that exclude standard medical
coverage.
Source: National Academy of Social Insurance estimates based on data received from state agencies, the Department of Labor, A.M. Best, and the National Council on
Compensation Insurance.

CONTACT: Daniel Mont (202) 452-8097 for further information.

308

Social Security Bulletin • Annual Statistical Supplement • 2000

9.B Workers’ Compensation
Table 9.B2.—Workers’ compensation benefits, by state, 1996–98
[In thousands]
State
Total 1

1996

1997

1998

..............................................................................

$42,361,831

$40,585,634

$41,692,664

Alabama..................................................................................
Alaska .....................................................................................
Arizona....................................................................................
Arkansas .................................................................................
California.................................................................................

525,073
121,597
458,593
160,328
6,829,656

530,230
115,285
403,928
157,128
7,073,544

615,316
110,866
417,673
161,146
7,374,486

Colorado .................................................................................
Connecticut .............................................................................
Delaware.................................................................................
District of Columbia.................................................................
Florida .....................................................................................

679,270
672,241
114,796
89,945
2,706,603

627,466
731,830
120,719
89,166
2,318,086

656,894
711,130
118,511
70,608
2,207,984

Georgia ...................................................................................
Hawaii .....................................................................................
Idaho.......................................................................................
Illinois ......................................................................................
Indiana ....................................................................................

821,952
288,495
127,634
1,643,487
409,901

702,622
254,915
138,800
1,576,695
398,914

807,582
194,680
165,764
1,687,070
439,268

Iowa ........................................................................................
Kansas ....................................................................................
Kentucky .................................................................................
Louisiana.................................................................................
Maine ......................................................................................

260,628
269,507
506,771
557,131
314,116

273,028
312,698
482,840
419,777
249,281

292,002
318,352
510,938
364,656
288,146

Maryland .................................................................................
Massachusetts ........................................................................
Michigan..................................................................................
Minnesota ...............................................................................
Mississippi...............................................................................

596,823
700,375
1,558,741
739,500
224,341

568,066
653,327
1,332,222
738,100
231,340

510,577
641,409
1,366,963
732,300
234,700

Missouri...................................................................................
Montana ..................................................................................
Nebraska.................................................................................
Nevada....................................................................................
New Hampshire ......................................................................

618,911
149,540
198,923
382,873
187,834

471,035
184,284
184,673
341,205
155,397

527,587
155,019
164,382
288,095
163,885

New Jersey .............................................................................
New Mexico ............................................................................
New York.................................................................................
North Carolina.........................................................................
North Dakota...........................................................................

930,724
151,299
2,558,704
500,506
66,819

1,063,673
119,890
2,618,320
610,249
76,617

954,696
116,799
2,556,658
765,817
81,403

Ohio ........................................................................................
Oklahoma................................................................................
Oregon ....................................................................................
Pennsylvania...........................................................................
Rhode Island...........................................................................

2,432,206
645,329
505,761
2,533,788
121,612

2,032,829
547,356
470,828
2,471,021
166,707

2,335,022
520,181
492,854
2,447,908
104,199

South Carolina ........................................................................
South Dakota ..........................................................................
Tennessee...............................................................................
Texas.......................................................................................
Utah ........................................................................................

371,724
82,063
432,422
1,820,131
154,836

459,377
73,862
432,662
1,352,080
121,759

483,606
72,722
517,846
1,465,009
168,643

Vermont...................................................................................
Virginia ....................................................................................
Washington .............................................................................
West Virginia...........................................................................
Wisconsin................................................................................
Wyoming .................................................................................

74,271
560,309
1,192,923
523,803
647,520
73,592

81,576
534,350
1,386,075
463,519
594,463
68,068

87,925
591,068
1,481,587
463,555
621,973
74,469

Federal programs:
Civilian employee ................................................................
Black lung 2 ........................................................................

1,911,682
1,154,222

1,900,953
1,102,798

1,955,287
1,035,450

1 Calendar-year data, except fiscal-year data for federal civilian and other programs and for some states with state funds. Payments represent compensation and medical
benefits and include insurance losses paid by private insurance carriers (compiled form state workers’ compensation agencies and the A.M. Best Co.); disbursement of state
funds (compiled from the A.M. Best Co., state workers’ compensation agencies and U.S. Census Bureau); and self-insurance payments, estimated from available state data.
Includes benefit payments under Longshore and Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act for states in which such payments are made. For data for years 1990, 1993–95, see U.S.
Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999 (119th edition) Washington, DC 1999, Table 630, p.397.
2 Includes payments by the Social Security Administration and the Department of Labor.

