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8emlnders:
use aL your own rlsk. AlLhough lL ls made wlLh
Lhe besL efforL, we cannoL guaranLee lLs
accuracy.
We'd appreclaLe lL lf you could please keep Lhls
wlLhln Lhe block !
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!

CIN1S
I. Def|n|t|ons
! WhaL ls crlmlnal law?
o 8ranch or dlvlslon of law whlch deflnes crlmes, LreaLs of
Lhelr naLure, and provldes for Lhelr punlshmenL.
! WhaL ls crlme?
o An acL commlLLed or omlLLed ln vlolaLlon of a publlc law
forblddlng or commandlng lL.

II. Sources of Cr|m|na| Law
! 8evlsed enal Code
! Speclal enal Laws passed by Lhe LeglslaLlve
! resldenLlal uecrees lssued durlng MarLlal Law

III. Common Law Cr|mes
! Crlmes noL wrlLLen ln Lhe law buL are undersLood as all Lo be
offenses.
! 1he hlllpplnes does noL have common law crlmes. 1hus, even lf
Lhe acL be soclally or morally wrong, lLs commlsslon lncurs no
crlmlnal llablllLy lf Lhe acL ls noL punlshable by a parLlcular
provlslon ln penal law or speclal penal law.

IV. ower to Def|ne and un|sh Cr|mes
! 1he sLaLe, as parL of lLs pollce power, has a large measure of
dlscreLlon and possesses Lhe auLhorlLy Lo deflne and punlsh
crlmes and lay down Lhe rules of crlmlnal procedure.
! 1hls power ls glven Lo Lhe sLaLe by lLs people ln order for Lhe
former Lo be able Lo look afLer Lhe rlghLs of Lhe laLLer.

V. L|m|ts to the ower of Law-Mak|ng 8od|es
! no ex posL facLo law or a 8lll of ALLalnder.
o 8lll of ALLalnder ! a leglslaLlve acL whlch lnfllcLs
punlshmenL wlLhouL Lrlal. lLs essence ls Lhe subsLlLuLlon
of leglslaLlve acL for a [udlclal deLermlnaLlon of gullL.
! CannoL enacL laws LhaL punlsh people wlLhouL due process.

VI. Why Lx ost Iacto Laws are re[ud|c|a| to the Accused
1. Makes crlmlnal an acL, whlch before Lhe law's passage was
lnnocenL.
2. AggravaLes a crlme.
3. Changes Lhe punlshmenL and lnfllcLs a greaLer penalLy Lhan Lhe
law annexed Lo Lhe crlme when commlLLed.
4. AlLers Lhe legal rules of evldence, and auLhorlzes convlcLlon
upon less or dlfferenL LesLlmony Lhan Lhe law requlred aL Lhe
Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense.
3. lmposes penalLy or deprlvaLlon of a rlghL for someLhlng whlch
when done was lawful.
6. ueprlves a person accused of a crlme some lawful proLecLlon
whlch he was enLlLled Lo, such as Lhe proLecLlon from a former
convlcLlon or acqulLLal.

VII. Const|tut|ona| and Statutory k|ghts
! ConsLlLuLlonal 8lghLs (Art|c|e III, 8||| of k|ghts, 1987
Const|tut|on)
o 8lll of 8lghLs sLaLes LhaL Lhe accused has Lhe rlghL Lo
speedy Lrlal, due process, rlghL agalnsL self
lncrlmlnaLlon, free access Lo Lhe courLs, eLc.
! SLaLuLory 8lghLs are found ln and creaLed by sLaLuLes
o Sect|on 1 ku|e 11S of the kev|sed ku|es |n Cr|m|na|
rocedure sLaLes LhaL Lhe accused have Lhe rlghL Lo be
lnformed of accusaLlons agalnsL hlm, confronL and
cross-examlne wlLnesses, make appeals, eLc.

VIII. Can an Accused Wa|ve h|s k|ghts?
! !"# buL only Lhose LhaL affecL only hlm and noL socleLy
Cr|m|na| Law |n Genera|
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o Pe can walve hls rlghL Lo cross-examlne buL he cannoL
walve hls rlghL Lo be lnformed of Lhe crlme

Ik. Character|st|cs of Cr|m|na| Law
! Genera|
o 8lndlng on all persons who llve or so[ourn ln Lhe
hlllpplnes.
! 1err|tor|a|
o Crlmlnal Law underLakes Lo punlsh crlmes commlLLed
wlLhln hlllpplne LerrlLory
! rospect|ve
o lorward Looklng and never reLroacLlve

k. 1he M|||tary
! $%&%'() +,)%- .,'/01/23/4& 45 2/6/) 24,'3 46%' ( 2(0% /0 &43
(55%23%1 78 39% :/)/3('8 29('(23%' 45 39% (22,0%1.
o When Lhe mlllLary courLs Lakes cognlzance of a case
lnvolvlng a person sub[ecL Lo mlllLary law, Lhe Art|c|es of
War apply. 1he 8evlsed enal code and oLher penal law
ls noL appllcable.
! Members of Lhe mlllLary can be Lrled under clvll courL because
mlllLary courLs and clvll courLs have concurrenL [urlsdlcLlon.
o 1hls ls Lrue even ln Llmes of war provlded LhaL (a) Lhe
crlme was noL commlLLed where hosLlllLles are ln
progress, and (b) Lhe clvll courLs are funcLlonlng.
o uS v. SweeL
" SweeL was a member of Lhe uS mlllLary. Pe
clalmed LhaL because of Lhls, our courLs had no
[urlsdlcLlon over hlm and Lhe case flled agalnsL
hlm.
" 1he facL LhaL he was a member of Lhe uS
mlllLary dld noL affecL Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe clvll
courLs unless speclal leglslaLlon sald oLherwlse
! lor a member of Lhe mlllLary Lo be Lrled ln mlllLary courL, hls
offense musL be servlce- orlenLed (Art|c|es of War).
o Art|c|e 63 ! ulsrespecL Loward Lhe resldenL
o Art|c|e 64 ! ulsrespecL Loward superlor courL
o Art|c|e 67 ! ConducL unbecomlng of an Cfflcer and a
CenLleman.
o Art|c|e 97 ! Ceneral ArLlcle.
! 1he 8evlsed enal Code ls noL appllcable when Lhe MlllLary
CourL ls ln charge of Lhe case Lhough Lhe sald courL can refer Lo
Lhe 8C when conslderlng whaL penalLy Lo glve.
! Cnce Lrled ln a mlllLary courL, LhaL same case cannoL be Lrled ln
a clvll courL and vlce versa.
! War crlmlnals are Lrlable by MlllLary Commlsslon.

kI. Lxcept|ons to the app||cab|||ty of the kC
! Laws and 1reaLles of preferenLlal appllcaLlon
o 8ases Agreement ! March 14, 1947
o k-US V|s|t|ng Iorces Agreement !lebruary 10, 1998
o kepub||c Act 7S ! CcLober 21, 1946
+%;,7)/2 <23 =4> ?@
! kA No. 7S works ln favor of dlplomaLlc represenLaLlves and Lhelr
domesLlc servanLs (Sect|on 4).
! Lxcept|on: When Lhe process agalnsL servanL (who ls a clLlzen of
Lhe hlllpplnes) ls founded on debL conLracLed before he
enLered such servlce (Sect|on S).
! noL appllcable when Lhe forelgn counLry adversely affecLed
does noL provlde slmllar proLecLlon Lo our dlplomaLlc
represenLaLlves.
A%'04&0 %B%:;3 5'4: 39% 4;%'(3/4& 45 4,' 2'/:/&() )(C0 78 6/'3,% 45
39% ;'/&2/;)%0 45 ;,7)/2 /&3%'&(3/4&() )(C
! II nyde Internat|ona| Law: as a prlnclple of lnLernaLlonal law,
Lhe followlng are noL sub[ecL Lo Lhe operaLlon of our crlmlnal
laws:
o Soverelgns and oLher chlefs of sLaLe.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o Ambassadors, mlnlsLers, plenlpoLenLlary, mlnlsLers
resldenL, and charges d'affalres.

kII. Lxcept|ons to the prospect|ve app||cat|on of cr|m|na| |aws: New
Statutes that are more |en|ent or favorab|e to the accused
! MusL be favorable Lo Lhe accused ln order for lL Lo be followed
as long as (a) accused commlLLed acL before Lhe new sLaLuLe
came ouL, and (b) he ls noL a hablLual crlmlnal.

kIII. D|fferent Lffects of kepea|s on ena| Law
! lf Lhe penalLy ln Lhe repeal ls llghLer, lL shall be applled Lo Lhe
case excepL lf accused ls a hablLual crlmlnal.
! lf Lhe penalLy ln Lhe repeal ls heavler, Lhe law ln force when Lhe
offense was commlLLed shall be applled.
! lf Lhe new law LoLally repeals Lhe old law, Lhe crlme ls
obllLeraLed.
o eople v. 1amayo
" Whlle Lhe case was pendlng, Lhe ordlnance
vlolaLed was repealed.
" 1he accused was acqulLLed.
! lf Lhe new law slmply reenacLs Lhe old law, crlmlnal llablllLy ls
noL desLroyed.
o uS v. Cuna
" Accused was charged wlLh selllng oplum
" Whlle Lhe case was pendlng, a new law agalnsL
oplum was passed whlch sLlll lncluded Lhe acL
done by Lhe accused
" 1he new law does noL Lake away Lhe crlmlnal
llablllLy of Lhe accused
! lf boLh old law and new law punlsh Lhe same offense, offender
can be Lrled ln Lhe law whlch ls more favorable Lo hlm -
provlded LhaL Lhe old law was sLlll ln place when he commlLLed
Lhe offense.
! lf Lhe new law falls Lo penallze an acL (punlshable under Lhe old
law), lL ls no longer punlshable.
o D%00(&3% '(3/4&% )%E/0 2%00(3 /;0( )%B
" 1he reason for Lhe law ceaslng, Lhe law lLself
also ceases.
o eople v. Slndlong and asLor
" Accused was prosecuLed from neglecLlng Lo
make a reLurn of Lhe sales of newspapers and
magazlnes wlLhln Llme prescrlbed as sLaLed ln
law.
" Whlle case was pendlng, a new law was passed
whereln Lhe acL of Lhe accused was no longer
lncluded as punlshable.
" 1he accused were acqulLLed.
! lf someone ls mlsLakenly accused and convlcLed under a
repealed law, he may be Lrled agaln under Lhe new law as long
as such an offense sLlll exlsLs ln Lhe law.
! Self repeallng laws (laws wlLh explry daLes) are self execuLlng.

kIV. Construct|on of ena| Laws
! enal Laws are sLrlcLly consLrued agalnsL governmenL and
llberally ln favor of Lhe accused.
o 1hls does noL apply lf Lhe law ls clear and unamblguous.
o eople v. Carcla
" 8espondenL accused of vlolaLlng a law
prohlblLlng Lhe selllng of CSC LlckeLs wlLhouL
belng auLhorlzed
" Accused clalms he sold !!"#$ LlckeLs
" 8espondenL ls acqulLLed because Lhe law does
noL expressly prohlblL Lhe selllng of !!"#$ LlckeLs
! 1he Spanlsh LexL ls superlor Lo Lhe Lngllsh LexL.
o eople v. Mangulabnan
" 8espondenL flres a gun upwards whlle
commlLLlng a robbery.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
" 8espondenL ends up kllllng Lhe owner of Lhe
house who was slLuaLed on Lhe floor above hlm
" 8espondenL ls accused of robbery wlLh.
homlclde because Lhough Lhe Lngllsh LexL says
LhaL Lhe kllllng should be lnLenLlonal for lL Lo be
homlclde, Lhe Spanlsh LexL says LhaL homlclde
can Lake place even by mere accldenL.


I. n|story
! SepLember 4, 1884 ! 8oyal uecree orderlng penal code ln Lhe
enlnsula Lo be publlshed and applled ln Lhe hlllpplnes
! uecember 17, 1886 ! 8oyal Crder dlrecLed Lhe execuLlon of
Lhe SepLember 4, 1984 decree
! March 13 & 14, 1887 ! enal Code publlshed ln Lhe Cfflclal
CazeLLe of Manlla
! !uly 14, 1897 ! enal Code Lakes effecL
! CcLober 18, 1927 ! A commlLLee was creaLed by ueparLmenL
of !usLlce AdmlnlsLraLlve Crder no. 94 Lo revlse Lhe penal code,
Laklng lnLo conslderaLlon Lhe exlsLlng condlLlons and Lhe speclal
laws and rullng lald down by Lhe Supreme CourL.
o AnacleLo ulaz as chalrman, CulnLln aredes, Culllermo
Cuevara, Alex 8eyes and Marlano P. ue !oya.
o 1he 8C does noL embody Lhe laLesL progress of
crlmlnal sclence, as Lhe resulLs of Lhe appllcaLlon of
advanced and radlcal Lheorles sLlll remalns Lo be seen."
! uecember 8, 1930 ! drafL of Lhe 8evlsed enal Code approved.
! !anuary 1, 1932 ! 8C Lakes effecL.
o lelonles and mlsdemeanors commlLLed prlor Lhls were
punlshed ln accordance wlLh Lhe Code or AcLs ln force aL
Lhe Llme of Lhelr commlsslon, as dlrecLed by Art|c|e 366.

II. Content
! 8ook l
o 8aslc prlnclples affecLlng crlmlnal llablllLy (ArL. 1-20)
o rovlslons on penalLles lncludlng crlmlnal and clvll
llablllLy (ArL. 21-113)
! 8ook ll
o ueflnlLlon of felonles wlLh Lhe correspondlng penalLles
(arL. 114-363)

III. 1heor|es that gu|ded the kC
! Classlcal
o 1he basls of crlmlnal llablllLy ls free wlll and Lhe purpose
of Lhe penalLy ls reLrlbuLlon.
o Man ls seen as an essenLlally moral creaLure. 1hus,
more emphasls on Lhe acL and lLs effecL raLher Lhan on
Lhe person who commlLLed Lhe acL.
o LsLabllshmenL of a mechanlcal and dlrecL proporLlon
beLween crlme and punlshmenL.
! oslLlvlsL
o Man ls subdued occaslonally by a sLrange and morbld
phenomenon whlch consLralns hlm Lo do wrong ln splLe
of or conLrary Lo hls vollLlon.
o Crlme ls a naLural and soclal phenomenon, each case ls
dlfferenL.
! 1he 8C ls gulded prlmarlly by Lhe Classlcal Lheory Lhough lL ls
also parLly lnfluenced by Lhe oslLlvlsL 1heory.








1he kev|sed ena| Code
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
kLLIMINAk 1I1LL - DA1L CI LIILC1IVLNLSS AND ALICA1ICN CI
1nL kCVISICNS

Art|c|e 1. 1h|s code sha|| take effect on the f|rst day of Ianuary,
n|neteen hundred and th|rty two.

Art|c|e 2. Lxcept as prov|ded |n the treat|es and |aws of preferent|a|
app||cat|on, the prov|s|ons of th|s code sha|| be enforced not on|y
w|th|n the h|||pp|ne arch|pe|ago, |nc|ud|ng |ts atmosphere, |ts |nterna|
waters and mar|t|me zone, but a|so outs|de of |ts [ur|sd|ct|on, aga|nst
those who:
(1) Shou|d comm|t an offense wh||e on a h|||pp|ne sh|p or a|rsh|p,
(2) Shou|d forge or counterfe|t any co|n or currency note of the
h|||pp|ne Is|ands or ob||gat|ons and secur|t|es |ssued by the
government of the h|||pp|ne Is|ands,
(3) Shou|d be ||ab|e for acts connected w|th the |ntroduct|on |nto these
Is|ands of the ob||gat|ons and secur|t|es ment|oned |n the preced|ng
number,
(4) Wh||e be|ng a pub||c off|cers or emp|oyees, shou|d comm|t an
offense |n the exerc|se of the|r funct|ons, or
(S) Shou|d comm|t any of the acts aga|nst nat|ona| secur|ty and the |aw
of nat|ons, def|ned |n t|t|e one of book two of th|s code.

CIN1S

I. Important hrases
! lLs aLmosphere
o enal laws exLend Lo all Lhelr alr space whlch covers Lhe
LerrlLory, sub[ecL Lo Lhe rlghL of way or easemenL ln
favor of forelgn alrcrafLs.
! lnLerlor WaLers
o 8odles of waLer wlLhln Lhe 3 mlle llmlL
! MarlLlme Zone
o 3 mlles from Lhe coasLllne sLarLlng from Lhe low waLer
mark
o 12 mlles measured ln a sLralghL llne from headland Lo
headland
o LsLabllshed Lhrough lnLernaLlonal LreaLles

II. numan Secur|ty Act of 2007 (kA 9372)
! Pas provlslons provldlng for exLra-LerrlLorlal appllcaLlon sub[ecL
Lo exlsLlng LreaLles and laws of preferenLlal appllcaLlon
! 1he AcL shall apply Lo:
o ersons commlLLlng a crlme wlLhln Lhe hlllpplne
LerrlLory
o ersons lnvolved ln a crlme wlLhln Lhe hlllpplne
LerrlLory desplLe belng physlcally ouLslde of Lhe LerrlLory
o ersons who commlL an offense whlle on a hlllpplne
shlp or alrshlp
o ersons who commlL crlmes wlLhln our embassles,
consulaLes, and oLher dlplomaLlc premlses occupled by
Lhe hlllpplne governmenL ln an offlclal capaclLy
o Any person commlLLlng a haLe crlme agalnsL llllplnos
o Any person commlLLlng a crlme dlrecLly agalnsL Lhe
hlllpplne governmenL

Ak. 1: 1he kC w|th regards offenses on a h|||pp|ne sh|p or a|rsh|p
! uoes noL apply when Lhe shlp or alrshlp ls wlLhln forelgn
LerrlLory.
! uoes noL apply lf shlp or alrshlp ls noL properly reglsLered wlLh
Lhe hlllpplne 8ureau of CusLoms even lf owner ls llllplno.
! uoes noL apply lf Lhe crlme ls commlLLed ln hlgh seas (l.e. areas
of Lhe seas noL belonglng Lo any one counLry), 8u1 Lhe vessel ls
noL reglsLered or llcensed ln Lhe hlllpplnes.

I. 1he kC and Iore|gn sh|ps or a|rsh|ps
! ConLlnulng offense:
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o ueflned as forbldden condlLlons exlsLlng whlle Lhe shlp
or alrshlp was ln our LerrlLory even lf such condlLlons
already exlsLed prlor Lo lLs enLry lnLo our LerrlLory.
o ConLlnulng offense ls punlshable by our courLs.
! When a forelgn merchanL vessel enLers Lhe 3-mlle llmlL, Lhe
shlp's offlcers and crew are sub[ecL Lo Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of our
courLs.
o ulsorders whlch dlsLurb only Lhe peace of Lhe shlp or
Lhose on board are Lo be dealL excluslvely by Lhe
soverelgnLy of Lhe home of Lhe shlp.
o ulsLurbances whlch may affecL publlc peace of Lhe
hlllpplnes may be suppressed and Lhe offenders may
be punlshed by hlllpplne auLhorlLles.
! WlLh regards forelgn shlps, Lhe hlllpplnes follows Lhe Lngllsh
8ule:
o lrench 8ule - crlmes are noL Lrlable unless Lhey affecL
Lhe peace and securlLy of Lhe LerrlLory and safeLy of Lhe
sLaLe.
o Lngllsh 8ule - crlmes are Lrlable unless Lhey only lnvolve
maLLers wlLhln Lhe vessel.
! AbsoluLely no [urlsdlcLlon over forelgn war shlps.

II. Cr|mes not |nvo|v|ng a breach of pub||c order comm|tted on board a
fore|gn merchant vesse| |n trans|t are not tr|ab|e by our courts
! Carrylng oplum on a shlp whlch ls ln LranslL ls noL Lrlable ln our
courLs. 8u1, when Lhe oplum ls landed, lL ls wlLhln our
[urlsdlcLlon because such acL ls an open vlolaLlon of Lhe laws of
Lhe hlllpplnes (uS v. Look Chaw).
! Smoklng oplum on a shlp whlle lL ls ln LranslL ls Lrlable because lL
affecLs our LerrlLory (aLmosphere) (eople v. Wong Cheng).
! A person who ls carrylng oplum and who ls on board a forelgn
merchanL shlp may be llable for lllegal lmporLaLlon of oplum (uS
v. Ah Slng).
____________________
Ak. 2: SnCULD ICkGL Ck CCUN1LkILI1 AN CCIN Ck CUkkLNC CI
1nL nILIINL ISLANDS, Ck C8LIGA1ICNS AND SLCUkI1ILS ISSULD 8
1nL GCVLkNMLN1 CI 1nL nILIINL ISLANDS.
Anu"
Ak. 3: SnCULD 8L LIA8LL ICk AC1S CCNNLC1LD WI1n 1nL
IN1kCDUC1ICN IN1C 1nLSL ISLANDS CI 1nL C8LIGA1ICNS AND
SLCUkI1ILS MLN1ICNLD IN 1nL kLCLDING NUM8Lk.

I. Why are peop|e who |ntroduce forged or counterfe|t ob||gat|ons and
secur|t|es be|ng pun|shed?
! 1hey are belng punlshed because such acLs have an effecL on
our economy
! 1hus, any person who makes counLerfelLs ln a forelgn counLry
may be prosecuLed before our courLs for vlolaLlon of Art|c|e 163
(colns or currency counLerfelL) C8 Art|c|e 166 (forglng securlLles
or obllgaLlons) of Lhe 8C.
____________________
Ak. 4: WnILL 8LING U8LIC CIIICLkS Ck LMLCLLS SnCULD
CCMMI1 AN CIILNSL IN 1nL LkLkCISL CI 1nLIk IUNC1ICNS

I. Does the kC app|y to pub||c servants and emp|oyees who comm|t
the|r offenses abroad?
! ?es as long as lL was durlng Lhe exerclse of Lhelr funcLlons.
____________________
Ak. S: SnCULD CCMMI1 AN CI 1nL CkIMLS AGAINS1 NA1ICNAL
SLCUkI1 AND 1nL LAWS CI NA1ICNS, DLIINLD IN 1I1LL CNL, 8CCk
1WC CI 1nIS CCDL.

I. Lxamp|es of offenses aga|nst nat|ona| secur|ty and the |aw of nat|ons
! 1reason, consplracy and proposal Lo commlL Lreason, esplonage,
lnclLlng Lo war and glvlng moLlves for reprlsals, vlolaLlon of
neuLrallLy, correspondence wlLh hosLlle counLry, fllghL Lo
enemy's LerrlLory, plracy and muLlny on Lhe hlgh seas.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
1I1LL CNL - ILLCNILS AND CIkCUMS1ANCLS WnICn AIILC1 CkIMINAL
LIA8ILI1
CnA1Lk 1: ILLCNILS

Art|c|e 3. Acts and om|ss|ons pun|shab|e by |aw are fe|on|es.

Ie|on|es are comm|tted not on|y by means of dece|t (do|o) but a|so by
means of fau|t (cu|pa).

1here |s dece|t when the act |s performed w|th de||berate |ntent and
there |s fau|t when the act resu|ts from |mprudence, neg||gence, |ack
of fores|ght, or |ack of sk|||.

CIN1S
I. L|ements of Ie|on|es
1. 1here musL be an acL or omlsslon.
2. Sald acL or omlsslon musL be punlshable by 8C.
3. Sald acL or omlsslon musL be performed by means of decelL or
faulL.

II. IIkS1 kequ|s|te: 1here must be an act or om|ss|on
!"#$%&'(& *$%+, '(+ #-%',.,
! AcL"
o Any bodlly movemenL Lendlng Lo produce some effecL
ln Lhe exLernal world.
! no need for lL Lo acLually be produced.
osslblllLy of lLs producLlon sufflces.
o MusL be deflned as a felony ln Lhe 8C
! AL leasL an $/.%& '0& " an acL whlch has dlrecL
connecLlon wlLh Lhe felony Lo be commlLLed.
! Cmlsslon"
o lallure Lo perform a poslLlve duLy LhaL one ls bound Lo
do
! 1here musL be a law requlrlng Lhe dolng or
performance of an acL
o Lxamples
! Art|c|e 27S, par. 1 " AbandonmenL of persons
ln danger.
! Art|c|e 213, par. 2[b] " lallure Lo lssue recelpLs
! Art|c|e 116 " Mlsprlslon of 1reason.
1%. 2(&.%('3 '0&, 0$/.%.+ 45 &-. 6789
! no because Lhey are beyond Lhe sphere of penal law. 1hlnklng
of commlLLlng a felony does noL consLlLuLe a felony unless you
acL on lL.
! 1hus, $(35 .:&.%('3 '0& 2, #;(2,-.+.

III. SLCCND kequ|s|te: Sa|d act or om|ss|on must be pun|shab|e by kC
! unlshable by law
o <;33;" 0%2".(= (;33' #$.(' ,2(. 3.>.
! 1here ls no crlme when Lhere ls no law
punlshlng lL
! Case: eople v. SllvesLre and ALlenza
o ALlenza LhreaLens Lo burn down a house, SllvesLre ls
sLandlng rlghL beslde hlm.
o SllvesLre does noLhlng as ALlenza commlLs Lhe crlme.
o CourL ruled LhaL SllvesLre ls noL crlmlnally llable because
mere passlve presence aL Lhe scene of anoLher's crlme,
mere sllence, and a fallure Lo glve Lhe alarm, wlLhouL
evldence of agreemenL or consplracy ls noL punlshable

IV. 1nIkD kequ|s|te: Sa|d act or om|ss|on performed by means of
dece|t or fau|t
83',,2?20'&2$( $? @.3$(2.,A !(&.(&2$('3 /B 8;3#'43.
1. lnLenLlonal lelonles
o AcL ls performed wlLh dellberaLe lnLenL (mallce).
o Cffender has Lhe lnLenLlon Lo cause an ln[ury Lo Lhe
person, properLy or rlghL of anoLher.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o Crlmes whlch cannoL be commlLLed Lhrough
lmprudence or negllgence such as murder, Lreason,
robbery, and mallclous mlschlef.
o 8equlslLes of dolo (mallce)
! lreedom
WlLhouL freedom, a person ls no longer
a human belng, buL a Lool.
1here ls no freedom lf Lhe offender ls
under Lhe compulslon of an lrreslsLlble
force or unconLrollable fear.
! lnLelllgence
lnLelllgence ls necessary Lo deLermlne
Lhe morallLy of human acLs. WlLhouL
Lhls, no crlme can exlsL.
1he lmbeclle, lnsane, lnfanL under 9
years of age, and mlnor beLween 9-13
years of age have no crlmlnal llablllLy.
! lnLenL
1hls ls presumed from Lhe proof of Lhe
commlsslon of an unlawful acL
2. Culpable lelonles
o 1he ln[ury caused ls unlnLenLlonal, lL belng slmply Lhe
lncldenL of anoLher acL performed wlLhouL mallce.
! eople v. Culllen
Accused Lhrew a grenade aL Lhe
presldenL ln an aLLempL Lo klll hlm and
ended up kllllng oLher people
Accused dld noL commlL a culpable
felony because dellberaLe lnLenL Lo do
an unlawful acL ls essenLlally
lnconslsLenL wlLh Lhe ldea of reckless
lmprudence
o AcLs resulLlng from lmprudence, negllgence, lack of
foreslghL, or lack of sklll.
o 8eason for punlshlng acLs of negllgence:
! A man musL use hls common sense and exerclse
due reflecLlon ln all hls acLlons.
! Pe ls responslble for such resulLs as anyone
mlghL foresee and for hls acLs whlch no one
would have performed excepL Lhrough culpable
abandon.
o Lxamples
! uS v. ulvlna
uefendanL who ls noL a medlcal
pracLlLloner Lles up a glrl and seLs her
on flre. Pe clalms he ls Lrylng Lo cure
her ulcer and LhaL he acLed ln good
falLh.
uefendanL ls gullLy of physlcal ln[ury
Lhrough lmprudence
! eople v. Lopez
A man runs over a glrl wlLh hls Lruck
desplLe hlm noL lnLendlng Lo do so.
Man convlcLed of reckless lmprudence
1he drlver should have Laken Lhe
precauLlon necessary Lo avold ln[ury Lo
persons because he was nelLher
compelled Lo refraln from or prevenLed
from dolng so.
o ueflnlLlon of reckless lmprudence " conslsLs ln
volunLarlly buL wlLhouL mallce, dolng or falllng Lo do an
acL from whlch maLerlal damage resulLs.
C$&- !(&.(&2$('3 '(+ 8;3#'43. @.3$(2., '%. D$3;(&'%5
! 8easons
o Man has free wlll.
o Man ls a raLlonal belng who can dlsLlngulsh beLween
good and evll.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o lnLenLlonal felonles were lnLended whlle culpable
felonles resulLed from acLs, whlch were volunLary buL
noL lnLended as felonles.
! AcLs cease Lo be volunLary when Lhere ls compulslon or
prevenLlon by force or lnLlmldaLlon

V. Intent
! lnLenL ls a menLal sLaLe manlfesLed Lhrough Lhe overL acLs of
people.
o A person who causes an ln[ury by mere accldenL does
noL have lnLenL Lherefore ls noL crlmlnally llable.
! When Lhe acLs naLurally produce a deflnlLe resulL, courLs are
slow ln concludlng LhaL some oLher resulL was lnLended
o eople v. Sla 1eh 8an
! 8espondenL sLole a waLch Lherefore showlng
lnLenL Lo galn.
! Crlmlnal lnLenL and Lhe wlll Lo commlL a crlme
are always presumed Lo exlsL on Lhe parL of Lhe
person who execuLes an acL whlch Lhe law
punlshes, unless Lhe conLrary shall appear
! Lack of lnLenL Lo klll Lhe deceased because offender meanL Lo
klll anoLher person does noL clear Lhe offender of crlmlnal
llablllLy.
! Lack of lnLenL may be lnferred from Lhe facLs of Lhe case.
7%.,;"#&2$( $? 0%2"2('3 2(&.(& +$., ($& '%2,. ?%$" &-. #%$$? $? &-.
0$""2,,2$( $? '( '0& *-20- 2, ($& ;(3'*?;3B
! uS v. CaLollco
o !udge orders money deposlLed by Lhe defendanLs as a
bond Lo be glven Lo Lhe plalnLlff. !udge ls subsequenLly
accused of malversaLlon.
o lL was ruled LhaL hls orlglnal acL was noL unlawful
Lherefore Lhere was no crlmlnal llablllLy.
o 10&;, ($( ?'02& %.;"= (2,2 ".(, ,.& %.'
! 1he acL lLself does noL make a man gullLy unless
hls lnLenLlons were so.
8%2"2('3 2(&.(& 2, (.0.,,'%5 2( ?.3$(2., 0$""2&&.+ 45 ".'(, $? +$3$
! 1here ls no felony by dolo lf Lhere ls no lnLenL.
! 10&;, ". 2(/2&$ ?'0&;, ($( .,& ".;, '0&;,
o An acL done by me agalnsL my wlll ls noL my acL.
o Lxample
! eople who commlL crlmes whlle sleepwalklng
do noL lncur crlmlnal llablllLy because Lhere was
no lnLenL (eople v. 1aneo).
E2,&2(0&2$( 4.&*..( >.(.%'3 2(&.(& '(+ ,#.02?20 2(&.(&
! Some felonles necesslLaLe speclflc Lypes of lnLenL.
o 8obbery necesslLaLes lnLenL Lo galn.
o lrusLraLed homlclde necesslLaLes lnLenL Lo klll.
! When Lhe accused ls charged wlLh lnLenLlonal felony, absence of
crlmlnal lnLenL ls a plauslble defense.
o lf Lhere ls only error on Lhe parL of Lhe accused, he does
noL acL wlLh mallce and as such, he cannoL be llable for
lnLenLlonal felony.
! Crlmlnal lnLenL ls replaced by negllgence and lmprudence ln
felonles commlLLed by means of culpa.

VI. M|stake of Iact
! !>($%'(&2' ?'0&2 .:0;,'&
o lgnorance of facL relleves Lhe accused from crlmlnal
llablllLy.
! MlsLake of facL " ls a mlsapprehenslon of facL on Lhe parL of
Lhe person who ln[ury Lo anoLher. Pe ls noL crlmlnally llable,
because he dld noL acL wlLh crlmlnal lnLenL.
! An honesL mlsLake of facL desLroys Lhe presumpLlon of crlmlnal
lnLenL whlch arlses upon Lhe commlsslon of a felonlous acL.
6.F;2,2&., of MlsLake of lacL as a defense:
1. AcL would have been lawful ls facLs were as Lhe accused
belleved Lhem Lo be.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o uS v. Ah Chong
! Accused kllled a man because afLer Laklng all of
Lhe necessary precauLlons, he LhoughL LhaL he
was belng aLLacked by a robber
! AcqulLLed by mlsLake of facL because had Lhe
facLs been as Lhe accused LhoughL, hls acLlons
would have consLlLuLed self defense. Also, Lhe
clrcumsLances pressed hlm for lmmedlaLe and
declslve acLlon
o eople v. Canls
! kllled a sleeplng man because he was mlsLaken
for an escaped felon.
! Accused was convlcLed because he dld noL Lake
all Lhe necessary precauLlons needed Lo verlfy
Lhe ldenLlLy of Lhe person and Lhe accused had
no auLhorlLy Lo shooL a sleeplng man even lf he
was Lhe escaped felon. LasLly, Lhe
clrcumsLances dld noL press hlm for lmmedlaLe
and declslve acLlon.
2. lnLenLlon of Lhe accused musL be lawful.
o When an unlawful acL ls done wlllfully, mlsLake of Lhe
ldenLlLy of an lnLended vlcLlm does noL relleve Lhe
accused of crlmlnal responslblllLy (eople v. Cona).
o MlsLake ln Lhe ldenLlLy of Lhe lnLended vlcLlm ls noL
reckless lmprudence (eople v. Culllen).
3. MlsLake musL be wlLhouL faulL or carelessness on Lhe parL of Lhe
accused
o eople v. ue lernando
! Accused shoL a man golng up Lhe sLalrs because
he LhoughL he was an escaped felon
! Accused ls gullLy of homlclde Lhrough reckless
negllgence because he falled Lo Lake all Lhe
necessary precauLlons Lo ensure Lhe ldenLlLy of
Lhe man he evenLually shoL
! 1he acL done by Lhe accused would have consLlLuLed:
o A [usLlfylng clrcumsLance (Art|c|e 11)
o AbsoluLory clause (Art|c|e 247)
o An lnvolunLary acL
! 8eslsLlng arresL ls noL a crlme when Lhere ls a mlsLake of facL

VII. Cr|mes un|shab|e by Spec|a| Laws
! lncludes crlmes punlshable by munlclpal or clLy ordlnances.
! uolo ls noL requlred.
o lL ls enough LhaL Lhe prohlblLed acL ls done freely and
consclously.
o 1he acL alone, lrrespecLlve of lLs moLlves, consLlLuLes
Lhe offense.
! eople v. 8ayona
unwlLLlngly buL volunLarlly broughL a
gun lnLo a polllng place
ConvlcLed because no maLLer whaL hls
lnLenLlons were, Lhe acL prohlblLed by
Lhe speclal laws was commlLLed
! lnLenL Lo commlL Lhe crlme and lnLenL Lo perpeLuaLe Lhe acL
musL be dlsLlngulshed
o lf Lhere ls no lnLenL Lo perpeLraLe Lhe acL prohlblLed,
Lhere ls no crlmlnal llablllLy
6.',$(, *-5 0%2"2('3 2(&.(& 2, ($& (.0.,,'%5 2( 0%2"., "'+. 45
,&'&;&$%5 .('0&".(&
! 1he acL ln lLself, wlLhouL Lhe lnLervenLlon of any oLher facL, ls
Lhe evll.
o Lxample: Law rohlblLlng dlsplay of revoluLlonary flags
! 1he evll Lo socleLy and Lo Lhe governmenL does
noL depend upon Lhe sLaLe of mlnd of Lhe one
who dlsplays Lhe banner, buL upon Lhe effecL
whlch LhaL dlsplay has upon Lhe publlc mlnd.
! 1he publlc ls noL affecLed by Lhe lnLenLlon of Lhe
offender buL by Lhe acL lLself.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! When Lhe dolng of an acL ls prohlblLed by a speclal law, lL ls
consldered LhaL Lhe acL ls ln[urlous Lo publlc welfare and Lhe
dolng of Lhe prohlblLed acL ls Lhe crlme lLself.
G$$+ ?'2&- '(+ '4,.(0. $? 0%2"2('3 2(&.(& '%. ($& /'32+ +.?.(,., 2(
0%2"., #;(2,-.+ 45 ,#.02'3 3'*,
! Slnce Lhe offense ls "'3'" #%$-242&;", Lhe performance of Lhe
acL lLself wlll consLlLuLe Lhe offense.
! LxcepLlons:
o eople v. Landlcho " lf lL ls done ln order Lo comply
wlLh governmenL pollcles.
! When Lhere ls a law prohlblLlng Lhe carrylng of
loose flrearms ln relaLlon Lo a man who was
auLhorlzed Lo buy and collecL guns Lo be sold Lo
Lhe auLhorlLles laLer on, LhaL lndlvldual ls noL
crlmlnally llable.
! 1hls ls noL Lhe same lf Lhe man held on Lo Lhe
flrearms for a undue lengLh of Llme when he
had all Lhe chances Lo surrender lL Lo Lhe proper
auLhorlLles.
o eople v. Asa & uS v. Samson " Clvlllan guards who
acLed ln good falLh and never had any lnLenLlon of
commlLLlng an offense agalnsL Lhe law prohlblLlng Lhe
carrylng of loose flrearms because Lhey belleved Lhelr
poslLlon ln Lhe clvlllan guard assoclaLlon warranLed Lhe
carrylng of such flrearms.
o eope v. Mallarl " When Lhe accused has a pendlng
appllcaLlon for permanenL permlL Lo possess a flrearm
and whose possesslon ln noL unknown Lo Lhe
auLhorlLles who acLually advlsed hlm Lo keep hls flrearm
for Lhe meanLlme.
o eople v. Lucero " When accused was glven auLhorlLy
Lo carry a revolver ln order Lo capLure or klll a wanLed
person.
! ln all cases menLloned, Lhe absence of lnLenL Lo vlolaLe Lhe law
was consldered ln favor of Lhe accused.

VIIIB H'3' 2( ,. and H'3' #%$-242&' d|st|ngu|shed
! Genera| ru|e: AcLs ln !"#" %& '(, Lhere musL be a crlmlnal lnLenL,
buL Lhose ln !"#" )*+,%-%." lL ls sufflclenL lf Lhe prohlblLed acL
was lnLenLlonally done.
! Ma|a |n se
o Wrongful from lLs naLure.
o Crlmes mala ln se are Lhose so serlous ln Lhelr effecLs on
socleLy as Lo call for almosL unanlmous condemnaLlon
from lLs members.
o unlshable by 8C.
! Ma|a roh|b|ta
o Wrongful because lL ls prohlblLed by a sLaLuLe.
o vlolaLlons of mere rules of convenlence deslgned Lo
secure a more orderly regulaLlon of Lhe affalrs of socleLy
o lound ln speclal laws.
o 8efers generally Lo acLs made crlmlnal by speclal laws.
I-.( &-. '0&, '%. 2(-.%.(&35 2""$%'3= &-.5 '%. "'3' 2( ,. ./.( 2?
#;(2,-.+ ;(+.% ,#.02'3 3'*
! eople v. Sunlco eL al.
o voLers names were omlLLed from Lhe llsL.
o 1he acL was mala ln se because Lhe omlsslon and fallure
Lo lnclude a voLer's name ln Lhe reglsLry llsL of voLers ls
noL only wrong because lL ls prohlblLed, lL ls wrong per
se because lL dlsenfranchlses a voLer and vlolaLes one of
hls fundamenLal rlghLs.
o lor such an acL Lo be punlshed, lL musL be shown LhaL
sald acL was commlLLed wlLh mallce.

Ik. Intent d|st|ngu|shed from mot|ve
! MoLlve " 1he movlng power whlch lmpels one Lo acLlon for a
deflnlLe resulL.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! lnLenL " 1he purpose Lo use a parLlcular means Lo effecL such
resulL.
H$&2/.A *-.( %.3./'(& '(+ *-.( ($& (..+ &$ 4. .,&'432,-.+
! noL an essenLlal elemenL of a crlme, need noL be proven for
purposes of a convlcLlon.
o Lven a sLrong moLlve cannoL Lake Lhe place of proof
beyond reasonable doubL.
! Cood moLlves do noL prevenL an acL from becomlng a crlme
o Lxample: Mercy kllllng
! 8elevance:
o When Lhe ldenLlLy of Lhe perpeLraLor ls belng dlspuLed,
Lhe moLlve ls very relevanL (eople v. Murray).
! noL appllcable lf perpeLraLor has been poslLlvely
ldenLlfled (eople v. Cadlana).
! noL appllcable lf perpeLraLor admlLs Lo crlme
(eople v. Arcllla).
o When ascerLalnlng Lhe LruLh beLween Lwo anLagonlsLlc
Lheorles or verslons of Lhe kllllng (eople v. 8oholsL-
Caballero, eople v. Llm, eople v. 1abl[e)
o Where Lhe ldenLlflcaLlon of Lhe accused proceeds from
an unrellable source and Lhe LesLlmony ls lnconcluslve
and noL free from doubL, evldence of moLlve ls
necessary (eople v. 8elLran).
o When Lhere are no eyewlLnesses and susplclon falls on a
loL of people (eople v. Melgar).
o When evldence ls merely clrcumsLanLlal (eople v.
Cqulno).
! noL appllcable lf gullL ls esLabllshed by sufflclenL
evldence (eople v. Corpuz).
o When Lhere ls no doubL LhaL Lhe accused commlLLed Lhe
crlme, hls moLlves are unlmporLanL (eople v. lellclano).
J$* "$&2/. 2, #%$/.+
! LsLabllshed by Lhe LesLlmony of wlLnesses on Lhe acLs or
sLaLemenLs of Lhe accused before or lmmedlaLely afLer Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe offense.
! LsLabllshmenL Lhrough Lhe evldence presenLed.
! Lack of moLlve may be ald ln showlng lnnocence.
! roof of moLlve alone ls noL sufflclenL Lo supporL a convlcLlon. lL
cannoL Lake Lhe place of proof beyond reasonable doubL,
sufflclenL Lo overLhrow presumpLlon of lnnocence.

Art|c|e 4.
Cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty sha|| be |ncurred:
1. 8y any person comm|tt|ng a fe|ony (de||to) a|though the
wrongfu| act be d|fferent from that wh|ch he |ntended.
2. 8y an person perform|ng an act wh|ch wou|d be an offense
aga|nst persons or property, were |t not for the |nherent
|mposs|b|||ty of |ts accomp||shment, or on account of the
emp|oyment of |nadequate or |neffectua| means.

CIN1S
I. 1he manner of |ncurr|ng cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty under the kC |s stated |n
Art|c|e 3
! 1hls arLlcle has noL reference Lo Lhe manner crlmlnal llablllLy ls
lncurred.

II. Cne who comm|ts an |ntent|ona| fe|ony |s respons|b|e for a|| the
consequences wh|ch may natura||y and |og|ca||y resu|t therefrom,
whether foreseen or |ntended or not
! Cne ls noL relleved from Lhe crlmlnal llablllLy for Lhe naLural
consequence of one's lllegal acLs, merely because one does noL
lnLend Lo produce such consequences.
o 1hus, one who flred hls gun aL 8, buL mlssed and hlL C
lnsLead, ls llable for Lhe ln[ury caused Lo C, alLhough Lhe
one who flred Lhe gun had no lnLenLlon Lo ln[ure C.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
III. kat|ona|e of Art|c|e 4
! Ll que es causa de la causa es causa del mal causado
o Pe who ls Lhe cause of Lhe cause ls Lhe cause of Lhe evll
caused.

IV. Important words
! CommlLLlng a felony"
o AcL or omlsslon has Lo be punlshable by Lhe 8C.
o necesslLaLes mallce because of Lhe phrase LhaL whlch
he lnLended".
o CannoL Lherefore be an acL or omlsslon punlshed by a
speclal law because Lhe offender vlolaLlng such a law
may noL have Lhe lnLenL Lo do an ln[ury Lo anoLher.
! uS v. ulvlno
uefendanL who ls noL a medlcal
pracLlLloner Lles up a glrl and seLs her
on flre. Pe clalms he ls Lrylng Lo cure
her ulcer and LhaL he acLed ln good
falLh.
Pe ls noL gullLy of a felony because he
had no lnLenL Lo harm. Pe ls however
gullLy of physlcal ln[ury Lhrough
lmprudence and/or lllegal pracLlce of
medlclne.
! AlLhough Lhe wrongful acL be dlfferenL from LhaL whlch he
lnLended"
o Causes
! MlsLaken ldenLlLy (error ln personae) " A
shooLs 8 because he Lhlnks he ls C.
! MlsLaken blow (aberraLlon lcLus) " A Lrles Lo
shooL 8 buL accldenLally shooLs C.
! 1he acL exceeds Lhe lnLenL (praeLer
lnLenLlonem) " A only lnLends Lo ln[ure 8 buL
ends up kllllng hlm.
o Lxamples
! eople v. MabugaL
Accused and 8 were sweeLhearLs. 1hey
goL lnLo a flghL and one nlghL, accused,
wlLh revolver ln hand, walLed for 8 and
her nlece C Lo leave Lhe house of u and
head home. As Lhey reached Lhe house,
accused almed and flred a shoL aL 8 buL
lnsLead hlL C.
Accused ls crlmlnally llable (frusLraLed
murder)
! eople v. 1omoLorgo
Accused, lncensed by hls wlfe, beaLs her
unLll she falls Lo Lhe ground and
complalns of chesL palns. Accused
proceeds Lo Lake hls wlfe home and
Lake care of her. Wlfe dles.
Accused ls gullLy of parrlclde.
SC ruled LhaL Lhe facL LhaL Lhe accused
lnLended Lo malLreaL hls wlfe only or
lnfllcL physlcal ln[urles does noL exempL
hlm from llablllLy for Lhe resulLlng and
more serlous crlme of parrlclde
MalLreaLmenL lnfllcLed by Lhe accused
was Lhe proxlmaLe cause of wlfe's deaLh

V. When a person has not comm|tted a fe|ony, he |s not cr|m|na||y
||ab|e for the resu|t wh|ch |s not |ntended
! uS v. vlllanueva
o Accused, ouL of curloslLy, snaLched a bolo carrled by Lhe
vlcLlm ln hls belL. 1he vlcLlm was subsequenLly ln[ured.
o Accused ls noL crlmlnally llable because Lhere ls no
provlslon punlshlng Lhe acL of snaLchlng Lhe properLy of
anoLher [usL Lo saLlsfy curloslLy.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! eople v. 8lndoy
o Accused, carrylng a bolo ln one hand, goL lnLo a heaLed
alLercaLlon wlLh acas' wlfe. acas aLLempLed Lo Lake
away Lhe bolo from Lhe accused and durlng Lhe scuffle,
an lnnocenL bysLander was ln[ured.
o Accused ls noL crlmlnally llable because Lhe law permlLs
hlm Lo use necessary force Lo reLaln whaL belongs Lo
hlm.
o lf accused had been Lrylng Lo sLrlke acas and lnsLead
hlL someone else, he would be crlmlnally llable.

Ak. 1: 8 AN LkSCN CCMMI11ING A ILLCN (DLLI1C), AL1nCUGn
1nL WkCNGIUL AC1 DCNL 8L DIIILkLN1 IkCM 1nA1 WnICn nL
IN1LNDLD.

I. kequ|s|tes of Art|c|e 4 paragraph 1
! ln order LhaL a person may be held crlmlnally llable for a felony
dlfferenL from LhaL whlch he lnLended Lo commlL:
1. lnLenLlonal felony was commlLLed
2. 1he wrong done Lo Lhe aggrleved parLy be Lhe dlrecL, naLural,
and loglcal consequence of Lhe felony commlLLed by Lhe
offender

II. IIkS1 kequ|s|te: Intent|ona| fe|ony was comm|tted
<$ ?.3$(5 2, 0$""2&&.+ *-.(A
! 1he acL or omlsslon ls noL punlshable under 8C.
o Sulclde ls noL punlshable under Lhe 8C (Art|c|e 2S3) "
lf A [umps off Lhe bulldlng and lands on 8, he ls noL
crlmlnally llable for lnLenLlonal homlclde.
! When Lhe acL ls covered by any of Lhe [usLlfylng clrcumsLances
ln Art|c|e 11
o Self defense, fulflllmenL of duLy, eLc.
o 1hese acLs musL sLlll be exerclsed wlLh due care
oLherwlse Lhe accused wlll be llable for culpable felony.
o Lxample: eople v. Sallnas
! Accused, along wlLh 8, go Lo Lhe house of C and
u. Accused enLers Lhe house, 8 sLays ouLslde. 8
challenges C Lo a flghL and accused holds on Lo
C Lo prevenL hlm from golng ouLslde. A sLruggle
ensues and u, whlle holdlng a baby, aLLempLs Lo
free C from Lhe accused. u ends up falllng down
Lhe sLalrs, baby ln hand. 1he baby evenLually
dles.
! Accused cannoL be crlmlnally llable for holdlng
on Lo C and prevenLlng hlm from engaglng ln
whaL would have been a bloody encounLer wlLh
8 because such an acL ls noL punlshable.
! Slmllarly, accused ls noL gullLy of Lhe deaLh of
Lhe baby because Lhe deaLh was noL Lhe dlrecL
consequence of a crlme seelng as how accused
dld noL commlLLlng any crlme.
1(5 #.%,$( *-$ 0%.'&., 2( '($&-.%K, "2(+ '( 2"".+2'&. ,.(,. $?
+'(>.%= *-20- 0';,., &-. 3'&&.% &$ +$ ,$".&-2(> %.,;3&2(> 2( &-.
3'&&.%K, 2(L;%2.,= 2, 32'43. ?$% &-. %.,;3&2(> 2(L;%2.,
! eople v. 1ollng
o Accused proceeds Lo commlL robbery aboard a [eepney.
Accused LhreaLens Lhe passengers and subsequenLly, 8
[umps ouL of Lhe [eepney ln order Lo escape. 8 ends up
hlLLlng her head on Lhe pavemenL and evenLually dles.
o lL was held LhaL accused ls gullLy for Lhe deaLh of 8
because he creaLed an lmmedlaLe sense of danger LhaL
prompLed 8 Lo Lry and escape.
o Slmllarly, lf a person bellevlng hlmself Lo be ln danger of
deaLh or greaL bodlly harm [umps lnLo Lhe waLer and
drowns, Lhe person who caused hlm Lo belleve he was
ln danger ls crlmlnally llable for hls deaLh

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
III. SLCCND kequ|s|te: Wrong done must be the d|rect, natura|, and
|og|ca| consequence of a fe|on|ous act (prox|mate cause).
! Genera| ku|e: A person ls crlmlnally responslble for acLs
commlLLed by hlm ln vlolaLlon of Lhe law and for all Lhe naLural
and loglcal consequences resulLlng Lherefrom.
! Lxamples
o uS v. valdez " vlcLlm who was LhreaLened or chased by
Lhe accused wlLh a knlfe, [umps lnLo Lhe waLer and
drowns because of Lhe heavy currenL.
! Accused ls crlmlnally llable.
o eople v. Culanson " vlcLlm removes dralnage from a
wound glven Lo hlm by Lhe accused ln order Lo allevlaLe
greaL paln. vlcLlm subsequenLly conLracLs an lnfecLlon
and dles.
! Accused ls crlmlnally llable because he dlrecLly
caused Lhe greaL paln whlch vlcLlm was Lrylng Lo
allevlaLe.
o eople v. Moldes " A wound LhaL was lnfllcLed was
dangerous or calculaLed Lo desLroy human llfe.
lmmedlaLe cause of deaLh was erroneous medlcal
LreaLmenL.
! Lven lf erroneous medlcal LreaLmenL comes lnLo
play, Lhe one who lnfllcLed Lhe wound ls sLlll
crlmlnally llable.
o eople v. lllusLre, eople v. 8odrlguez, eople v. 8eyes
" vlcLlm was sufferlng from an lnLernal malady and
sald malady was faLally aggravaLed by a blow from Lhe
accused.
! Accused ls crlmlnally llable.
o uS v. Maraslgan " vlcLlm refused Lo submlL Lo surglcal
operaLlon.
! Cffended parLy ls noL obllged Lo submlL Lo a
surglcal operaLlon Lo relleve Lhe accused from
Lhe naLural and ordlnary resulLs of hls crlme.
o eople v. MarLlr " ln[ury was aggravaLed by lnfecLlon
! An accused ls llable for all Lhe consequences of
hls acLs, and Lhe lnfecLlon of a wound he has
caused ls one of Lhe consequences for whlch he
ls answerable
! Lxcept lf lnfecLlon ls due Lo Lhe mallclous acL of
Lhe offended parLy (uS v. ue los SanLos).
! Cases
o eople v. Culanson
! A ln[ures 8. Whlle Laklng medlcal LreaLmenL, 8
removes Lhe dralnage from hls wound ln order
Lo allevlaLe lmmense paln. 1hls resulLs ln Lhe
developmenL of an lnfecLlon whlch evenLually
leads Lo Lhe deaLh of 8.
! A conLends LhaL he was noL lnvolved ln Lhe
Laklng ouL of Lhe dralnage whlch evenLually led
Lo Lhe lnfecLlon and subsequenL deaLh.
! CourL rules LhaL A ls crlmlnally llable for Lhe
deaLh of 8 because hls removal of Lhe dralnage
was due Lo Lhe lmmense paln he felL from Lhe
wounds lnfllcLed by A.
o uS v. Maraslgan
! Accused sLrlkes aL 8 wlLh a knlfe. ln an aLLempL
Lo ward off Lhe blow, Lhe flnger of 8 was
severed.
! Clalms of Lhe accused LhaL 8 can geL surgery ln
order Lo resLore hls flnger ls noL a valld defense
because 8 ls noL obllged Lo recelve surglcal
LreaLmenL ln order Lo relleve accused of hls
llablllLy.
o eople v. 8elo[
! Accused sLabs 8 wlLh an lce plck. 8 undergoes a
successful surglcal operaLlon buL days laLer he
dles because of a condlLlon LhaL Lakes place as a
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
consequence of lnLernal organs belng exposed
durlng surgery.
! Accused ls crlmlnally llable because Lhe
condlLlon would noL have come abouL lf 8 dld
noL need Lo undergo surgery because of ln[urles
lnfllcLed by Lhe accused.
! !? 2& 03.'%35 '##.'%, &-'& &-. 2(L;%5 *$;3+ ($& -'/. 0';,.+
+.'&-= 2( &-. $%+2('%5 0$;%,. $? ./.(&,= 4;& *$;3+ -'/. -.'3.+
2( ,$ "'(5 +'5, '(+ *-.%. 2& *', ,-$*( 4.5$(+ '33 +$;4& &-'&
&-. +.'&- *', +;. &$ &-. "'3202$;, $% 0'%.3.,, '0&, $? &-.
2(L;%.+ #.%,$( $% ' &-2%+ #.%,$(= &-. '00;,.+ 2, ($& 0%2"2('335
32'43. ?$% -$"202+.
M-. ?.3$(5 0$""2&&.+ ";,& 4. &-. #%$:2"'&. 0';,. $? &-. %.,;3&2(>
2(L;%5
! roxlmaLe cause " ls LhaL cause whlch, ln naLural and
conLlnuous sequence, unbroken by any efflclenL lnLervenlng
cause, produces Lhe ln[ury, and wlLhouL whlch Lhe resulL would
noL have occurred.
o naLural refers Lo an occurrence ln Lhe ordlnary course
of human llfe or evenLs.
o Loglcal means LhaL Lhere ls a raLlonal connecLlon
beLween Lhe acL of Lhe accused and Lhe resulLlng ln[ury
or damage.
! roxlmaLe legal cause
o 1haL acLlng flrsL and produclng Lhe ln[ury, elLher
lmmedlaLely, or by seLLlng oLher evenLs ln moLlon, all
consLlLuLlng a naLural and conLlnuous chaln of evenLs,
each havlng a close causal connecLlon wlLh lLs
lmmedlaLe predecessor.
o 1here musL be a relaLlon of cause and effecL", Lhe
cause belng Lhe felonlous acL of Lhe offended, Lhe effecL
belng Lhe resulLanL ln[urles and/or deaLh of Lhe vlcLlm.
! noL alLered because of pre-exlsLlng condlLlons,
predlsposlLlon of Lhe offended parLy or Lhe
concomlLanL or concurrenL condlLlons, or Lhe
condlLlons supervenlng Lhe felonles.
! LxcepLlons (felony commlLLed ls noL proxlmaLe cause when)
1. 1here ls an acLlve force LhaL lnLervened beLween Lhe
felony commlLLed and Lhe resulLlng ln[ury, and Lhe
acLlve force ls a dlsLlncL acL or facL absoluLely forelgn
from Lhe felonlous acL of Lhe accused.
2. 1he resulLlng ln[ury ls due Lo Lhe lnLenLlonal acL of Lhe
vlcLlm.
! 1he offender ls crlmlnally llable for Lhe deaLh of Lhe vlcLlm lf hls
dellcLual (wrongful) acL caused, acceleraLed, or conLrlbuLed Lo
Lhe deaLh of Lhe vlcLlm.
J$* &$ +.&.%"2(. &-. #%$:2"'&. 0';,.
! vda. de 8aLaclan, eL al. v. Medlna
o assenger bus Lravelllng ln Lhe provlnce aL 2 ln Lhe
mornlng Lurns over, Lrapplng 4 passengers. Casollne
beglns Lo leak and spread all over Lhe bus. Men wlLh
Lorches come Lo help ouL Lhe Lrapped passengers buL
Lhe flre from Lhelr Lorches (keep ln mlnd Lhe gasollne
LhaL spread all around Lhe bus) causes Lhe bus Lo
become engulfed ln flames.
o lL was ruled LhaL Lhe proxlmaLe cause was noL Lhe flre
from Lhe Lorches buL lnsLead Lhe Lurnlng over of Lhe
bus. 1he arrlval of men carrylng Lorches ln Lhe mlddle of
Lhe nlghL Lo help Lhe Lrapped passengers was a naLural
consequence seelng as how lL was dark and Lhey were
ln Lhe provlnce.
o lurLhermore, Lhere ls negllgence on Lhe parL of Lhe
agenLs of Lhe carrler slnce Lhey would have reallzed LhaL
gasollne was leaklng (gasollne has a dlsLlncL scenL) and
should have warned Lhe men wlLh Lorches.
! eople v. Luces
o Accused gave a flsL blow Lo vlcLlm ln Lhe sLomach,
causlng her Lo fall Lo Lhe ground and become
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
unconsclous. vlcLlm never regalns consclousness and
evenLually dles. AuLopsy shows LhaL cardlac fallure was
probable cause for deaLh.
o Accused argues LhaL cardlac fallure and noL Lhe flsL blow
was noL Lhe cause of deaLh.
o CourL rules LhaL Lhe flsL blow was Lhe prlmary and
proxlmaLe cause of deaLh because Lhe cardlac fallure
(lncurred elLher dlrecLly because of Lhe flsL blow, whlle
falllng Lo Lhe ground, or whlle belng unconsclous) was
caused by Lhe flsL blow.
! Pe who ls Lhe cause of Lhe cause ls Lhe cause of
Lhe evll caused.
! 8';,.,= ($& 4.2(> .??202.(& 2(&.%/.(2(> 0';,.,= +$ ($& 4%.'N &-.
%.3'&2$( $? 0';,. '(+ .??.0& O &-. ?.3$(5 0$""2&&.+ '(+ &-.
%.,;3&2(> 2(L;%5B
M-. ?$33$*2(> '%. ($& .??202.(& 2(&.%/.(2(> 0';,.,
! eople v. lllusLre & eople v. 8eyes " 1he weak or dlseased
physlcal condlLlon of Lhe vlcLlm, as when one ls sufferlng from
Luberculosls or hearL dlsease.
! eople v. AlmonLe & eople v. Culanson " nervous
LemperamenL, as when a person dles ln consequence of an
lnLernal hemorrhage because he was movlng around agalnsL
docLors orders because of hls nervous LemperamenL due Lo Lhe
wound lnfllcLed by Lhe accused.
! eople v. 8uhay, uS v. valdez " Causes lnherenL Lo Lhe vlcLlm
o vlcLlm does noL know how Lo swlm
o vlcLlm ls an alcohollc
! uS v. Maraslgan & eople v. 8ed " neglecL of Lhe vlcLlm or a
Lhlrd person.
o 8efusal of vlcLlm Lo undergo surgery
o lallure of docLors Lo glve anLl-LeLanus ln[ecLlon Lo Lhe
ln[ured person
! eople v. Moldes " Lrroneous or unsklllful medlcal LreaLmenL
as when Lhe assaulL Look place ln an ouLlylng barrlo where
proper modern surglcal servlce was noL avallable
! Case: eople v. lamonLe, eL al.
o A sLabs 8. 8 ls successfully operaLed on buL evenLually
he conLracLs a condlLlon due Lo hls weakened sLaLe.
o A ls crlmlnally llable because Lhe sLabblng was Lhe
proxlmaLe cause of deaLh.
I-.( +.'&- 2, #%.,;".+ &$ 4. &-. ('&;%'3 0$(,.F;.(0. $? #-5,20'3
2(L;%2., 2(?320&.+
1. 1he vlcLlm was ln normal healLh when Lhe ln[ury was lnfllcLed.
2. ueaLh may be expecLed from Lhe physlcal ln[urles lnfllcLed.
3. ueaLh ensued wlLhln a reasonable Llme.
! Case: eople v. 1ammang
o 8oy was ln good healLh Lhe mornlng of Lhe lncldenL.
1eacher assaulLs boy and boy complalns abouL
experlenclng oppresslve paln Lo hls moLher laLer on. 8oy
vomlLs blood unLll he dles 3 days laLer.
o 1eacher's llablllLy for homlclde necessarlly follows from
Lhe premlses sLaLed.
o Pad lL been proven LhaL Lhe boy dled from
hypochondrla and noL Lhe ln[urles lnfllcLed by Lhe
Leacher, accused would have been acqulLLed on Lhe
charge of homlclde.
<$& +2%.0&= ('&;%'3= '(+ 3$>20'3 0$(,.F;.(0. $? &-. ?.3$(5 0$""2&&.+B
! lf Lhe consequences produced have resulLed from a dlsLlncL acL
or facL absoluLely forelgn from Lhe crlmlnal acL, Lhe offender ls
noL responslble for such consequences.
! A person ls noL llable crlmlnally for all posslble consequences
whlch may lmmedlaLely follow hls felonlous acL, buL only for
such as are proxlmaLe:
o eople v. 8ockwell
! A sLrlkes 8. 8 falls Lo Lhe ground. A horse [umps
on 8 and kllls hlm.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! A ls noL llable for Lhe deaLh of 8
o uS v. ue los SanLos
! A llghLly ln[ures 8. 8 dellberaLely lmmerses
hlmself ln a cesspool of fllLh. 1he ln[urles of 8
become greaLer.
! A ls noL llable for Lhe worsened condlLlon of 8.
o eople v. alalon
! A sLrlkes 8 wlLh Lhe back of hls hand. LaLer on, 8
dles. 1here ls a prevalenL slckness ln Lhe locallLy.
! A ls noL llable for Lhe deaLh of 8 because lL ls
reasonable Lo belleve LhaL lL could have been
caused by Lhe prevalenL slckness ln Lhe locallLy.
o uS v. LmbaLe
! Accused sLrlkes a chlld who was serlously lll.
Chlld dles Lwo days laLer.
! Accused ls noL llable for chlld's deaLh because lL
cannoL be esLabllshed lf Lhe lllness or Lhe sLrlke
caused Lhe deaLh.
o urbano v. lAC
! When medlcal flndlngs lead Lo Lhe posslblllLy
LhaL Lhe lnfecLlon of Lhe wound was an efflclenL
lnLervenlng cause (noL a proxlmaLe cause), Lhe
accused musL be acqulLLed of Lhe crlme of
homlclde
____________________
Ak. 2: 8 AN LkSCN LkICkMING AN AC1 WnICn WCULD 8L AN
CIILNSL AGAINS1 LkSCNS Ck kCLk1, WLkL I1 NC1 ICk 1nL
INnLkLN1 IMCSSI8ILI1 CI I1'S ACCCMLISnLM1N, Ck CN
ACCCUN1 CI 1nL LMLCMLN1 CI INADLUA1L Ck INLIILC1UAL
MLANS.

I. Imposs|b|e Cr|mes
! 1he commlsslon of an lmposslble crlme ls lndlcaLlve of crlmlnal
propenslLy or crlmlnal Lendency on Lhe parL of Lhe acLor.
o Such person ls Lherefore a poLenLlal crlmlnal.
o 1he communlLy musL be proLecLed from anLl-soclal
acLlvlLles, wheLher acLual or poLenLlal, of Lhe morbld
Lype of man called soclally dangerous person".

II. kequ|s|tes of |mposs|b|e cr|me
1. AcL performed would be an offense agalnsL persons or properLy
2. AcL was done wlLh evll lnLenL
3. AccompllshmenL ls lnherenLly lmposslble or LhaL Lhe means
employed are lnadequaLe or lneffecLual
4. AcL ls noL a vlolaLlon of anoLher provlslon of Lhe 8C

III. Important words and phrases
! erformlng an acL whlch would be an offense agalnsL persons
or properLy" (8equlslLe 1)
o A felony agalnsL persons or properLy should noL be
acLually commlLLed, for, oLherwlse, offender would be
llable for LhaL felony. 1hls means Lhere ls no lmposslble
crlme Lo speak of.
o lelonles agalnsL persons
! arrlclde (Art|c|e 246)
! Murder (Art|c|e 248),
! Pomlclde (Art|c|e 249),
! lnfanLlclde (Art|c|e 2SS),
! AborLlon (Art|c|e 2S6, 2S7, 2S8, and 2S9),
! uuel (Art|c|e 260 and 261),
! hyslcal ln[urles (Art, 262, 263, 264, 26S, 266)
! 8ape (Art|c|e 266-A)
o lelonles agalnsL properLy
! 8obbery (Art. 294, 297, 298, 299, 300, 302, 303)
! 8rlgandage (Art|c|e 306 and 307)
! 1hefL (Art|c|e 308, 310, 311)
! usurpaLlon (Art|c|e 312 and 313)
! Culpable lnsolvency (Art|c|e 314)
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! Swlndllng and oLher decelLs (Art|c|e 31S, 316,
317 and 318)
! ChaLLel morLgage (Art|c|e 319)
! Arson and oLher crlmes lnvolvlng desLrucLlon,
mallclous mlschlef (Art|c|e 327, 328, 329, 330
and 331)
o lf Lhe acL performed would be an offense oLher Lhan a
felony agalnsL persons or properLy, Lhere ls no
lmposslble crlme
! AcL was done wlLh evll lnLenL (8equlslLe 2)
o Cffender musL have Lhe lnLenL Lo do an ln[ury Lo
anoLher
! SLabblng a person's corpse Lo saLlsfy a grudge ls
noL a crlme lf and when Lhe accused knew LhaL
Lhe person was already dead
o A Lakes Lhe check paymenL meanL for her company and
deposlLs lL ln her own accounL. 1he check bounces.
! Accused found gullLy of an lmposslble crlme
! 1here can be no quesLlon LhaL as of Lhe Llme
accused Look possesslon of sald check, she had
performed all Lhe acLs Lo consummaLe Lhe
crlme of LhefL, had lL noL been lmposslble of
accompllshmenL ln Lhls case
o A peppers Lhe bedroom of 8 wlLh bulleLs. 8 was noL ln
hls bedroom.
! ConvlcLed of an lmposslble crlme
! Were lL noL for Lhe lnherenL lmposslblllLy of lLs
accompllshmenL or on accounL of Lhe employmenL of
lnadequaLe or lneffecLual means"
o lnherenL lmposslblllLy of accompllshmenL
! Legal lmposslblllLy
! hyslcal lmposslblllLy
! Lxamples:
1rylng Lo klll a person wlLhouL knowlng
LhaL he ls already dead " legal and
physlcal lmposslblllLy.
1rylng Lo polson a person wlLh arsenlc
when lL Lurns ouL, only salL was used.
SLeallng a waLch even lf lL Lurns ouL Lhe
sald waLch ls acLually yours " legal
lmposslblllLy,
ALLempLlng Lo sLeal money from a safe
LhaL Lurns ouL Lo be empLy.
o LmploymenL of lnadequaLe and lneffecLual means
! Lxamples
A Lrles Lo polson 8 wlLh a decenL
amounL of arsenlc buL 8 does noL dle
because he has sLrong reslsLance Lo
arsenlc
A Lrles Lo shooL 8 ln Lhe head only Lo
flnd ouL Lhe gun ls noL loaded when he
pulls Lhe Lrlgger

IV. urpose of the |aw |n pun|sh|ng the |mposs|b|e cr|me
! 1o suppress crlmlnal propenslLy or crlmlnal Lendencles
! Cb[ecLlvely, Lhe offender has noL commlLLed a felony buL
sub[ecLlvely, he ls a crlmlnal

Art|c|e S. Whenever a court has know|edge of any act wh|ch |t may
deem proper to repress and wh|ch |s not pun|shab|e by |aw, |t sha||
render the proper dec|s|on and sha|| report to the Ch|ef Lxecut|ve,
through the Department of Iust|ce, the reasons wh|ch |nduce the court
to be||eve that sa|d act shou|d be the sub[ect of |eg|s|at|on.

In the same ||ght, the court sha|| subm|t to the Ch|ef Lxecut|ve,
through the Department of Iust|ce, such statements as may be
deemed proper, w|thout suspend|ng the execut|on of the sentence,
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
when a str|ct enforcement of the prov|s|ons of th|s Code wou|d resu|t
|n the |mpos|t|on of a c|ear|y excess|ve pena|ty, tak|ng |nto
cons|derat|on the degree of ma||ce and the |n[ury caused by the
offense.

CIN1S
I. I|rst paragraph perta|ns to acts wh|ch shou|d be repressed but wh|ch
are not pun|shab|e by |aw.
! 8asls of aragraph 1: nulllum crlmen, nulla poena slne lege
o 1here ls no crlme lf Lhere ls no law LhaL punlshes Lhe acL
(no maLLer how bad LhaL acL may be).
! 1rlal of a crlmlnal case requlres Lhe followlng:
1. 1he acL commlLLed by Lhe accused appears noL
punlshable by any law.
2. 1he courL deems lL proper Lo repress such acL.
3. ln LhaL case, Lhe courL musL render Lhe proper declslon
by dlsmlsslng Lhe case and acqulLLlng Lhe accused.
4. 1he [udge musL Lhen make a reporL Lo Lhe Chlef
LxecuLlve Lhrough Lhe SecreLary of !usLlce, sLaLlng Lhe
reasons whlch lnduce hlm Lo belleve LhaL Lhe sald acL
should be made Lhe sub[ecL of penal leglslaLlon.

II. Second paragraph perta|ns to excess|ve pena|t|es
! Second paragraph requlres Lhe followlng:
1. 1he courL of Lrlal flnds Lhe accused gullLy
2. 1he penalLy provlded by law and whlch Lhe courL
lmposes for Lhe crlme commlLLed appears Lo be clearly
excesslve because
! 1he accused acLed wlLh lesser degree of mallce
! 1here ls no ln[ury or Lhe ln[ury caused ls of
lesser gravlLy
3. 1he courL should noL suspend Lhe execuLlon of Lhe
senLence.
4. 1he [udge should submlL a sLaLemenL Lo Lhe chlef
execuLlve, Lhrough Lhe SecreLary of !usLlce,
recommendlng execuLlve clemency.
8',.,
! eople v. Monleon
o Accused malLreaLs hls wlfe whlle lnebrlaLed. Wlfe dles.
! Slnce Lhe accused had no lnLenL Lo klll hls wlfe
and her deaLh may have been hasLened by lack
of proper medlcal care, Lhe punlshmenL of
*(/#0'%+& )(*)(.0" appears Lo be excesslve.
! eople v. Lsplno
o Accused sLeals coconuLs for hls famlly's consumpLlon.
! unlshmenL for Lhe crlme was 4 monLhs and 1
day of "**('.+ !"1+* Lo 3 years, 6 monLhs, and
21 days of )*%'+& /+**(//%+&"# accordlng Lo Lhe
8C.
! ln llghL of Lhe clrcumsLances surroundlng Lhe
case, Lhe courL recommended Lhe accused be
pardoned afLer servlng 4 monLhs of Lhe
senLence
! eople v. Cabagsan
o Accused alLers documenLs ln order Lo show LhaL a
person was arresLed on a laLer day. lalslflcaLlons were
done ln order Lo make lL appear LhaL Lhere was no delay
ln Lhe prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon belng conducLed on Lhe
case.
! lL was ruled LhaL Lhere was an apparenL lack of
mallce and a LoLal absence of ln[ury
! eople v. Can[a
o 8aLLered wlfe kllls her husband and confesses Lo dolng
so
! CourL recommended LhaL Lhe accused ls
deservlng of execuLlve clemency, noL of full
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
pardon buL of a subsLanLlal lf noL radlcal
reducLlon or commuLaLlon of her llfe senLence
! eople v. Manlapaz
o Accused commlLLed slmple rape
! 1he penalLy for slmple rape was lncreased from
*(/#0'%+& .(!)+*"# Lo *(/#0'%+& )(*)(.0" as a
means Lo deLer rampanL cases of rape
happenlng afLer WWll.
! lL was recommended LhaL afLer Lhe accused
shall have served a Lerm of lmprlsonmenL
conslsLenL wlLh reLrlbuLlve [usLlce, execuLlve
clemency may be exLended Lo hlm.

III. ena|t|es are not excess|ve when |ntended to enforce a pub||c
po||cy
! eople v. LsLolsLa
o 8ampanL lawlessness [usLlfles lmprlsonmenL for
promlscuous carrylng and use of powerful flrearms
when ordlnarlly such a penalLy would seem excesslve.
! eople v. 1lu ua
o Peavy flnes lmposed by congress Lo repress proflLeerlng
so LhaL people would noL Lake advanLage of crlLlcal
condlLlons (llke a global recesslon, sLrong sLorms, eLc.)
Lo make unusual proflLs.

IV. Courts have the duty to app|y the pena|ty prov|ded by |aw
! lL ls Lhe duLy of [udlclal offlcers Lo respecL and apply Lhe law,
regardless of Lhelr prlvaLe oplnlons.
o CourLs are noL concerned wlLh Lhe wlsdom, efflcacy, or
morallLy of laws. Such quesLlons fall excluslvely wlLhln
Lhe leglslaLlve LhaL makes Lhe law and Lhe execuLlve
who approves or veLoes lL.
o Lxample
! !udge senLences accused Lo llfe lmprlsonmenL
when Lhe law clearly sLaLes LhaL Lhe punlshmenL
should be deaLh.
ln Lhls slLuaLlon, Lhe [udge dld noL fulflll
hls duLy

V. Iudge has the duty to app|y the |aw as |nterpreted by the Supreme
Court
! !udge musL flrsL Lhlnk LhaL lL ls hls duLy Lo apply Lhe law as
lnLerpreLed by Lhe PlghesL CourL of Lhe land, and LhaL any
devlaLlon from a prlnclple lald down by Lhe laLLer would
unavoldable cause, as a sequel, unnecessary lnconvenlences,
delays and expenses Lo Lhe llLlganLs
! !udge ls free Lo sLaLe hls oplnlon on Lhe maLLer lf hls vlews
conLrasL wlLh Lhose of Lhe SC buL he musL sLlll follow Lhe
lnLerpreLaLlon of Lhe SC

VI. Courts are not the forum to p|ead for sympathy
! uura lex sed lex
o 1he law ls hard buL lL ls Lhe law

VII. Str|ct enforcement of the prov|s|ons of th|s Code
! ArLlcle 3 may noL be lnvoked for cases of !"#" )*+,%-%."
because lL ls expressly worded LhaL ArLlcle 3 only applles Lo
sLrlcL enforcemenL of Lhe provlslons of Lhe 8C

Art|c|e 6.
Consummated fe|on|es as we|| as those wh|ch are frustrated and
attempted are pun|shab|e.

A fe|ony |s consummated when a|| the e|ements necessary for |ts
execut|on and accomp||shment are present, and |t |s frustrated when
the offender performs a|| the acts of execut|on wh|ch wou|d produce
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
the fe|ony as a consequence but, wh|ch, neverthe|ess do not produce
|t by reason of causes |ndependent of the w||| of the perpetrator.

1here |s an attempt when the offender commences the comm|ss|on of
a fe|ony, d|rect|y through overt acts, and does not perform a|| the acts
of execut|on wh|ch wou|d produce the fe|ony by reason of some cause
or acc|dent other than h|s own spontaneous des|stance.

CIN1S
I. Deve|opment of cr|me
! lrom Lhe momenL Lhe culprlL concelves Lhe ldea of commlLLlng
a crlme up Lo Lhe reallzaLlon of Lhe same, hls acL passes Lhrough
cerLaln sLages.
P&'>.,A
1. lnLernal acLs
o 1houghLs ln Lhe mlnd of Lhe person, can never be
punlshable no maLLer how evll Lhey are.
o Mere lnLenL Lo commlL a crlme cannoL be punlshed lf lL
produces no effecL.
o lnLenL and effecL musL concur.
2. LxLernal acLs
a. reparaLory acLs
! Crdlnarlly Lhey are noL punlshable unless
provlded by law.
1he acL of buylng polson ls noL
necessarlly punlshable.
Carrylng a plcklock ls punlshable
because Lhere ls a provlslon agalnsL lL.
! 8u1 preparaLory acLs whlch are consldered ln
Lhemselves by law as lndependenL crlmes are
punlshable.
Art|c|e 304 " 1he possesslon of
plcklocks ls a preparaLory acL Lo Lhe
commlsslon of robbery.
b. AcLs of execuLlon
! unlshable by law
! SLages of acLs of execuLlon:
ALLempLed" lrusLraLed"
ConsummaLed
! All sLages of acLs of execuLlon are punlshable

II. S1AGL 1: Attempted Ie|ony
Q3.".(&, $? '&&."#&.+ ?.3$(5
1. CommencemenL of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe felony dlrecLly by
overL acLs.
2. Cffender does noL perform all acLs of execuLlon whlch should
produce Lhe felony.
3. 1he offender's acL ls noL sLopped by hls own sponLaneous
deslsLance.
4. 1he non-performance of all acLs of execuLlon was due Lo a cause
or accldenL oLher Lhan hls own sponLaneous deslsLance.
!"#$%&'(& *$%+, '(+ #-%',., ?$% '&&."#&.+ ?.3$(5
! Commences Lhe commlsslon of a felony"
o 1wo requlslLes:
l. 1here musL be an exLernal acL commlLLed.
ll. LxLernal acLs musL be connecLed wlLh Lhe crlme
lnLended Lo be commlLLed.
! ulrecLly by overL acLs"
o Cnly offenders who personally execuLe Lhe commlsslon
of a crlme can be gullLy of aLLempLed felony.
! lf A Lells 8 Lo klll C buL 8 refuses -
A ls noL llable for aLLempLed homlclde
slnce Lhe aLLempL was noL done dlrecLly
wlLh physlcal acLlvlLy
! lf A Lells 8 Lo klll C and 8 shooLs aL C and mlsses
A and 8 are crlmlnally llable of
aLLempLed felony because of
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
consplracy. ln consplracy, Lhe acL of one
ls Lhe acL of all.
! uoes noL perform all Lhe acLs of execuLlon"
o lf all Lhe acLs of execuLlon are performed, lL ls
auLomaLlcally elLher frusLraLed or consummaLed.
o lf noL all acLs are performed, lL ls only aLLempLed.
! uS v. Lduave
lf anyLhlng yeL remalned for hlm Lo do,
he would be gullLy of an aLLempLed
crlme.
! eople v. Lamahang
Accused dld noL enLer Lhe sLore
Lherefore Lhere was only an aLLempLed
Lrespass.
! 8y reason of some cause or accldenL"
o Cause
! A Lrles Lo plckpockeL 8 buL 8 caLches hlm before
he can do so.
A has noL done all Lhe acLs of execuLlon
ln relaLlon Lo plck pockeLlng.
o AccldenL
! A Lrles Lo shooL 8 buL Lhe gun [ams.
A has noL commlLLed all Lhe acLs of
execuLlon.
! CLher Lhan hls own sponLaneous deslsLance"
o ?ou cannoL be punlshed lf you sLop yourself from
commlLLlng a crlme.
o lL ls a sorL of reward granLed by law Lo Lhose who,
havlng one fooL on Lhe verge of crlme, heed Lhe call of
Lhelr consclence and reLurn Lo Lhe paLh of
rlghLeousness.
o Cne who Lakes parL ln plannlng a crlmlnal acL buL deslsLs
ln lLs acLual commlsslon ls exempL from crlmlnal
llablllLy.
! Could have been caused by hls consclence
o lL does noL maLLer lf sponLaneous deslsLance was due Lo
elLher fear or remorse as long as acL ls sLopped on
accounL of Lhe would-be offender's own free wlll.
o ueslsLance musL be made before Lhe crlme ls
commlLLed.
! A sLeals a chlcken & brlngs lL back an hour laLer.
8obbery has already been commlLLed
Lherefore Lhe reLurn of Lhe chlcken does
noL free A from crlmlnal llablllLy.
o Cwn sponLaneous deslsLance exempLs one from
crlmlnal llablllLy for Lhe lnLended crlme, and noL from
any crlmes whlch may have been commlLLed before Lhe
deslsLance.
! A shooLs 8 and mlsses. A decldes noL Lo shooL
anymore.
A ls noL gullLy of aLLempLed homlclde
because of hls sponLaneous deslsLance
buL he ls gullLy of maklng grave LhreaLs
whlch he had already commlLLed.
P;4L.0&2/. #-',. $? &-. $??.(,.
! ln an aLLempLed felony, Lhe offender never geLs pasL Lhe
sub[ecLlve phase.
! ueflnlLlon
o 1haL porLlon of Lhe acLs consLlLuLlng Lhe crlme, sLarLlng
from Lhe polnL where Lhe offender beglns Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme Lo LhaL polnL where he sLlll has
conLrol over hls acLs, lncludlng Lhelr naLural cause.
! As long as he does noL commlL Lhe lasL acL of
execuLlon, offender ls sLlll ln Lhe sub[ecLlve
phase
! Lxample: A Lrles Lo polson 8 wlLh polsoned soup.
o Sub[ecLlve phase ends as soon as Lhe 8 swallows Lhe
soup.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!