Source: National Academy of Social Insurance estimates based on data received from state agencies, the Department of Labor, A.M. Best, and the National Council on
Compensation Insurance.

CONTACT: Daniel Mont (202) 452-8097 for further information.

Social Security Bulletin • Annual Statistical Supplement • 2000

309

9.B Workers’ Compensation
Table 9.B3.—Workers’ compensation benefits, by type of insurer and medical benefits, by state, 1997
[In thousands]

State

Private
carriers

Total

State
funds

Selfinsurance 1

Medical
amount

Medical
percent

Total .............................................................................

$40,585,634

...

...

...

$15,446,782

38.1

Alabama.......................................................................
Alaska ..........................................................................
Arizona.........................................................................
Arkansas ......................................................................
California......................................................................

530,230
115,285
403,928
157,128
7,073,544

$265,486
95,991
168,790
109,041
3,880,762

...
...
$163,725
...
892,926

$264,744
19,294
71,414
48,087
2,299,857

276,563
53,748
212,045
82,061
2,985,926

52.2
46.6
2 52.5
2 52.2
42.2

Colorado ......................................................................
Connecticut ..................................................................
Delaware......................................................................
District of Columbia......................................................
Florida ..........................................................................

627,466
731,830
120,719
89,166
2,318,086

275,803
578,273
70,587
79,329
1,303,640

263,720
...
...
...
...

87,942
153,556
50,133
9,837
1,014,446

234,408
313,314
47,201
31,020
1,353,316

Georgia ........................................................................
Hawaii ..........................................................................
Idaho............................................................................
Illinois ...........................................................................
Indiana .........................................................................

702,622
254,915
138,800
1,576,695
398,914

387,605
191,106
60,109
1,225,093
353,021

...
...
68,173
...
...

315,017
63,809
10,519
351,602
45,893

284,637
100,604
55,134
494,010
222,438

2 40.5

Iowa .............................................................................
Kansas .........................................................................
Kentucky ......................................................................
Louisiana......................................................................
Maine ...........................................................................

273,028
312,698
482,840
419,777
249,281

227,861
213,537
360,626
194,706
145,067

...
...
...
92,670
...

45,167
99,161
122,214
132,401
104,214

98,686
104,101
213,111
172,300
82,345

2 36.1

Maryland ......................................................................
Massachusetts .............................................................
Michigan.......................................................................
Minnesota ....................................................................
Mississippi....................................................................

568,066
653,327
1,332,222
738,100
231,340

301,685
502,180
688,948
464,900
130,058

171,478
...
...
105,000
...

94,902
151,147
643,275
168,200
101,282

229,608
185,911
383,278
301,400
128,456

40.4
28.5
28.8
40.8
55.5

Missouri........................................................................
Montana .......................................................................
Nebraska......................................................................
Nevada.........................................................................
New Hampshire ...........................................................

471,035
184,284
184,673
341,205
155,397

342,571
46,911
136,711
4 1,511
114,397

...
108,409
...
257,235
...

128,464
28,964
47,962
82,459
41,000

170,872
80,349
107,203
114,076
65,242

2 36.3

New Jersey ..................................................................
New Mexico .................................................................
New York......................................................................
North Carolina..............................................................
North Dakota................................................................

1,063,673
119,890
2,618,320
610,249
76,617

984,611
69,430
1,167,535
422,786
4 250

...
...
856,447
117
76,367

79,063
50,460
594,338
187,346
...

415,896
67,041
872,934
224,241
33,309

3 39.1

Ohio .............................................................................
Oklahoma.....................................................................
Oregon .........................................................................
Pennsylvania................................................................
Rhode Island................................................................

2,032,829
547,356
470,828
2,471,021
166,707

21,113
232,774
239,823
1,625,886
51,405

1,575,658
205,461
166,455
239,538
64,686

436,058
109,121
64,551
605,597
50,616

730,171
203,900
217,040
795,610
60,003

South Carolina .............................................................
South Dakota ...............................................................
Tennessee....................................................................
Texas............................................................................
Utah .............................................................................