III. Cvert acts
! Some physlcal acLlvlLy or deed lndlcaLlng Lhe lnLenLlon Lo
commlL a parLlcular crlme, more Lhan a mere plannlng or
preparaLlon, whlch lf carrled Lo lLs compleLe LermlnaLlon
followlng lLs naLural course, wlLhouL belng frusLraLed by
exLernal obsLacles, nor by Lhe volunLary deslsLance of Lhe
perpeLraLor, wlll loglcally and necessarlly rlpen lnLo a concreLe
offense.
E2,&2(>;2,-2(> 4.&*..( #%.#'%'&$%5 '0&, '(+ $/.%& '0&,
! AcL of buylng polson
o Cn lLs own, Lhls acL ls a mere preparatory act because lL
does noL loglcally follow LhaL he who buys polson
wlshes Lo commlL a felony.
o lL becomes an overt act when he who buys polson
beglns Lo mlx sald subsLance lnLo a soup whlch he wlll
serve Lo hls lnLended vlcLlm. ln such case, Lhere ls clear
lnLenL Lo polson a person
! eople v. 1abago
o Accused seemed Lo be drawlng hls plsLol whlle Lalklng
Lo a pollceman.
o Accused ls noL crlmlnally llable for aLLempLed homlclde
because merely drawlng a plsLol does noL show lnLenL
Lo klll.
o 1o consLlLuLe aLLempLed homlclde, Lhe person uslng a
flrearm musL flre lL, wlLh lnLenL Lo klll, aL Lhe lnLended
vlcLlm wlLhouL lnfllcLlng a morLal wound.
! uS v. Slmeon
o Accused ralsed a bolo as lf Lo sLrlke aL Lhe offended
parLy.
o noL an overL acL because Lhere was no blow sLruck, and
Lhere ls no proof LhaL Lhe accused lssued LhreaLs Lo klll
or Lo do bodlly harm.
R/.%& '0&, "'5 ($& '3*'5, 4. #-5,20'3 '0&2/2&2.,
! uS v. Clorla
o Cfferlng money Lo a publlc offlcer wlLh Lhe purpose of
corrupLlng hlm ls an overL acL ln Lhe crlme of corrupLlon
of a publlc offlcer.
Q:&.%('3 '0&, ";,& -'/. +2%.0& 0$((.0&2$( *2&- &-. 0%2". 2(&.(+.+ &$
4. 0$""2&&.+ 45 &-. $??.(+.%
! eople v. Lamahang
o Accused was caughL maklng an openlng ln Lhe wall of a
sLore whlle Lhe owners were asleep.
o CannoL be counLed as aLLempLed robbery because Lhe
mere acL of maklng an openlng ln Lhe wall of Lhe sLore
does noL lmmedlaLely mean LhaL a robbery was Laklng
place.
o 1he crlme LhaL Lhe accused was convlcLed of was
aLLempLed Lrespass glven LhaL when he was caughL, Lhe
only acL LhaL he had commlLLed so far was Lhe maklng of
an openlng ln Lhe wall of Lhe sLore.

IV. Indeterm|nab|e offense
! lL ls one when Lhe purpose of Lhe offender ln performlng an acL
ls noL cerLaln. lLs naLure ln relaLlon Lo lLs ob[ecLlve ls amblguous.
M-. 2(&.(&2$( $? &-. '00;,.+ ";,& 4. /2.*.+ ?%$" &-. ('&;%. $? &-.
'0&, .:.0;&.+ 45 -2"= '(+ ($& ?%$" -2, '+"2,,2$(
! 1he lnLenLlon of Lhe accused musL be ascerLalned from Lhe facLs
o lL ls necessary LhaL Lhe mlnd be able Lo dlrecLly lnfer
from Lhe facLs Lhe lnLenLlon of Lhe perpeLraLor Lo cause
a parLlcular ln[ury.
! eople v. Lamahang
o AcLs suscepLlble of double lnLerpreLaLlon, LhaL ls, ln
favor as well as agalnsL Lhe accused, and whlch show an
lnnocenL as well as a punlshable acL, musL noL and
cannoL furnlsh grounds by Lhemselves for aLLempLed
crlme.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o AcLs musL be shown Lo be dlrecLly almed aL Lhe
execuLlon of Lhe crlme, and Lherefore Lhey musL have
an lmmedlaLe and necessary relaLlon Lo Lhe offense.

V. S1AGL 2: Irustrated Ie|ony
Q3.".(&, $? ?%;,&%'&.+ ?.3$(5
1. Cffender commlLs all acLs of execuLlon.
2. All Lhe acLs performed would produce a felony.
3. lelony ls noL produced.
4. 8y reason of causes lndependenL of Lhe wlll of Lhe perpeLraLor.
!"#$%&'(& *$%+, '(+ #-%',., ?$% ?%;,&%'&.+ ?.3$(5
! erforms all Lhe acLs of execuLlon"
o noLhlng lefL Lo be done by Lhe offender.
! Pomlclde " Cffender ls able Lo affllcL a faLal
wound.
o 1he SC ln some cases has emphaslzed Lhe bellef of Lhe
accused.
! eople v. Sy lo
A shooLs aL 8. 8 escapes and A does noL
chase hlm.
A cannoL be accused of frusLraLed
homlclde because he knew LhaL he dld
noL perform all Lhe acLs of execuLlon
necessary Lo klll hls vlcLlm.
A ls gullLy of aLLempLed murder.
! eople v. uagman
A shooLs aL 8. 8 preLends Lo be dead. A
no longer shooLs aL 8.
A ls gullLy of frusLraLed homlclde
because he only sLopped shooLlng
because he LhoughL he had already
kllled 8.
! uS v. Lduave
A Lhlnks he kllls 8 and dlsposes of Lhe
body ln Lhe bushes.
A ls gullLy of frusLraLed homlclde
because he belleved he had already
kllled 8.
o 1he bellef of Lhe accused need noL always be
consldered.
! WhaL oughL Lo be consldered ls wheLher or noL
all Lhe acLs of execuLlon LhaL would produce Lhe
felony as a consequence were performed.
! Would produce Lhe felony as a consequence"
o All Lhe acLs of execuLlon performed by Lhe offender
could have produced Lhe felony as a consequence.
! A Lrles Lo sLab 8 buL lnsLead sLabs Lhe back of
Lhe chalr where 8 was slLLlng. ALLempLed
murder only because murder would noL have
been produced as a consequence of Lhe acLlons
performed by A.
o uoes noL perLaln Lo Lhe sLopplng of Lhe felony from
happenlng because Lhe performance of Lhe acLs of
execuLlon were prevenLed.
! uo noL produce lL"
o lf Lhe lnLended felony was produced, Lhe acL ls
consummaLed.
! lndependenL of Lhe wlll of Lhe perpeLraLor"
o lf Lhe crlme ls noL produced because of Lhe Llmely
lnLervenLlon of a Lhlrd parLy (afLer all acLs of execuLlon
have been commlLLed).
o lf Lhe crlme ls sLopped because of sponLaneous
deslsLance (perpeLraLor's own wlll), Lhere ls no
frusLraLed felony, because Lhe 4
Lh
elemenL ls absenL.
o Lxample:
! uocLor polsons wlfe buL lmmedlaLely
admlnlsLers Lo her an adequaLe anLldoLe.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! noL gullLy of frusLraLed parrlclde because Lhe
lnLervenlng cause LhaL saved Lhe wlfe was noL
lndependenL of Lhe wlll of Lhe perpeLraLor.
! uocLor ls only gullLy of physlcal ln[urles slnce
Lhe wlfe already lngesLed Lhe polson before he
admlnlsLered Lhe anLldoLe.
!, &-.%. ?%;,&%'&2$( +;. &$ 2('+.F;'&. $% 2(.??.0&;'3 ".'(,9
! Such a frusLraLlon would be LanLamounL Lo an lmposslble crlme
E2,&2(>;2,-2(> ?%;,&%'&.+ ?.3$(5 ?%$" '&&."#&.+ ?.3$(5
! ln frusLraLed felony, Lhe offender has reached Lhe ob[ecLlve
phase (compleLlon of all acLs of execuLlon) whlle ln aLLempLed
felony, Lhe offender has noL made lL pasL Lhe sub[ecLlve phase
! ln Lhe followlng cases, Lhe sLage of execuLlon was held Lo be
frusLraLed, because Lhe wound lnfllcLed was morLal:
o eople v. Ponrada " Accused sLabbed Lhe offended
parLy ln Lhe abdomen, peneLraLlng Lhe llver, and ln Lhe
chesL.
o eople v. Mercado " Accused wounded Lhe vlcLlm ln
Lhe lefL abdomen wlLh a sharp-edged weapon whlch
was serlous enough Lo have posslbly caused deaLh.
o eople v. uavld " Accused ln flrlng hls revolver aL Lhe
offended parLy hlL hlm and perforaLlng Lhe lungs. vlcLlm
was only saved by Llmely medlcal aLLenLlon.
! ln Lhe followlng cases, Lhe sLage of execuLlon was held Lo be
aLLempLed, because Lhere was no wound lnfllcLed or Lhe wound
lnfllcLed was noL morLal:
o uS v. 8len " Accused Lhrew Lhe vlcLlm, who dldn'L
know how Lo swlm, lnLo deep waLer. vlcLlm held on Lhe
boaL, and Lhe accused Lrled Lo hlL hlm wlLh Lhe oar.
Accused was prevenLed from sLrlklng Lhe vlcLlm, and
hence Lhere was only aLLempLed homlclde.
o eople v. kalalo " noL havlng hlL Lhe offended parL
desplLe flrlng four successlve shoLs, Lhe accused falled
Lo perform all acLs of execuLlon.
o eople v. uomlngo " 1wo physlclans LesLlfylng could
noL agree on Lhe serlousness of Lhe wound. Cne of
Lhem sald Lhe wounds were noL serlous enough Lo
produce deaLh even lf no medlcal asslsLance had been
glven Lo Lhe offended parLy.
o eople v. Somera " where Lhe head of Lhe offended
parLy was merely grazed by Lhe shoL whlch hlL hlm, Lhe
wound belng far from faLal.
E2,&2(>;2,-2(> '&&."#&.+ $% ?%;,&%'&.+ ?.3$(5 ?%$" 2"#$,,243. 0%2".
! ln aLLempLed or frusLraLed felony, Lhe crlme could have been
accompllshed " ln lmposslble crlme, Lhe crlme can never be
accompllshed.
! ALLempLed or frusLraLed felony are LhwarLed by exLernal
reasons " lmposslble crlme ls LhwarLed by lnLernal reasons
such as Lhe lnherenL lmposslblllLy of Lhe crlme or Lhe
employmenL of lnadequaLe or lneffecLual means by Lhe
offender.

VI. S1AGL 3: Consummated fe|ony
!"#$%&'(& *$%+, '(+ #-%',., ?$% 0$(,;""'&.+ ?.3$(5
! All Lhe elemenLs necessary for lLs execuLlon and
accompllshmenL are presenL.
o Lvery crlme has lLs own elemenLs whlch musL all be
presenL Lo consLlLuLe a culpable vlolaLlon of a precepL of
law.
I-'& -'##.(, *-.( ($& '33 &-. .3.".(&, $? ' ?.3$(5 '%. #%$/.+9
! lelony ls noL shown Lo have been consummaLed.
! lelony ls noL shown Lo have been commlLLed.
! AnoLher felony ls shown Lo have been commlLLed.
! Lxamples
o Pomlclde " noL consummaLed wlLhouL deaLh.
o 1hefL " noL consummaLed lf no lnLenL Lo galn.
o LsLafa " noL consummaLed lf Lhere ls no decelL or
abuse of confldence proven.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! Can lnsLead be found gullLy of aLLempLed or
frusLraLed esLafa.
o 8obbery wlLh vlolence " noL consummaLed lf no lnLenL
Lo galn.
! Can lnsLead be found gullLy of grave coerclon.
o lorclble abducLlon " noL consummaLed lf no elemenL
of lewd deslgns ls proved.
! Can lnsLead be found gullLy of kldnapplng and
serlous lllegal deLenLlon.

kk. now to determ|ne between attempted, frustrated, and
consummated
! Nature of Cr|me
o Arson
! Attempted " poured gasollne around Lhe
house buL goL caughL before he could sLrlke a
maLch.
! Irustrated " poured gasollne around Lhe
house and llL Lhe flre buL Lhe house dld noL burn
! Consummated " poured gasollne around Lhe
house and llL Lhe flre. 1he house ls burnlng.
! L|ements const|tut|ng the fe|ony
o 1hefL
! ConsummaLed when Lhlef ls able Lo geL hold of
ob[ecL even lf he ls noL able Lo carry lL away
uS v. Adlao
o A sLeals a belL and keeps lL ln
hls desk. 8elL ls found ln hls
desk shorLly afLer.
o CourL ruled LhaL Lhe LhefL had
been consummaLed because A
was already ln possesslon of Lhe
belL.
eople v. LsplrlLu
o Accused sLeal llnen curLalns and
puL Lhese lLems ln Lhe back of
Lhelr Lruck. Accused geLs caughL
when Lhey Lry Lo pass a
checkpolnL.
o CourL rules Lhey are gullLy of
consummaLed LhefL.
o LsLafa
! 1he crlme ls consummaLed when Lhe offended
parLy ls acLually damaged or pre[udlced.
uS v. uomlnguez
o A recelves money from a sale
whlch he should glve Lo Lhe
cashler. A puLs Lhe money ln hls
pockeL wlLh lnLenL Lo
mlsapproprlaLe Lhe amounL.
o CourL ruled LhaL Lhls ls
frusLraLed esLafa because esLafa
can only be consummaLed
when Lhe offended parLy has
been damaged or pre[udlced.
! H'((.% $? 0$""2&&2(> 0%2".
o Iorma| cr|mes " ConsummaLed ln one lnsLanL, no
aLLempL.
! 1here are crlmes llke slander and false
LesLlmony LhaL are consummaLed by a slngle
acL. lL ls elLher consummaLed or noL.
o Cr|mes consummated by mere attempt
! lllghL Lo enemy's counLry " a mere aLLempL ls
a consummaLed felony.
! CorrupLlon of mlnors " a mere proposal Lo
saLlsfy Lhe lusL of anoLher wlll consummaLe Lhe
offense.
o Ie|ony by om|ss|on
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! 1here ls no aLLempLed sLage because ln Lhls klnd
of felony, Lhe offender does noL execuLe acLs.
o Cr|mes requ|r|ng the two or more persons |s
consummated by mere agreement
! CorrupLlon of a publlc offlcer " consummaLed
lf agreemenL ls reached, aLLempLed lf offer ls
re[ecLed.
! Cases
eople v. ulego Culn
o A glves 8 a brlbe. 8 laLer reLurns
Lhe brlbe.
o A ls gullLy of frusLraLed brlbery
because all Lhe acLs of
execuLlon were done buL Lhe
end resulL was noL aLLalned
because Lhe money was
reLurned
uS v. 1e 1ong
o A glves 8 a brlbe. 8 accepLs
brlbe because he wlll use lL as
evldence agalnsL A laLer on.
o A ls gullLy of frusLraLed brlbery
because all Lhe acLs of
execuLlon were done buL Lhe
end resulL was noL aLLalned
because Lhe money was
reLurned
o Mater|a| cr|mes
! Crlmes wlLh 3 sLages of execuLlon
ALLempLed, frusLraLed, consummaLed
! 8ape:
ConsummaLed " enLry of Lhe labla or
llps of Lhe female organ wlLhouL rupLure
of Lhe hymen or laceraLlon of Lhe vaglna
ls generally held sufflclenL Lo warranL
convlcLlon of Lhe accused for Lhe
consummaLlon of rape
o eople v. CrlLa " erfecL
peneLraLlon ls noL essenLlal
lrusLraLed " 1here ls doubL as Lo
wheLher accused succeeded ln
peneLraLlng Lhe vaglna.
ALLempLed " 1he accused, on Lop of
Lhe vlcLlm, flrmly endeavored Lo have
sexual lnLercourse wlLh Lhe vlcLlm buL
Lhe vlcLlm managed Lo geL away.
! Pomlclde
ConsummaLed
o eople v. Sazon
! A wounds 8. A and 8
grapple for Lhe gun. C
sLabs 8.
! 1hough lL was C who
lnfllcLed Lhe proxlmaLe
cause of deaLh, A ls
llable because of Lhe
exlsLence of a
consplracy beLween A
and C.
ALLempLed
o eople v. 8amoleLe
! A shooLs 8 buL mlsses
all Lhe vlLal organs.
! A ls llable for aLLempLed
homlclde because all
Lhe acLs of execuLlon
were noL done (you
have Lo morLally wound
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
your LargeL ln order Lo
compleLe all Lhe acLs of
execuLlon).
! Murder
lrusLraLed
o eople v. Mlslon
! A sLabs 8 and C. 8 dles,
C llves.
! A ls llable for frusLraLed
murder ln relaLlon Lo C.
@%;,&%'&.+ &-.?&
! 1he LsplrlLu and ulno cases
o 8oLh were clalmed Lo be cases of frusLraLed LhefL
because Lhey were unable Lo dlspose freely of Lhe
arLlcles sLolen
! eople v. LsplrlLu
Accused sLole a Lruck ln a compound
surrounded by a Lall fence. Accused was
caughL before he lefL compound
! eople v. ulno
CourL ruled LhaL Lhere was no
consummaLed LhefL because Lhe Lruck
and van LhaL were belng sLolen were
sLlll wlLhln Lhe compound
o Supreme courL says LhaL Lhere ls no crlme of frusLraLed
LhefL and LhaL Lhe LsplrlLu and ulno cases should noL be
adopLed ln Lhls [urlsdlcLlon
! AblllLy of Lhe offender Lo freely dlspose of Lhe
properLy sLolen ls noL a consLlLuLlve elemenL of
Lhe crlme of LhefL.
! 1hefL ls produced when Lhere ls deprlvaLlon of
personal properLy due Lo lLs Laklng by one wlLh
lnLenL Lo galn.
! lL should be lmmaLerlal lf Lhe offender was able
Lo freely dlspose of Lhe properLy sLolen slnce
Lhe owner of Lhe sald properLy has already been
deprlved.
! 1he unlawful Laklng ls deemed compleLe from
Lhe momenL Lhe offender galns possesslon of
Lhe Lhlng, even lf he has no opporLunlLy Lo
dlspose of Lhe same.
! eople v. uel 8osarlo
o Accused enLered Lhe bodega Lhrough a hole ln Lhe floor
buL were caughL before Lhey could puL a sack of sugar
lnLo Lhe hole from whence Lhey came.
o Accused llable for frusLraLed LhefL.
! ln robbery by Lhe use of force upon Lhlngs,
offender musL enLer Lhe bulldlng and exlL lL
carrylng Lhe sLolen goods.
! ln robbery wlLh vlolence agalnsL or lnLlmldaLlon
of persons, Lhe crlme ls consummaLed Lhe
momenL Lhe offender geLs hold of Lhe Lhlng
Laken and/or ls ln a poslLlon Lo dlspose of lL
freely.
1&&."#&.+ &-.?& '(+ Q,&'?'
! ALLempLed LhefL
o eople v. ue la Cruz
! A Lrles Lo sLeal a [eep buL he cannoL do so
because Lhere was an lron bar on Lhe gearshlfL.
! A ls gullLy of aLLempLed LhefL because he was
unable Lo perform all Lhe acLs of execuLlon.
! ALLempLed esLafa
o uS v. vlllanueva
! A preLends Lo be of auLhorlLy ln order Lo collecL
money from 8. 8 does noL pay hlm Lhe money.
! A ls gullLy of aLLempLed esLafa because he
began Lhe acLs of execuLlon (preLendlng he was
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
an auLhorlLy flgure) buL was noL able Lo
compleLe lL (because 8 dld noL glve hlm Lhe
money).
@%;,&%'&.+ Q,&'?'
! eople v. CuLlerrez
o Accused makes false represenLaLlons ln order Lo geL
money from 8. Accused ls able Lo recelve money from 8
buL ls arresLed before he can recelve Lhe full amounL.
o All acLs of execuLlon were commlLLed, frusLraLed
because of Lhe lnLervenLlon of Lhe pollceman.
! eople v. CasLlllo
o Accused ls able Lo recelve money buL ls lmmedlaLely
arresLed because Lhe whole slLuaLlon was a seLup
meanL Lo caLch hlm ln Lhe acL of esLafa.

kkIV. L|ement of |ntent to k||| when |nf||ct|ng phys|ca| |n[ur|es
! lf Lhere ls lnLenL Lo klll, offender could be llable for aLLempLed or
frusLraLed parrlclde or murder.
o uS v. !oven
! Accused lnfllcLs several wounds on Lhe vlcLlm.
Accused uLLers unLll l can klll you".
! ALLempLed homlclde, noL physlcal ln[urles,
because clear lnLenL Lo klll can be esLabllshed
o uS v. Maghlrang
! Accused lnfllcL wounds on shoulder and llps of
Lhe vlcLlm uslng a bolo and Lhen sLops.
! noL frusLraLed homlclde buL serlous physlcal
ln[urles because Lhere ls no lnLenL Lo klll.
o Mondragon v. eople
! A hlLs 8. 8 reLallaLes by hlLLlng hlm wlLh a bolo.
A runs away.
! A ls llable for less serlous physlcal ln[urles
because Lhere was no lnLenL Lo klll slnce he ran
away.
o eople v. Mallnao
! A volunLarlly leaves hls vlcLlm afLer glvlng hlm a
Lhrashlng.
! Mere physlcal ln[urles and noL murder because
Lhere ls no lnLenL Lo klll LhaL can be esLabllshed.

kkV. 1here |s no attempted or frustrated |mposs|b|e cr|me
! ln lmposslble crlme, all Lhe acLs of execuLlon were commlLLed
Lherefore an aLLempL ls lmposslble.
! 1here ls no frusLraLed lmposslble crlme because Lhe acLs
performed by Lhe offender are consldered as consLlLuLlng a
consummaLed crlme.
! 1he acL was compleLely carrled ouL, Lhe resulL was [usL
lnherenLly lmposslble.

Art|c|e 7. L|ght fe|on|es are pun|shab|e on|y when they have been
consummated, w|th the except|on of those comm|tted aga|nst persons
or property.


CIN1S
I. What are ||ght fe|on|es?
! lnfracLlons of Lhe law punlshed by "**('.+ !(&+*, a flne noL
exceedlng 200 pesos, or boLh (Art|c|e 9, par. 3).
! LlghL lelonles punlshed by Lhe 8C:
o SllghL physlcal ln[ury (Art|c|e 266)
o 1hefL (Art|c|e 309, par. 7 & 8)
o AlLeraLlon of boundary marks (Art|c|e 313)
o Mallclous mlschlef (Art|c|e 328, par.3, Art. 329, par.3)
o lnLrlgulng agalnsL honor (Art|c|e 364)

II. Genera| ku|e
! unlshable only when consummaLed unless commlLLed agalnsL
persons or properLy
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o LlghL felonles producL such llghL, lnslgnlflcanL moral and
maLerlal ln[urles LhaL Lhe publlc ls saLlsfled wlLh
provldlng a llghL penalLy for Lhelr consummaLlon.
! lf Lhey are noL consummaLed, Lhe wrong done ls
so sllghL LhaL Lhere ls no need Lo penallze lL.

III. keasons for the except|on
! LlghL felonles agalnsL persons or properLy presupposes moral
depravlLy of Lhe offender.
o lor Lhls reason, even aLLempLed and frusLraLed llghL
felonles agalnsL persons or properLy ls punlshable.

IV. Lxamp|es
! LlghL felony agalnsL persons
o SllghL physlcal ln[urles and malLreaLmenL (Art|c|e 266)
! LlghL felony agalnsL properLy
o 1hefL by hunLlng, flshlng, or gaLherlng of foresL or farm
producLs wlLhln a enclosed area where Lrespass ls
prohlblLed and Lhe value of lLems sLolen ls less Lhan 3
pesos (Art|c|e 309, No. 7)
o 1hefL of lLems valued aL less Lhan 3 pesos where Lhe
offender was prompLed by hunger, poverLy, or Lhe
dlfflculLy of earnlng a llvellhood (Art|c|e 309, No. 8)
o AlLerlng boundary marks (Art|c|e 313)
o Mallclous mlschlef where Lhe damage less Lhan 200
pesos or lL cannoL be esLlmaLed (Art|c|e 328, No.3)

Art|c|e 8. 8$(,#2%'05 '(+ #%$#$,'3 &$ 0$""2& ?.3$(5 O Consp|racy and
proposa| to comm|t fe|ony are pun|shab|e on|y |n the cases |n wh|ch
the |aw spec|a||y prov|des a pena|ty therefore.

A consp|racy ex|sts when two or more persons come to an agreement
concern|ng the comm|ss|on of a fe|ony and dec|de to comm|t |t

1here |s proposa| when the person who has dec|de to comm|t a fe|ony
proposes |ts execut|on to some other person or persons

CIN1S
I. Important words and phrases
! Consplracy and proposal Lo commlL felony"
o 1wo dlfferenL Lhlngs: (1) consplracy & (2) felony
! Cnly ln Lhe cases ln whlch Lhe law speclally provldes a penalLy
Lherefore"
o 1here musL be a speclflc provlslon ln Lhe 8C punlshlng
a speclflc lnsLance of consplracy or proposal.
! 1reason (Art|c|e 11S)
! 8ebelllon (Art|c|e 136)
! SedlLlon (Art|c|e 141)

II. keason for the ru|e
! Consplracy and proposal Lo commlL a crlme are only
preparaLory acLs, and Lhe law regards Lhem as lnnocenL or aL
leasL permlsslble excepL ln rare and excepLlonal cases.
! As long as Lhe consplraLors do noL perform overL acLs ln
furLherance of Lhelr malevolenL deslgns, Lhe soverelgnLy of Lhe
sLaLe ls noL ouLraged and Lhe LranqulllLy of Lhe publlc remalns
undlsLurbed.

III. When a fe|ony |s comm|tted, the ex|stence of a consp|racy assumes
p|vota| |mportance |n determ|n|ng who |s cr|m|na||y ||ab|e.

IV. 1reason, kebe|||on, coup d'etat, Insurrect|on, Sed|t|on must
actua||y not be comm|tted
! lf Lhey are commlLLed, Lhe charge ls no longer proposal Lo or
consplracy Lo commlL buL raLher Lhe acL lLself.
o Lx:
! lf A commlLs Lreason, he ls gullLy of Lreason and
noL consplracy or proposal Lo commlL Lreason
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
because Lhe acL of Lreason has already been
commlLLed.
! A cannoL be charged wlLh Lreason and
consplracy Lo commlL Lreason aL Lhe same Llme.
! 1hough lL musL be sald LhaL Lhe esLabllshmenL of a consplracy
could be used Lo see who else ls crlmlnally llable.

V. CCNSIkAC
Q:'"#3., $? 0$(,#2%'05 ', ' ?.3$(5 '(+ 0$(,#2%'05 ', ' "'((.% $?
2(0;%%2(> 0%2"2('3 32'4232&5
! A and 8 declde Lo rlse publlcly and Lake arms agalnsL Lhe
governmenL wlLh Lhe help of Lhelr followers.
o lf Lhey carry ouL Lhelr plan, A and 8 are gullLy of
rebelllon.
o lf Lhey do noL carry ouL Lhelr plan, A and 8 are gullLy of
consplracy Lo commlL rebelllon.
! A, 8, and C consplre Lo klll u.
o lf Lhey do noL carry ouL Lhelr plan, Lhey are noL
crlmlnally llable because consplracy Lo commlL murder
ls noL punlshable by law.
o lf Lhey carry ouL Lhelr plan, Lhey are all llable for murder
even lf A was [usL a lookouL or 8 was Lhe only who really
harmed u.
! 1he facL LhaL Lhere was a consplracy beLween A,
8, and C ls enough grounds Lo make all of Lhem
crlmlnally llable for Lhe murder of u.
1%&203. STU $? &-. 678 #;(2,-2(> 0$(,#2%'05
! Monopolles and comblnaLlons ln resLralnL of Lrade.
o enalLy ls )*%'%+& /+**(//%+&"# ln lLs mlnlmum perlod or
a flne ranglng from 200 Lo 6,000 pesos, or boLh.
! Any person who shall enLer lnLo any conLracL or
agreemenL or shall Lake parL ln any consplracy
or comblnaLlon ln Lhe form of a LrusL or
oLherwlse, ln resLralnL of Lrade or commerce or
Lo prevenL by arLlflclal means free compeLlLlon
ln Lhe markeL.
! Any person who, belng a manufacLurer,
producer, shall comblne, consplre or agree wlLh
any person for Lhe purpose of maklng
LransacLlons pre[udlclal Lo lawful commerce, or
of lncreaslng Lhe markeL prlce of any such
merchandlse.
6.F;2,2&., $? 0$(,#2%'05
1. 1wo or more persons came Lo an agreemenL
o MusL be shown LhaL defendanL recelved or accepLed Lhe
agreemenL
2. AgreemenL concerned Lhe commlsslon of a felony
3. LxecuLlon of Lhe felony be declded upon
E2%.0& #%$$? 2, ($& .,,.(&2'3 &$ .,&'432,- 0$(,#2%'05
! LxlsLence of consplracy can be lnferred from Lhe collecLlve acLs
of Lhe accused before, durlng, and afLer Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme
o noL necessary Lo show LhaL all consplraLors acLually hlL
and kllled Lhe vlcLlm
!(+20'&2$(, $? 0$(,#2%'05
! When Lhe defendanLs by Lhelr acLs almed aL Lhe same ob[ecL,
one performlng one parL and Lhe oLher performlng Lhe oLher so
as Lo compleLe lL, wlLh a vlew Lo Lhe aLLalnmenL of Lhe same
ob[ecL, and Lhelr acLs, Lhough lndependenL, were ln facL
concerLed and cooperaLlve, lndlcaLlng closeness of personal
assoclaLlon, concerLed acLlon and concurrence of senLlmenLs,
Lhe courL wlll be [usLlfled ln concludlng LhaL sald defendanLs
were engaged ln a consplracy.
o AL Lhe Llme of Lhe aggresslon, all of Lhem acLed ln
concerL, each dolng hls parL Lo fulflll Lhelr common
deslgn Lo klll Lhe vlcLlm, and alLhough only one of Lhem
may have acLually sLabbed Lhe vlcLlm, Lhe acL of LhaL
one ls deemed Lo be Lhe acL of all.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! AcLs of Lhe defendanLs musL show a common deslgn.
o nelLher [olnL nor slmulLaneous acLlon ls per se sufflclenL
proof of consplracy.
o Cbedlence Lo command does noL necessarlly show
concerL of deslgn, for aL any raLe lL ls Lhe acLs of Lhe
consplraLors LhaL show Lhelr common deslgn.
o AlLhough defendanLs may be relaLlves and had acLed
wlLh some degree of slmulLanelLy ln aLLacklng Lhelr
vlcLlm, Lhls facL alone does noL prove consplracy.
! eople v. ugay
o A and 8 are frlends. A pours gasollne over 8 for fun. C
seLs 8 on flre.
o Where Lhere ls noLhlng ln Lhe records showlng LhaL
Lhere was prevlous consplracy or unlLy of crlmlnal
purpose beLween A and C lmmedlaLely before Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme, no anlmoslLy beLween A and
8, and lL ls clear LhaL A [usL wanLed Lo have fun wlLh 8,
Lhere ls no consplracy.
o A ls llable only for Lhe acL he commlLLed, noL for Lhe acL
of C.
V;'(&;" $? #%$$? %.F;2%.+ &$ .,&'432,- 0$(,#2%'05
! LlemenLs of consplracy musL be proven beyond reasonable
doubL.
o Lvldence of acLual cooperaLlon raLher Lhan mere
cognlzance or approval of an lllegal acL ls requlred.
! A consplracy musL be esLabllshed by poslLlve and concluslve
evldence.
o Consplracy musL be shown Lo exlsL as clearly and
convlnclngly as Lhe commlsslon of crlme lLself.
o Mere presence of a person aL Lhe scene of Lhe crlme
does noL make hlm a consplraLor for consplracy
Lranscends companlonshlp.
o eople v. Comadre
! Mere acL of runnlng away wlLh Lhe accused
does noL auLomaLlcally lead Lo a consplracy

VI. kCCSAL
M-. 678 ,#.02'335 #%$/2+., ' #.('3&5 ?$% ".%. #%$#$,'3 2( 1%&203. SSW
'(+ SXU
! Art|c|e 113
o roposal Lo commlL Lreason " prlson correcLlonal and a
flne noL exceedlng 3,000 pesos
! Art|c|e 136
o roposal Lo commlL coup d'eLaL " prlslon mayor ln lLs
mlnlmum perlod and a flnd noL exceedlng 8,000 pesos
o roposal Lo commlL rebelllon or lnsurrecLlon " prlslon
correcLlonal ln lLs medlum perlod and a flne noL
exceedlng 2,000 pesos
M-. ?.3$(5 ";,& '0&;'335 ($& 4. 0$""2&&.+ $% .3,. 2& *$;3+ ($& 0$;(&
', ' ".%. #%$#$,'3B
6.F;2,2&., $? ' #%$#$,'3
1. erson has declded Lo commlL a felony.
2. erson proposes Lhe execuLlon of LhaL felony Lo oLhers.
P2&;'&2$(, *-.( &-.%. 2, ($ 0%2"2('3 #%$#$,'3
! erson who proposes Lhe felony ls noL deLermlned Lo commlL
Lhe felony.
o A wanLs Lo overLhrow Lhe governmenL buL ls afrald Lo
do lL. A suggesLs Lhe overLhrow of Lhe governmenL Lo
desperaLe people who would do lL wlLh Lhe sllghLesL
provocaLlon. A ls noL llable for proposal Lo commlL
rebelllon because A has noL declded Lo commlL lL.
! 1here ls no declded, concreLe, and formal proposal.
o A mere suggesLlon Lo commlL rebelllon does noL counL
as a formal proposal.
! lL ls noL Lhe execuLlon of a felony LhaL ls proposed.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o A wanLs Lo overLhrow Lhe governmenL. A goes around
Lhe counLry wlLh hls pals Lo convlnce people of Lhe need
Lo have a new governmenL.
! Colng around Lhe counLry Lrylng Lo convlnce
people of Lhe need for a new governmenL ls noL
a crlme Lherefore Lhe proposal of lL lncurs no
crlmlnal llablllLy.
! lL can however be consldered a preparaLory acL
for Lhe commlsslon of rebelllon (sLlll does noL
lncur crlmlnal llablllLy).
I-'& 2? &-. #%$#$(.(&, $? &-. %.4.332$( +.,2,& 4.?$%. %.4.332$( 2,
0$""2&&.+9
! Cnce a proposal Lo commlL rebelllon ls made by Lhe proponenL
Lo anoLher person, Lhe crlme of proposal Lo commlL rebelllon ls
consummaLed and Lhe deslsLance of Lhe proponenL cannoL
legally exempL hlm from crlmlnal llablllLy
! Slmllarly, Lhe law does noL requlre LhaL Lhe proposal be
accepLed by whoever lL was proposed Lo.
o lf lL ls accepLed, lL would become consplracy and noL
proposal because Lhere was agreemenL
7%$#$,'3 ', '( $/.%& '0&
! Cne who offers money Lo a publlc offlcer buL ls re[ecLed ls llable
for aLLempLed brlbery

VIII. keasons why proposa| and consp|racy are pun|shed
! 1he crlmes ln whlch consplracy and proposal are punlshable are
crlmes agalnsL Lhe securlLy of Lhe sLaLe or economlc securlLy.
o 1reason " agalnsL exLernal securlLy.
o Coup d'eLaL, rebelllon, sedlLlon " agalnsL lnLernal
securlLy,
o Monopolles and comblnaLlons ln resLralnL of Lrade "
agalnsL economlc securlLy,
! lf Lhe perpeLraLor succeeds ln Lhese crlmes agalnsL Lhe exLernal
and lnLernal securlLy of Lhe sLaLe, Lhey would obLaln power and
Lherefore lmpunlLy for Lhelr crlmes.
o lf A overLhrows Lhe governmenL successfully, A wlll
llkely noL be punlshed for rebelllon.

Art|c|e 9. G%'/. ?.3$(2.,= 3.,, >%'/. ?.3$(2.,= '(+ 32>-& ?.3$(2., O Grave
fe|on|es are those to wh|ch the |aw attaches the cap|ta| pun|shment or
pena|t|es wh|ch |n any of the|r per|ods are aff||ct|ve, |n accordance
w|th art|c|e 2S of th|s code.

Less grave fe|on|es are those wh|ch the |aw pun|shes w|th pena|t|es
wh|ch |n the|r max|mum per|od are correct|ona|, |n accordance w|th
the above ment|oned art|c|e.

L|ght fe|on|es are those |nfract|ons of the |aw for the comm|ss|on of
wh|ch the pena|ty of arresto menor or a f|ne not exceed|ng 200 pesos,
or both, |s prov|ded

CIN1S
I. Important words and phrases
! CaplLal punlshmenL"
o ueaLh penalLy
! enalLles whlch ln any of Lhelr perlods are affllcLlve"
o When Lhe penalLy prescrlbed lncludes an affllcLlve
penalLy.
! A felony punlshable by prlslon correcclonal Lo
prlslon mayor ls a grave felony because prlslon
mayor ls affllcLlve.
o lf Lhe penalLy prescrlbed ls composed of Lwo or more
perlods correspondlng Lo dlfferenL dlvlslble penalLles,
Lhe hlgher or maxlmum perlod musL be LhaL of an
affllcLlve penalLy.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! A felony punlshable by prlslon correcclonal (ln
lLs maxlmum perlod) Lo prlslon mayor (ln lLs
mlnlmum perlod) ls a grave felony because Lhe
mlnlmum perlod of prlslon mayor ls consldered
affllcLlve.
o lf boLh penalLles prescrlbed are affllcLlve, lL ls a grave
offense.
! enalLles LhaL are affllcLlve: 8ecluslon perpeLua,
recluslon Lemporal, perpeLual or Lemporary
absoluLe dlsquallflcaLlon, perpeLual or
Lemporary speclal dlsquallflcaLlon, prlslon
mayor
! enalLles whlch ln Lhelr maxlmum perlod are correcclonal"
o When Lhe penalLy prescrlbed lncludes a correcLlonal
penalLy.
! A felony punlshable by arresLo menor Lo
desLlerro ls a less grave felony because
desLlerro ls a correcLlonal penalLy.
o When Lhe penalLy prescrlbed ls composed of Lwo or
more perlods correspondlng Lo dlfferenL dlvlslble
penalLles, Lhe hlgher or maxlmum perlod musL be LhaL
of a correcLlonal penalLy.
! A felony punlshed by arresLo menor (ln lLs
maxlmum perlod) Lo desLlerro (ln lLs mlnlmum
perlod) ls a less grave felony because Lhe hlgher
ls a perlod of a correcLlonal felony.
o lf boLh penalLles prescrlbed are correcLlonal, lL ls a grave
offense.
! enalLles LhaL are correcLlonal: rlslon
correcclonal, arresLo mayor, suspenslon,
desLlerro.
! 1he penalLy of arresLo menor and a flne noL exceedlng 200
pesos, or boLh ls provlded
o llnes
! 200 pesos or less " llghL felony
! 201 pesos Lo 6,000 pesos " less grave felony
! 6,001 pesos and above " affllcLlve felony
o Art|c|e 9 should Lake precedence over Art|c|e 26
because Lhe former classlfles felonles accordlng Lo Lhelr
gravlLy whlle Lhe oLher does lL accordlng Lo amounL of
money for flnes.
o ArresLo menor and publlc censure are also penalLles for
llghL felonles

Art|c|e 10. Cffenses, wh|ch are or |n the future may be pun|shab|e
under spec|a| |aws are not sub[ect to the prov|s|ons of th|s code. 1h|s
code sha|| be supp|ementary to such |aws, un|ess the |atter shou|d
spec|a||y prov|de the contrary.


CIN1S
I. Mean|ng of Art|c|e 10
Composed of 2 clauses
o llrsL clause provldes LhaL Lhe offenses under speclal
laws are noL sub[ecL Lo Lhe provlslons of Lhls code.
! Speclal penal laws prevall over general ones.
o Second clause makes Lhe 8C supplemenLary Lo Lhe
speclal laws un|ess Lhe speclal laws say oLherwlse.

II. Important words and phrases
! Speclal laws"
o A penal law whlch punlshes acLs noL punlshed ln Lhe
8C.
! LnacLed by Lhe leglslaLlve
! noL a law whlch amends Lhe 8C
! usually follows Lhe form of Amerlcan penal law
! SupplemenLary"
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o 1he 8C supplles whaL ls lacklng ln Lhe speclal laws
unless Lhe laLLer provldes for Lhe conLrary
! Lxamples
Art|c|e 39 of Lhe 8C
o lmprlsonmenL ln case person
convlcLed cannoL pay flne
Art|c|e 4S of Lhe 8C
o ConflscaLlon of lnsLrumenLs
used ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme

III. rov|s|ons of the kC on pena|t|es cannot be app||ed to offenses
pun|shab|e under spec|a| |aws
! Speclal laws do noL provlde a scale of penalLles where a glven
penalLy can be lowered by one or Lwo degrees.
o Lxample:
! MlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances and aggravaLlng
clrcumsLances cannoL affecL Lhe penalLles ln Lhe
speclal laws unless expressly provlded by sald
speclal law.
! eople v. noble
Lven when accused pleaded gullLy,
Art|c|e 13 of Lhe 8C on mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLances dld noL auLomaLlcally
Lake effecL .
! Speclal laws use Lhe Lerm lmprlsonmenL" raLher Lhan Lhe oLher
Lerms ascrlbed Lo Lhe penalLles found ln Lhe 8C.
! Pence, Lhe penalLy for lllegal possesslon of flrearms under Lhe
speclal laws ls lmprlsonmenL and noL prlslon correcclonal
because Lhe laLLer ls pecullar Lo offenses punlshed ln Lhe 8C.

IV. If the spec|a| |aws adopt the pena|t|es found |n the kC, the ru|es
for graduat|ng pena|t|es by degrees can be app||ed
! Act 4103 laLer amended under kA 4203 (lndeLermlnaLe
SenLence Law)
o lf a penalLy found ln Lhe 8C ls lmposed on an offense
under speclal laws, Lhe rules of Lhe 8C governlng sald
penalLy wlll be applled
! Lxample
lf Lhe speclal law lmposes Lhe penalLy of
arresLo mayor, Lhe arLlcles ln Lhe 8C
LhaL deal wlLh arresLo mayor shall be
appllcable

V. Art|c|e 6 of the kC (attempted, frustrated, consummated) cannot
be app||ed to offenses pun|shed by spec|a| |aws
! Speclal laws are mala prohlblLa whlch means you elLher commlL
Lhem or you don'L.
! Lxamples
o Speclal law prohlblLlng lnLeresL ln munlclpal conLracLs
by councllors.
! uS v. 8asa
AcqulLLed because a mere aLLempL ls
noL punlshable by Lhe speclal law.
o 8emember LhaL under Lhe 8C
Art|c|e 6, aLLempLs are
punlshable.
! navarra v. eople
ConvlcLed because Lhe deal was
approved by Lhe munlclpal board Lhus
Lhe offense was commlLLed.

VI. Spec|a| |aw has to f|x pena|t|es for attempted and frustrated cr|me
before they can be pun|shed
! nullum crlmen, nulla poena slne leglL.
! 1he speclal law does noL provlde for a penalLy one or Lwo
degrees lower Lhan LhaL provlded for LhaL consummaLed sLage.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! lf Lhe speclal law covers Lhe mere aLLempL Lo commlL Lhe crlme
deflned by lL, Lhen Lhe mere aLLempL ls punlshable.
o Law prohlblLlng Lhe any aLLempL Lo exporL gold.
! Pad Lhls acL been consummaLed, Lhe exporLer
would already have been ouLslde our
[urlsdlcLlon Lhus he ls able Lo geL away wlLh Lhe
offense.

VII. Art|c|e 10 |s not app||cab|e to pun|sh an accomp||ce under the
spec|a| |aw
! unless expressly provlded, Lhe penalLy lmposed ls clearly
lnLended only for Lhe one commlLLlng Lhe offense.
o eople v. adaong (dlssenLlng oplnlon)
! lf Lhe speclal law does noL prescrlbe a penalLy
for accompllces, lL would be a legal lmposslblllLy
Lo deLermlne whaL Lhelr penalLy would be.

VIII. kC supp|ementary to spec|a| |aws
! eople v. Moreno
o Accused was convlcLed of homlclde Lhrough reckless
lmprudence and vlolaLlon Lhe MoLor vehlcle Law.
! MoLor vehlcle Law ls sllenL abouL lndemnlLy Lo
helrs of Lhe deceased (arL. 100) and subsldlary
lmprlsonmenL ln case of lnsolvency (arL. 39).
! CourL rules LhaL Art|c|e 39 and Art|c|e 100 can
be applled as supplemenLary Lo Lhe MoLor
vehlcle Law.
! eople v. Lardlzabal
o Art|c|e 39 of Lhe 8C was applled lf and when Lhe
person convlcLed could noL pay Lhe offended parLy Lhe
lndemnlLy LhaL was awarded Lo Lhe laLLer.

Ik. Lxamp|e of Art|c|e 12 par. 3 of the kC be|ng app||ed |n a spec|a|
|aw
eople v. navarro
o 13 year old glrl sells cocoa for 11 cenLs more Lhan Lhe
prlce flxed by governmenL
! Art|c|e 12 par. 3 was used as a basls
rosecuLlon falled Lo show LhaL Lhe
accused acLed wlLh dlscernmenL
o Accused could noL have been
able Lo acL wlLh lnLelllgence
because of her age
o lor crlmes LhaL are mala
prohlblLa, offense musL be done
volunLarlly
o Accused could noL have been
able Lo acL volunLarlly because
of lack of lnLelllgence

k. Supp|etory App||cat|on of the kC
Cnly applles lf Lhe provlslons of Lhe speclal law ls sllenL on Lhe
maLLer
o Subsldlary enalLy (Art|c|e 39) " lmprlsonmenL lf
cannoL pay flne.
o Clvll LlablllLy (Art|c|e 100) " every person crlmlnally
llable for a felony ls also clvllly llable.
o 8ules on servlce of senLence (Art|c|e 70).
o ueflnlLlons on rlnclpals, Accompllces, Accessorles
(Art|c|e 17-19) " was used when Lhe speclal laws clLed
buL dld noL on Lhelr own provlde a deflnlLlon for
prlnclpals, accompllces, and accessorles.
o rlnclple of consplracy (Art|c|e 8) " was used when Lhe
speclal laws clLed buL dld noL on Lhelr own provlde a
deflnlLlon for consplracy.

kI. kC |s not supp|etory when the pena|t|es under the spec|a| |aw are
d|fferent from those under the kC
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
eople v. anlda
o CourL dld noL apply Lhe provlslons of Lhe 8C
suppleLorlly because Lhe anLl-carnapplng law provldes
for lLs own penalLles whlch are dlsLlncL and wlLhouL
reference Lo Lhe 8C.

kII. Spec|a| |aws amend|ng the kC are sub[ect to |ts prov|s|ons
lf Lhe speclal law ls an amendmenL of a cerLaln arLlcle ln Lhe
8C, LhaL speclal law wlll necessarlly be covered by relevanL
provlslons ln Lhe 8C.
o Lxample:
! D S33 amends Lhe provlslon of Lhe 8C
governlng LhefL of large caLLle.
! Slnce Lhe speclal law (D S33) ls an amendmenL
of an exlsLlng provlslon ln Lhe 8C, all Lhe oLher
provlslons of Lhe 8C such as mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLances, eLc. may be applled.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
CnA1Lk 2: IUS1IIING CIkCUMS1ANCLS AND CIkCUMS1ANCLS
WnICn LkLM1 IkCM CkIMINAL LIA8ILI1

I. C|rcumstances affect|ng cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty
! !usLlfylng clrcumsLances
! LxempLlng clrcumsLances and oLher absoluLory causes
! MlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances
! AggravaLlng clrcumsLances
! AlLernaLlve clrcumsLances

II. Imputab|||ty and kespons|b|||ty
! lmpuLablllLy ! acL was commlLLed freely and consclously and
may be puL down Lo Lhe doer as hls very own
! 8esponslblllLy ! obllgaLlon of sufferlng Lhe consequences of
Lhe crlme
! Whlle lmpuLablllLy lmplles LhaL a deed may be lmpuLed Lo a
person, responslblllLy lmplles LhaL Lhe person musL Lake Lhe
consequence of such a deed

III. Gu||t
! CullL ls an elemenL of responslblllLy
o A man cannoL be made Lo answer for Lhe consequences
of hls crlme unless he ls gullLy
" resumpLlon of lnnocence

IV. Iust|fy|ng c|rcumstances
! ueflnlLlon
o When Lhe acL of a person ls sald Lo be ln accordance
wlLh Lhe law so LhaL such person ls deemed noL Lo have
Lransgressed Lhe law
" erson ls Lherefore free from boLh crlmlnal and
clvll llablllLy
Clvll llablllLy can however be applled lf
Lhe person beneflLLed from Lhe [usLlfled
acL
! 8asls
o Art|c|e 11 expressly sLaLes Lhe followlng do noL lncur
crlmlnal llablllLy"

Art|c|e 11: 1he fo||ow|ng do not |ncur cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty:
1. Anyone who acts |n defense of h|s person or r|ghts, prov|ded
that the fo||ow|ng c|rcumstances concur:
!"#$%& un|awfu| aggress|on,
()*+,-& reasonab|e necess|ty of the means emp|oyed
to prevent or repe| |t,
./"#-& |ack of suff|c|ent provocat|on on the part of the
person defend|ng h|mse|f
2. Anyone who acts |n defense of the person or r|ghts of h|s
spouse, ascendants, descendants, or |eg|t|mate, natura|, or
adopted brothers or s|sters, or of h|s re|at|ves by aff|n|ty |n the
same degrees, and those by consangu|n|ty w|th|n the fourth
c|v|| degree, prov|ded that the f|rst and second requ|s|tes
prescr|bed |n the next preced|ng c|rcumstance are present, and
the further requ|s|te, |n case the provocat|on was g|ven by the
person attacked, that the one mak|ng defense had no part
there|n.
3. Anyone who acts |n defense of the person or r|ghts of a
stranger prov|ded that the f|rst and second requ|s|tes
ment|oned |n the f|rst c|rcumstance of th|s art|c|e are present
and that the person defend|ng be not |nduced by revenge,
resentment, or other ev|| mot|ve.
4. Any person who, |n order to avo|d an ev|| or |n[ury, does an act
wh|ch causes damage to another, prov|ded that the fo||ow|ng
requ|s|tes are present:
!"#$%& that the ev|| sought to be avo|ded actua||y ex|sts,
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
()*+,-& that the |n[ury feared be greater than that
done to avo|d |t,
./"#-& that there be no other pract|ca| and |ess harmfu|
means of prevent|ng |t
S. Any person who acts |n the fu|f|||ment of a duty or |n the
|awfu| exerc|se of a r|ght or off|ce.
6. Any person who acts |n obed|ence to an order |ssued by a
super|or for some |awfu| purpose.

CIN1S
Ma|n Ideas
! 1he persons clLed ln Art|c|e 11 are noL crlmlnals because Lhelr
acLs do noL lncur any crlmlnal llablllLy
! 1he burden of proof lles wlLh Lhe accused
o Accused musL prove LhaL he falls under one of Lhe
caLegorles menLloned ln Art|c|e 11

Ak. 1: SLLI-DLILNSL
! Covered by Lhe flrsL paragraph of Art|c|e 11
! Self defense musL be proved wlLh cerLalnLy by sufflclenL,
saLlsfacLory and convlnclng evldence LhaL excludes any vesLlge
of crlmlnal aggresslon on Lhe parL of Lhe person lnvoklng lL
! 1he plea of self defense cannoL be [usLlflably enLerLalned where
lL ls noL only uncorroboraLed by any separaLe compeLenL
evldence buL ln lLself ls exLremely doubLful

I. k|ghts |nc|uded |n se|f-defense
! Aslde from Lhe rlghL Lo llfe on whlch resLs Lhe leglLlmaLe defense
of our person, we have Lhe rlghL Lo properLy acqulred by us, and
Lhe rlghL Lo honor whlch ls noL Lhe lease prlzed of man's
paLrlmony

II. keason why pena| |aw makes se|f-defense |awfu|
! lL ls lawful because lL would be qulLe lmposslble for Lhe sLaLe ln
all cases Lo prevenL aggresslon upon lLs clLlzens (and even
forelgners) and offer proLecLlon Lo Lhe person un[usLly aLLacked.
! lL cannoL be concelved LhaL people should succumb Lo unlawful
aggresslon wlLhouL offerlng any reslsLance
! 1he ldea of self preservaLlon

III. kequ|s|tes of se|f-defense
1. unlawful aggresslon
2. 8easonable necesslLy of Lhe means employed Lo prevenL or
repel lL.
3. Lack of sufflclenL provocaLlon on Lhe parL of Lhe person
defendlng hlmself

IV. IIkS1 kequ|s|te of Se|f-Defense: Un|awfu| Aggress|on
0)1,",2 +3 4,516345 122#)$$"+,
! unlawful aggresslon ls equlvalenL Lo assaulL or aL leasL
LhreaLened assaulL of an lmmedlaLe or lmmlnenL klnd.
o 1here ls unlawful aggresslon when Lhe perll Lo one's llfe,
llmb, or rlghL ls elLher acLual or lmmlnenL.
o 1here musL be an acLually physlcal assaulL upon a
person, or aL leasL a LhreaL Lo lnfllcL real ln[ury.
o ln case of LhreaL, Lhe same musL be offenslve and
poslLlvely sLrong, showlng Lhe wrongful lnLenL Lo cause
an ln[ury.
o When Lhere ls no perll Lo one's llfe, llmb or rlghL, Lhere
ls no unlawful aggresslon.
o Cases
" eople v. llores
1he acL of Lhe deceased ln prevenLlng
Lhe accused from lnfllcLlng a reLallaLory
blow ls noL unlawful aggresslon
" uS v. adllla
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
ln Lhe splrlL of fun, A (who ls a soldler)
Lells 8 (who ls also a soldler) LhaL Lhe
laLLer does noL have a slnglng volce.
WlLh Lhe same splrlL of fun, 8 puLs
selzes A by Lhe LhroaL. A ends up kllllng
8 uslng a rlfle.
1here ls no unlawful aggresslon ln Lhls
case of Lwo companlons ln arms
quarLered ln Lhe same barracks
" eople v. ?nclerLo
A kllls 8 whlle Lrylng Lo geL Lhe laLLer Lo
leL go of hls knlfe ln order Lo avold
bloodshed.
Slnce Lhere was no unlawful aggresslon
on Lhe parL of 8, A ls noL [usLlfled ln
kllllng 8.
7,516345 122#)$$"+, "$ 1, ",-"$8),$195) #):4"$"%)
! 1here can be no self-defense, compleLe or lncompleLe, unless
Lhe vlcLlm has commlLLed an unlawful aggresslon agalnsL Lhe
person defendlng hlmself.
! lor Lhe rlghL of defense Lo exlsL, lL ls necessary LhaL we be
assaulLed or LhaL we be aLLacked, or aL leasL LhaL we be
LhreaLened wlLh an aLLack ln an lmmedlaLe and lmmlnenL
manner.
! lf Lhere ls no unlawful aggresslon, Lhere ls noLhlng Lo prevenL or
repel.
! 1he unlawful aggresslon musL have come from Lhe person who
was elLher ln[ured or kllled.
;22#)$$"+, <4$% 9) 4,516345
! 1wo klnds of aggresslon:
o unlawful ! see Meanlng of unlawful."
o Lawful ! 1he fulflllmenL of a duLy or Lhe exerclse of a
rlghL ln a more or less vlolenL manner ls an aggresslon,
buL lL ls lawful.
! eople v. Cayrama
o lacLs: ollceman Lhrows sLones aL an escaplng offender.
o 8ullng: 1he aggresslon ls noL unlawful. 1he fulflllmenL of
a duLy or Lhe exerclse of a rlghL ln a more or less vlolenL
manner ls an aggresslon LhaL ls lawful.
! valcorza v. eople
o lacLs: ollceman flres warnlng shoLs ln Lhe alr hoplng
LhaL Lhe offenders would sLop escaplng. Cffenders do
noL sLop escaplng and so Lhe pollceman shooLs dlrecLly
aL Lhe offenders.
o 8ullng: 1he aggresslon ls noL unlawful. 1he fulflllmenL of
a duLy or Lhe exerclse of a rlghL ln a more or less vlolenL
manner ls an aggresslon LhaL ls lawful
! A publlc offlcer )=*))-",2 /"$ 14%/+#"%> may become an
unlawful aggressor
o eople v. Pernandez
" Sherlff exceeds hls auLhorlLy and Lakes Lhe
personal properLy of a debLor.
" 1he debLor has every rlghL Lo repel Lhe unlawful
aggresslon of Lhe Sherlff.
?)#"5 %+ +,)@$ 5"3) 1,- 5"<9
! erll Lo one's llfe: musL be AC1uAL and lMMlnLn1.
o AcLual perll ! Lhe danger musL be presenL, LhaL ls,
acLually ln exlsLence.
" uS v. !ose Laurel
lacLs: A klsses 8's sweeLhearL and runs
away. AL a laLer daLe, 8 confronLs A. 8
evenLually hlLs A wlLh a cane. AfLer
belng hlL wlLh Lhe cane, A grabs hold of
a pockeL knlfe and sLabs 8.
8ullng: A was [usLlfled because he
showed all Lhree requlslLes for self
defense.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
o lmmlnenL ! Lhe danger ls on Lhe polnL of happenlng.
noL necessary LhaL Lhe aLLack already beglns for lL may
Lhus be Loo laLe Lo prevenL lL.
" eople v. Cabungcal
lacLs: A and 8 are on a boaL wlLh many
people. 8 decldes Lo shake Lhe boaL and
A warns hlm noL Lo do lL. 8 conLlnues Lo
shake Lhe boaL and A hlLs hlm wlLh an
oar LhaL causes hlm Lo go overboard. 8
manages Lo cllng Lo Lhe slde of Lhe boaL
and perslsLs ln aLLempLlng Lo make Lhe
boaL shake vehemenLly. A hlLs hlm
agaln wlLh an oar and Lhls Llme 8 dles
from Lhe blow
8ullng: A was [usLlfled because 8 placed
everyone on Lhe boaL ln lmmlnenL
danger wlLh hls acLlons
! erll Lo one's llmb ! When a person ls aLLacked, he ls ln
lmmlnenL danger of deaLh or bodlly harm.
o erll Lo one's llmbs lncludes perll Lo Lhe safeLy of one's
person from physlcal ln[urles.
o An aLLack wlLh flsL blows can Lherefore counL as
unlawful aggresslon.
A/1% *+,$%"%4%)$ 4,516345 122#)$$"+,
! lf Lhere ls no lmmlnenL and real danger Lo Lhe llfe or llmb of Lhe
accused, Lhere ls no unlawful aggresslon
o eople v. 8lduca
" lacLs: A and 8 are ln a kalesa. A Lrles Lo Louch
8's gun. As a resulL, 8 shooLs A.
" 8ullng: 8 ls noL [usLlfled ln shooLlng A because
Lhere was no lmmlnenL and real danger Lo Lhe
llfe or llmb of 8.
! 1here musL be acLual physlcal force or acLual use of a weapon
o lnsulLs alone cannoL consLlLuLe unlawful aggresslon (uS
v. Carrero).
o A llghL push on Lhe head wlLh a hand or a mere push noL
followed by oLher acLs cannoL consLlLuLe unlawful
aggresslon (eople v. ?uman).
o A fooL-klck greeLlng among frlends does noL consLlLuLe
unlawful aggresslon (eople v. 8oxas).
! Aggresslon LhaL ls real and expecLed
o Aggresslon musL be real and noL lmaglnary
o eople v. ue la Cruz
" laLs: A dlsllkes 8. A goes Lo Lhe house of 8
armed wlLh a gun and sees Lhe laLLer holdlng a
knlfe. A shooLs 8 Lo deaLh.
" 8ullng: 1here ls no unlawful aggresslon ln Lhls
case because Lhe aggresslon was noL real slnce
8 was merely holdlng a knlfe.
! Aggresslon LhaL ls expecLed ls real
o 1he expecLed aggresslon musL be lmmlnenL
o uS v. 8aLungbacal
" When A chases 8 wlLh Lhe lnLenL Lo harm hlm,
Lhere ls already aggresslon even lf A has noL yeL
ralsed hls hand Lo dlscharge a blow.
! Mere bellef of an lmpendlng aLLack ls noL sufflclenL.
o Mere bellef of an aLLack unsupporLed by evldence does
noL consLlLuLe unlawful aggresslon.
o B)5")3 +3 %/) 1**4$)- <1> 9) *+,$"-)#)- ", -)%)#<",",2
%/) )="$%),*) +3 4,516345 122#)$$"+,
" Lloyd's reporL as clLed ln uS v. Ah Chong
lf A sees 8 runnlng Lowards hlm wlLh a
gun, and A subsequenLly fears for hls
safeLy and hlLs 8 wlLh a club when Lhe
former geLs closer Lo hlm, lL would be
lmmaLerlal LhaL Lhe gun held by 8 had
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
fake bulleLs and Lhus A had every rlghL
Lo defend hlmself ln Lhls slLuaLlon.
" eople v. 8oral
1here ls self-defense even lf Lhe
aggressor used a Loy plsLol provlded
LhaL Lhe accused belleved lL was a real
gun.
" eople v. Callp
An offlcer forclbly pushlng plckeLers
around ln order Lo leL company Lrucks
enLer Lhe compound cannoL be
consldered as unlawful aggresslon.
! An lnLlmldaLlng or LhreaLenlng aLLlLude does noL consLlLuLe
unlawful aggresslon.
o A mere LhreaLenlng or lnLlmldaLlng aLLlLude, noL
preceded by an ouLward and maLerlal aggresslon, ls noL
unlawful aggresslon.
o lL ls requlred LhaL Lhe acL be offenslve and poslLlvely
sLrong, showlng Lhe wrongful lnLenL of Lhe aggressor Lo
cause an ln[ury for Lhere Lo be unlawful aggresslon.
o uS v. Cuy-sayco
" lacLs: Accused enLers Lhe house of Lhe
deceased where accused's husband ls.
ueceased ls enraged and holdlng a knlfe.
Accused lunges for Lhe knlfe held by Lhe
deceased and a sLruggle ensues. Accused ends
up kllllng Lhe deceased.
" 8ullng: Accused was noL acLlng ln self defense
because even lf Lhe deceased was holdlng a
knlfe, a mere LhreaLenlng or lnLlmldaLlng
aLLlLude does noL consLlLuLe unlawful
aggresslon.
o Lxamples of LhreaLs Lo lnfllcL real ln[ury
" When LhreaLenlng aLLlLude of Lhe aggressor ls
offenslve and poslLlvely sLrong, manlfesLlng
lnLenL Lo cause an ln[ury
" When one alms a plsLol aL anoLher wlLh Lhe
lnLenLlon of shooLlng Lhe laLLer
" When one, Lhrough hls moLlons, lndlcaLes hls
purpose Lo commlL an assaulL wlLh a weapon
" Cpenlng a knlfe and moLlonlng as lf Lo make an
aLLack
! B7. when lnLenL Lo aLLack ls manlfesLed, plcklng up a weapon ls
sufflclenL unlawful aggresslon
! A slap on Lhe face ls consldered unlawful aggresslon because.
o 1he face represenLs a person's dlgnlLy Lherefore
slapplng lL ls a serlous personal aLLack.
C)%15"1%"+, -+)$ ,+% 1<+4,% %+ $)53D-)3),$)
! 8eLallaLlon ls noL self-defense.
! 8eLallaLlon ls ,+% a [usLlfylng clrcumsLance
! 8eLallaLlon ls done 13%)# Lhe aggresslon has ended.
o 1he aggresslon has already ceased Lhus Lhe lmmlnenL
and real danger Lo Lhe llfe or llmb of Lhe accused has
also ceased
! ln order Lo [usLlfy homlclde on Lhe ground of self defense, lL ls
essenLlal LhaL Lhe kllllng of Lhe deceased by Lhe defendanL be
slmulLaneous wlLh Lhe aLLack made by Lhe deceased, or aL leasL
boLh acLs succeeded each oLher wlLhouL appreclable lnLerval of
Llme
o eople v. lerrer
" lacLs: A has a gun. A ls dlsarmed by 8. AfLer
dlsarmlng A, 8 proceeds Lo grab a knlfe and sLab
hlm ln Lhe abdomen.
" 8ullng: 8 was acLlng ln reLallaLlon and noL self-
defense because Lhe lmmlnenL and real danger
Lo 8's llfe ended when A was successfully
dlsarmed.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
(+4#*) +3 4,516345 122#)$$"+,
! unlawful aggresslon musL have come from Lhe person who
aLLacked Lhe accused.
o lf Lhe unlawful aggresslon came from Lhe accused, Lhe
accused could noL have been acLlng ln self-defense.
! lmprobablllLy of Lhe deceased belng Lhe aggressor belles Lhe
clalm of self-defense.
o eople v. ulaz
" lacL: Accused ls armed wlLh a gun and a bolo.
ueceased had noLhlng buL a plg, whlch he
refused Lo glve up.
" 8ullng: lL ls lmprobable LhaL Lhe deceased would
have began assaulLlng Lhe accused glven Lhe
slLuaLlon.
o eople v. Ardlsa
" lacL: ueceased ls a 33 year old man wlLh ulcer
who had already losL hls rlghL hand ln Lhe
confllcL wlLh Lhe accused.
" 8ullng: lL ls hard Lo belleve LhaL Lhe deceased
would have conLlnued aLLacklng Lhe accused
glven Lhe clrcumsLances
! When Lhe 122#)$$+# 35))$, unlawful aggresslon no longer exlsLs
o When Lhe unlawful aggresslon no longer exlsLs because
Lhe aggressor runs away, Lhe one defendlng no longer
has a rlghL Lo wound or klll Lhe aggressor
o eople v. Alconga
" lacLs: 8 provokes A and Lhey flghL. 8 runs away
and A pursues hlm. A caLches up Lo 8 and kllls
hlm.
" 8ullng: CourL rules LhaL A dld noL klll 8 ouL of
self defense because 8 had ceased hls unlawful
aggresslon
o eople v. uel 8osarlo
" lacLs: A shooLs aL 8. A runs ouL of bulleLs and
flees. 8 pursues hlm and lnfllcLs several wounds
on hlm.
" 8ullng: 8 was noL acLlng ln self defense because
A was fleelng and had ceased hls unlawful
aggresslon.
o B7. lf lL ls clear LhaL Lhe aggressor merely reLreaLs Lo
Lake a more advanLageous slLuaLlon, Lhe unlawful
aggresslon ls sLlll consldered conLlnulng and Lhe one
defendlng hlmself has Lhe rlghL Lo pursue and dlsable Lo
aggressor.
! Pow Lo deLermlne Lhe unlawful aggressor
o uS v. Laurel
" ln Lhe absence of dlrecL evldence Lo deLermlne
who provoked Lhe confllcL, lL shall be presumed
LhaL:
" ln Lhe naLure of Lhe order of Lhlngs, Lhe person
who was deeply offended by Lhe lnsulL was Lhe
one who belleved he had a rlghL Lo demand
explanaLlon of Lhe perpeLraLor of LhaL lnsulL and
Lhe one who sLruck Lhe flrsL blow when he was
noL saLlsfled wlLh Lhe explanaLlon
o eople v. 8erlo
" 1he accused, noL Lhe deceased, had a greaLer
moLlve for commlLLlng Lhe crlme
E1%4#)& */1#1*%)#& 5+*1%"+,& 1,- )=%),% +3 6+4,- +3 %/) 1**4$)-
155)2)-5> ",35"*%)- 9> %/) ",F4#)- 81#%> <1> 9)5") *51"< +3 $)53D-)3),$)
! 1he wound lnfllcLed may be lndlcaLlve of wheLher or noL Lhe
accused acLed ln self-defense.
! Cases
o eople v. Medlavllla
" lacLs: Accused shows a small scar on hls head.
" 8ullng: CourL says who would noL wound
hlmself sllghLly ln order Lo escape Lhe penalLy of
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
recluslon Lemporal prescrlbed for Lhe crlme of
homlclde?"
o eople v. 8aLas
" lacLs: Accused sLabs Lhe vlcLlms 21 Llmes.
" 8ullng: 21 sLabs shows more Lhan [usL a deslre
Lo defend one's self.
o eople v. Labls
" lacLs: 1he wounds lnfllcLed are lnconslsLenL
wlLh reallLy.
" 8ullng: 1he vlcLlms wounds had a rlghL-Lo-lefL
dlrecLlon and could noL have been lnfllcLed by a
rlghL-handed person ln fronL of Lhe vlcLlm wlLh a
Lwo-feeL long bolo.
E+ 4,516345 122#)$$"+, 6/), %/)#) "$ 12#))<),% %+ 3"2/%
! no unlawful aggresslon ln concerLed (muLually agreed) flghL
o eople v. Maraslgan
" lacLs: A and 8 agreed Lo flghL. A and 8 purchase
knlves. A Lells 8 LhaL he no longer wanLs Lo flghL
buL 8 does noL mlnd hls proLesLaLlons and
lnsLead lunges aL A wlLh a knlfe. A subsequenLly
manages Lo klll 8.
" 8ullng: 1here was no unlawful aggresslon ln Lhls
lnsLance because boLh parLles agreed Lo flghL
Lhus Lhe aggresslon was reclprocal and
leglLlmaLe as beLween Lwo conLendlng parLles.
o eople v. MonLeroso
" lacLs: Accused ls chased by deceased. Accused
reaches hls house, plcks up a weapon, LaunLs
Lhe deceased, and Lhen proceeds Lo aLLack and
klll hlm.
" 8ullng: 1here was no unlawful aggresslon ln Lhls
lnsLance because Lhe accused, afLer armlng
hlmself, declded Lo flghL.
! 1he challenge Lo flghL musL have been accepLed
o lf Lhe accused does noL agree Lo flghL, Lhere ls unlawful
aggresslon
! Loglc behlnd Lhe rule on agreed flghLs
o 1here can be no unlawful aggresslon ln an agreed flghL
because aggresslon ls necessarlly an lncldenL ln a flghL
because lL ls bound Lo arlse from any of Lhe combaLanLs.
o 1here can be no flghL wlLhouL aggresslon.
! Aggresslon (ln relaLlon Lo an expecLed flghL) whlch ls ahead
of Lhe sLlpulaLed Llme and place ls unlawful
o lf A agrees Lo flghL 8 aL a speclfled Llme and place, A
ls gullLy of unlawful aggresslon lf he aLLacks 8
anywhere or any Llme oLher Lhan Lhose speclfled ln
Lhelr agreemenL.
o 1hls ls because 8 ls only expecLed Lo be ready Lo flghL aL
and durlng Lhe agreed place and Llme.
! Anyone who volunLarlly [olns a flghL cannoL clalm Lhey were
acLlng ln self-defense
(%1,- 2#+4,- 6/), ", %/) #"2/%
! 1he law does noL requlre people Lo reLreaL when an
assallanL ls rapldly advanclng upon Lhem
o 1he reason for Lhls ls because Lhose who flee lncur Lhe
rlsk of geLLlng aLLacked from behlnd
" 8eLLer Lo sLand your ground and defend
yourself Lhan run away
A/), %/) 1**4$)- -)*5",)$ %+ 2"G) 1,> $%1%)<),% %+ %/) 8+5"*) 6/),
/) $4##),-)#$& /"$ 1*%$ 1#) ",*+,$"$%),% 6"%/ %/) 85)1 +3 $)53 -)3),$)
! eople v. Manansala
o A proLesLaLlon of lnnocence or [usLlflcaLlon ls Lhe loglcal
and sponLaneous reacLlon of a man who flnds hlmself ln
such an unculpaLory predlcamenL as LhaL ln whlch Lhe
pollcemen came upon hlm sLlll cluLchlng Lhe deaLh
weapon and hls vlcLlm dylng before hlm.
! eople v. ue la Cruz
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
o 1he accused dld noL acL ln self defense because lf he
had, he would have reporLed lL Lo Lhe pollce whom he
passed as he fled from Lhe scene of Lhe lncldenL
?/>$"*15 31*% <1> -)%)#<",) 6/)%/)# %/) 1**4$)- 1*%)- ", $)53D-)3),$)
! eople v. uorlco
o lacL: Accused sald LhaL deceased was sLabbed as he
lunged forward for Lhe bolo accused was holdlng.
o 8ullng: 1he courL dld noL belleve hlm because Lhe
evldence showed LhaL Lhe deceased was sLabbed from
Lhe back.
! eople v. erez
o 8ullng: Accused dld noL acL ln self-defense because Lhe
deceased was shoL 13 Llmes desplLe hls gun sLlll belng
Lucked lnslde hls walsLband. ueceased was defenseless
when shoL
7,516345 122#)$$"+, ", -)3),$) +3 +%/)# #"2/%$
! ALLempL Lo rape a woman (defense of rlghL Lo chasLlLy)
o eople v. ue la Cruz
" Lmbraclng a woman, fondllng her, and Lhrowlng
her Lo Lhe ground wlLh lnLenL Lo rape her would
consLlLuLe an aLLack upon her honor and
Lherefore lL ls consldered unlawful aggresslon
o eople v. !aurlgue
" lacLs: ueceased puLs hls hand on Lhe upper
Lhlgh of accused. Accused subsequenLly sLabs
hlm wlLh a knlfe.
" 8ullng. Accused acLed ln self-defense. laclng of
hand by a man on Lhe woman's upper Lhlgh ls
consldered unlawful aggresslon.
o eople v. Luague
" An aLLempL Lo rape a woman consLlLuLes an
aggresslon sufflclenL Lo puL her ln a sLaLe of
leglLlmaLe defense.
" 1he woman Lhus lmperlled may klll her offender
lf LhaL ls Lhe only means lefL for her Lo proLecL
her honor from so grave an ouLrage.
! uefense of properLy
o eople v. Apollnar
" lacLs: Accused ls holdlng a shoLgun. Accused
sees Lhe deceased carrylng a bundle over hls
shoulder and assumes LhaL Lhe deceased was
sLeallng Lhe accused's palay. Accused lssues
warnlng shoLs before subsequenLly kllllng Lhe
deceased.
" 8ullng: 1he rlghL Lo llfe ls more lmporLanL Lhan
Lhe rlghL Lo properLy. 1hus, Lhe accused could
noL have been [usLlfled ln kllllng Lhe deceased
because Lhe laLLer dld noL make any aLLempL Lo
aLLack Lhe former.
o 1here musL be an aLLack by Lhe person sLeallng Lhe
properLy on Lhe person defendlng lL ln order for Lhe
shooLlng of Lhe deceased Lo have been warranLed.
o use of force Lo proLecL properLy
" 1he owner or lawful possessor of a Lhlng has Lhe
rlghL Lo exclude any person from Lhe en[oymenL
and dlsposal Lhereof.
" lor Lhls reason, he may use such force as may
be reasonably necessary Lo repel or prevenL an
acLual or LhreaLened unlawful physlcal lnvaslon
or usurpaLlon of hls properLy.
" uS v. Merced
lacLs: Pusband walks ln on accused
havlng an affalr wlLh hls wlfe. Pusband
assaulLs accused buL accused manages
Lo klll husband. Accused clalms self-
defense.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
8ullng: Self-defense ls noL appllcable ln
Lhls case because Lhe husband was
merely defendlng hls honor and rlghLs
Lherefore lL was noL unlawful
aggresslon. Pusband would noL have
been gullLy of unlawful aggresslon had
he kllled boLh Lhe accused and hls wlfe
afLer caLchlng Lhem ln bed
! uefense of home
o eople v. Mlrablles
" vlolenL enLry of one lnLo anLher's home whlle
holdlng a bolo warranLs unlawful aggresslon.
" Cwner of home does noL need Lo walL for a
blow before he can sLarL acLlng Lo prevenL or
repel Lhe one who enLered hls home
o eople v. SalaLan
" Accused assaulLs a robber who enLers Lhe house
of Lhe accused ln Lhe darkness.
" Lven lf accused dld noL see Lhe robber wlLh a
weapon, he ls sLlll well wlLhln hls rlghLs Lo
exerclse self defense because Lhe enLry of Lhe
robber lnLo hls home consLlLuLes unlawful
aggresslon.