459,377
73,862
432,662
1,352,080
121,759

309,676
62,033
334,878
1,064,167
49,970

...
...
...
168,241
58,260

149,701
11,828
97,784
119,673
13,529

143,898
39,940
170,729
529,395
82,208

31.3
54.1
2 39.5
3 39.2
67.5

Vermont........................................................................
Virginia .........................................................................
Washington ..................................................................
West Virginia................................................................
Wisconsin.....................................................................
Wyoming ......................................................................

81,576
534,350
1,386,075
463,519
594,463
68,068

69,039
422,119
4 13,859
4 2,729
555,054
4 1,310

...
...
1,136,038
355,844
...
66,758

12,538
112,231
236,178
104,946
39,409
...

35,241
179,076
433,809
167,576
273,697
42,136

43.2
33.5
31.3
36.2
2 46.0
61.9

Total without federal .....................................................

37,581,883

20,616,752

7,093,204

9,871,926

14,901,213

39.6

Total federal .................................................................
Civilian employee .....................................................
Black Lung ...............................................................

3,003,751
1,900,953
1,102,798

...
...
...

...
...
...

...
...
...

545,569
450,206
95,363

18.2
23.7
8.6

4

37.4
2 42.8
3

39.1
34.8
58.4
39.5

2 39.7
2 31.3
2 55.8

33.3
2 44.1
2 41.0

33.0

43.6
58.1
33.4
2 42.0
55.9
33.3
36.7
43.5
35.9
2 37.3

46.1
32.2
2 36.0

1 Self-insurance includes individual self-insurers and group self-insurance.
2 Imputed based on regression analysis using data from states where the percentage

was known. The independent variables used in regression were percent of private
carrier incurred losses that is attributed to medical benefits, the market insured by private carriers, and the presence of a state fund.
3 For these states, the data used for the imputation procedure were unavailable, so the percentage of medical benefits was estimated to be the weighted average of the
percentages in the states reporting such a percentage.
4 States with exclusive funds also have small amounts of benefits paid in the private carrier category. This results from two sources: companies with group policies that
overlap states and the fact that some companies include excess workers’ compensation coverage in their reports of workers’ compensation benefits to A.M. Best.
Source: National Academy of Social Insurance estimates based on data received from state agencies, the Department of Labor, A.M. Best, and the National Council on
Compensation Insurance.

CONTACT: Daniel Mont (202) 452-8097 for further information.

310

Social Security Bulletin • Annual Statistical Supplement • 2000

9.B Workers’ Compensation
Table 9.B3.—Workers’ compensation benefits, by type of insurer and medical benefits, by state, 1998
[In thousands]

State

Total

Private
carriers

State
funds

Selfinsurance 1

Medical
amount

Medical
percent

Total .............................................................................

$41,692,664

...

...

...

$15,884,360

38.1

Alabama.......................................................................
Alaska ..........................................................................
Arizona.........................................................................
Arkansas ......................................................................
California......................................................................

615,316
110,866
417,673
161,146
7,374,486

$354,986
92,311
173,878
111,829
4,235,017

...
...
$175,330
...
923,153

$260,329
18,555
68,465
49,317
2,216,316

291,620
47,551
184,929
75,712
3,175,088

47.4
2 42.9
2 44.3
2 47.0
43.1

Colorado ......................................................................
Connecticut ..................................................................
Delaware......................................................................
District of Columbia......................................................
Florida ..........................................................................

656,894
711,130
118,511
70,608
2,207,984

294,616
557,233
80,942
62,818
1,784,949

270,211
...
...
...
...

92,067
153,897
37,569
7,789
423,035

257,217
212,132
46,731
17,617
1,292,233

2 39.2

Georgia ........................................................................
Hawaii ..........................................................................
Idaho............................................................................
Illinois ...........................................................................
Indiana .........................................................................

807,582
194,680
165,764
1,687,070
439,268

445,507
146,004
77,309
1,310,855
388,733

...
...
75,892
...
...

362,075
48,676
12,563
376,215
50,535

308,782
74,952
68,035
497,894
247,417

2 38.2

Iowa .............................................................................
Kansas .........................................................................
Kentucky ......................................................................
Louisiana......................................................................
Maine ...........................................................................