V. SLCCND kequ|s|te of Se|f-Defense: keasonab|e necess|ty of the
means emp|oyed to prevent or repe| |t
! resupposes Lhe exlsLence of unlawful aggresslon whlch ls
elLher lmmlnenL or acLual
o lf Lhere ls unlawful aggresslon, Lhere ls a need Lo
prevenL or repel lL because we are elLher ln acLual or
lmmlnenL danger
" uS v. 8aLungbacal
1he law proLecLs noL only Lhe person
who repel aggresslon buL also Lhe
person who Lrles Lo prevenL an
aggresslon LhaL ls expecLed.
! 1hls requlslLe of self-defense enLalls ,)*)$$"%>H
o 1here be a necesslLy of Lhe course of acLlon Laken by
Lhe person maklng a defense.
o 1here be a necesslLy of Lhe means used.
o 1he necesslLy Lo Lake a course of acLlon and Lo use a
means of defense
" uS v. Mollna
1he person aLLacked ls noL duLy bound
Lo expose hlmself Lo be wounded or
kllled.
" Whlle Lhe danger Lo hls person or llfe subslsLs,
he has a perfecL and lndlspuLable rlghL Lo repel
such danger by woundlng hls adversary, and lf
necessary, Lo dlsable hlm compleLely so LhaL he
may noL conLlnue hls assaulL.
! LlLher or boLh Lhe course of acLlon Laken and Lhe means used
musL be #)1$+,195)H
o 1he reasonableness of Lhe necesslLy depends upon Lhe
clrcumsLances
;H EIJI((K.L M! .NI JM7C(I M! ;J.KME .;OIE
! ln emergencles where Lhe person or llfe of anoLher ls lmperlled,
human naLure does noL acL upon processes of formal reason buL
ln obedlence Lo Lhe lnsLlncL of self-preservaLlon
o eople v. Ccana
" lacL: Accused ls aLLacked by deceased whlle Lhe
former ls unarmed. Accused manages Lo flnd a
lead plpe and sLrlkes Lhe deceased ln a vlLal parL
of Lhe body. ueceased ls subsequenLly kllled.
" 8ullng: Accused acLed reasonably glven Lhe
clrcumsLances. 1here was no Llme for Accused
Lo alm for a less vlLal parL of Lhe body because
hls llfe was ln danger
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
! 1here ls no necesslLy when Lhere ls no unlawful aggresslon
o eople v. Masangkay
" AfLer Lhe accused dlsarmed Lhe deceased, he
was no longer acLlng reasonably ln self-defense
when he sLabbed and kllled hlm.
o eople v. narvaez
" lacLs: ueceased ls chlsellng Lhe walls of Lhe
house of Lhe accused. Accused geLs a shoLgun
and kllls Lhe deceased.
" 8ullng: 1he means used was noL reasonable
because hls reslsLance was dlsproporLlonaLe Lo
Lhe aLLack.
! ConLexL of Lhe assaulL maLLers
o uS v. Ah Chong
! When Lhe aggressor ls dlsarmed
o lf aggressor when dlsarmed sLlll shows lnLenL Lo reclalm
Lhe weapon, Lhe aggressor ls sLlll showlng aggresslon
(eople v. uaLlngulnoo), buL lf afLer belng dlsarmed, Lhe
aggressor shows a refusal Lo conLlnue flghLlng, any
aLLack on Lhe aggressor by Lhe defendanL ls no longer
[usLlfled (eople v. Alvlar).
! When only mlnor physlcal ln[urles are lnfllcLed afLer Lhe
unlawful aggresslon has ceased Lo exlsL, Lhere ls sLlll self-
defense lf morLal wounds were lnfllcLed aL Lhe Llme Lhe
requlslLes of self-defense were presenL.
o eople v. uel llar
" Mlnor wounds lnfllcLed afLer Lhe aggresslon
ceased Lo exlsL are permlLLed as long as Lhe
ma[or wounds LhaL led Lo Lhe deaLh of Lhe
aggressor Look place when Lhe aggresslon had
noL yeL ceased.
" 1hls ls because Lhe proxlmaLe cause of deaLh
would be Lhe ma[or wounds and noL Lhe mlnor
wounds.
" 1hls rullng cannoL be applled lf Lhe defendanL
lnfllcLs a morLal would on Lhe aggressor afLer
Lhe unlawful aggresslon has ceased.
! erson defendlng ls noL expecLed Lo conLrol hls blow.
o 8rownell v. eople
" Cne ls noL requlred Lo draw flne dlsLlncLlons as
Lo Lhe exLenL of Lhe ln[ury whlch a reckless and
lnfurlaLed assallanL mlghL probably lnfllcL upon
hlm.
o u.S. v. MacasaeL
" 1he accused, ln Lhe heaL of Lhe encounLer aL
close quarLers, was noL ln a poslLlon Lo reflecL
coolly or Lo walL afLer each blow Lo deLermlne
Lhe effecLs Lhereof.
o u.S. v. Mack
" ln necessary clrcumsLances, Lhe accused could
hardly be expecLed Lo Lake dellberaLe and
careful alm so as Lo sLrlke a polnL less
vulnerable Lhan Lhe body.
! When aggresslon ls so sudden LhaL Lhere ls no Llme lefL Lo Lhe
one maklng a defense Lo deLermlne whaL course of acLlon Lo
Lake.
o eople v. anLe
" uurlng Lhe spllL second Lhe accused had Lo Lhlnk
and acL Lo save hls superlor offlcer, Lhe Lrlal
courL cannoL demand hlm have been able Lo
conLrol hls blow.
! ln prevenLlng unlawful aggresslon, Lhe one defendlng musL alm
aL Lhe assallanL.
o eople v. Calacgac
" lacLs: Calacgac was beaLen Lwlce by an lron bar
by one ablo Sorlano Lhereby causlng hlm Lo
flre aL random wlLh hls unllcensed revolver.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
" lssue: wheLher hls acL of defense relleves hlm of
crlmlnal llablllLy.
" Peld: no. Pe was held llable for physlcal
ln[urles. 8ecause Lhe accused dld noL alm aL hls
assallanL buL lnsLead lndlscrlmlnaLely flred hls
deadly weapon, hls acL of defense was noL
exerclsed wlLh due care.
BH EIJI((K.L M! .NI 0I;E( 7(IP
! 1he means employed by Lhe person maklng a defense musL be
raLlonally necessary Lo prevenL or repel an aggresslon.
! lnsLances whereln Lhere was no totloool oecesslty to employ
meoos oseJ.
o u.S. v Apego
" A sleeplng woman, who was awakened by her
broLher-ln law grasplng her arm, was noL
jostlfleJ ln uslng a knlfe Lo klll hlm as Lhe laLLer
dld noL perform any oLher acL whlch could be
consLrued as an aLLempL agalnsL her honor.
o eople v. MonLalbo
" When a person was aLLacked wlLh flsL blows
only, Lhere was no reasonable necesslLy Lo
lnfllcL upon Lhe assallanL a morLal wound wlLh
danger.
o eople v. !aurlgue
" When a man placed hls hand on Lhe upper Lhlgh
of a woman seaLed on a bench ln a chapel,
Lhere was no reasonable necesslLy Lo klll hlm
wlLh a knlfe because Lhere was no danger Lo her
chasLlLy or honor aL LhaL momenL.
! 1he LesL of reasonableness of Lhe means used.
o WheLher Lhe means employed ls reasonable wlll depend
upon Lhe ootote and poollty of Lhe aggressor's weopoo,
pbyslcol cooJltloo, cbotoctet, slze, otbet cltcomstooces
and Lhe ploce and occosloo of Lhe assaulL.
o erfecL equallLy beLween Lhe weapon used by Lhe
defender and Lhe aggressor ls oot tepolteJ. WhaL Lhe
law requlres ls raLlonal equlvalence, Lhe lmmlnenL
danger and Lhe lnsLlncL LhaL moves or lmpels Lhe
defense.
o 1he reasonableness of Lhe means employed wlll depend
upon:
" 1he naLure and quallLy of weapons
1he use of a knlfe when aLLacked by a
club, rod or sLlck ls reasonable lf lL can'L
be shown LhaL Lhe person assaulLed (1)
had oLher avallable means or (2) lf Lhere
was oLher means, he could coolly
choose. use of a bayoneL agalnsL a cane
ls noL reasonable.
1o use a flrearm agalnsL a dagger or a
knlfe does noL lmply any dlfference
beLween such weapons.
When a person ls aLLacked wlLh flsL
blows, he musL reLallaLe wlLh flsL blows
ll boLh parLles are of Lhe same slze and
sLrengLh.
" hyslcal condlLlon, characLer and slze.
eople v. lgnaclo ! when defendanL,
who was mlddle aged, was cornered by
Lhree or four men blgger and sLronger,
such person ls [usLlfled ln uslng a knlfe.
eople v. Sumlcad ! kllllng an
aggressor larger and sLronger Lhan Lhe
defendanL was [usLlfled.
eople v. adua ! 1aklng lnLo
conslderaLlon Lhe characLer of Lhe
aggressor (Lroublesome, sLrong and
aggresslve wlLh crlmlnal records), Lhe
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
CoA held LhaL Lhe sLrlklng of bolo was
[usLlfled.
" CLher clrcumsLances consldered
uS v. 8aLungbacal
o lacLs: M kllled , who was
pursulng M's chlldren wlLh a
bolo, by flrlng a shoLgun aL
and kllllng hlm aL once.
o 8ullng: under such
clrcumsLances, Lhe use of Lhe
shoLgun was [usLlfled.
! 8easonable necesslLy of means employed Lo prevenL or repel
unlawful aggresslon ls Lo be lnLerpreLed ln favor of law-abldlng
clLlzens.
! 8ule regardlng Lhe reasonableness of Lhe necesslLy of Lhe
means employed" when Lhe one defendlng hlmself ls a peace
offlcer.
o Whlle Lhe law on self-defense allows a prlvaLe lndlvldual
Lo pteveot or tepel an aggresslon, Lhe duLy of Lhe peace
offlcer tepoltes hlm Lo ovetcome hls opponenL.
o A pollce offlcer ls noL requlred Lo afford a person
aLLacklng hlm, Lhe opporLunlLy for a falr and equal
sLruggle.
o uS v. Mo[lca
" A pollceman ls [usLlfled ln uslng hls revolver
agalnsL one who ls armed wlLh a knlfe.
o uS v. Mendoza
" lL was held LhaL lL ls nC1 reasonable for a
pollceman Lo klll hls assallanL who was uslng a
collcot

VI. 1nIkD requ|s|te of se|f-defense: Lack of suff|c|ent provocat|on on
the part of the person defend|ng h|mse|f.
C)1$+, 3+# %/) %/"#- #):4"$"%) +3 $)53 Q-)3),$)H
! 1o be enLlLled Lo Lhe beneflL of Lhe [usLlfylng clrcumsLance of
self-defense, Lhe one defendlng hlmself musL noL have glven
cause for Lhe aggresslon by hls oojost cooJoct.
J1$)$ ", 6/"*/ R
#-
#):4"$"%) "$ *+,$"-)#)- 8#)$),%
1. When no provocaLlon aL all was glven Lo Lhe aggressor by Lhe
defendlng parLy (8 was runnlng amuck wlLh a dagger rushlng
Lowards A when A dld noLhlng Lo provoke 8)
2. When Lhe provocaLlon was lnsufflclenL (A asks 8 a harmless
quesLlon LhaL angered Lhe laLLer who lmmedlaLely aLLacked)
o Pow Lo deLermlne Lhe sufflclency of provocaLlon
" 1hls means LhaL Lhe provocaLlon musL be
8#+8+#%"+,1%) Lo Lhe acL of aggresslon and
adequaLe Lo sLlr Lhe aggressor Lo lLs
commlsslon.
" verbal argumenL cannoL be consldered
sufflclenL provocaLlon. lL ls noL enough LhaL Lhe
provocaLlve acL be unreasonable or annoylng. A
peLLy quesLlon of prlde does noL [usLlfy Lhe
woundlng or kllllng of an opponenL (eople v.
uolfo)
o 8equlslLe of lack of sufflclenL provocaLlon" refers
excluslvely Lo Lhe person defendlng hlmself"
" eople v. Lsplno
lf Lhe accused appears Lo be Lhe
aggressor, lL cannoL be sald LhaL he was
defendlng hlmself from Lhe effecL of
anoLher's aggresslon.
3. When Lhe provocaLlon LhaL was sufflclenL was noL glven by Lhe
defendlng parLy (C, noL A, was Lhe one who provoked 8)
4. When Lhe provocaLlon glven by Lhe defendlng parLy was noL
proxlmaLe and lmmedlaLe Lo Lhe acL of aggresslon. (A slapped 8.
1wo days laLer, 8 aLLacks A where A defends hlmself. 1he
provocaLlon (slapplng) should be dlsregarded)
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
o ?#+G+*1%"+, 9> %/) 8)#$+, -)3),-",2 /"<$)53 ,+%
8#+="<1%) 1,- "<<)-"1%) %+ %/) 122#)$$"+, S,+HTU
" eople v. uolfo
lacLs: 8 was A's asslsLanL. A called 8. 8
replled why are you calllng me?" A
Lhrew a wood Lo 8. 8 Lhrew Lhe wood
back. A baLLered 8 wlLh Lhe wood. A
morLally ln[ures 8 wlLh a screwdrlver.
lssue: (1) was Lhe reLorL why are you
calllng me?" sufflclenL provocaLlon? (2)
was Lhe defense uslng Lhe screwdrlver
reasonable?
Peld: (1) lL was noL sufflclenL
provocaLlon. (2) 1he acL of A 'Lhrowlng
a wood' Lo 8 consLlLuLed unlawful
aggresslon. 8's defense was reasonable.
1he screwdrlver was a reasonable
means.
" eople v. 8oholsL ! A wlfe kllled her husband
wlLh a knlfe as an acL of defense when her
husband choked her kneck.

VII. 8attered Woman Syndrome as a defense
! kA 9262- "Ant|-V|o|ence Aga|nst Women and the|r Ch||dren Act
of 2004" provlded LhaL:
o Sec 26- 8otteteJ womoo 5yoJtome (8w5) os o uefeose-
vlcLlm survlvors sufferlng from 8WS do noL lncur
crlmlnal and clvll llablllLy noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe absence
of any of Lhe elemenLs for [usLlfylng clrcumsLances of
self-defense. (courLs shall be asslsLed by psychlaLrlsLs)
! 8aLLered woman syndrome, explalned
o 8aLLered woman- a woman who ls repeaLedly sub[ecLed
Lo any forceful physlcal or psychologlcal behavlor by a
man ln order Lo coerce her Lo do someLhlng he wanLs
her Lo do wlLhouL concern for her rlghLs.
o ersonallLy LralLs of a baLLered woman-
" Low self-esLeem
" 1radlLlonal 8ellefs abouL Lhe home, famlly and
sex role
" LmoLlonal dependence
" 1endency Lo accepL responslblllLy
" lalse hopes
o A baLLered woman's cycle of vlolence
1. 1he Lenslon-bulldlng phase
2. AcuLe baLLerlng lncldenL
3. 1ranqull and lovlng phase
! LffecL of 8aLLery on AppellanL
o 1he cycle of vlolence lmmoblllzes Lhe woman's ablllLy Lo
acL declslvely ln her own lnLeresLs, maklng her feel
Lrapped ln Lhe relaLlonshlp wlLh no means of escape.
o She also belleves LhaL he ls capable of kllllng her, and
LhaL Lhere ls no escape. 8aLLered women feel unsafe,
suffer from pervaslve anxleLy,, and usually fall Lo leave
Lhe relaLlonshlp.
!5"2/% 13%)# %/) *+<<"$$"+, +3 1 *#"<) "$ /"2/5> )G"-),%"1#> +3 24"5% 1,-
",*+<81%"95) 6"%/ $)53D-)3),$)H
____________________
Ak. 2: DLILNSL CI kLLA1IVLS

I. ke|at|ves that can be defended
1. Spouse
2. AscendanLs
3. uescendanLs
4. LeglLlmaLe, naLural or adopLed broLhers and slsLers, or relaLlves
by afflnlLy ln Lhe same degrees
o 8elaLlves by afflnlLy ! because of marrlage
S. 8elaLlves by consangulnlLy wlLhln Lhe fourLh clvll degree.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
o 8elaLlves by consangulnlLy ! blood relaLlves

II. 8as|s of [ust|f|cat|on
! 1he [usLlflcaLlon of Lhls clause ls formed noL only upon a
humanlLarlan senLlmenL, buL also upon Lhe lmpulse of blood

III. kequ|s|tes of defense of ke|at|ves
1. unlawful aggresslon
2. 8easonable necesslLy of Lhe means employed Lo prevenL or
repel lL
3. ln case of provocaLlon was glven by Lhe person aLLacked, Lhe
one maklng a defense had no parL Lhereln

IV. Defense of re|at|ves a|so requ|res that there be un|awfu|
aggress|on.
! Cf Lhe 3 requlslLes of defense of relaLlves, unlawful aggresslon ls
a sloe poo ooo, for wlLhouL lL any defense ls noL posslble or
[usLlfled.
! When Lwo persons are geLLlng ready Lo sLrlke each oLher, Lhere
can be no unlawful aggresslon (eople v. Moro Munabe).

V. Un|awfu| aggress|on can be made to depend upon the honest be||ef
of the one mak|ng a defense.
! When A aLLacked and wounded 8 wlLh a dagger buL 8 defended
hlmself and serlously wounded A. (noLe: A ls Lhe unlawful
aggressor) 1hen Lhe sons of A came and belleved ln qooJ foltb
LhaL Lhelr faLher was Lhe vlcLlm of an unlawful aggresslon. lf
Lhey klll 8, Lhey are [usLlfled by a mlsLake of facL.

VI. 1h|rd requ|s|te of defense of re|at|ve
! 8eason for Lhe rule ! LhaL alLhough Lhe provocaLlon pre[udlces
Lhe person who gave lL, lLs effecLs do noL reach Lhe defender
who Look no parL Lhereln, because Lhe laLLer was prompLed by
some noble or generous senLlmenL ln proLecLlng and savlng Lhe
relaLlve.
! 1he facL LhaL Lhe relaLlve defended gave provocaLlon ls
lmmaLerlal.

VII. Lxamp|es of defense of re|at|ves
! eople v. Ammalun
o 1he accused heard hls wlfe shouLlng from Lhelr house.
Pe rushed Lo Lhe house and kllled Lhe man forclbly
abuslng hls wlfe.
! uS v 8lvera
o AnLonlo 8lvera kllls Lhe person who was aLLacklng hls
son.
____________________
Ak. 3: DLILNSL CI S1kANGLk

I. kequ|s|tes for defense of stranger:
1. unlawful aggresslon
2. 8easonable necesslLy of Lhe means employed Lo prevenL or
repel lL
3. 1he person defendlng be noL lnduced by revenge, resenLmenL
or oLher moLlve

II. 1h|rd kequ|s|te of defense of stranger
! Such defense musL be acLuaLed by a JlslotetesteJ ot qeoetoos
motlve, when lL puLs down revenge, resenLmenL or oLher evll
moLlve"
! 3
rd
requlslLe would be lacklng lf such person was prompLed by
hls grudge agalnsL Lhe assallanL

III. ersons deemed as strangers
! ersons noL lncluded ln Lhe enumeraLlon of relaLlves menLloned
ln paragraph 2 of Lhls arLlcle (close frlend or dlsLanL relaLlves are
lncluded).
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
! Lxample:
o eople v. valdez
" A heard a cry for help. Pe saw 8 aLLacklng 8's
wlfe wlLh a dagger. A defended 8's wlfe and
lnfllcLed wounds on 8. nelJ. lL was a valld
defense of a sLranger
____________________
Ak. 4: AVCIDANCL CI GkLA1Lk INIUk

I. kequ|s|tes for avo|dance of greater |n[ury:
1. 1haL Lhe evll soughL Lo be avolded acLually exlsLs.
2. 1haL Lhe ln[ury feared be greaLer Lhan LhaL done Lo avold lL
3. 1haL Lhere be no oLher pracLlcal and less harmful means of
prevenLlng lL.

II. Damage to another |s requ|red
! 1hls covers ln[ury Lo persons and damage Lo properLy.

III. IIkS1 kequ|s|te: Lx|stence of ev|| sought to be avo|ded
! lf Lhe evll soughL Lo be avolded ls merely expecLed or
anLlclpaLed or may happen ln Lhe fuLure, par. 4 ls noL appllcable.
! Lxample of ln[ury Lo person under par. 4:
o Cuevara ! A person was drlvlng hls car wlLh due
dlllgence when an lncomlng Lruck cause hlm Lo swerve
hls car Lo Lhe rlghL Lhereby savlng hls llfe however kllllng
a passerby.

IV. SLCCND kequ|s|te: In[ury feared by greater than that done to avo|d
! 1he greaLer evll should noL be broughL abouL by Lhe negllgence
or lmprudence of Lhe acLor.
o urlver drove hls car aL full speed, dlsregardlng Lhe
condlLlon of Lhe place, and alLhough he saw Lhe slx-by-
slx Lruck aL a dlsLrance of 300 meLers away, he dldn'L
noL slacken hls speed. Pe cannoL lnvoke par. 4 because
Lhe necesslLy (of avoldlng greaLer ln[ury) was broughL
abouL by hls reckless lmprudence.
! When Lhe accused was noL avoldlng any evll, he cannoL lnvoke
Lhe [usLlfylng clrcumsLance of avoldance of a greaLer evll or
ln[ury.
o eople v. 8lcohermoso
" lacLs: lo and Severo aLLacked Cemlnlano who
was wounded. nearby, !uan embraced
MarlanlLo, Cemlnlano's son, who had a gun and
grappled wlLh hlm. Cemlnlano dled. lo, Severo
and !uan were persecuLed for murder.
" lssue: Can !uan valldly lnvoke Lhe [usLlfylng
clrcumsLance of avoldance of greaLer evll?
" Peld. no. Pls rellance on LhaL [usLlfylng
clrcumsLance ls erroneous. Pe was noL avoldlng
any evll when he soughL Lo dlsable MarlanlLo.
! 1he evll whlch broughL abouL Lhe greaLer evll musL noL resulL
from a vlolaLlon of law by Lhe acLor.
! 1here ls clvll llablllLy under Lhls paragraph. 1he clvll llablllLy ls
borne by Lhe persons beneflLed.
____________________
Ak. S: IULIILLMLN1 CI A DU1 Ck LAWIUL LkLkCISL CI kIGn1 Ck
CIIICL

I. kequ|s|tes fu|f|||ment of a duty or |awfu| exerc|se of r|ght or off|ce:
1. 1haL Lhe accused acLed ln Lhe performance of a duLy or ln Lhe
lawful exerclse of a rlghL or offlce
2. 1haL Lhe ln[ury caused or Lhe offense commlLLed be Lhe
necessary consequence of Lhe due performance of duLy or Lhe
lawful exerclse of such rlghL or offlce.

II. Iu|f|||ment of a duty
! eople v. lellpe uellma
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
o lacLs: lellpe uellma pursued and shoL Lorenzo napllon
who escaped from prlson a few days prlor Lo Lhe
lncldenL. 1he pollceman was Lrled and convlcLed by Lhe
CourL of llrsL lnsLance of homlclde and senLenced hlm
Lo teclosloo tempotol.
o Peld: 1he kllllng was done ln performance of Lhe duLy.
ln accordance wlLh Art|c|e 8, No. 11 (now Art|c|e 11, par
S of 8C) lellpe uellma commlLLed no crlme and ls
acqulLLed.
! ShooLlng an offender who refused Lo surrender ls [usLlfled, buL
shooLlng a Lhlef who refused Lo be arresLed ls noL [usLlfled
! LeglLlmaLe performance of duLy v. lllegal performance of duLy
o eople v. Cabrera
" When Lhe vlcLlm wlLhouL apparenL reason, buL
probably due Lo drunkenness, flred hls gun
several Llmes aL Lhe AlLa vlsLa Club, Lhe accused
and hls parLner had Lo lnLervene for Lhey were
wlLh Lhe n8l. 1hey would have been remlss ln
Lhelr duLy lf Lhey dld noL. lL musL be presumed
LhaL boLh offlcers acLed pursuanL Lo Lhe law
when Lhey Lrled Lo dlscharge hls duLy as an n8l
agenL.
o eople v. 1an
" 1he aLLlLude adopLed by Lhe deceased ln puLLlng
hls hands ln hls pockeL ls noL sufflclenL Lo [usLlfy
Lhe accused Lo shooL hlm. 1he deceased was
unarmed and Lhe accused could have flrsL
warned hlm.
! ulsLlngulshed from self-defense and from consequence of
felonlous acL.
o 1he publlc offlcer acLlng ln Lhe fulflllmenL of a duLy may
appear Lo be an aggressor buL hls aggresslon ls noL
unlawful, lL belng necessary Lo fulflll a duLy.

III. Lawfu| exerc|se of r|ght or off|ce
! Cf 8lghL
o under Lhe Clvll Code (Art|c|e 429) Lhe owner or lawful
possessor of a Lhlng has Lhe rlghL Lo exclude any person
from Lhe en[oymenL and dlsposal Lhereof. lor Lhls
purpose, he may use such force as may be reasonably
necessary Lo repel or prevenL an acLual or LhreaLened
unlawful physlcal lnvaslon or usurpaLlon of hls
properLy."
o lf ln proLecLlng hls possesslon, he ln[ured Lhe one Lrylng
Lo geL lL from hlm, he ls [usLlfled under Lhls paragraph.
! Cf Cfflce
o 1he execuLloner of Lhe 8lllbld rlson cannoL be held
llable for murder for Lhe execuLlon performed by hlm
because he was merely acLlng ln Lhe lawful exerclse of
hls offlce (Cuevara).
o A surgeon who ampuLaLed Lhe leg of a paLlenL Lo save
hlm from gangrene ls noL llable for Lhe crlme of
muLllaLlon, because he was acLlng ln Lhe lawful exerclse
of hls offlce.

IV. 1he actua| |nvas|on of property may cons|st of a mere d|sturbance
of possess|on or of a rea| d|spossess|on
! lf lL's mere dlsLurbance of possesslon, force may be used agalnsL
lL aL any Llme as long as lL conLlnues, even beyond Lhe
prescrlpLlve perlod of an acLlon of forclble enLry.
____________________
Ak. 6: C8LDILNCL 1C AN CkDLk ISSULD IkCM SCML LAWIUL
UkCSL

I. kequ|s|tes:
1. 1haL an order has been lssued by a superlor
2. 1haL such order musL be for some lawful purpose
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
3. 1haL Lhe means used by Lhe subordlnaLe Lo carry ouL sald order
ls lawful.

II. SLCCND kequ|s|te:
! 8oLh Lhe person who glves Lhe order and Lhe person who
execuLes lL, musL be acLlng wlLhln Lhe llmlLaLlons prescrlbed by
law.
! When Lhe order ls noL for a lawful purpose, Lhe subordlnaLe
who obeyed lL ls crlmlnally llable.
! eople v. 8arroga
o Cne who prepared a falslfled documenL wlLh full
knowledge of lLs falslLy ls noL excused even lf he merely
acLed ln obedlence Lo Lhe lnsLrucLlon of hls superlor
because Lhe lnsLrucLlon was noL for a lawful purpose.
! eople v. Margen
o upon order, a soldler LorLured Lo deaLh Lhe deceased
for brlnglng a klnd of flsh dlfferenL from LhaL he had
been asked Lo furnlsh. 1he order Lo LorLure was lllegal
so Lhe accused was noL bound Lo obey lL.
! 1he subordlnaLe ls noL llable for carrylng ouL an lllegal order of
hls superlor lf he ls noL aware of Lhe lllegallLy of Lhe order and
he ls noL negllgenL.

CLASS DISCUSSICN
Se|f-Defense
! DLILNSL CI kCLk1: LenLe[as punched a Lhlef, who fell and
dled as a resulL, whlle she was Lrylng Lo prevenL Lhe LhefL of her
moblle phone.
o She ls noL llable under Art|c|e 4 because she was
exerclslng a lawful rlghL and noL a felony. 1herefore, she
can clalm defense ln Art|c|e 11(1) and (S).
o Powever, lf she pulls ouL a gun and kllls Lhe Lhlef uslng
such, she may be crlmlnally llable because lL exceeds
Lhe second provlslon LhaL Lhere should be reasonable
necesslLy of Lhe means employed Lo repel Lhe supposed
unlawful aggresslon Art|c|e 11(1). As such, she has
oversLepped Lhe lawful exerclse of her rlghL Lo defend
her properLy.
! WhaL ls Lhe exLenL Lo whlch you can proLecL your properLy
wlLhouL lncurrlng crlmlnal llablllLy?
o 1he sLandard depends on Lhe reasonable necesslLy of
Lhe means used.
o ln Lhe defense of properLy rlghLs, Lhere musL be
unlawful aggresslon on Lhe person of Lhe owner.
Powever, ln Lhe exerclse of Lhe rlghL Lo proLecL your
properLy, no unlawful aggresslon on Lhe person of Lhe
owner ls necessary Lo enLlLle Lhe accused Lo use
reasonable force Lo defend hls or her properLy.
! DLILNSL CI nCML: 1hleves enLered your home wlLh a Lorch,
whlch you mlsLook for allens and Lhus flred your shoLgun aL
Lhem. Can you argue defense of properLy?
o lssue: glven LhaL Lhe slLuaLlon Look place ln Lhe house, ls
Lhere a need for unlawful aggresslon ln order Lo enLlLle
you Lo defend your properLy?
o 8ullng: nC. 1he defense of one's home does noL requlre
unlawful aggresslon Lowards Lhe accused. Lven lf Lhere
ls noL aggresslve sLance on Lhe parL of Lhe vlcLlms, Lhe
owner can already exerclse defense (so long as Lhe
means used was reasonable).
! Ceneral rule for unlawful aggresslon ln relaLlon Lo defense of
home: no need for unlawful aggresslon.
8e||ef of the accused
! lacLs: lrlend who played a Lrlck on you by grabblng you aL nlghL,
and you - Lhlnklng LhaL lL was a LhreaL Lo your person - hlL Lhe
person and he dled.
! 8ullng: ?ou are [usLlfled ln your acLs because you dld noL have
Lhe lnLenL Lo klll Lhe person, and (assumlng) you dld noL acL
negllgenLly.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
CI;(ME;BVI EIJI((K.L .M ?CIWIE. MC CI?IV ;XXCI((KME
! uoes lL requlre equallLy? Such LhaL lf someone punches you, you
may only [usL use your flsLs?
o noL necessarlly. See 8. necesslLy of Means used"
! Mr. Arzaga ls holdlng Mr. 8onlfaclo by Lhe neck. unknowlng Lo
hlm, Mr. 8onlfaclo had goLLen hold of a cuLLer. lf Mr. 8onlfaclo
uses Lhe lnsLrumenL agalnsL Mr. Arzaga, can he lnvoke Lhe
defense LhaL hls means was reasonable and necesslLy?
____________________

I. Lxempt|ng c|rcumstances
1. Def|n|t|on: Are grounds for exempLlon from punlshmenL
because Lhere ls wanLlng ln Lhe agenL of Lhe crlme any of Lhe
condlLlons whlch make Lhe acL volunLary or negllgenL
2. 8as|s 1he exempLlon from punlshmenL ls based on Lhe complete
obseoce of lnLelllgence, freedom of acLlon, or lnLenL, or on Lhe
absence of negllgence on parL of Lhe accused.

Art|c|e 12- J"#*4<$%1,*)$ 6/"*/ )=)<8% 3#+< *#"<",15 5"19"5"%>H D ./)
3+55+6",2 1#) )=)<8% 3#+< *#"<",15 5"19"5"%>Y
1. An |mbec||e or an |nsane person, un|ess the |atter has acted
dur|ng a |uc|d |nterva|.
When the |mbec||e or an |nsane person has comm|tted an act
wh|ch the |aw def|nes as a fe|ony, the court sha|| order h|s
conf|nement |n one of the hosp|ta|s or asy|ums estab||shed for
persons thus aff||cted, wh|ch he sha|| not be perm|tted to
|eave w|thout f|rst obta|n|ng the perm|ss|on of the same court.
2. A person under n|ne years of age
3. A person over n|ne years of age and under f|fteen, un|ess he
has acted w|th d|scernment, |n wh|ch case, such m|nor sha|| be
proceeded aga|nst |n accordance w|th the prov|s|ons of Art|c|e
80 of th|s code.
When such a m|nor |s ad[udged to be cr|m|na||y |rrespons|b|e,
the court, |n conform|ty w|th the prov|s|ons of th|s and the
preced|ng paragraph, sha|| comm|t h|m to the care and
custody of h|s fam||y who sha|| be charged w|th h|s
surve|||ance and educat|on, otherw|se, he sha|| be comm|tted
to the care of some |nst|tut|on or person ment|oned |n sa|d
Art|c|e 80.
4. Any person who, wh||e perform|ng a |awfu| act w|th due care,
causes an |n[ury by mere acc|dent w|thout fau|t or |ntent|on of
caus|ng |t
S. Any person who acts under the compu|s|on of an |rres|st|b|e
force.
6. Any person who acts under the |mpu|se of an uncontro||ab|e
fear of an equa| or greater |n[ury.
7. Any person who fa||s to perform an act requ|red by |aw, when
prevented by some |awfu| or |nsuperab|e cause.

CIN1S

I. In exempt|ng c|rcumstances, there |s a cr|me comm|tted but no
cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty ar|ses

! 1echnlcally, one who acLs by vlrLue of any of Lhe exempLlng
clrcumsLances commlLs a crlme, alLhough by Lhe complete
obseoce of ooy of tbe cooJltloos whlch coostltote ftee wlll ot
voloototloess of Lhe acL, no crlmlnal llablllLy arlses.
! ClrcumsLances menLloned ln ArL 12 ls a maLLer of defense and
Lhe same musL be proved by Lhe defendanL Lo Lhe saLlsfacLlon of
Lhe courL.
____________________
Ak. 1: AN IM8LCILL Ck INSANL LkSCN, UNLLSS 1nL LA11Lk nAS
AC1LD DUkING A LUCID IN1LkVAL.

I. 8as|s of aragraph 1
! CompleLe absence of lnLelllgence, an elemenL of volunLarlness.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
II. Imbec|||ty d|st|ngu|shed from |nsan|ty
! lmbeclle ! ls one who, whlle advanced ln age, has a menLal
developmenL comparable Lo LhaL of chlldren beLween 2 and 7
years of age. Such person ls exempL ln ALL cases from crlmlnal
llablllLy.
! lnsane ! ls one who ls deprlved compleLely of reason or
dlscernmenL and freedom of Lhe wlll aL Lhe Llme of commlLLlng
Lhe crlme. Such person ls noL exempL lf lL can be shown LhaL he
acLed durlng a lucld lnLerval (when Lhe lnsane acLs wltb
lotelllqeoce).

III. 1o const|tute |nsan|ty there must be comp|ete depr|vat|on of
|nte|||gence or that there be a tota| depr|vat|on of the freedom of the
w|||
! CompleLe deprlvaLlon of lnLelllgence- Lhe accused ls deprlved of
reason and wlLhouL Lhe leasL dlscernmenL.
! Mere abnormallLy of menLal faculLles ls nC1 enough, especlally
lf Lhe offender has noL losL consclousness of hls acLs.

IV. rocedure when the |mbec||e or the |nsane comm|tted a fe|ony
! CourL shall order hls conflnemenL ln one of Lhe hosplLals or
asylums esLabllshed for persons affllcLed.
! CourL has no power Lo permlL Lhe lnsane Lo leave such faclllLy
wlLhouL flrsL obLalnlng Lhe oplnlon of Lhe ulrecLor of PealLh LhaL
he may be released.

V. Insan|ty at the t|me of the comm|ss|on of the fe|ony d|st|ngu|shed
from |nsan|ty at the t|me of the tr|a|
! When a person ls lnsane ot tbe tlme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
felony, he ls exempt from crlmlnal llablllLy.
! When he becomes losooe only aL Lhe Llme of Lhe Lrlal, he ls
crlmlnally llable.

VI. Who has the burden of proof to show |nsan|ty?
! 1he Jefeose musL prove Lhe lnsanlLy of Lhe accused aL Lhe Llme
of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
! 1he presumpLlon ls always ln favor of sanlLy.
! Pow much evldence ls necessary Lo overLhrow Lhe presumpLlon
of sanlLy?
o ln order Lo ascerLaln a person's menLal condlLlon aL Lhe
Llme of Lhe acL, lL ls permlsslble Lo recelve evldence of
Lhe condlLlon of hls mlnd durlng a reasonable perlod
boLh before and afLer LhaL Llme.
o ulrecL LesLlmony ls noL requlred.
IG"-),*) +3 ",$1,"%>
! 1he evldence of lnsanlLy musL refer Lo Lhe Llme precedlng Lhe
acL under prosecuLlon of Lo Lhe very momenL of lLs execuLlon.
! lf Lhe lnsanlLy ls only occaslonal or lnLermlLLenL ln lLs naLure, Lhe
presumpLlon of lLs conLlnuance does noL arlse.
! Where lL ls shown LhaL Lhe defendanL had lucld lnLervals, lL wlll
be presumed LhaL Lhe offense was commlLLed ln one of Lhem.
A/), 1 -)3),$) +3 ",$1,"%> "$ ,+% *#)-"95)Y
! eople v. 8enegado ! Where appellanL, LoreLo, LesLlfled LhaL
he was acLlng sanely LhaL mornlng before he kllled Llra afLer
'belng confused' and 'loslng hls senses'. Moreover, he was able
Lo recall mosL of Lhe lncldenLs LhaL mornlng. 1he defense of
lnsanlLy ls lncredlble.
! eople v. Ambal ! 8elng able Lo recall slgnlflcanL evenLs ln Lhe
weeks prlor Lo Lhe crlme, he was declared sane.
! eople v. Magallano ! Where psychlaLrlsLs who observed Lhe
accused for a monLh aLLesLed LhaL he dld noL manlfesL any odd
behavlor and lL was evldenL LhaL he was coherenL and
lnLelllgenL, Lhe presumpLlon of sanlLy holds.
! eople v. uno ! ln splLe of hls schlzophrenlc reacLlon, hls
sympLoms were noL soclally lncapaclLaLlng" and he could
ad[usL Lo hls envlronmenL. Pe ls noL legally lnsane.
! eople v. Aqulno ! 1he docLor aLLesLed LhaL desplLe havlng
organlc menLal dlsorder wlLh psychosls", Lhe accused recalled
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
evenLs prlor Lo Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme. 1he presence of hls
reasonlng faculLles dlscounLs any lnLlmaLlon of lnsanlLy.

VII. Coverage of the terms
P)<),%"1 8#1)*+= S$*/"Z+8/#),"1U "$ *+G)#)- 9> %/) %)#< ",$1,"%>
! When a person ls sufferlng from a form of psychosls (a Lype of
demenLla pracox) homlcldal aLLack ls common because of
deluslons. uurlng Lhe perlod of exclLemenL, such person has noL
conLrol whaLever of hls acLs.
! eople v. 8onan ! An lrreslsLlble homlcldal lmpulse was
consldered embraced ln Lhe Lerm lnsanlLy". lL may be sald LhaL
a person who has losL Lhe power of hls wlll, aL Lhe momenL, also
losL consclousness of hls acLs.
(*/"Z+8/#),"1& 3+#<)#5> *155)- P)<),%"1 ?#1*)+=
! lL ls a chronlc menLal dlsorder characLerlzed by lnablllLy Lo
dlsLlngulsh beLween fanLasy and reallLy and ofLen accompanled
by halluclnaLlons and deluslons.
! Schlzophrenlc reacLlons are recognlzable Lhrough odd and
blzarre behavlor apparenL ln aloofness or perlods of lmpulslve
desLrucLlveness and lmmaLure and exaggeraLed emoLlonallLy,
ofLen amblvalenLly dlrecLed.
O5)8%+<1,"1
! lf Lhe unlawful acL of Lhe accused ls due Lo menLal dlsease or a
menLal defecL, produclng an lrreslsLlble lmpulse, as when Lhe
accused has been deprlved or has losL Lhe power of hls wlll" Lhe
lrreslsLlble lmpulse should be consldered covered by lnsanlLy.
! Cn Lhe oLher hand, lf Lhe menLal defecL only dlmlnlshes Lhe
exerclse of hls wlll-power" Lhen klepLomanla ls only a mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance.
I8"5)8$> <1> 9) *+G)#)- 9> ",$1,"%>
! 1hls ls a dlsease characLerlzed by flLs, occurrlng aL lnLervals,
aLLended by convulslve moLlons of Lhe muscles and loss of
consclousness.
! An accused musL be undergolng an epllepLlc flL when he
commlLLed Lhe crlme ln order Lo be acqulLLed (eople v.
Mancao and Agullar).
!))95)<",-)-,)$$ "$ ,+% "<9)*"5"%>H
! A feeblemlnded person can dlsLlngulsh rlghL from wrong, ln
conLrasL Lo an lmbeclle or lnsane person who cannoL do so.
?)-+8/"5"1 "$ ,+% ",$1,"%>
! edophlles can dlsLlngulsh rlghL from wrong. (eople v. ulaz)
;<,)$"1 "$ ,+% 8#++3 +3 <),%15 *+,-"%"+, +3 %/) 1**4$)-
! Amnesla, ln lLself, ls no defense Lo a crlmlnal charge unless lL ls
shown LhaL Lhe accused dld noL know Lhe naLure and quallLy of
hls acLlon.
M%/)# *1$)$ +3 51*[ +3 K,%)55"2),*)
1. CommlLLlng a crlme whlle ln a dream does noL make one
crlmlnally llable (Somnambullsm/ sleepwalklng)
a. PypnoLlsm - wheLher Lhls causes somnambullsm
2. CommlLLlng a crlme whlle sufferlng from mallgnanL malarla does
noL make one crlmlnally llable for malarla affecLs Lhe nervous
sysLem and causes compllcaLlons such as melancholla and
lnsanlLy.
____________________
Ak. 2: A LkSCN UNDLk 9 LAkS CI AGL

I. 8as|s of paragraph 2
! CompleLe absence of lnLelllgence

II. Age of Abso|ute |rrespons|b|||ty ra|sed to f|fteen years of age
! k.A. 9344 (!uvenlle !usLlce and Welfare AcL) ralsed Lhe age of
absoluLe lrresponslblllLy from 9 Lo 13.
! AbsoluLe lrresponslblllLy exempLs Lhe offender from crlmlnal
llablllLy
____________________
Ak. 3: A LkSCN CVLk 9 AND UNDLk 1S, UNLLSS nL nAS AC1LD
WI1n DISCLkNMLN1, IN WnICn CASL, SUCn MINCk SnALL 8L
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
kCCLLDLD AGAINS1 IN ACCCkDANCL WI1n 1nL kCVISICNS CI
Ak1ICLL 80 CI 1nIS CCDL

I. 8as|s of aragraph 3
! Absence of lnLelllgence

II. ar. 3, Art. 12 of the kC |mp||ed|y repea|ed by k.A. 9344
! 1he age brackeL for condlLlonal responslblllLy ls now 13-18 years
of age lnsLead of 9-13.
! 1he chlld ls exempLed from crlmlnal llablllLy, buL noL from clvll
llablllLy.
! lL ls lncumbenL upon Lhe prosecuLlon Lo prove LhaL a mlnor has
acLed wlLh dlscernmenL, ln order for hlm Lo be deprlved of Lhls
exempLlng clrcumsLance.

III. er|ods of cr|m|na| respons|b|||ty
er|od Age
A8SCLu1L l88LSCnSl8lLl1?
(lnfancy)
13 years and below
CCnul1lCnAL 8LSCnSl8lLl1?
(Chlld ln confllcL wlLh Lhe law)
13 years and 1 day Lo 18 years
luLL 8LSCnSl8lLl1? 18 years or over (adolescence) Lo
70 (maLurlLy)
Ml1lCA1Lu 8LSCnSl8lLl1? 13 years and 1 day Lo 18 years, Lhe
offender acLlng wlLh dlscernmenL,
over 70 years of age.
! SenlllLy ! Lhe age over 70 years, alLhough sald Lo be Lhe second
chlldhood ls only a mlLlgaLed responslblllLy. lL cannoL be
consldered as slmllar Lo lnfancy whlch ls exempLlng.

IV. Mean|ng of d|scernment
! CapaclLy of Lhe chlld Lo undersLand Lhe dlfference beLween rlghL
and wrong and lLs consequences.
P)%)#<",1%"+, +3 -"$*)#,<),%
! 1he deLermlnaLlon of dlscernmenL shall Lake lnLo accounL Lhe
ablllLy of a chlld Lo undersLand Lhe moral and psychologlcal
componenLs of crlmlnal responslblllLy and Lhe consequences of
Lhe wrongful acL.
P"$*)#,<),% \ ",%),% -"$%",24"$/)-
! lnLenL ! refers Lo Lhe deslred acL of Lhe person
! ulscernmenL ! Lhe moral slgnlflcance LhaL a person ascrlbes Lo
Lhe sald acL.
P"$*)#,<),% <1> 9) $/+6, 9>Y
1. Manner of commlLLlng Lhe crlme (e.g. mlnor commlLLed Lhe
crlme durlng nlghLLlme Lo avold deLecLlon).
2. ConducL of Lhe offender (e.g. a mlnor's perverLed characLer and
saLlsfacLlon upon Lhe accompllshmenL of Lhe acL).
./) 155)21%"+, +3 ]6"%/ ",%),% %+ ["55^ ", %/) ",3+#<1%"+, "$ $433"*"),%
155)21%"+, +3 -"$*)#,<),%
! eople v. nelLo
o lacLs: Alleged accused, wlLh lnLenL Lo klll, dld Lhen and
Lhere wlllfully, crlmlnally and felonlously push 8x-year-
old LollLa adllla (vlcLlm) lnLo a deep place Lhus causlng
her deaLh by drownlng.
o 8ullng: 1he allegaLlon clearly conveys Lhe ldea LhaL she
knew whaL would be Lhe consequence of her unlawful
acL of pushlng her vlcLlm lnLo deep waLer and LhaL she
knew lL Lo be wrong.

V. 8urden of proof of Age
! Any person alleglng Lhe age has Lhe burden of proof.
?#)$4<8%"+, +3 0",+#"%>
! A chlld shall en[oy all Lhe presumpLlon of mlnorlLy and all Lhe
rlghLs of a chlld unLll proven Lo be elghLeen years or older aL Lhe
Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense.
P)%)#<",1%"+, +3 ;2)
! A chlld's age shall be deLermlned accordlng Lo Lhe ff rules:
1. Crlglnal or cerLlfled Lrue copy of blrLh cerLlflcaLe.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
2. Slmllar auLhenLlc documenLs (bapLlsmal cerLlflcaLes, school
records)
3. 1esLlmony of a member of Lhe famlly relaLed Lo Lhe chlld by
afflnlLy or consangulnlLy, LesLlmonles of oLher persons, physlcal
appearance of Lhe chlld and oLher relevanL evldence.
____________________
Ak. 4: AN LkSCN WnC, WnILL LkICkMING A LAWIUL AC1 WI1n
DUL CAkL, CAUSLS INIUk 8 MLkL ACCIDLN1 WI1nCU1 IAUL1 Ck
IN1LN1ICN.

I. 8as|s of aragraph 4
! Lack of negllgence and lnLenL
! under Lhls clrcumsLance, Lhe person does noL commlL elLher an
lnLenLlonal felony or a culpable felony.

II. L|ements:
1. A person ls performlng a lawful acL
2. WlLh due care
3. Pe causes an ln[ury by mere accldenL
4. WlLhouL faulL or lnLenLlon of causlng lL

III. IIkS1 L|ement: 1he person must be perform|ng a |awfu| act
! eople v. Calacgac
o 1he dlscharge of a flrearm ln a crowded place ln Manlla
belng prohlblLed by Art|c|e 1SS, appellanL Calacgac was
noL performlng a lawful acL. Pence, exempLlon cannoL
be lnvoked.
! SLrlklng anoLher wlLh a gun ln self-defense, even lf lL flred and
serlously ln[ured Lhe assallanL ls a lawful acL
o eople v. vlLug
" When Lhe defendanL drew hls gun and wlLh lL
sLruck Lhe dlseased afLer Lhe laLLer had glven
hlm a flsL blow on Lhe shoulder, Lhe defendanL
was performlng a lawful acL. WheLher Lhe gun
was cocked or uncocked Lhe sLrlklng could noL
have been done ln any oLher manner. 1he acL
was a leglLlmaLe acL of defense.
" 1he facL LhaL Lhe gun flred because Lhe hand of
Lhe defendanL was on Lhe Lrlgger when he hlL
deceased was a mere accldenL wlLhouL any faulL
or lnLenLlon of causlng lL.
! eople v. 8eyLa
o 1he acL of drawlng a weapon ln Lhe course of a quarrel
noL belng ln self-defense ls unlawful. lL ls llghL LhreaL
(Art. 28S, par. 1).

IV. SLCCND L|ement: 1he person perform|ng a |awfu| act must do so
w|th due care, w|thout fau|t or neg||gence
! Crlmlnal llablllLy exempLlon ln Lhls arLlcle cannoL be lnvoked lf
Lhe appellanL ls gullLy of negllgence.

V. 1nIkD L|ement: Causes |n[ury by mere acc|dent
I=1<85)$ +3 1, 1**"-),%Y
! uS v. 1anedo
o lacLs: Lhe accused, whlle hunLlng, saw wlld chlckens and
flred a shoL. 1he slug recolled and hlL Lhe LenanL who
was a relaLlve of Lhe accused, Lhereby kllllng hlm.
o Peld: ll llfe ls Laken by mlsforLune or accldenL whlle Lhe
acLor ls ln performance of a lawful acL execuLed wlLh
due care and wlLhouL lnLenLlon of dolng harm, Lhere ls
no crlmlnal llablllLy.
! uS v. 1ayongLong
o A chauffer, whlle drlvlng on Lhe ptopet slJe of tbe tooJ
ot o moJetote speeJ ooJ wltb Joe Jlllqeoce, soJJeoly
and ooexpecteJly hlL a man. lL was held LhaL he ls noL
crlmlnally llable, lL belng a mere accldenL.
A/1% "$ 1, 1**"-),%_
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
! SomeLhlng LhaL happens ouLslde Lhe sway of our wlll, and
alLhough lL comes abouL Lhrough some acL of our wlll, lles
beyond Lhe bounds of humanly foreseeable consequences.
o lL ls an evenL LhaL does noL necessarlly and loglcally
follow/resulL from one's acL.
! lL ls negllgence when Lhe consequences are foreseeable.

VI. ICUk1n L|ement: W|thout fau|t of |ntent|on of caus|ng |t
;**"-),% 8#)$488+$)$ 51*[ +3 ",%),%"+, %+ *+<<"% %/) 6#+,2 -+,).
! 1he exempLlng clrcumsLance of Art|c|e 12 refers Lo purely
accldenLal cases where Lhere was absoluLely nC lnLenLlon Lo
commlL Lhe wrong done.
J1$) +3 ,)25"2),*)& ,+% 1**"-),%
! eople v. nocum
o 1he defendanL drew a plsLol and shoL Lwlce ln Lhe alr Lo
geL Lhe aLLenLlon of 2 persons flghLlng. Pe flred anoLher
shoL LhaL rlcocheLed and hlL an lnnocenL bysLander. Pe
was convlcLed of homlclde Lhrough reckless
lmprudence.
! CommenL: Such rullng was glven because Lhe consequences ln
Lhe glven slLuaLlon are foreseeable.
;**"-),% 1,- ,)25"2),*)& ",%#",$"*155> *+,%#1-"*%+#>
! !arco MarkeLlng CorporaLlon v. CourL of Appeals
o AccldenL and negllgence are lnLrlnslcally conLradlcLory.
Cne cannoL exlsL wlLh Lhe oLher.
! eople v. Ayaya
o CourL held LhaL Lhe absence of any reasonable moLlve Lo
prompL sald defendanL Lo ln[ure her husband compelled
Lhe courL Lo conclude LhaL ln LhrusLlng her umbrella ln
Lhe openlng of Lhe door, she dld so Lo free her son from
lmmlnenL danger of havlng hls head crushed or belng
sLrangle, Lhe ln[ury was caused by a mere accldenL.
A/), *51"< +3 1**"-),% ,+% 188#)*"1%)-Y
1. eople v 1aylaran ! 8epeaLed blows negaLe clalm of woundlng
by mere accldenL.
2. eople v. 8eyes ! AccldenLal shooLlng ls negaLed by
LhreaLenlng words precedlng lL.
____________________
Ak. S: AN LkSCN WnC AC1S UNDLk 1nL CCMULSICN CI AN
IkkLSIS1I8LL ICkCL

I. 8as|s of aragraph S
! CompleLe absence of freedom, an elemenL of volunLarlness.
! resumpLlon: person ls compelled by means of force or vlolence
Lo commlL a crlme.

II. L|ements:
1. Compulslon ls by means of physlcal force
2. hyslcal force musL be lrreslsLlble
o 8efore a force can be consldered an lrreslsLlble one, lL
musL produce such an effecL upon Lhe lndlvldual LhaL, ln
splLe of all reslsLance, lL reduces hlm Lo a mere
lnsLrumenL (reason why he's lncapable of commlLLlng
Lhe crlme)
o ln splLe of all reslsLance, lL compels Lhe person Lo obey
or acL upon lL.
3. hyslcal force musL come from a Lhlrd person
I=1<85): uS v. Caballeros
! lacLs: 8acull, one of Lhe accused buL ls noL parL of Lhe band
whlch murdered Lhe Amerlcan school-Leachers, was aL Lhe
scene of Lhe crlme and was made Lo bury Lhe bodles because he
was sLruck wlLh Lhe buLLs of Lhe band's guns.
! Peld: 8acull was noL crlmlnally llable because an ouLslde
lrreslsLlble force compelled hlm Lo do Lhe sald acL.

III. IIkS1 & SLCCND L|ement: Compu|s|on of |rres|st|b|e force
! nC Compulslon of lrreslsLlble force
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
! eople v Sarlp
o reLenslon of an accused Lo be LhreaLened wlLh a gun
by a frlend doesn'L hold when Lhe accused has a rlfle aL
hand.

IV. 1nIkD L|ement: hys|ca| force must come from a th|rd person
! asslon or obfuscaLlon cannoL be lrreslsLlble force
! lrreslsLlble force can never conslsL ln an lmpulse or passlon or
obfuscaLlon. lrreslsLlble force musL conslsL of an exLraneous
force from a Lhlrd parLy.

V. Nature of force requ|red
! lrreslsLlble Lo reduce Lhe acLor Lo a mere lnsLrumenL who acLs
noL only wlLhouL wlll buL agalnsL hls wlll.
! uuress, force, fear, or lnLlmldaLlon musL be presenL, lmmlnenL
and lmpendlng Lo lnduce a well-grounded apprehenslon of
deaLh or serlous bodlly harm lf Lhe acL ls noL done.
! Compulslon musL be of such a characLer as Lo leave no
opporLunlLy Lo Lhe accused for escape or self-defense ln equal
combaL.
____________________
Ak. 6: AN LkSCN WnC AC1S UNDLk 1nL IMULSL CI AN
UNCCN1kCLLA8LL ILAk CI AN LUAL Ck GkLA1Lk INIUk

I. 8as|s of aragraph 6
! 8ased on Lhe compleLe absence of freedom, acLus me lnvlLe
facLus non esL meus acLus (an acL done by me agalnsL my wlll ls
noL my acL.").
! resumpLlon: a person ls compelled Lo commlL a crlme by
means of lnLlmldaLlon or LhreaL.

II. L|ements:
1. 1hreaL whlch causes Lhe fear ls an evll greaLer Lhan or aL leasL
equal Lo LhaL whlch he ls requlred Lo commlL.
2. lL promlses an evll of such gravlLy and lmmlnence LhaL Lhe
ordlnary man would have succumbed Lo lL.

III. kequ|s|tes:
1. LxlsLence of an unconLrollable fear.
2. lear musL be real or lmmlnenL.
3. lear of an ln[ury ls greaLer Lhan or aL leasL equal Lo LhaL
commlLLed.
I=1<85): (uS v. LxalLaclon)
! lacLs: LlberaLo LxalLaclon and 8uenavenLura 1anchlnco swore
alleglance Lo Lhe kaLlpunan because of fear of deaLh.
! Peld: CannoL be held crlmlnally llable because Lhe lmpulse of an
unconLrollable fear of an equal or greaLer ln[ury (penalLy of
rebelllon ls prlslon mayor or lmprlsonmenL for a perlod of 6-12
years and flne ls less Lhan Lhe ln[ury of deaLh)

IV. Nature of duress as a va||d defense (eople v. Cullloy)
! Should be based on real, lmmlnenL, or reasonable fear for one's
llfe or llmb.
! Should noL be speculaLlve, fanclful, or remoLe fear.

V. 1he accused must not have opportun|ty for escape or se|f-defense
! Compulslon musL be of such a characLer as Lo leave no
opporLunlLy Lo Lhe accused for escape or self-defense ln equal
combaL.
! uuress ls unavalllng where Lhe accused had every opporLunlLy
Lo run away or reslsL when he wanLed Lo because he was armed
! When several opporLunlLles are presenL buL accused dld noL acL
upon lL, defense of belng under lnLlmldaLlon ls unLenable.
! When Lhe accused carrles a much sLronger weapon LhaL Lhe one
lnLlmldaLlng hlm, lL's held LhaL accused dld noL acL under
lmpulse of an unconLrollable fear of an equal or greaLer ln[ury.
! Command of Pukbalahap klllers - cause of unconLrollable fear
because of Lhelr ruLhless kllllng naLure (eople v. 8egala)
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
! ln Lreason - noLhlng wlll excuse LhaL acL of [olnlng an enemy,
buL Lhe fear of lmmlnenL deaLh.

VI. Specu|at|ve, fanc|fu|, and remote fear |s not uncontro||ab|e fear
! 1hreaL musL be of a serlous characLer and lmmlnence as Lo
creaLe ln Lhe mlnd of Lhe defendanL an unconLrollable fear and
an lnfllcLlon of an equal or greaLer evll would be done upon hlm
on non-compllance.
! Absence of proof of acLual physlcal or moral compulslon Lo acL,
lL noL sufflclenL Lo exempL Lhe accused from crlmlnal llablllLy.

VII. kea|, |mm|nent or reasonab|e fear
! Case of uS v. LxalLaclon as an example
! 1hreaL of fuLure ln[ury ls noL enough ! lL musL be clearly shown
LhaL Lhe compulslon musL be of such characLer as Lo leave nC
opporLunlLy Lo escape

VIII. D|st|nct|on between |rres|st|b|e force and uncontro||ab|e fear
! lrreslsLlble force (par. 3) uses vlolence or physlcal force
! unconLrollable fear (par. 6) uses lnLlmldaLlon or LhreaL
____________________
Ak. 7: AN LkSCN WnC IAILS 1C LkICkM AN AC1 kLUIkLD 8
LAW, WnLN kLVLN1LD 8 SCML LAWIUL Ck INSULkA8LL CAUSL

I. 8as|s of aragraph 7
! Accused acLs wlLhouL lnLenL.

II. L|ements:
1. AcL ls requlred by law Lo be done.
2. erson falls Lo perform such acL.
3. Pls fallure Lo perform such acL was due Lo some lawful or
lnsuperable cause

III. When prevented by.
A/), 8#)G),%)- 9> $+<) 516345 *14$)
! (V|de, Sec. 24[d], ku|e 130, ku|es of Court)
A confessed Lo a llllplno prlesL LhaL Lhere's an ongolng
consplracy agalnsL Lhe governmenL, whlch he ls a parL of. under
Lhe law, one ls requlred Lo Lell Lhe governmenL abouL Lhe sald
acL. non-compllance of Lhls law by Lhe llllplno prlesL exempLs
hlm from crlmlnal llablllLy because he ls bound by hls
professlonal capaclLy for non-dlsclosure of confesslons.
A/), 8#)G),%)- 9> $+<) ",$48)#195) *14$)
! Munlclpal presldenL deLalned Lhe offended parLy for Lhree days
and was noL able Lo comply wlLh Lhe 18-hour requlremenL
because of Lhe no means of LransporLaLlon (uS v. vlcenLlllo) -
lnsuperable cause ls Lhe no LransporLaLlon.
! A moLher who was overcome by severe dlzzlness and exLreme
deblllLy lefL her chlld ln a LhlckeL who subsequenLly dled ls noL
llable for lnfanLlclde because of Lhe lmposslblllLy Lo Lake Lhe
chlld home. (eople v. 8andlan) - lnsuperable cause ls Lhe
severe dlzzlness and exLreme deblllLy.
____________________

I. In a|| the exempt|ng c|rcumstances, |ntent |s want|ng |n the agent of
the cr|me
! lnLenL presupposed Lhe exerclse of freedom and Lhe use of
lnLelllgence.

II. D|st|nct|on between [ust|fy|ng and exempt|ng c|rcumstances
! !usLlfylng clrcumsLances
o erson does noL Lransgress Lhe law, he does noL commlL
any crlme ln Lhe eyes of Lhe law.
o 1here ls noLhlng unlawful ln Lhe acL as well as Lhe
lnLenLlon.
o AcL ls ln lLself [usL and lawful.
o 1here ls nelLher a crlme nor a crlmlnal.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
o no clvll llablllLy excepL for par. 4 (causlng damage Lo
anoLher ln sLaLe of necesslLy).
! LxempLlng clrcumsLances
o 1here ls a crlme buL nC crlmlnal llablllLy.
o AcL ls noL [usLlfled buL Lhe acLor ls noL crlmlnally llable.
o 1here ls clvll llablllLy excepL ln pars. 4 and 7(causlng
ln[ury by mere accldenL, falllng Lo perform an acL
requlred by law when prevenLed by some lawful or
lnsuperable cause).

III. Abso|ute causes
! ueflnlLlon: 1hose where Lhe acL commlLLed ls a crlme buL for
reasons of publlc pollcy and senLlmenL Lhere ls no penalLy
lmposed.
M%/)# 19$+54%+#> *14$)$ S1$"-) 3#+< ;#%"*5) `` 1,- `aU
! Art|c|e 6 - Lhe sponLaneous deslsLance of Lhe person who
commenced Lhe commlsslon of a felony before he could
perform all Lhe acLs of execuLlon.
! Art|c|e 7 - LlghL felony ls only aLLempLed or frusLraLed, and ls
noL agalnsL persons or properLy.
! Art|c|e 20 - 1he accessory ls a relaLlve of Lhe prlnclpal.
! Art|c|e 124, |ast paragraph - legal grounds for arblLrary
deLenLlon.
! Art|c|e 247, pars. 1 and 2 - ueaLh or physlcal ln[urles lnfllcLed
under excepLlonal clrcumsLances.
o Any legally marrled person who, havlng surprlsed hls
spouse ln Lhe acL of commlLLlng sexual lnLercourse wlLh
anoLher person, shall klll any of Lhem or boLh of Lhem ln
Lhe acL or lmmedlaLely LhereafLer, or shall lnfllcL upon
Lhem any serlous physlcal ln[ury, shall suffer Lhe penalLy
of desLlerro.
o lf he shall lnfllcL upon Lhem physlcal ln[urles of any
oLher klnd, he shall be exempL from punlshmenL.
! Art|c|e 280, par. 3 - Legal grounds for Lrespass.
! Art|c|e 332 - 1he crlme of LhefL, swlndllng or mallclous mlschlef
ls commlLLed agalnsL a relaLlve.
! Art|c|e 344, par. 4 - Marrlage of Lhe offender wlLh Lhe offended
parLy when Lhe crlme commlLLed ls rape, abducLlon, seducLlon,
or acLs of lasclvlousness.
K,$%"21%"+, "$ 1, 19$+54%+#> *14$)
! uS v. helps
o lacLs: an lnLernal revenue agenL represenLed hlmself as
a prlvaLe lndlvldual and asked Lhe accused Lo lead hlm
where he could smoke oplum. AgenL wenL Lo Lhe
accused Lhree Llmes and lnslsLed so much, hence Lhe
accused broughL hlm Lo a place where oplum ls
avallable.
o Peld: Accused noL crlmlnally llable because he was
lnsLlgaLed Lo commlL Lhe crlme of smoklng oplum.
! Suppose Lhe agenL lnduced Lhe accused Lo sell hlm oplum and
accused dld sell Lhe agenL oplum, ls Lhe accused llable for lllegal
possesslon of oplum? ?LS, because mere possesslon of oplum ls
a crlme ln lLself.
K,$%"21%"+, <4$% 9) <1-) 9> 8495"* +33"*)#$ +# 8#"G1%) -)%)*%"G)$
! A sound publlc pollcy requlres LhaL Lhe courLs shall condemn
Lhls pracLlce by dlrecLlng an acqulLLal whenever lL appears LhaL
Lhe publlc auLhorlLles or prlvaLe deLecLlves, wlLh Lhelr
cognlzances, have Laken acLlve sLeps Lo lead Lhe accused lnLo
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe acL.
! lf Lhe one who made Lhe lnsLlgaLlon ls a prlvaLe lndlvldual who ls
noL performlng a publlc funcLlon, boLh he and Lhe one accused
ls crlmlnally llable for Lhe crlme commlLLed.
! rlvaLe lndlvldual as prlnclpal by lnducLlon.
! Accused as prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon.
I,%#18<),% "$ ,+% 1, 19$+54%+#> *14$)
! 1he general rule: no defense Lo Lhe perpeLraLor of Lhe crlme
LhaL faclllLles for lLs commlsslon were purposely placed ln hls
way, or LhaL Lhe crlmlnal acL was done aL Lhe 'decoy sollclLaLlon'
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
of persons seeklng Lo expose Lhe crlmlnal, or LhaL deLecLlves
felgnlng compllclLy ln Lhe acL were presenL and apparenLly
asslsLlng ln lLs commlsslon. Lspeclally ls Lhls Lrue ln LhaL class of
cases where Lhe offense ls one of klnd hablLually commlLLed,
and Lhe sollclLaLlon merely furnlshes evldence of a course of
conducL.
! eople v. Lua Chua
o lacLs: 1he accused wroLe Lo hls correspondenL ln
Pongkong Lo send hlm a shlpmenL of oplum, whlch had
already been walLlng for a shlp Lo Cebu. 1he CollecLor of
CusLoms of Cebu recelved lnformaLlon regardlng Lhe
plan of Lhe accused Lo land oplum ln Lhe porL. !uan
Samson, a secreL servlcemen preLended Lo smooLh Lhe
way for Lhe lmporLaLlon, whlle Lhe CollecLor of CusLoms
recelved 20,000.
o 8ullng: lL ls Lrue LhaL !uan Samson smooLhed Lhe way
for Lhe lnLroducLlon of Lhe prohlblLed drug, buL LhaL was
afLer Lhe accused had already planned lLs lmporLaLlon
and had made Lhe order.
o AlLernaLlve Scenarlo: Supposed Lhe accused had noL yeL
ordered for Lhe oplum, buL afLer Lhe assurance of Lhe
CollecLor of CusLoms, he made Lhe order.
" 8ullng: 1here would be lnsLlgaLlon.
I,%#18<),% 1,- ",$%"21%"+, -"$%",24"$/)-
! lnsLlgaLlon
o lnsLlgaLor pracLlcally lnduces he would-be accused lnLo
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense and lnsLlgaLor becomes a
co-prlnclpal.
o 8ar Lo prosecuLlon and convlcLlon of lawbreaker.
o Law enforcer concelves Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme
and suggesLs Lo Lhe accused who adopLs Lhe ldea and
carrles lL lnLo execuLlon.
o LxempLs Lhe crlmlnal from llablllLy.
o An absoluLory cause.
! LnLrapmenL
o Ways and means are resorLed Lo for Lhe purpose of
Lrapplng and capLurlng Lhe lawbreaker ln Lhe execuLlon
of hls crlmlnal plan.
o no bar Lo prosecuLlon and convlcLlon of lawbreaker.
o Means orlglnaLe from Lhe mlnd of Lhe crlmlnal.
o no exempLlon ln llablllLy.
o noL a defense.
./)#) "$ ,)"%/)# ",$%"21%"+, ,+# ),%#18<),% 6/), %/) G"+51%"+, +3 %/)
516 "$ $"<85> -"$*+G)#)-
! eople v. 1an 1long
o lacLs: Accused sold a can of powder above Lhe celllng
prlce and conLended LhaL Lhe governmenL agenL
lnduced hlm Lo vlolaLe Lhe law by purchaslng from hlm
Lhe speclfled arLlcle.
o Peld: agenL dld noL lnduce Lhe accused. AgenL only
knew Lhe prlce dlfference when he boughL from Lhe
accused. Accused was Lhe one who charged and
collecLed Lhe prlce. 1here was no enLrapmenL.
;$$4#1,*) +3 "<<4,"%> 9> 1 8495"* +33"*)# -+)$ ,+% )=)<8% 1 8)#$+,
3#+< *#"<",15 5"19"5"%>
! noL even Lhe resldenL could glve such assurance of lmmunlLy
Lo any vlolaLor of Lhe flrearm law. Pls consLlLuLlonal clemency
can be exerclsed only afLer convlcLlon.

IV. Comp|ete defense |n cr|m|na| cases
1. 1he prosecuLlon does noL prove any of Lhe essenLlal elemenLs of
Lhe crlme charged and elemenLs proved do noL consLlLuLe any
crlme.
2. AcLs falllng under [usLlfylng clrcumsLances
3. AcLs falllng under exempLlng clrcumsLances
4. Covered by any absoluLory causes
3. CullL of Lhe accused noL esLabllshed beyond reasonable doubL
6. rescrlpLlon of crlmes
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
7. ardon by Lhe offended parLy before Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of crlmlnal
acLlon ln crlme agalnsL chasLlLy

CLASS DISCUSSICN
A/1% 155+61,*) "$ 2#1,%)- 9> 516 %+ %/) 8)#$+, 6/+ 4$)$ 1 *)#%1",
<)%/+- %+ -)3),- /"<$)53_
! lnsLlncL of self-preservaLlon ls ln play durlng acLual emergencles
LhaL pose danger Lo llfe and llmb ! uefendanL ls noL requlred
Lo analyze Lhe slLuaLlon and - wlLh maLhemaLlcal preclslon and
equallLy - analyze Lhe leasL harmful way Lo defend hlmself. Pls
lnsLlncL, noL necessarlly hls formal reason, ls ln moLlon durlng
self-defense.

CnA1Lk 3: CIkCUMS1ANCLS WnICn MI1IGA1L CkIMINAL LIA8ILI1

I. M|t|gat|ng C|rcumstances
! ueflnlLlon ! Lhose whlch, lf presenL ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme, do noL enLlrely free Lhe acLor from crlmlnal llablllLy, buL
serve only Lo reduce Lhe penalLy.
! 8asls ! on Lhe dlmlnuLlon of elLher freedom of acLlon,
lnLelllgence, or lnLenL, or on Lhe lesser perverslLy of Lhe
offender.

II. C|asses of m|t|gat|ng c|rcumstances
! Crdlnary mlLlgaLlng ! Lhose enumeraLed ln subsecLlons 1 to 10
of Art|c|e 13, Lhose menLloned ln subsect|on 1 of Art|c|e 13, lf
Art|c|e 69, for lnsLance, ls noL appllcable.
! rlvlleged mlLlgaLlng
o Art|c|e 68
o Art|c|e 69
o Art|c|e 64
o rlvlleged mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances appllcable only Lo
parLlcular crlmes
" Art|c|e 268, par. 3 - volunLary release of Lhe
person lllegally deLalned wlLhln 3 days wlLhouL
Lhe offender aLLalnlng hls purpose and before
Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of crlmlnal acLlon (penalLy ls one
degree lower)
" Art|c|e 333, par. 3 - abandonmenL wlLhouL
[usLlflcaLlon of Lhe spouse who commlLLed
adulLery (penalLy ls one degree lower)

IV. D|st|nct|ons
! Crdlnary mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance
o SuscepLlble of belng offseL by any aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance.
o When noL offseL by an aggravaLlng clrcumsLance,
produces only Lhe effecL of applylng Lhe penalLy
provlded by law for Lhe crlme ln lLs mlnlmum perlod, ln
case of dlvlslble penalLy.
! rlvlleged mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance
o CannoL be offseL by aggravaLlng clrcumsLance.
o roduces Lhe effecL of lmposlng upon Lhe offender Lhe
penalLy lower by one or Lwo degrees Lhan LhaL provlded
by law.

V. M|t|gat|ng c|rcumstances on|y reduce the pena|ty, but do not
change the nature of the cr|me
! Accused ls charged wlLh murder
o 1he facL LhaL Lhere ls a generlc or prlvlleged mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance does noL change Lhe felony Lo homlclde.
o lf Lhere ls an ordlnary or generlc mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance noL offseL by any aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance - penalLy lmposed ls reduced Lo Lhe
mlnlmum of Lhe penalLy for murder.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
o lf Lhere ls a prlvlleged mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance - penalLy
for murder wlll be reduced by one or Lwo degrees
lower.
o ln every case, Lhe accused should be held gullLy of
murder.
o 1he mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance reduces Lhe penalLy
provlded by law buL does noL change Lhe naLure of Lhe
crlme.

Art|c|e 13. M|t|gat|ng c|rcumstances. 1he fo||ow|ng are m|t|gat|ng
c|rcumstances:
1. 1hose ment|oned |n the preced|ng chapter, when a|| the
requ|s|tes necessary to [ust|fy or to exempt from cr|m|na|
||ab|||ty |n the respect|ve cases are not attendant.
2. 1hat the offender |s under e|ghteen years of age or over
seventy years. In the case of the m|nor, he sha|| be proceeded
aga|nst |n accordance w|th the prov|s|ons of Art|c|e 80.
3. 1hat the offender had no |ntent|on to comm|t so grave a
wrong as that comm|tted.
4. 1hat suff|c|ent provocat|on or threat on the part of the
offended party |mmed|ate|y preceded the act.
S. 1hat the act was comm|tted |n the |mmed|ate v|nd|cat|on of a
grave offense to the one comm|tt|ng the fe|ony (de||to), h|s
spouse, ascendants, or re|at|ves by aff|n|ty w|th|n the same
degrees.
6. 1hat of hav|ng acted upon an |mpu|se so powerfu| as natura||y
to have produced pass|on or obfuscat|on.
7. 1hat the offender had vo|untar||y surrendered h|mse|f to a
person |n author|ty or h|s agents, or that he had vo|untar||y
confessed h|s gu||t before the court pr|or to the presentat|on
of the ev|dence for the prosecut|on,
8. 1hat the offender |s deaf and dumb, b||nd or otherw|se
suffer|ng some phys|ca| defect wh|ch thus restr|cts h|s means
of act|on, defense, or commun|cat|ons w|th h|s fe||ow be|ngs.
9. Such |||ness of the offender as wou|d d|m|n|sh the exerc|se of
the w|||-power of the offender w|thout however depr|v|ng h|m
of the consc|ousness of h|s acts.
10. And, f|na||y, any other c|rcumstances of a s|m||ar nature and
ana|ogous to those above ment|oned.

CIN1S
Ak. 1: 1nCSL MLN1ICNLD IN 1nL kLCLDING CnA1Lk, WnLN ALL
1nL kLUISI1LS NLCLSSAk 1C IUS1II Ck LkLM1 IkCM CkIMINAL
LIA8ILI1 IN 1nL kLSLC1IVL CASLS AkL NC1 A11LNDAN1.

I. Important words and phrases
! 1hose menLloned ln Lhe precedlng chapLer"
o 1hls clause has reference Lo (1) [usLlfylng clrcumsLances
and (2) exempLlng clrcumsLances.
! ClrcumsLances of [usLlflcaLlon or exempLlon whlch may glve
place Lo mlLlgaLlon:
Source C|rcumstance
Art|c|e 11, par. 1 Self-defense
Art|c|e 11, par. 2 uefense of relaLlves
Art|c|e 11, par. 3 uefense of sLranger
Art|c|e 11, par. 4 SLaLe of necesslLy
Art|c|e 11, par. S erformance of duLy
Art|c|e 11, par. 6 Cbedlence Lo order of superlor
k.A. No. 9344 MlnorlLy above 13 buL below 18
years of age
Art|c|e 12, par. 4 Causlng by mere accldenL
Art|c|e 12, par. 6 unconLrollable fear

! Art|c|e 12, par. 1 & 2 can'L glve place Lo mlLlgaLlon because
Lhere ls no mlddle ground beLween sanlLy and lnsanlLy or
beLween Lhe absence or presence of lnLelllgence.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
! Any lllness whlch would dlmlnlsh wlll-power, wlLhouL deprlvlng
Lhe offender of consclousness of hls acLs whlch consldered Lo be
wlLhln Lhe scope of Art|c|e 13, par. 9.

II. When a|| the requ|s|tes necessary to [ust|fy an act are not attendant
1. lncompleLe self-defense, defense of relaLlves and defense of
sLranger.
o Art|c|e 13, par. 1 ls appllcable CnL? when unlawful
aggresslon ls presenL buL Lhe oLher Lwo requlslLes (ln
Lhe cases referred Lo ln Art|c|e 11, par. 1,2,3) are noL
presenL.
" lf Lhere ls no unlawful aggresslon, Lhere could
be no self-defense or defense of a relaLlve,
wheLher compleLe or lncompleLe.
o When 2 of 3 requlslLes menLloned are presenL, Lhe case
should be consldered under prlvlleged mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance (Art|c|e 69).
" Art|c|e 69. leoolty to be lmposeJ wbeo tbe
ctlme commltteJ ls oot wbolly excosoble. - A
penalLy lower by one or Lwo degrees Lhan LhaL
prescrlbed by law shall be lmposed lf Lhe deed
ls noL wholly excusable by reason of Lhe lack of
some of Lhe condlLlons requlred Lo [usLlfy Lhe
same or Lo exempL from crlmlnal llablllLy ln Lhe
several cases menLloned ln ArLlcle 11 and 12,
provlded LhaL Lhe ma[orlLy of such condlLlons be
presenL. 1he courLs shall lmpose Lhe penalLy ln
Lhe perlod whlch may be deemed proper, ln
vlew of Lhe number and naLure of Lhe
condlLlons of exempLlon presenL or lacklng.
o eople v. MarLln ! When Lhere ls unlawful aggresslon
on Lhe parL of Lhe deceased, wlLhouL sufflclenL
provocaLlon by Lhe defendanL, buL Lhe defendanL used
means noL reasonably necessary, for afLer havlng
snaLched Lhe rope from Lhe deceased, he should noL
have wound lL around her neck and LlghLened lL, Lhe
defendanL ls only enLlLled Lo prlvlleged mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance as Lhere ls lncompleLe self-defense.
2. lncompleLe [usLlfylng clrcumsLance of avoldance of greaLer evll
or ln[ury
o Avoldance of a greaLer evll or ln[ury ls a [usLlfylng
clrcumsLance CnL? lf all 3 requlslLes ln Art|c|e 11, par.4
are presenL.
o lf any of Lhe lasL Lwo requlslLes ls absenL, Lhere ls CnL?
mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance.
3. lncompleLe [usLlfylng clrcumsLance of performance of duLy.
o eople v. Canls
" lacLs: 1he deceased was kllled whlle asleep, as
he was mlsLaken Lo be 8alagLas - a person who
was Lo be apprehended dead or allve lf Lhere ls
reslsLance. 1he arresLlng offlcers Lhrough
lmpaLlence or Lhelr deslre Lo Lake no chances
Lhus kllled Lhe deceased.
" lssue: WheLher or noL Lhere ls mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance.
" 8ullng: AppellanLs are declared gullLy of murder
wlLh Lhe mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance. 1he Supreme
CourL consldered one of Lhe Lwo requlslLes as
consLlLuLlng Lhe ma[orlLy.
4. lncompleLe [usLlfylng clrcumsLance of obedlence Lo an order.
o eople v. 8ernal
" lacLs: 8oleda flred aL llones followlng Lhe
order of hls superlor SgL. 8enLlng. lL was found
LhaL 8oleda may have acLed wlLhouL
quesLlonlng hls superlor because he had a
feellng of resenLmenL resulLlng from llones'
havlng kllled a member of Lhe mlllLary pollce.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
" lssue: WheLher or noL Lhe absence of one of
Lwo [usLlfylng clrcumsLance requlremenLs
consLlLuLes a mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance.
" 8ullng: 1he flrsL clrcumsLance (order by
superlor) ls presenL, buL Lhe second (order ls for
some lawful purposes) ls wanLlng.

III. When a|| the requ|s|te necessary to exempt from cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty
are not attendant
1. lncompleLe exempLlng clrcumsLance of mlnorlLy over 13 and
under 18 years of age.
o lf Lhe mlnor ls over 13 and under 18, buL acLed wlLh
dlscernmenL, he ls enLlLled only Lo a mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance.
2. lncompleLe exempLlng clrcumsLance of accldenL.
o 1here are 2 requlslLes for Art|c|e 12, par. 4.
o lf Lhe 2
nd
requlslLe (done wlLh due care) and Lhe flrsL
parL of Lhe 4
Lh
requlslLe (no faulL) are A8SLn1, case wlll
fall under Art|c|e 36S, whlch punlshes a felony by
negllgence or lmprudence ! mlLlgaLlng because Lhe
penalLy ls lower Lhan LhaL whlch punlshes lnLenLlonal
felony.
o lf Lhe 1
sL
requlslLe (lawful acL) and second parL of Lhe 4
Lh

requlslLe (lnLenLlon of causlng harm) are A8SLn1, LhaL ls
Lhe person commlLLed an unlawful acL and had Lhe
lnLenLlon of causlng ln[ury, lL wlll be an lnLenLlonal
felony ! no mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance aL all.
3. lncompleLe exempLlng clrcumsLance of unconLrollable fear.
o lf only 1 of 2 requlslLes of Art|c|e 12, par. 6 are presenL,
Lhere only a mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance.
____________________
Ak. 2: 1nA1 1nL CIILNDLk IS UNDLk LIGn1LLN LAk CI AGL Ck
CVLk SLVLN1 LAkS. IN 1nL CASL CI 1nL MINCk, nL SnALL 8L
kCCLLDLD AGAINS1 IN ACCCkDANCL WI1n 1nL kCVISICNS CI
Ak1ICLL 80.

I. 8as|s of aragraph 2
! 1he dlmlnuLlon of lnLelllgence, a condlLlon of volunLarlness.

II. Art|c|e 13, par. 2 of kC |mp||ed|y repea|ed by k.A. 9344
! under k.A 9344, a chlld above 13 buL below 18 years of age
shall be exempL from crlmlnal llablllLy unless he acLed wlLh
dlscernmenL.
! lf Lhe chlld acLed wlLh dlscernmenL, he shall undergo dlverslon
programs.

III. D|vers|on rograms (k.A. 9344)
! lf Lhe chlld acLed wlLh dlscernmenL, he shall undergo dlverslon
programs.
o ulverslon ! alLernaLlve chlld-approprlaLe process of
deLermlnlng Lhe responslblllLy and LreaLmenL of a chlld
ln confllcL wlLh Lhe law on Lhe basls of hls/her soclal,
culLural, economlc, psychologlcal, or educaLlonal
background wlLhouL resulLlng Lo formal courL
proceedlngs.
o ulverslon rogram ! refers Lo Lhe program LhaL Lhe
chlld ln confllcL wlLh Lhe law ls requlred Lo undergo afLer
he/she ls found responslble for an offense wlLhouL
resorLlng Lo formal courL proceedlngs
System of D|vers|on
! Chlldren ln confllcL wlLh Lhe law shall undergo dlverslon
programs wlLhouL undergolng courL proceedlngs

ena|ty rocedure
lmposable penalLy
for Lhe crlme ls noL
more Lhan 6 years
MedlaLlon, famlly conferenclng and conclllaLlon
and, where approprlaLe, adopL lndlgenous modes
of confllcL resoluLlon ln accordance wlLh Lhe besL
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
lmprlsonmenL. lnLeresL of Lhe chlld wlLh a vlew Lo accompllshlng
Lhe ob[ecLlves of resLoraLlve [usLlce.

lnvolves:
(1) Law enforcemenL offlce/unong 8arangay
(2) Local soclal welfare and developmenL
offlcer/oLher members of Lhe Local Counclls
for Lhe roLecLlon of Chlldren (LCC)
(3) Chlld and hls/her famlly
vlcLlmless crlme
where lmposable
penalLy ls noL
more Lhan 6 years
lmprlsonmenL.
uevelop approprlaLe dlverslon and rehablllLaLlon
program.

lnvolves:
(1) CoordlnaLe wlLh 8arangay Councll for Lhe
roLecLlon of Chlldren (8CC)
(2) Local soclal welfare developmenL offlcer
(3) Chlld and hls/her parenLs or guardlans
lmposable penalLy
exceeds 6 years
lmprlsonmenL
ulverslon measure may be resorLed only by Lhe
courL.

J+,3)#),*",2& 0)-"1%"+,& J+,*"5"1%"+,
! A chlld ln confllcL wlLh Lhe law may undergo conferenclng,
medlaLlon or conclllaLlon ouLslde Lhe crlmlnal [usLlce sysLem or
prlor Lo hls enLry lnLo sald sysLem.
J+,%#1*% +3 P"G)#$"+,
! lf durlng Lhe conferenclng, medlaLlon or conclllaLlon, Lhe chlld
volunLarlly admlLs Lhe commlsslon of Lhe acL a dlverslon
program shall be developed when approprlaLe and deslrable.
! Such admlsslon shall noL be used agalnsL Lhe chlld ln any
subsequenL [udlclal, quasl-[udlclal or admlnlsLraLlve
proceedlngs.
! ulverslon program shall be effecLlve and blndlng by Lhe wrlLLen
accepLance slgned by auLhorlLles and parLles concerned.
! 1he local soclal welfare and developmenL offlcer shall supervlse
Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe dlverslon.
! ulverslon proceedlngs shall be compleLed ln 43 days.
! erlod of prescrlpLlon of Lhe offense shall be suspended unLll
Lhe compleLlon of Lhe dlverslon.
! Chlld shall presenL hlmself/herself Lo auLhorlLles who lmposed
dlverslon program aL leasL once a monLh for reporLlng and
evaluaLlon of Lhe effecLlveness of Lhe program.
! lallure Lo comply wlLh Lhe program shall glve Lhe offended parLy
Lhe opLlon Lo lnsLlLuLe approprlaLe legal acLlon.
! Where lL may be conducLed ! kaLarungang ambarangay
durlng Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon phase and durlng all levels of Lhe
proceedlngs lncludlng [udlclal level.
! uuLy of Lhe unong 8arangay or Lhe Law LnforcemenL Cfflcer
when Lhere ls no dlverslon ! lf Lhe lmposable penalLy ls over 6
years or Lhe chlld/hls parenLs do noL consenL Lo a dlverslon, Lhe
unong 8arangay shall forward Lhe records of Lhe case Lo Lhe
law enforcemenL offlcer, prosecuLor or approprlaLe courL wlLhln
3 days.