292,002
318,352
510,938
364,656
288,146

243,701
227,042
378,414
168,110
159,508

...
...
...
89,488
42,001

48,302
91,310
132,523
107,059
86,637

99,337
110,017
215,105
160,092
98,699

2 34.0

Maryland ......................................................................
Massachusetts .............................................................
Michigan.......................................................................
Minnesota ....................................................................
Mississippi....................................................................

510,577
641,409
1,366,963
732,300
234,700

276,489
496,997
726,779
465,900
149,920

134,986
...
...
94,600
...

99,101
144,412
640,184
171,800
84,780

205,294
206,140
387,114
305,800
131,643

40.2
32.1
28.3
41.8
56.1

Missouri........................................................................
Montana .......................................................................
Nebraska......................................................................
Nevada.........................................................................
New Hampshire ...........................................................

527,587
155,019
164,382
288,095
163,885

383,700
48,454
144,011
4 1,407
126,885

...
81,000
...
217,064
...

143,887
25,565
20,371
69,624
37,000

200,532
73,014
72,923
112,899
75,838

2 38.0

New Jersey ..................................................................
New Mexico .................................................................
New York......................................................................
North Carolina..............................................................
North Dakota................................................................

954,696
116,799
2,556,658
765,817
81,403

883,733
73,129
1,125,494
530,600
4 249

...
...
850,823
112
81,155

70,963
43,670
580,341
235,105
...

376,454
70,084
850,434
270,675
37,414

3 39.4

Ohio .............................................................................
Oklahoma.....................................................................
Oregon .........................................................................
Pennsylvania................................................................
Rhode Island................................................................

2,335,022
520,181
492,854
2,447,908
104,199

4 22,998

267,409
260,300
1,646,492
66,923

1,879,212
149,069
168,744
231,489
35,309

432,812
103,703
63,810
569,927
1,968

815,236
186,438
207,867
834,245
34,506

South Carolina .............................................................
South Dakota ...............................................................
Tennessee....................................................................
Texas............................................................................
Utah .............................................................................

483,606
72,722
517,846
1,465,009
168,643

327,891
60,320
400,809
1,211,142
77,435

...
...
...
144,087
72,470

155,715
12,403
117,036
109,779
18,738

158,851
39,629
237,848
577,680
98,992

2 45.9

Vermont........................................................................
Virginia .........................................................................
Washington ..................................................................
West Virginia................................................................
Wisconsin.....................................................................
Wyoming ......................................................................

87,925
591,068
1,481,587
463,555
621,973
74,469

75,000
466,916
4 2,401
580,740
4 2,181

...
...
1,212,615
359,826
...
72,288

12,925
124,153
250,709
101,329
41,233
...

34,862
287,866
439,705
167,714
299,874
47,380

39.7
48.7
29.7
36.2
2 48.2
63.6

Total without federal .....................................................

38,701,927

22,214,726

7,360,926

9,126,275

15,326,112

39.6

Total federal .................................................................
Civilian employee .....................................................
Black lung.................................................................

2,990,737
1,955,287
1,035,450

...
...
...

...
...
...

...
...
...

558,248
476,167
82,076

18.7
24.4
7.9

4 18,263

2 29.8
3 39.4
2 25.0

58.5
38.5
2 41.0
2 29.5
2 56.3

34.6
2 42.1
2 43.9

34.3

47.1
44.4
3 39.2

46.3
60.0
3 33.3
2 35.3
2 46.0

34.9
2 35.8

42.2
34.1
33.1
32.8
54.5
3 39.4
2 58.7

1 Self-insurance includes individual self-insurers and group self-insurance.
2 Imputed based on regression analysis using data from states where the percentage

was known. The independent variables used in regression were percent of private
carrier incurred losses that is attributed to medical benefits, the market insured by private carriers, and the presence of a state fund.
3 For these states, the data used for the imputation procedure were unavailable, so the percentage of medical benefits was estimated to be the weighted average of the
percentages in the states reporting such a percentage.
4 States with exclusive funds also have small amounts of benefits paid in the private carrier category. This results from two sources: companies with group policies that
overlap states and the fact that some companies include excess workers’ compensation coverage in their reports of workers’ compensation benefits to A.M. Best.
Source: National Academy of Social Insurance estimates based on data received from state agencies, the Department of Labor, A.M. Best, and the National Council on
Compensation Insurance.

CONTACT: Daniel Mont (202) 452-8097 for further information.

Social Security Bulletin • Annual Statistical Supplement • 2000

311