IV. 1hat the offender |s 70 years of age |s on|y a gener|c m|t|gat|ng
c|rcumstance
! Art|c|e 68 (prlvlleged mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances) does noL lnclude
offenders over 70 years old.
____________________
Ak. 3: 1nA1 1nL CIILNDLk nAD NC1 IN1LN1ICN 1C CCMMI1 SC
GkAVL A WkCNG AS 1nA1 CCMMI11LD

I. 8as|s of aragraph 3
! lnLenL, an elemenL of volunLarlness ln lnLenLlonal felony, ls
dlmlnlshed.

II. ku|e for app||cat|on
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
! 1hls clrcumsLance can be Laken lnLo accounL only when Lhe facLs
proven show LhaL Lhere ls a ootoble and evlJeot Jlsptopottloo
beLween Lhe means employed Lo execuLe Lhe crlmlnal acL and
lLs consequences.
o uS v. 8erLuclo ! 1he accused conflned hlmself Lo glvlng
a slngle blow wlLh a bolo on Lhe rlghL arm of Lhe vlcLlm
and dld noL repeaL Lhe blow. 1he deaLh of Lhe vlcLlm
was due Lo neglecL and Lhe lack of medlcal LreaLmenL,
hls deaLh havlng resulLed from hemorrhage whlch Lhose
who aLLended Lo hlm dld noL know how Lo sLop or
conLrol ln Llme.
o EM.IY ./)#) "$ $%"55 *#"<",15 5"19"5"%> S", *+,$+,1,*)
6"%/ ;#%"*5) TUH K% "$ $"<85> <"%"21%)-H

III. Lv|dence of |ntent|on as a factor for m|t|gat|ng c|rcumstance
! K,%),%"+,& 9)",2 1, ",%)#,15 $%1%)& <4$% 9) F4-2)- 9> )=%)#,15
1*%$ ! Lhe lnLenLlon, as an lnLernal acL ls [udged noL only by Lhe
proporLlon of Lhe means employed by hlm Lo Lhe evll produced
by hls acL, buL also by Lhe facL LhaL Lhe blow was or was noL
almed aL a vlLal parL of Lhe body.
! ./) 6)18+, 4$)-& %/) 81#% +3 %/) 9+-> ",F4#)-& %/) ",F4#>
",35"*%)-& 1,- %/) <1,,)# "% "$ ",35"*%)- <1> $/+6 %/1% %/)
1**4$)- ",%),-)- %/) 6#+,2 *+<<"%%)-
o Pow Lo deLermlne lnLenL:
" 1he klnd of weapon used.
" 1he parL of Lhe body ln[ured.
" 1he klnd/exLenL of Lhe ln[ury lnfllcLed.
o lnLenLlon musL be [udged by conslderlng Lhe weapon
used, Lhe ln[ury lnfllcLed, and hls aLLlLude of Lhe mlnd
when Lhe accused aLLacked Lhe deceased (eople v.
llores).
o When a person sLabs anoLher wlLh a leLhal weapon
upon a vlLal parL of Lhe body, deaLh could presumably
be anLlclpaLed and Lhe accused musL be presumed Lo
have lnLended Lhe naLural consequences of hls wrongful
acL (eople v. 8eyes).
o 1he weapon used, Lhe force of Lhe blow, Lhe spoL where
Lhe blow was dlrecLed and landed, and Lhe cold blood ln
whlch lL was lnfllcLed, all Lend Lo negaLlve any noLlon
LhaL Lhe plan was anyLhlng less Lhan Lo flnlsh Lhe vlcLlm
(eople v. 8anlos).
o lnfllcLlng of flve sLab wounds ln rapld successlon
negaLes preLense of lack of lnLenLlon Lo cause so serlous
an ln[ury. lL brlngs forLh ln bold rellef Lhe lnLenLlon of
Lhe accused Lo snuff ouL Lhe llfe of Lhe deceased (eople
v. 8rana).
! ArLlcle 13, paragraph 3, ls noL appllcable when Lhe offender
employed bruLe force - lL ls Lhe ",%),%"+, +3 %/) +33),-)# 1% %/)
<+<),% 6/), /) "$ *+<<"%%",2 %/) *#"<) whlch ls consldered.
o Art|c|e 13, par. 3 addresses lLself Lo Lhe lnLenLlon of
Lhe offender aL Lhe parLlcular momenL when he
execuLes or commlLs Lhe crlmlnal acL, noL Lo hls
lnLenLlon durlng Lhe plannlng sLage."
! V1*[ +3 ",%),%"+, %+ *+<<"% $+ 2#1G) 1 6#+,2& <"%"21%",2 ln
robbery wlLh homlclde.
o eople v. Abuega ! lL has noL be saLlsfacLorlly
esLabllshed LhaL ln forclng enLrance Lhrough Lhe door
whlch was Lhen closed, wlLh Lhe use of pleces of wood,
Lhe accused were aware LhaL Lhe deceased was behlnd
Lhe door and would be hurL, and Lhere ls noL clear
showlng LhaL Lhey ever deslred Lo klll Lhe deceased as
Lhey soughL Lo enLer Lhe house.
! AppreclaLed ln murder quallfled by clrcumsLance 91$)- +,
<1,,)# +3 *+<<"$$"+,& ,+% +, $%1%) +3 <",- +3 1**4$)-H
o eople v. Lnrlquez
" lacLs: Several accused declded Lo have Lhe
foreman beaLen up. loreman dled as a resulL of
hemorrhage.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
" 8ullng: Murder resulLs from presence of
quallfylng clrcumsLances (premedlLaLlon and
Lreachery) based upon Lhe manner of
commlLLlng Lhe crlme, noL ln Lhe sLaLe of mlnd
of Lhe accused.
! noL appreclaLed ln murder quallfled by Lreachery.
! Lack of lnLenL Lo klll, noL mlLlgaLlng ln physlcal ln[urles.
o eople v. Calacgac ! ln crlmes agalnsL persons who do
noL dle as a resulL of Lhe assaulL, Lhe absence of Lhe
lnLenL Lo klll reduces Lhe felony Lo mere physlcal
ln[urles, buL lL does noL consLlLuLe a mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance.
! Lack of lnLenL Lo klll, mlLlgaLlng when Lhe vlcLlm dles.
o eople v. ugay
" lacLs: Accused seL Lhe deceased's cloLhes on
flre wlLh Lhe lnLenL of causlng physlcal ln[urles
aL Lhe mosL.
" 8ullng: Accused ls gullLy of Lhe resulLlng deaLh
buL he ls enLlLled Lo Lhe mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance
of no lnLenLlon Lo commlL so grave a wrong as
LhaL commlLLed.
! noL appllcable Lo felonles by negllgence.
o 1he reason ls LhaL ln felonles Lhrough negllgence, Lhe
offender acLs wlLhouL lnLenL. 1he lnLenL ln lnLenLlonal
felonles ls replaced by negllgence, lmprudence, lack of
foreslghL, or lack of sklll ln culpable felonles.
! noL appllcable Lo felonles llke defamaLlon or slander (eople v.
Calang de 8auLlsLa). Appllcable CnL? Lo offenses resulLlng ln
physlcal ln[urles or maLerlal harm.
! Applled ln malversaLlon of publlc funds (erez v. eople).
o lacLs: eLlLloner mlsapproprlaLed funds because he was
lmpelled by Lhe genulne love for hls broLher and hls
famlly. Pe used Lhe funds Lo pay off a debuL owed by hls
broLher, whlle anoLher porLlon wenL Lo hls medlcaLlons
for hls deblllLaLlng dlabeLes.
o 8ullng: eLlLloner ls enLlLled Lo mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance
as peLlLloner resLlLuLed all by 8,000 of Lhe funds ln less
Lhan one monLh and a half.

IV. Is Art|c|e 13, par. 3 app||cab|e to fe|on|es where |ntent|on of the
offender |s |mmater|a|?
! eople v. CrlsLobal ! where Lhe resulLlng aborLlon was noL
lnLended by Lhe offender, Lhls mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance ls noL
appllcable.
! eople v. llameno ! where Lhe accused pulled Lhe halr of Lhe
complalnanL wlLh Lhe lnLenLlon Lo malLreaL her, buL Lhus caused
her Lo fall on her buLLocks resulLlng lnLo unlnLenLlonal aborLlon,
mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance was glven ln favor of Lhe accused.
____________________
Ak. 4: 1nA1 SUIIICILN1 kCVCCA1ICN Ck 1nkLA1 CN 1nL Ak1 CI
1nL CIILNDLD Ak1 IMMLDIA1LL kLCLDLD 1nL AC1.

I. 8as|s of aragraph 4
! 8ased on Lhe dlmlnuLlon of lnLelllgence and lnLenL

II. rovocat|on
! rovocaLlon ! any un[usL or lmproper conducL or acL of Lhe
offended parLy, capable of exclLlng or lnclLlng or lrrlLaLlng
anyone.
! 8equlslLes:
1. 1haL Lhe provocaLlon musL be sufflclenL
2. 1haL lL musL orlglnaLe from Lhe offended parLy
3. 1haL Lhe provocaLlon musL be lmmedlaLe Lo Lhe acL, l.e.,
Lo Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme by Lhe person who ls
provoked.
! 1he provocaLlon musL be sufflclenL.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
o SufflclenL ! means adequaLe Lo exclLe a person Lo
commlL Lhe wrong and musL accordlngly be
proporLlonaLe Lo lLs gravlLy.
o As Lo wheLher a provocaLlon ls sufflclenL depends upon
Lhe acL consLlLuLlng Lhe provocaLlon:
" 1he soclal sLandlng of Lhe person provoked.
" 1he place and Llme when Lhe provocaLlon ls
made.
! rovocaLlon musL orlglnaLe from Lhe offended parLy.
o 1he reason for Lhe requlremenL ls LhaL Lhe law says LhaL
Lhe provocaLlon ls on Lhe parL of Lhe offended parLy".
o eople v. 8eyes ! Where Lhe provocaLlon dld noL come
from Lhe deceased buL from hls moLher, Lhe same may
noL be appreclaLed ln favor of Lhe accused.
! ulfference beLween sufflclenL provocaLlon as requlslLe of
lncompleLe self-defense and as a mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance.
o LlemenL of self-defense ! lL perLalns Lo lLs absence on
Lhe parL of Lhe person defendlng hlmself.
o MlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance ! perLalns Lo lLs presence on
Lhe parL of Lhe offended parL.
! rovocaLlon musL be lmmedlaLe Lo Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
o 1here should noL be any lnLerval of Llme beLween Lhe
provocaLlon of Lhe offended parLy and Lhe commlsslon
of Lhe crlme of Lhe person provoked.
o When Lhere ls an lnLerval of Llme beLween Lhe
provocaLlon and Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme, Lhe
conducL of Lhe offended parLy could noL have exclLed
Lhe accused Lo Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme, he havlng
Llme Lo regaln hls reason and Lo exerclse self-conLrol
o eople v. 8enlLo
" lacLs: 1he accused had almosL a day Lo mull
over Lhe alleged provocaLlon before he reacLed
by shooLlng Lhe vlcLlm.
" 8ullng: lnevlLable concluslon ls he dld noL feel
sufflclenLly provoked aL Lhe Llme Lhe alleged
provocaLlon was made. Pls shooLlng Lhe vlcLlm
Lhe nexL day was a dellberaLe acL of vengeance
and ,+% %/) ,1%4#15 #)1*%"+, +3 1 /4<1, 9)",2
%+ "<<)-"1%)5> #)%15"1%) 6/), 8#+G+[)-.
o 1hreaL lmmedlaLely preceded Lhe acL
" 1he LhreaL should noL be offenslve and
poslLlvely sLrong, because lf lL ls, Lhe LhreaL Lo
lnfllcL real ln[ury ls an unlawful aggresslon,
whlch may glve rlse Lo self-defense.
" Lxample: A was LhreaLened by 8 wlLh bodlly
harm and because of Lhe LhreaL, A lmmedlaLely
aLLacked and ln[ured 8, Lhere was a mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance of LhreaL lmmedlaLely precedlng
Lhe acL.
" vague LhreaLs are lnsufflclenL.
vague ! lf you do noL agree, beware."
Clear ! lollow us lf you dare and we
wlll klll you."
____________________
Ak.S: 1nA1 1nL AC1 WAS CCMMI11LD IN 1nL IMMLDIA1L
VINDICA1ICN CI A GkAVL CIILNSL 1C 1nL CNL CCMMI11ING 1nL
ILLCN (DLLI1C), nIS SCUSL, ASCLNDAN1S, DLSCLNDAN1S,
LLGI1IMA1L, NA1UkAL Ck ADC1LD 8kC1nLkS Ck SIS1LkS, Ck
kLLA1IVLS 8 AIIINI1 WI1nIN 1nL SAML DLGkLLS.

CIN1S
I. 8as|s of aragraph S
! 8ased on Lhe dlmlnuLlon of Lhe condlLlons of volunLarlness.
o Crave offense musL be dlrecLed Lo Lhe accused
o vlndlcaLlon of a grave offense lncompaLlble wlLh
passlon or obfuscaLlon.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
II. kequ|s|tes:
1. 1haL Lhere be a grave offense done Lo Lhe one commlLLlng Lhe
felony, hls spouse, ascendanLs, descendanLs, leglLlmaLe, naLural
or adopLed broLhers or slsLers, or relaLlves by afflnlLy wlLhln Lhe
same degrees
2. 1haL Lhe felony ls commlLLed ln vlndlcaLlon of such grave
offense. A lapse of Llme ls allowed beLween Lhe vlndlcaLlon and
Lhe dolng of Lhe grave offense.

III. App||cat|on
! Applles Lo grave offense commlLLed agalnsL survlvlng spouse of
deceased relaLlve.
o lf A (survlvlng husband of 8) was kllled by C, 8's broLhers
would be enLlLled Lo Lhe mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance of
vlndlcaLlon of grave offense lf Lhey cause serlous
physlcal ln[urles Lo C lmmedlaLely afLer learnlng of A's
deaLh.
! A lapse of Llme ls allowed beLween Lhe grave offense and Lhe
vlndlcaLlon.
o 1he Spanlsh LexL uses proxlma" meanlng nexL.
o 1he facL LhaL Lhe accused was slapped by Lhe deceased
ln Lhe presence of many persons a few hours before Lhe
former kllled Lhe laLLer, was consldered a mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance LhaL Lhe acL was commlLLed ln Lhe
lmmedlaLe vlndlcaLlon of a grave offense (eople v.
arana).
! lnLerval Llme negaLlng vlndlcaLlon.
o eople v. Lumayag ! 9 monLhs had passed beLween
Lhe lnfllcLlon of physlcal ln[urles of Lhe deceased on Lhe
accused and Lhe acL of Lhe accused of murderlng Lhe
deceased.
o eople v. 8enlLo ! AL 11:00am, deceased Lold Lhe
accused - ln Lhe presence of Lhe laLLer's offlcemaLes -
hlndl ko alam na lLong Clvll Servlce pala ay lsLambayan
ng magnanakaw." Accused kllled Lhe deceased aL
3:00pm. no mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance.
o MlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance of lmmedlaLe vlndlcaLlon of a
grave offense cannoL be consldered ln favor of accused
because /) /1- $433"*"),% %"<) %+ #)*+G)# /"$ $)#),"%>
(eople v. Lopez)H

IV. rovocat|on v. V|nd|cat|on
rovocat|on V|nd|cat|on
Made -"#)*%5> +,5> %+ %/) 8)#$+,
commlLLlng Lhe felony.
1he grave offense may be
commlLLed 15$+ 121",$% %/)
+33),-)#@$ #)51%"G)$H
1he cause LhaL broughL abouL Lhe
provocaLlon ,))- ,+% 9) 1 2#1G)
+33),$)H
1he offended parLy <4$% /1G)
-+,) 1 2#1G) +33),$) Lo Lhe
offender or hls relaLlves.
rovocaLlon or LhreaL "<<)-"1%)5>
8#)*)-)- Lhe acL l.e. no lnLerval
Llme ln beLween.
?#+="<1%), whlch admlLs an
lnLerval Llme beLween Lhe grave
offense Llme by Lhe offended parLy
and Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
! C)1$+, 3+# -"33)#),*) ! 1hls greaLer lenlency ln Lhe case of
vlndlcaLlon ls due undoubLedly Lo Lhe facL LhaL lL concerns Lhe
honor of a person, an offense whlch ls more worLhy of
conslderaLlon Lhan mere splLe agalnsL Lhe one glvlng Lhe
provocaLlon or LhreaL.

V. 8as|s to determ|ne grav|ty of offense |n v|nd|cat|on
! ConslderaLlons ln deLermlnlng wheLher a cerLaln personal
offense was grave:
o Soclal sLandlng of Lhe person.
o lace where Lhe lnsulL was made.
o 1lme when Lhe lnsulL was made.
! Consldered grave offenses:
o SarcasLlc remark lmplylng Lhe accused was a peLLy
LyranL.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
o 8emark of Lhe ln[ured parLy before Lhe guesLs LhaL Lhe
accused llved aL Lhe expense of hls wlfe !
conslderaLlon of place.
o !usL afLer Lhe Amerlcan forces reoccupled Manlla, Lhe
offended parLy Lold Lhe accused LhaL Lhe laLLer was a
!apanese spy ! conslderaLlon of Llme.
! 1he provocaLlon should be proporLlonaLe Lo Lhe damage caused
by Lhe acL and adequaLe Lo sLlr one Lo lLs commlsslon.
! Crave offense musL be dlrecLed Lo Lhe accused.
o 1he supposed grave offense done by Lhe vlcLlm was an
alleged remark made ln Lhe presence of Lhe accused
LhaL Lhe Clvll Servlce Commlsslon ls a hangouL of
Lhleves. 1he remark lLself was general and noL alludlng
Lo anyone. eople ln Lhe vlclnlLy would noL have known
LhaL Lhe accused was posslbly belng lnsulLed unless Lhey
were aware LhaL he was faclng charges lnvolvlng hls
honesLy and lnLegrlLy (eople v. 8enlLo).
____________________
Ak. 6: 1nA1 CI nAVING AC1LD UCN AN IMULSL SC CWLkIUL AS
NA1UkALL 1C nAVL kCDUCLD ASSICN Ck C8IUSCA1ICN

I. 8as|s of aragraph 6
! asslon or obfuscaLlon ls a mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance because Lhe
offender who acLs wlLh passlon or obfuscaLlon suffers a
dlmlnuLlon of hls lnLelllgence and lnLenL.

II. kequ|s|tes:
! aragraph requlres LhaL:
o 1he accused acLed upon an lmpulse.
o 1he lmpulse musL be so powerful LhaL lL naLurally
produced passlon or obfuscaLlon ln hlm.
! 8equlslLes of Lhe mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance of passlon or
obfuscaLlon:
o 1haL Lhere be an acL boLh unlawful and sufflclenL Lo
produce such a condlLlon of mlnd.
o 1haL sald acL whlch produced Lhe obfuscaLlon was noL
far removed from Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme by a
conslderable lengLh of Llme durlng whlch Lhe
perpeLraLor mlghL recover hls normal equanlmlLy.

III. keason why pass|on or obfuscat|on |s m|t|gat|ng
! When Lhere are causes naLurally produclng ln a person powerful
exclLemenL, he loses hls reason and self-conLrol, Lhereby
dlmlnlshlng Lhe exerclse of hls wlll power.
! asslon or obfuscaLlon may consLlLuLe a mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance
only when Lhe same arose from lawful senLlmenLs.
o lor Lhls reason, even lf Lhere ls acLually passlon or
obfuscaLlon on Lhe parL of Lhe offender, Lhere ls no
mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance when:
" 1he acL ls commlLLed ln a splrlL of lawlessness.
" 1he acL ls commlLLed ln a splrlL of revenge.

IV. IIkS1 kequ|s|te: 1he act of the offended party must be both
un|awfu| and suff|c|ent to produce such a cond|t|on of m|nd.
! unlawful or un[usL acL of Lhe offended parLy"
o eople v. AncheLa, eL al. ! mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance
consldered ln favor of Lhe owner who, upon seelng Lhe
person who sLole hls carabao, shooLs Lhe supposed
Lhlef.
o eople v. SamonLe ! ueceased creaLed Lrouble durlng
Lhe wake of Lhe deparLed faLher of Lhe defendanL.
Conslderlng Lhe Lrouble creaLed by Lhe accused was
boLh unlawful and sufflclenL Lo lnfurlaLe accused, hls
gullL ls mlLlgaLed by passlon or obfuscaLlon.
! Lxerclse of a rlghL or fulflllmenL of a duLy ls noL proper source of
passlon or obfuscaLlon.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
o eople v. noynay, eL al. ! Where Lhe accused kllled Lhe
deceased when Lhe laLLer was golng Lo Lake hls carabao
Lo Lhe barrlo lleuLenanL afLer Lhe accused refused Lo pay
for Lhe sugar cane desLroyed by hls carabao. 1he
deceased was wlLhln Lhe rlghLs of Lhe deceased, and
Lhus Lhere ls noL mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance.
o uS v. 1aylor ! Accused was maklng a dlsLurbance on a
publlc sLreeL when a pollceman came Lo arresL hlm. 1he
anger and lndlgnaLlon of Lhe accused resulLlng from Lhe
arresL cannoL be consldered passlon and obfuscaLlon
because Lhe pollceman was performlng a lawful acL.
! AcL musL be sufflclenL Lo produce such a condlLlon of mlnd"
o lf Lhe cause of Lhe loss of self-conLrol was Lrlvlal and
sllghL, obfuscaLlon ls noL mlLlgaLlng.
! asslon or obfuscaLlon musL arlse from lawful senLlmenLs and
noL from a splrlL of lawlessness or revenge or from anger and
resenLmenL.
o uS v. ue la Cruz ! Accused was enLlLled Lo mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance of passlon or obfuscaLlon because Lhe
lmpulse was caused by Lhe sudden revelaLlon LhaL she
was unLrue Lo hlm, and hls dlscovery of her ln flagranLe
ln Lhe arms of a common acqualnLance.
", *+,%#1$%
o uS v. Plcks ! no mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance when Lhe
cause of passlon or obfuscaLlon of Lhe accused was hls
vexaLlon, dlsappolnLmenL and anger engendered by Lhe
refusal of Lhe woman Lo conLlnue llvlng ln llllclL relaLlons
wlLh hlm whlch she had Lhe perfecL rlghL Lo do.
o CbfuscaLlon arlslng from [ealousy <1> be lnvoked lf Lhe
relaLlonshlp ls leglLlmaLe. 8uL lf lL ls llleglLlmaLe, lL ls noL
mlLlgaLlng (eople. v. Clgado).

V. SLCCND kequ|s|te: 1hat sa|d act wh|ch produced the obfuscat|on
was not far removed from the comm|ss|on of the cr|me by a
cons|derab|e |ength of t|me dur|ng wh|ch the perpetrator m|ght
recover h|s norma| equan|m|ty.
! no passlon or obfuscaLlon when:
o 24 has elapsed beLween Lhe alleged lnsulL and Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe felony.
o Several hours passed beLween Lhe cause of passlon or
obfuscaLlon and Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
o AL leasL half an hour lnLervened beLween Lhe prevlous
flghL and Lhe subsequenL kllllng of Lhe deceased by Lhe
accused.
! erlod LhaL has lapsed ls long enough for pause and reflecLlon.

VI. May pass|on or obfuscat|on |awfu||y ar|se from causes ex|st|ng on|y
|n the honest be||ef of the offender? ! LS
! uS v. lerrer ! bellef of Lhe defendanL LhaL Lhe deceased had
caused hls dlsmlssal from hls employmenL ls sufflclenL Lo
confuse hls reason and lmpel hlm Lo commlL Lhe crlme.
! uS v. MacallnLal ! bellef enLerLalned ln good falLh by Lhe
defendanLs LhaL Lhe deceased casL upon Lhelr moLher a spell of
wlLhcrafL whlch was Lhe cause of serlous lllness ls sufflclenL.

VII. Cther Notes
! rovocaLlon and obfuscaLlon when arlslng from one and Lhe
same cause should be LreaLed as only one mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance (p.309).
! vlndlcaLlon of grave offense cannoL co-exlsL wlLh passlon and
obfuscaLlon.
o LxcepLlon: when Lhere are oLher facLs, alLhough closely
connecLed l.e. where Lhere are oLher facLs, alLhough
closely connecLed wlLh Lhe facL upon whlch one
clrcumsLance ls premlsed, Lhe oLher clrcumsLance may
be appreclaLed as based on Lhe oLher facL (eople v.
ulokno)
o Lxample: 1wo facLs whlch are closely connecLed
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
" LlopemenL, whlch ls a grave offense of a famlly
of old cusLoms ! vlndlcaLlon as mlLlgaLlng.
" 8efusal Lo deal wlLh hlm, a sLlmulus sLrong
enough Lo produce ln hls mlnd a flL of passlon
! passlon as a mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance.
! vlndlcaLlon and obfuscaLlon cannoL be consldered when Lhe
person aLLacked ls noL Lhe one who gave cause Lherefore.
! asslon or obfuscaLlon compaLlble wlLh lack of lnLenLlon Lo
commlL so grave a wrong.
! asslon or obfuscaLlon lncompaLlble wlLh Lreachery.
o Whlle ln passlon or obfuscaLlon, Lhe offender loses hls
reason and self-conLrol, ln Lhe aggravaLlng clrcumsLance
of Lreachery Lhe mode of aLLack musL be consclously
adopLed.
! asslon and obfuscaLlon cannoL co-exlsL wlLh evldenL pre-
medlLaLlon.
____________________
Ak. 7: 1nA1 1nL CIILNDLk nAD VCLUN1AkIL SUkkLNDLkLD
nIMSLLI 1C A LkSCN IN AU1nCkI1 Ck nIS AGLN1S, Ck 1nA1 nL
nAD VCLUN1AkIL CCNILSSLD nIS GUIL1 8LICkL 1nL CCUk1 kICk
1C 1nL kLSLN1A1ICN CI 1nL LVIDLNCL ICk 1nL kCSLCU1ICN

I. 8as|s of aragraph 7
! Lesser perverslLy of Lhe offender.

II. 1wo m|t|gat|ng c|rcumstances |n paragraph:
1. volunLary surrender Lo a person ln auLhorlLy or hls agenLs.
2. volunLary confesslon of gullL before Lhe courL prlor Lo Lhe
presenLaLlon of Lhe evldence for Lhe prosecuLlon.
! under ArLlcle 13, when boLh are presenL, Lhey should have Lhe
effecL of mlLlgaLlng as Lwo lndependenL clrcumsLances.
! When Lhey mlLlgaLe Lhe penalLy, when boLh are presenL, Lhey
should produce Lhls effecL Lo a greaLer exLenL.

III. kequ|s|tes
! 8equlslLes for paragraph 7:
o Cffender had oot beeo octoolly ottesteJ
o Cffender surrendered hlmself Lo a petsoo lo ootbotlty of
to tbe lottets oqeot
o Surrender ls voloototy
! 8equlslLes of volunLarlness:
o Same musL be spootooeoos ln such a manner LhaL lL
shows Lhe lnLeresL of Lhe accused Lo surrender
uncondlLlonally Lo Lhe auLhorlLles elLher because he
acknowledges hls gullL or LhaL he wanLs Lo save Lhe
auLhorlLles Lhe Lrouble and expenses of locaLlng and
capLurlng hlm.
o Accused musL octoolly sotteoJet lo bls owo petsoo Lo
Lhe auLhorlLles, admlLLlng compllclLy Lo Lhe crlme
o MusL loJlcote o Jeslte on hls parL Lo own Lhe
responslblllLles for Lhe crlme

IV. IIkS1 kequ|s|te: Cffender had not been actua||y arrested and
surrendered h|mse|f.
! Cases of volunLary surrender
o eople v. 1enorlo ! upon seelng a pollceman, Lhe
accused surrendered and admlLLed he dld Lhe crlme.
1here was lnLenL and deslre on hls parL Lo surrender.
o eople v. uayrlL ! Accused hld ln Lhe hoLel noL because
of Lhe pollce buL because of Lhe relaLlves of Lhe
deceased. upon seelng pollcemen, he readlly admlLLed
ownershlp of Lhe weapon and wenL wlLh Lhe pollcemen.
o eople v. 8enlLo ! lnsLead of escaplng, Lhe accused
called Lhe pollce, volunLarlly approached Lhem when
Lhey came Lhough noL reveallng hls ldenLlLy, and sald
LhaL he wlll help Lhe pollce flnd Lhe suspecL. LaLer on, he
admlLLed LhaL he was volunLarlly surrenderlng hlmself.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
o eople v. Magpalay ! Accused made several aLLempLs
Lo surrender buL somehow lL goL delayed because of
varlous reasons and so he only goL Lo surrender afLer a
week. no deflance of law was presenL.
o eople v. 1orres ! 1he accused had no opporLunlLy Lo
surrender slnce Lhe pollce already came buL Lhey
already ylelded Lhelr weapons aL LhaL Llme.
o eople v. 8adomes ! 1here was no reslsLance on Lhe
parL of Lhe accused and even volunLarlly gave hls
weapon and gave hlmself up Lo Lhe auLhorlLles before
hls arresL.
o eople v. !ereza ! Accused broughL hls weapon Lo Lhe
pollce buL lL ls unsure lf he ls also surrenderlng hls
person. Pe ls glven Lhe beneflL of Lhe doubL of volunLary
surrender.
o eople v. 8rana ! noLhlng on records Lo show LhaL a
warranL of arresL was lssued and accused surrendered
hlmself.
! Cases noL consLlLuLlng volunLary surrender
o Ll ueblo conLra Conwl ! WarranL of arresL showed
LhaL accused was ln facL arresLed.
o eople v. 8oldan! Accused surrendered only afLer Lhe
warranL of arresL was served upon hlm.
o eople v.velez ! Lven lf Lhe pollce used Lhe word
surrender," lf Lhe accused surrendered because of hls
warranL of arresL.
o eople v. MaLlong ! Accused wenL lnLo hldlng and only
surrendered when Lhey reallzed LhaL Lhe pollce are
closlng ln on Lhem.
o eople v. Salvllla ! Accused could no longer refuse Lo
surrender glven Lhe clrcumsLances LhaL Lhey are ln and
Lhere was no chance of escaplng. 1helr surrender ls
moLlvaLed by Lhelr lnLenL of lnsurlng Lhelr safeLy.
o eople v. uela Cruz ! Search for Lhe accused lasLed for
4 years, whlch belles Lhe sponLanelLy of Lhe surrender.
o eople v. Carcla ! no oLher evldence was presenLed Lo
esLabllsh lndublLably LhaL he dellberaLely surrendered
Lo Lhe pollce.
o eople v. 1rlgo ! Accused only wenL Lo Lhe pollce
sLaLlon Lo reporL wlfe was sLabbed and Lo proLecL
hlmself ouL of fear.
o eople v. 8ogales ! Cnly wenL Lo Lhe headquarLers
merely Lo reporL Lhe lncldenL whlch does noL evlnce any
deslre Lo own Lhe responslblllLy for Lhe kllllng of Lhe
deceased
o eople v. Canoy ! lL does noL appear LhaL lL was Lhe
ldea of Lhe accused Lo send for Lhe pollce for Lhe
purpose of glvlng hlmself up.
o eople v. Canoy ! AuLhorlLles were noL looklng for hlm,
and would noL have looked for hlm lf he had noL been
presenL aL Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon by Lhe Chlef of ollce.
o eople v. 8ublnal ! upon belng caughL, accused
preLended Lo say LhaL he was on hls way Lo surrender
hlmself Lo Lhe auLhorlLles.
]W+54,%1#"5> $4##),-)#)- /"<$)53^ 8#"+# %+ 9)",2 1##)$%)-
! eople v. !ose de 8amos
o lacLs: AfLer Lhe lncldenL, accused reporLed lL Lo Lhe
councllor, even sLayed ln Lhe councllor's home for an
hour and submlLLlng Lhe bolo used buL noL hls person Lo
Lhe auLhorlLles.
o Peld: 1he law requlres LhaL Lhe offender musL have
volunLarlly surrendered hlmself Lo a person ln
auLhorlLy or hls agenLs."
! Surrender of weapons cannoL be equaLed wlLh volunLary
surrender.
! Surrender noL mlLlgaLlng when Lhe defendanL ls arresLed.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
o eople v. Conwl ! no volunLary surrender when Lhe
warranL of arresL showed LhaL Lhe defendanL was ln facL
arresLed.
o osslble exempLlon:
" eople v. arana ! When Lhe accused afLer
commlLLlng Lhe offense and havlng Lhe chance
Lo escape, volunLarlly walLed for Lhe auLhorlLles
and surrendered hlmself.
" eople v. 8ablera ! When Lhe accused helped
ln carrylng hls vlcLlm Lo Lhe hosplLal where he
was dlsarmed and arresLed. lL ls LanLamounL Lo
volunLary surrender.
! When Lhe warranL of arresL had noL been served or noL
reLurned unserved because Lhe accused cannoL be locaLed Lhe
surrender ls mlLlgaLlng.
o 1he law does noL requlre LhaL Lhe surrender be prlor Lo
Lhe order of arresL ! Lhe mere flllng of an lnformaLlon
and/or Lhe lssuances of a warranL of arresL wlll noL
auLomaLlcally make Lhe surrender lnvolunLary".

V. SLCCND kequ|s|te: Cffender surrendered h|mse|f to a person |n
author|ty of to the |atter's agent.
! 1he surrender musL be made Lo a person ln auLhorlLy or hls
agenL.
o erson ln AuLhorlLy ! one dlrecLly vesLed wlLh
[urlsdlcLlon, LhaL ls a publlc offlcer who has Lhe power Lo
govern and execuLe Lhe laws wheLher as an lndlvldual or
as a member of some courL or governmenLal
corporaLlon, board or commlsslon. (Art|c|e 1S2 kC as
amended by D no. 299)
o AgenL of a erson ln AuLhorlLy ! person, who, by dlrecL
provlslon of Lhe law, or by elecLlon or by appolnLmenL,
by compeLenL auLhorlLy, ls charged wlLh Lhe
malnLenance of publlc order, and Lhe proLecLlon and
securlLy of llfe and properLy and any person who comes
Lo Lhe ald of persons ln auLhorlLy.

VI. 1nIkD kequ|s|te: Surrender |s vo|untary
A/), "$ $4##),-)# G+54,%1#>_
! MusL be sponLaneous, showlng Lhe lnLenL of Lhe accused Lo
submlL hlmself uncondlLlonally Lo Lhe auLhorlLles, elLher:
1. 8ecause of acknowledgemenL of gullL or
2. 8ecause he wlshed Lo save Lhe Lrouble and expenses
necessarlly lncurred ln hls search and capLure.
! none of Lhese 2 reasons and moLlvaLed by oLher lnLenLlons: noL
volunLary!
./) $4##),-)# <4$% 9) $8+,%1,)+4$
! SponLaneous ! ldea of an lnner lmpulse, acLlng wlLhouL
exLernal sLlmulus.
! ConducL of Lhe accused afLer Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense
deLermlnes Lhe sponLanelLy of Lhe surrender.
! lnLenLlons Lo surrender wlLhouL acLually surrenderlng, ls noL
mlLlgaLlng.
o 1he law requlres LhaL Lhe accused musL surrender
hlmself.
! 1here ls sponLanelLy even lf Lhe surrender ls lnduced by fear of
reLallaLlon by Lhe vlcLlm's relaLlves
o uoes noL galnsay Lhe sponLanelLy of Lhe surrender, nor
alLer Lhe facL LhaL by glvlng hlmself up, Lhls accused
saved Lhe SLaLe Lhe Llme and Lrouble of searchlng for
hlm unLll arresLed. (eople v. ClemenLe)
! When Lhe offender lmposed a condlLlon or acLed wlLh exLernal
sLlmulus, hls surrender ls noL volunLary.
! A surrender ls noL volunLary when forced by clrcumsLances.
o Lxamples: bellef LhaL escape ls lmposslble, lmposslblllLy
of llvlng ln hosLlllLy.
W+54,%1#> $4##),-)# -+)$ ,+% $"<85> <)1, ,+,D35"2/%
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
! A/1% %/) 516 *+,$"-)#$ 1$ <"%"21%",2 "$ %/) G+54,%1#>
$4##),-)# +3 1, 1**4$)- 9)3+#) /"$ 1##)$%& $/+6",2 )"%/)#
1*[,+65)-2)<),% +3 /"$ 24"5% +# 1, ",%),%"+, %+ $1G) %/)
14%/+#"%")$ 3#+< %/) %#+495) 1,- )=8),$) %/1% /"$ $)1#*/ 1,-
*18%4#)H
o Lven lf accused dld noL go lnLo hldlng and even
accompanled Lhe pollce Lo Lhe scene of Lhe crlme, such
acL ls noL volunLary surrender lf he dld noL submlL
hlmself or admlL compllclLy Lo Lhe crlme.
! 1lme and place of surrender.
o 8C does noL make any dlsLlncLlon among Lhe varlous
momenLs when Lhe surrender may occur.
o 1he law does noL requlre Lhe surrender Lo be prlor Lo
Lhe order of Lhe arresL.
! 1he surrender musL be by reason of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme for whlch defendanL ls prosecuLed
o 1hus, lf Lhe defendanL surrendered as a Puk Lo Lake
advanLage of Lhe amnesLy, buL Lhe crlme for whlch he
was prosecuLed was dlsLlncL and separaLe from
rebelllon, hls surrender ls noL mlLlgaLlng (eople v
Semanada).
! Surrender Lhrough an lnLermedlary
o Surrender of an accused Lhrough hls faLher who acLed
as medlaLor was appreclaLed Lo be mlLlgaLlng (eople v.
ue la Cruz).

VII. Confess|on of gu||t before a court pr|or to the presentat|on of
ev|dence by the prosecut|on
?5)1 +3 X4"5%>
! 1hree requlslLes
o Cffender sponLaneously confessed hls gullL.
o Confesslon made ln open courL LhaL ls, before Lhe
compeLenL courL.
o Confesslon of gullL made prlor Lo Lhe presenLaLlon of
evldence for Lhe prosecuLlon.
! When lL musL be made:
o 1he plea musL be made before Lrlal beglns.
o lea of gullLy on appeal, noL mlLlgaLlng when:
" lea of gullLy musL be made aL Lhe flrsL
opporLunlLy.
" Munlclpal CourL Lo CourL of llrsL lnsLance does
noL resLore Lhe case Lo lLs orlglnal sLaLe: 1he law
requlres a Lrlal de novo, because a Lrlal de novo
necessarlly lmplles Lhe exlsLence of a prevlous
Lrlal where evldence was presenLed by Lhe
prosecuLlon.
! hllosophy behlnd Lhe rule:
o SponLaneous wllllngness of Lhe accused Lo admlL Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe offense charged musL be presenL.
! keason why p|ea of gu||ty |s m|t|gat|ng:
o AcL of repenLance and respecL of Lhe law
o lndlcaLes a moral dlsposlLlon favorable Lo Lhe accused's
reform
./) *+,3)$$"+, +3 24"5% <4$% 9) <1-) ", +8), *+4#%H
! 1he exLra[udlclal confesslon ls noL Lhe volunLary confesslon Lhe
CourL conLemplaLes. Such confesslon was made ouLslde of
courLs.
! 1he confesslon of gullL musL be made prlor Lo Lhe presenLaLlon
of Lhe evldence for Lhe prosecuLlon
o 1hlrd requlslLe ls lacklng when plea of gullLy ls made
afLer Lhe flscal had presenLed evldence.
o 8eneflL of plea of gullLy undeservlng by accused who
submlLs Lo Lhe law only afLer Lhe presenLaLlon of some
evldence for Lhe prosecuLlon.
o lL ls noL necessary LhaL all Lhe evldence of Lhe
prosecuLlon have been presenLed.
?5)1 +3 24"5%> $/+45- 9) <1-) 8#"+# %+ 8#)$),%1%"+, +3 )G"-),*)
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
! lleo of oot qollty ot tbe ptellmlooty lovestlqotloo ls oo pleo ot
oll.
o lea made ln Lhe courL of compeLenL [urlsdlcLlon ls Lhe
one recognlzed.
! wltbJtowol of pleo of oot qollty ooJ pleoJloq qollty befote
pteseototloo of evlJeoce by ptosecotloo ls stlll mltlqotloq.
o All LhaL Lhe law requlres ls volunLary plea of gullLy prlor
Lo Lhe presenLaLlon of Lhe evldence by Lhe prosecuLlon.
o 1he change of plea should be made aL Lhe flrsL
opporLunlLy.
o A condlLlonal plea of gullLy ls noL a mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance.
! lea of gullLy Lo amended lnformaLlon
o An enLlrely new lnformaLlon arlses and no evldence was
presenLed ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe charges made Lhereln
before Lhe accused enLered hls plea of gullLy. 1he
accused ls enLlLled Lo Lhe mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance of
plea of gullLy.
! lea of gullLy Lo lesser offense Lhan LhaL charged, noL mlLlgaLlng
o 1o be volunLary, Lhe plea of gullLy musL be Lo Lhe
offense charged.
o lf volunLary confesslon ls condlLlonal or quallfled, lL ls
noL mlLlgaLlng.
! lea of gullLy Lo Lhe offense charged ln Lhe amended
lnformaLlon, whlch ls lesser Lhan LhaL charged ln Lhe orlglnal
lnformaLlon, ls mlLlgaLlng.
o eople v. lnLal
" lacLs: 1he accused was charged wlLh double
murder and he pleaded noL gullLy Lo lL. Pe Lhen
moved Lhe CourL Lo wlLhdraw hls former plea of
noL gullLy Lo gullLy Lo Lhe lesser crlme of double
homlclde. rosecuLlon also changed lLs charge
Lo double homlclde.
" Peld: plea of gullLy Lo Lhe lesser offense charged
ln Lhe amended lnformaLlon ls mlLlgaLlng
o When Lhe accused ls charged wlLh a grave offense, Lhe
courL should Lake hls LesLlmony ln splLe of hls plea of
gullLy
" 8ecause Lhere ls no law prohlblLlng Lhe Laklng of
LesLlmony afLer a plea of gullLy, where a grave
offence ls charged, Lhe CourL has deemed such
Laklng of LesLlmony Lhe prudenL and proper
course Lo follow for Lhe purpose of esLabllshlng
Lhe gullL and Lhe preclse degree of culpablllLy of
Lhe defendanL.
! ueaLh penalLy changed Lo llfe lmprlsonmenL because of plea of
gullLy, even lf done durlng Lhe presenLaLlon of evldence
o Such an admlsslon of gullL lndlcaLes hls submlsslon Lo
Lhe law and a moral dlsposlLlon on hls parL Lo reform,
hence Lhe change ln penalLy.
! MandaLory presenLaLlon of evldence ln plea of gullLy Lo caplLal
offense
o 8evlsed 8ules of Crlmlnal rocedure (ku|e 116, Sec. 3)
" Where Lhe accused pleads gullLy Lo a caplLal
offense, LhaL courLs shall conducL a searchlng
lnqulry lnLo Lhe volunLarlness and full
comprehenslon of Lhe consequences of hls plea
and sboll tepolte tbe ptosecotloo to ptove bls
qollt ooJ tbe pteclse Jeqtee of colpoblllty.
()1#*/",2 K,:4"#>
! Culdellnes:
o AscerLaln from Lhe accused hlmself (a) how he was
broughL lnLo Lhe cusLody of Lhe law, (b) wheLher he had
Lhe asslsLance of a compeLenL counsel durlng Lhe
cusLodlal and prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlons and (c) under
whaL condlLlons he was deLalned and lnLerrogaLed
durlng Lhe lnvesLlgaLlons
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
o Ask defense counsel a serles of quesLlons as Lo wheLher
he had conferred wlLh and compleLely explalned Lo Lhe
accused Lhe meanlng and consequences of a plea of
gullLy
o LllclL lnformaLlon abouL Lhe personallLy proflle of Lhe
accused
o lnform Lhe accused of Lhe exacL lengLh of lmprlsonmenL
or naLure of penalLy under Lhe law and Lhe cerLalnLy
LhaL he wlll serve such senLence.
o lnqulre lf Lhe accused knows Lhe crlme wlLh whlch he ls
charged and Lo fully explaln Lo hlm Lhe elemenLs of Lhe
crlme whlch ls Lhe basls of hls lndlcLmenL
o use language LhaL ls known and undersLood by Lhe
accused
o 1rlal [udge musL saLlsfy hlmself LhaL Lhe accused ln
pleadlng gullLy, ls Lruly gullLy.
?5)1 +3 24"5%> "$ ,+% <"%"21%",2 ", *458195) 3)5+,")$ 1,- ", *#"<)$
84,"$/)- 9> $8)*"15 516$
o ArLlcle 363, paragraph 3 of 8C: ln Lhe lmposlLlon of
Lhese penalLles, Lhe courLs shall exerclse Lhelr sound
dlscreLlon, wlLhouL regard Lo Lhe rules prescrlbed ln
ArLlcle 64."
o When Lhere ls a mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance wlLhouL any
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance, Lhe penalLy Lo be lmposed ls
Lhe mlnlmum perlod of Lhe dlvlslble penalLy.
o When Lhe crlme ls punlshed by a speclal law, Lhe courL
shall also exerclse lLs sound dlscreLlon
o ArLlcle 64 ls appllcable only when Lhe penalLy has 3
perlods.
____________________
Ak. 8: 1nA1 1nL CIILNDLk IS DLAI AND DUM8, 8LIND Ck
C1nLkWISL SUIILkING SCML nSICAL DLILC1 WnICn 1nUS
kLS1kIC1S nIS MLANS CI AC1ICN, DLILNSL Ck CCMMUNICA1ICN
WI1n nIS ILLLCW 8LINGS.

I. 8as|s of ar. 8:
! Conslders Lhe facL LhaL one sufferlng from physlcal defecL does
noL have compleLe freedom of acLlon, and Lherefore Lhere ls a
dlmlnuLlon of LhaL elemenL of volunLarlness.

II. hys|ca| defect must restr|ct means of act|ons, defense, or
commun|cat|on w|th fe||ow be|ngs
! hyslcal defecL ln Lhls paragraph: armless, crlpple, or a sLuLLerer,
whereby hls means Lo acL, defend hlmself or communlcaLe wlLh
hls fellow belngs are ||m|ted.
! aragraph does noL dlsLlngulsh beLween educaLed and
uneducaLed deaf-muLe or bllnd persons. 1he Code conslders
Lhem as be|ng on equa| foot|ng.
____________________
Ak. 9: SUCn ILLNLSS CI 1nL CIILNDLk AS WCULD DIMINISn nIS
LkLkCISING CI 1nL WILL-CWLk CI 1nL CIILNDLk WI1nCU1
nCWLVLk DLkIVING nIM CI CCNSCICUSNLSS CI nIS AC1S.

I. 8as|s of aragraph 9
! 1he clrcumsLance ln paragraph 9 of Art|c|e 13 ls mlLlgaLlng
because Lhere ls a dlmlnuLlon of lnLelllgence and lnLenL.

II. kequ|s|tes:
1. 1haL Lhe lllness of Lhe offender musL dlmlnlsh Lhe exerclse of hls
wlll-power.
2. 1haL such lllness should noL deprlve Lhe offender of
consclousness of hls acLs.

III. Comp|ete |oss of w|||-power may be an exempt|ng c|rcumstance.
! A person wlLh Jemeotlo ptoecox or moolc Jeptesslve psycbosls
has no conLrol over hls acLs durlng perlods of exclLemenL.
! 1hls may be an exempLlng clrcumsLance lf Lhe accused ls
demenLed aL Lhe Llme he perpeLraLed Lhe crlme.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!

IV. I||ness of the m|nd |s |nc|uded
! 1he foregolng legal provlslon refers only Lo dlseases of
potboloqlcol stote LhaL ttooble Lhe cooscleoce or wlll.
! eople v. lranclsco
o lL was held LhaL paragraph 9 applles Lo defendanL who
commlLLed Lhe crlme whlle sufferlng from lllness of Lhe
body, tbe mloJ, tbe oetves ot tbe motol focolty.
! lllness of Lhe mlnd may glve place Lo mlLlgaLlon of punlshmenL.

V. Lxamp|es where |||ness of the offender cons|dered m|t|gat|ng
! eople v. 8alneg
o 1he mlsLaken bellef of Lhe accused LhaL Lhe kllllng of a
wlLch was for Lhe publlc good may be consldered a
mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance for Lhe reason LhaL Lhose who
have obsesslon (LhaL wlLches are Lo be kllled) does noL
have real conLrol over hls wlll.
! eople v. AmlL
o AlLhough belng menLally sane, Lhe appellanL ls sufferlng
from a mllJ bebovlot JlsotJet, whlch Lhe courL regarded
as a mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance.
! eople v. CarpenLer
o Cne sufferlng from ocote oeotosls, whlch dlmlnlshed
exerclse of wlll power, ls enLlLled Lo Lhls mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance.
! eople v. lormlgones
o Cne who ls feeblemloJeJ warranLs Lhe flndlng ln hls
favor of Lhe mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance.
! eople v. AnLonlo
o Cne sufferlng from scblzo-offectlve dlsorder or
psychosls, whlch dlmlnlshes Lhe exerclse of hls wlll-
power buL does noL deprlve hlm of Lhe consclousness of
hls acLs, may be credlLed wlLh Lhls mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance.
____________________
Ak. 10: AND IINALL, AN C1nLk CIkCUMS1ANCL CI A SIMILAk
NA1UkL AND ANALCGCUS 1C 1nCSL A8CVL-MLN1ICNLD.

I. C|rcumstances wh|ch are s|m||ar |n nature and ana|ogous to those
ment|oned |n paragraphs 1-9 of Art|c|e 13:
! 1hls paragraph auLhorlzes Lhe courL Lo conslder ln favor of Lhe
accused any oLher clrcumsLance of a slmllar naLure and
analogous Lo Lhose menLloned" ln par. 1 - 9.
S|m||ar]Ana|ogous Art|c|e Content ar.
LxLreme poverLy

Lx: eople v. Macbul ! 1he
accused, on accounL of
exLreme poverLy pllfered 2
sacks of paper valued aL 10
pesos and sold lL for 2.30. Such
was consldered a mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance
Slmllar Lo lncompleLe
[usLlflcaLlon based on sLaLe
of necesslLy
LxLreme poverLy may mlLlgaLe a crlme agalnsL properLy, such
as LhefL, buL noL a crlme of vlolence such as murder.
ar. 1
Cver 60 years old wlLh falllng
slghL
Slmllar Lo 70 years old of age ar. 2
CuLraged feellng of owner of
anlmal Laken for ransom

Lx: 8 Look a carabao of Lhe A
and held lL for ransom, and
LhereafLer 8 falled Lo fulflll hls
promlse Lo glve Lhe carabao
back. When A kllls 8, A ls
enLlLled Lo mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance analogous Lo
vlndlcaLlon of grave offense.
Analogous Lo vlndlcaLlon of a
grave offense
ar. 3
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
CuLraged feellng of credlLor Slmllar Lo passlon and
obfuscaLlon
lmpulse of [ealous feellng Slmllar Lo passlon and
obfuscaLlon
sptlt Je cotps

Lx: eople v. vlllamora !
many of Lhe soldlers who Look
parL ln Lhe kllllng of Lhe
deceased responded Lo Lhe
call and appeal of Lhelr
lleuLenanL who urged Lhem Lo
avenge Lhe ouLrage commlLLed
by Lhe deceased.
Slmllar Lo passlon and
obfuscaLlon
ar. 6
volunLary resLlLuLlon of sLolen
properLy

Lx: eople v. navasca ! 1he
acL of LesLlfylng for Lhe
prosecuLlon, by one of Lhe
accused, should be consldered
ln hls favor as a mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance analogous Lo a
plea of gullLy.
Slmllar Lo volunLary
surrender
1esLlfylng for Lhe prosecuLlon Analogous Lo gullLy" plea
ar. 7
ManlfesLaLlons of 8aLLered
Wlfe Syndrome (8WS)
Analogous Lo an lllness LhaL
dlmlnlshed Lhe exerclse of
wlll power
ar. 9

C)$%"%4%"+, ", <15G)#$1%"+, *1$) "$ +,5> 1 <"%"21%",2 *"#*4<$%1,*)
! aymenL or relmbursemenL ls noL a defense for exoneraLlon ln
malversaLlon, lL may only be consldered as a mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance because 'damage' ls noL an elemenL of
malversaLlon.
O"55",2 %/) 6#+,2 <1, "$ ,+% <"%"21%",2

II. Not ana|ogous m|t|gat|ng C|rcumstance
! ln parrlclde, Lhe facL LhaL Lhe vlcLlm was unworLhy, bad or
quarrelsome ls not analogous Lo any of Lhose menLloned ln ArL
13 a mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance.
! eople v. uy
o 1he accused who was charged wlLh falslflcaLlon,
pleaded gullLy and lnvoked as mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance
Lhe lack of lrreparable maLerlal damage. 1he courL ruled
LhaL Lhls ls not recognlzed as a mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance
! noL reslsLlng arresL ls not analogous Lo volunLary surrender.
! 1he condlLlon of runnlng amuck ls noL mlLlgaLlng
o eople v. Salazar- 1he defense conLended LhaL runnlng
amuck ls a culL among Lhe Moros LhaL ls age-old and
deeply rooLed. CourL ruled LhaL Lhe mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLances musL be applled Lo all regardless of
rellglon.

III. M|t|gat|ng c|rcumstances wh|ch are persona| to the offenders
! 1he followlng clrcumsLances shall only serve Lo mlLlgaLe Lhe
llablllLy of Lhe prlnclpals, accompllces, and accessorles as Lo
whom such clrcumsLances are aLLendanL:
1. MlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances whlch arlse from Lhe moral
aLLrlbuLes of Lhe offender.
2. MlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances whlch arlse from Lhe prlvaLe
relaLlons of Lhe offender wlLh Lhe offended parLy.
3. MlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances whlch arlse from any personal
cause.

IV. C|rcumstances wh|ch are ne|ther exempt|ng or m|t|gat|ng:
1. MlsLake ln Lhe blow.
2. MlsLake ln Lhe ldenLlLy of Lhe vlcLlm.
3. LnLrapmenL of Lhe accused.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
4. 1he accused ls over 18 years of age.
3. erformance of rlghLeous acLlon (l.e. alLhough Lhe accused
saved Lhe llves of a Lhousand, lf he kllls a slngle human belng, he
ls crlmlnally llable eople v. vlcLorla).

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
1I1LL CNL - ILLCNILS AND CIkCUMS1ANCLS WnICn AIILC1 CkIMINAL
LIA8ILI1
CnA1Lk 4: CIkCUMS1ANCL WnICn AGGkAVA1L CkIMINAL LIA8ILI1

Art|c|e 14. !""#$%$&'(" *'#*+,-&$(*.- - 1he fo||ow|ng are aggravat|ng
c|rcumstances:
1. 1hat advantage be taken by the offender of h|s pub||c pos|t|on.
2. 1hat the cr|me be comm|tted |n contempt of or w|th |nsu|t to
the pub||c author|t|es.
3. 1hat the act be comm|tted w|th |nsu|t or |n d|sregard of the
respect due to the offended party on account of h|s rank, age,
or sex, or that |t be comm|tted |n the dwe|||ng of the offended
party, |f the |atter has not g|ven provocat|on.
4. 1hat the act be comm|tted w|th abuse of conf|dence or
obv|ous ungratefu|ness.
S. 1hat the cr|me be comm|tted |n the pa|ace of the Ch|ef
Lxecut|ve, or |n h|s presence, or where pub||c author|t|es are
engaged |n the d|scharge of the|r dut|es or |n a p|ace ded|cated
to re||g|ous worsh|p.
6. 1hat the cr|me be comm|tted |n the n|ghtt|me or |n an
un|nhab|ted p|ace, or by a band, whenever such c|rcumstances
may fac|||tate the comm|ss|on of the offense.
Whenever more than three armed ma|efactors sha|| have
acted together |n the comm|ss|on of an offense, |t sha|| be
deemed to have been comm|tted by a band.
7. 1hat the cr|me be comm|tted on the occas|on of a
conf|agrat|on, sh|pwreck, earthquake, ep|dem|c, or other
ca|am|ty or m|sfortune.
8. 1hat the cr|me be comm|tted w|th the a|d of armed men or
persons who |nsure or afford |mpun|ty.
9. 1hat the accused |s a rec|d|v|st.
A rec|d|v|st |s one who, at the t|me of h|s tr|a| for one cr|me,
sha|| have been prev|ous|y conv|cted by f|na| [udgment of
another cr|me embraced |n the same t|t|e of h|s Code.
10. 1hat the offender has been prev|ous|y pun|shed for an offense
to wh|ch the |aw attaches an equa| or greater pena|ty or for
two or more cr|mes to wh|ch |t attaches a ||ghter pena|ty.
11. 1hat the cr|me be comm|tted |n cons|derat|on of a pr|ce,
reward, or prom|se.
12. 1hat the cr|me be comm|tted by means of |nundat|on, f|re,
po|son, exp|os|on, strand|ng of a vesse| or |ntent|ona| damage
thereto, dera||ment of a |ocomot|ve, or by use of any other
art|f|ce |nvo|v|ng great waste and ru|n.
13. 1hat the act be comm|tted w|th ev|dent premed|tat|on.
14. 1hat craft, fraud, or d|sgu|se |s emp|oyed.
1S. 1hat the advantage be taken of super|or strength, or means be
emp|oyed to weaken the defense.
16. 1hat the act be comm|tted w|th treachery (a|evos|a).
1here |s treachery when the offender comm|ts any of the
cr|mes aga|nst the person, emp|oy|ng means, methods, or
forms |n the execut|on thereof wh|ch tend d|rect|y and
spec|a||y to |nsure |ts execut|on, w|thout r|sk to h|mse|f ar|s|ng
from the defense wh|ch the offended party m|ght make.
17. 1hat means be emp|oyed or c|rcumstances brought about
wh|ch add |gnom|ny to the natura| effects of the act.
18. 1hat the cr|me be comm|tted after an un|awfu| entry.
1here |s un|awfu| entry when an entrance |s effected by a way
not |ntended for the purpose.
19. 1hat as a means to the comm|ss|on of a cr|me a wa||, roof,
f|oor, door, or w|ndow be broken.
20. 1hat the cr|me be comm|tted w|th the a|d of persons under
f|fteen years of age, or be means of motor veh|c|e, a|rsh|ps, or
other s|m||ar means.
21. 1hat the wrong done |n the comm|ss|on of the cr|me be
de||berate|y augmented by caus|ng other wrong not necessary
for |ts comm|ss|on.


!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
CIN1S
1o be apprec|ated, qua||fy|ng and aggravat|ng c|rcumstances must be
a||eged |n the |nformat|on.
! Lvery complalnL or lnformaLlon musL sLaLe noL only Lhe
quallfylng buL also Lhe aggravaLlng clrcumsLances (2000 kev|sed
ku|es of Cr|m|na| rocedure)
o 8ule can be glven reLroacLlve effecL ln Lhe llghL of Lhe
well-esLabllshed rule LhaL sLaLuLes regulaLlng Lhe
procedure of Lhe courLs wlll be consLrued as appllcable
Lo acLlons pendlng and undeLermlned aL Lhe Llme of
Lhelr passage.

If not a||eged, they may st||| be cons|dered |n the award of damages.
____________________
Ak 1: 1nA1 ADVAN1AGL 8L 1AkLN 8 1nL CIILNDLk CI nIS U8LIC
CSI1ICN.

I. 8as|s of aragraph 1:
! 8ased on Lhe greaLer perverslLy of Lhe offender, as shown by
Lhe !"#$%&'( *+#*,-$.'&*" of Lhe offender and also by means
used Lo secure Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.

II. App||cab|e on|y when the offender |s a pub||c off|cer
! ubllc poslLlon" - polnLs Lo a publlc offlcer. aragraph 1 ls
appllcable only Lo a publlc offlcer who .'/"$ '01'&.'2" of such
publlc poslLlon.

III. Mean|ng of "advantage be taken by the offender of h|s pub||c
pos|t|on."
! ubllc offlcer musL use Lhe lnfluence, presLlge, or ascendancy
whlch hls offlce glves hlm as a means Lo aLLaln hls deslred
purpose (uS v. 8odrlguez).
! uld Lhe accused abuse hls offlce ln order Lo commlL Lhe
crlme?" - quesLlon Lo ask Lo know Lhe essence of Lhe maLLer.
/0$,12.- 34.#. &4'- $""#$%$&'(" *'#*+,-&$(*. '- 1#.-.(&
! Pe could noL have malLreaLed Lhe vlcLlm lf he was noL a
pollceman on guard duLy. 8ecause of hls poslLlon, he had access
Lo Lhe cell where Lhe vlcLlm, who was under hls cusLody, was
conflned (eople v. ural).
! A pollce offlcer ln Lhe course of lnvesLlgaLlon of a charge agalnsL
hlm for grave LhreaLs shoL Lhe complalnanL ln a Lreacherous
manner (eople v. 8eyes).
! used Lhelr auLhorlLy as members of Lhe pollce and consLabulary
Lo dlsarm Lhe vlcLlm before shooLlng hlm (eople v. Asunclon).
! 54'- $""#$%$&'(" *'#*+,-&$(*. '- 1#.-.(& 34.( $ *6+(*'26#
*622.*&- 7'(.- $(8 ,'-$11#61#'$&.- &4., ! uS v. 1orrlda
o lacLs: 1he accused ls a councllor of Aparrl. AfLer
enLerlng upon hls duLles, he ordered LhaL deaLhs of
large anlmals musL be reporLed Lo hlm as a councllman.
Cwners of sald anlmals pald hlm Lhlnklng Lhey are
requlred Lo do so. Accused ln Lurn spenL Lhe flnes glven
Lo hlm.
o Peld: 1he facL LhaL Lhe accused was councllor aL LhaL
Llme placed hlm ln a poslLlon Lo commlL Lhese crlmes.
8ecause he was a councllor, people belleved LhaL he
had a rlghL Lo lmpose and ask for flnes and Lhls ls Lhe
reason why Lhey gave paymenL. 1he accused Look
advanLage of hls poslLlon Lo decelve and defraud oLhers
ouL of Lhe money glven Lo hlm. (noLe: crlme commlLLed
here ls esLafa wlLh decelL.)
/0$,12.- 34.#. &4'- $""#$%$&'(" *'#*+,-&$(*. '- (6& 1#.-.(&
! 54'- $""#$%$&'(" *'#*+,-&$(*. '- (6& 1#.-.(& 34.( $
96("#.--,$( 677.#.8 #.-'-&$(*. &6 $ 1.$*. 677'*.# ! eople
vs. veloso
o 8eason: Congressman dld noL Lake advanLage of Lhe
lnfluence or repuLaLlon of hls offlce.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! :4.( &4. 1+;2'* 677'*.# 8'8 (6& &$<. $8%$(&$". 67 &4.
'(72+.(*. 67 4'- 16-'&'6(= &4'- $""#$%$&'(" *'#*+,-&$(*. '- (6&
1#.-.(& ! uS v. uacuycuy
o lacLs: 39 people requesLed Lhe accused who was a
councllor, Lo purchase cedulas for Lhem aL 39. Pe only
boughL 16, and spenL Lhe resL of Lhe money.
o 8ullng: When a publlc offlcer commlLs a common crlme
lndependenL of hls offlclal funcLlons and does acLs LhaL
are noL connecLed wlLh Lhe duLles of hls offlce, he
should be punlshed as a prlvaLe lndlvldual wlLhouL Lhls
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance. (noLe: ln Lhe case, uacuycuy
dld noL use Lhe lnfluence, presLlge, or ascendancy of hls
poslLlon when he commlLLed esLafa ln Lhe abuse of
confldence. Pe recelved Lhe money ln hls prlvaLe
capaclLy.)
! eace off|cers tak|ng advantage of the|r pub||c pos|t|ons.
o lorLuna v. eople ! 8elng pollce offlcers placed Lhem
ln a poslLlon Lo perpeLraLe Lhe offense. lL was on
accounL of Lhelr ',.3%#+.4 LhaL lnduces people Lo
comply wlLh whaL Lhey're asklng for. 1hey could noL
have Lerrlfled Lhe MonLeclllos lnLo boardlng Lhe moblle
paLrol car and forced Lhem Lo hand over Lhelr money.
o eople v. Madrld ! Speclal agenL of Lhe mlllLary pollce
who commlLLed robbery wlLh homlclde wlLh Lhe gun
whlch he had been auLhorlzed Lo carry as a peace
offlcer.
o :.$#'(" $ +('76#, '- ',,$&.#'$2 '( *.#&$'( *$-.->
o eople v. 1ongco ! Lven lf Lhe accused was ln clvlllan
cloLhes, Lhe vlcLlm was aware of hls poslLlon, and Lhus
accused used Lhls Lo lmpose lllegally hls auLhorlLy.
o eople v. anLo[a ! Wearlng a unlform ls noL sufflclenL
Lo esLabllsh LhaL he mlsused hls publlc poslLlon ln Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
54.#. ,+-& ;. 1#667 &4$& &4. $**+-.8 &66< $8%$(&$". 67 4'- 1+;2'*
16-'&'6(>
! WhaL needs Lo be proven? 5'/+&2 '01'&.'2" %6 !,7(+* !%$+.+%&
or ,$+&2 .3" +&6(,"&*"8 !#"$.+2"8 %# '$*"&0'&*4 %6 $'+0 !,7(+*
!%$+.+%&.
! ln Lhe absence of proof of advanLage, Lhe aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance of abuse of publlc poslLlon could noL be properly
appreclaLed.

IV. Ia||ure |n off|c|a| dut|es |s tantamount to abus|ng of off|ce.
! lf lL ls proven LhaL one has falled ln hls duLles as a publlc offlcer,
Lhls clrcumsLance would warranL Lhe aggravaLlon of hls penalLy.
! 1he facL LhaL Lhe defendanL was Lhe vlce presldenL of a Lown aL
Lhe Llme he volunLarlly [olned a band of brlgands made hls
llablllLy greaLer (uS v. Cagayan).

V. Not aggravat|ng when |t |s an |ntegra| e|ement of, or |nherent |n, the
offense.
! Where Laklng advanLage ls an lnLegral elemenL of Lhe crlme:
o Art|c|e 217: MalversaLlon
o Art|c|e. 171: falslflcaLlon of documenL commlLLed by
publlc offlcers
o Art|c|e. 19, par. 3: 1aklng advanLage of publlc poslLlon ls
lnherenL ln Lhe case of accessorles and ln crlmes
commlLLeed by publlc offlcers.
o Art|c|es. 203-24S: Crlmes commlLLed by publlc offlcers.
?6& $""#$%$&'(" '7 $**+-.8 *6+28 4$%. 1.#1.&#$&.8 &4. *#',. 3'&46+&
6**+1@'(" 162'*. 16-'&'6(>
! lf Lhe accused could have perpeLraLed Lhe crlme even wlLhouL
occupylng hls poslLlon, Lhere ls no abuse of publlc poslLlon.
! eople v. Perrera ! mere facL LhaL Lhe accused-appellanL ls a
pollceman and used hls governmenL lssued .38 callber revolver
Lo klll ls noL sufflclenL Lo esLabllsh LhaL he mlsused hls publlc
poslLlon ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
____________________
Ak. 2: 1nA1 1nL CkIML 8L CCMMI11LD IN CCN1LM1 CI Ck WI1n
INSUL1 1C 1nL U8LIC AU1nCkI1ILS.

I. 8as|s of aragraph 2:
! Cn Lhe greaLer perverslLy of Lhe offender, as shown by hls lack
of respecL for Lhe publlc auLhorlLles.

II. kequ|s|tes:
1. ubllc auLhorlLy ls "&2'2"0 +& .3" "9"#*+$" %6 3+$ 6,&*.+%&$
2. Pe who ls engaged ln Lhe exerclse of sald funcLlons ls &%. .3"
!"#$%& '2'+&$. :3%- .3" *#+-" +$ *%--+.."0.
3. Cffender /&%:$ hlm Lo be a publlc auLhorlLy.
4. Pls presence has &%. !#"1"&."0 Lhe offender from commlLLlng
Lhe crlmlnal acL.

III. Mean|ng of "pub||c author|ty"
! ubllc auLhorlLy (someLlmes also called a person ln auLhorlLy)
o ubllc offlcer who ls dlrecLly vesLed wlLh [urlsdlcLlon,
LhaL ls, a publlc offlcer who has Lhe power Lo govern
and execuLe Lhe laws.
o Lxamples: councllor, mayor, governor. 8arangay
capLaln, and barangay chalrman (Art|c|e 1S2, as
amended by D No. 1232).

IV. IIkS1 and SLCCND kequ|s|te: 1he cr|me shou|d not be comm|tted
aga|nst the pub||c author|ty.
! lf Lhe crlme ls commlLLed agalnsL a publlc auLhorlLy whlle he ls ln
Lhe performance of hls offlclal duLy, Lhe offender commlLs dlrecL
assaulL (Art|c|e 148) wlLhouL Lhls aggravaLlng clrcumsLance,
because lL ls noL a crlme commlLLed ln conLempL of or wlLh
lnsulL" Lo hlm, buL a crlme dlrecLly commlLLed agalnsL hlm.
! eople v. SanLok dld noL follow Lhls where lL was held LhaL
homlclde was commlLLed wlLh Lhls aggravaLlng clrcumsLance
slnce Lhe deceased was shoL whlle ln Lhe performance of hls
offlclal duLy as barrlo lleuLenanL.
o 1he accused should have been prosecuLed for and
convlcLed of a complex crlme of homlclde wlLh dlrecL
assaulL Wl1PCu1 Lhls aggravaLlng clrcumsLance.
V. 1nIkD kequ|s|te: know|edge that a pub||c author|ty |s present |s
essent|a|.
! Lack of knowledge on Lhe parL of Lhe offender LhaL a publlc
auLhorlLy ls presenL lndlcaLes lack of lnLenLlon Lo lnsulL Lhe
publlc auLhorlLy.
! 1hus lf A kllled 8 ln Lhe presence of Lhe mayor, buL A was noL
aware of hls presence, Lhls clrcumsLance canL be consldered.

VI. ICUk1n kequ|s|te: resence of pub||c author|ty has not prevented
offender from comm|tt|ng the cr|me.
! An offense may have been sald Lo be commlLLed ln conLempL
when Lhe offender proceeds wlLh Lhe crlmlnal acL even wlLh Lhe
full knowledge of a publlc auLhorlLy's presence.
?6& $112'*$;2. 34.( *#',. '- *6,,'&&.8 '( &4. 1#.-.(*. 67 $( $".(&
6(2@>
! AgenL of a person ln auLhorlLy - any person who, by dlrecL
provlslon of law or by elecLlon or by appolnLmenL by compeLenL
auLhorlLy, ls charged wlLh Lhe malnLenance of publlc order and
Lhe proLecLlon and securlLy of llfe and properLy, such as barrlo
councllman, barrlo pollceman and barangay leader, and any
person who comes Lo Lhe ald of persons ln auLhorlLy." (Art|c|e
1S2, as amended by 8.. 8|g. 873)
____________________
Ak. 3: 1nA1 1nL AC1 8L CCMMI11LD WI1n INSUL1 Ck IN DISkLGAkD
CI 1nL kLSLC1 DUL 1C 1nL CIILNDLD Ak1 CN ACCCUN1 CI nIS
kANk, AGL, Ck SLk, Ck 1nA1 I1 8L CCMMI11LD IN 1nL DWLLLING CI
1nL CIILNDLD Ak1, II 1nL LA11Lk nAS NC1 GIVLN kCVCCA1ICN.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
I. When a|| the four aggravat|ng c|rcumstances are present, must they
be cons|dered as one?
! Can be consldered $+&2(" or .%2".3"#.
! lf all Lhe 4 clrcumsLances are presenL, Lhey have Lhe welghL of
one aggravaLlng clrcumsLance only.
! 8U1 see eople v. SanLos ln Art|c|e 14(6).

II. 8as|s of aragraph 3:
! Cn Lhe greaLer perverslLy of Lhe offender, as shown by Lhe
personal clrcumsLances of Lhe offended parLy and Lhe place of
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.

III. App||cab|e on|y to cr|mes aga|nst persons or honor.
! ln Lhe case of Lhe robbery of a Lhlng belonglng Lo Lhe resldenL,
Lhe aggravaLlng clrcumsLance of dlsregard of respecL due Lhe
offended parLy cannoL be Laken lnLo accounL, because Lhe mere
facL LhaL Lhe Lhlng belongs Lo Lhe resldenL does noL make lL
more valuable Lhan Lhe Lhlngs belonglng Lo a prlvaLe person.
! ulsregard of Lhe respecL due Lhe offended parLy on accounL of
hls rank, age or sex may be Laken lnLo accounL only ln crlmes
agalnsL persons or honor, when ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme,
Lhere ls some lnsulL or dlsrespecL Lo rank, age or sex.
! 8obbery wlLh homlclde ls prlmarlly a crlme agalnsL properLy and
noL agalnsL person. lL ls a mere lncldenL of Lhe robbery, Lhe
laLLer belng Lhe maln purpose and ob[ecL of Lhe crlmlnal (eople
v. agal).

IV. Mean|ng of "w|th |nsu|t or |n d|sregard."
lL ls necessary Lo prove Lhe $!"*+6+* 6'*. %# *+#*,-$.'&*" ln order
LhaL lL may be consldered as aggravaLlng clrcumsLance (eople
v. valencla).
1here musL be "1+0"&*" LhaL ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme, Lhe
accused 0"(+7"#'."(4 +&."&0"0 Lo offend or lnsulL Lhe sex or age
of Lhe offended parLy (eople v. MangsanL).
1he clrcumsLance of old age cannoL be consldered aggravaLlng.

V. W|th |nsu|t or |n d|sregard of the respect due the offended party on
account -
1. of Lhe #'&/ %6 .3" %66"&0"0 !'#.4
o 1here musL be a dlfference ln Lhe soclal condlLlon of Lhe
offender and Lhe offended parLy.
o Lxamples:
" ALLempL upon Lhe llfe of a general of Lhe Army
ls commlLLed ln dlsregard of hls rank (eople v.
valerlano).
" kllllng of a sLaff sergeanL by hls corporal, Lhe
kllllng of Lhe AsslsLanL Chlef of ersonel
1ransacLlon of Lhe Clvll Servlce Commlsslon by a
clerk Lhereln, Lhe murder by a pupll of hls
Leacher, Lhe murder of a munlclpal mayor, Lhe
murder of a clLy chlef of pollce by Lhe chlef of
Lhe secreL servlce dlvlslon, assaulL upon a 66-
year old Cll (now 81C) [udge by a [usLlce of
peace (now munlclpal [udge), Lhe kllllng of a
consul by a mere chancellor, Lhe kllllng of an
army general (eople v. 8odll)
o Meanlng of rank - refers Lo a hlgh soclal poslLlon or
sLandlng as a grade ln Lhe armed forces, or Lo a graded
offlclal sLandlng or soclal poslLlon or sLaLlon, or Lo Lhe
order or place ln whlch sald offlcers are placed ln Lhe
army and navy ln relaLlon Lo oLhers, or Lo Lhe
deslgnaLlon or LlLle of dlsLlncLlon conferred upon an
offlcer ln order Lo flx hls relaLlve poslLlon ln reference Lo
oLher offlcers ln maLLers of prlvlleges, precedence, and
someLlmes of command or by whlch Lo deLermlne hls
pay and emolumenLs as ln Lhe case of army sLaff
offlcers, or Lo a grade or offlclal sLandlng, relaLlve
poslLlon ln clvll or soclal llfe, or ln any scale of
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
comparlson, sLaLus, grade, lncludlng lLs grade, sLaLus or
scale of comparlson wlLhln a poslLlon.
o roof of facL of dlsregard and dellberaLe lnLenL Lo lnsulL
requlred.
" 1here belng no proof of Lhe speclflc facL or
clrcumsLance LhaL Lhe accused dlsregarded Lhe
respecL due Lo Lhe offended parLy, noL does lL
appeal LhaL Lhe accused dellberaLely lnLended
Lo lnsulL Lhe rank of Lhe vlcLlm (eople v. 1aloy).
;< of Lhe '2" %6 .3" %66"&0"0 !'#.4
o 1he clrcumsLance of lack of respecL due Lo age applles ln
cases where Lhe vlcLlm ls of Lender age as well as of old
age.
o uellberaLe lnLenL Lo offend or lnsulL requlred.
o ulsregard of old age noL aggravaLlng ln robbery wlLh
homlclde.
" 8obbery wlLh homlclde ls prlmarlly a crlme
agalnsL properLy and noL agalnsL persons.
Pomlclde ls a mere lncldenL of Lhe robbery.
3. Cf Lhe $"9 %6 .3" %66"&0"0 !'#.4
o 8efers Lo Lhe female sex
o no dlsregard of respecL due Lo sex
" Lx: A and 8 (f) were sweeLhearLs. 8 broke up
wlLh A so A kllled her.
Peld: lL was noL proved or admlLLed by Lhe
accused LhaL when he commlLLed Lhe crlme, he
had Lhe lnLenLlon or dlsregarded Lhe sex of Lhe
vlcLlm.
o ulsregard of sex ls noL aggravaLlng ln Lhe absence of
evldence LhaL Lhe accused dellberaLely lnLended Lo
offend or lnsulL Lhe sex of Lhe vlcLlm or showed
manlfesL dlsrespecL Lo her womanhood.
" kllllng a woman ls noL aLLended by Lhe
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance lf Lhe offender dld noL
manlfesL any speclflc lnsulL or dlsrespecL
Lowards Lhe sex.

VI. Not app||cab|e |n certa|n cases
1. When Lhe offender acLed wlLh passlon and obfuscaLlon.
o eople v. lbanez ! Pe could noL have been consclous
LhaL hls acL was done wlLh respecL Lo Lhe offended
parLy.
2. When Lhere exlsLs a relaLlonshlp beLween Lhe offended parLy
and Lhe offender.
o eople v. valencla:
lacLs: AfLer a decree of dlvorce, Lhe wlfe goL Lhe
cusLody of Lhelr daughLer. 1he accused wanLed Lo vlslL
Lhe kld buL Lhe wlfe dldn'L agree. Accused polnLed a gun
aL Lhe wlfe and she was ln[ured.
Peld: 1here sLlll exlsLed some relaLlonshlp beLween Lhe
accused and hls dlvorced wlfe. 1he accused had Lo deal
wlLh no oLher person buL wlLh hls former wlfe Lo vlslL hls
daughLer.
3. When Lhe condlLlon of belng a woman ls lndlspensable ln Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
o Sex ls noL aggravaLlng ln: parrlclde, rape, abducLlon, or
seducLlon.
o 1hls ls lnherenL ln Lhe crlme of rape and Lherefore
cannoL be consldered aggravaLlng (eople v. Lopez).
A'-#."$#8 67 -.0 $;-6#;.8 '( &#.$*4.#@
! eople v. Lapaz ! aggravaLlng clrcumsLances of dlsregard of
sex and age are noL absorbed ln Lreachery because &#.$*4.#@
#.7.#- &6 &4. ,$((.# 67 &4. *6,,'--'6( 67 &4. *#',.= 34'2.
8'-#."$#8 67 -.0 $(8 $". 1.#&$'(- &6 &4. #.2$&'6(-4'1 67 &4.
%'*&',>

VII. 1hat the cr|me be comm|tted |n the dwe|||ng of the offended party
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! uwelllng musL be a bulldlng or sLrucLure, excluslvely used for
resL and comforL.
o ComblnaLlon of house and sLore or a markeL sLall where
Lhe vlcLlm slepL ls noL dwelllng (eople v. Magnaye).
! Cne's dwelllng ls a sancLuary worLhy of respecL and LhaL one
who slanders anoLher ln Lhe laLLer's house ls more gullLy Lhan
he who offends hlm elsewhere (eople v. 8alansl).
! 8as|s: greaLer perverslLy of Lhe offender, as shown by Lhe place
of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense and also because of Lhe
sancLlLy of prlvacy Lhe law accords Lo human abode.
:4$& 83.22'(" '(*2+8.-
! lncludes dependencles, Lhe fooL of Lhe sLalrcase and enclosure
under Lhe house.
! lf vlcLlm was only abouL Lo sLep on Lhe flrsL rung of Lhe ladder
when he was assaulLed, Lhe aggravaLlng clrcumsLance of
dwelllng wlll noL be appllcable (eople v. Sespene).
:4$& $""#$%$&.- &4. *6,,'--'6( 67 &4. *#',. '( 6(.B- 83.22'("C
1. =7,$" %6 *%&6+0"&*" whlch Lhe offended parLy reposed ln Lhe
offender by openlng Lhe door Lo hlm,
2. 5#"$!'$$+&2 .3"#"+& :+.3 1+%("&*" %# '2'+&$. .3" :+(( of Lhe
owner.
:4.( &4. 8.*.$-.8 4$8 &36 46+-.- 34.#. 4. +-.8 &6 2'%.= &4.
*6,,'--'6( 67 &4. *#',. '( $(@ 67 &4., '- $&&.(8.8 ;@ &4. $""#$%$&'("
*'#*+,-&$(*. 67 83.22'("

VIII. Cffended party must not g|ve provocat|on
! A condlLlon slne qua non of Lhls clrcumsLance ls LhaL Lhe
offended parLy has noL glven provocaLlon" Lo Lhe offender.
D.$('(" 67 1#6%6*$&'6( '( &4. $""#$%$&'(" *'#*+,-&$(*. 67 83.22'("
! 1he provocaLlon musL be:
o Clven by Lhe owner of Lhe dwelllng
o SufflclenL
o lmmedlaLe Lo Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
! lf any of Lhese condlLlons ls noL presenL, Lhe offended parLy ls
deemed noL Lo have glven provocaLlon, and Lhe facL LhaL Lhe
crlme ls commlLLed ln Lhe dwelllng of Lhe offended parLy ls an
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance.
54.#. ,+-& ;. *26-. #.2$&'6( ;.&3..( 1#6%6*$&'6( $(8 *6,,'--'6( 67
*#',. '( &4. 83.22'("
! AggravaLlng clrcumsLance noL appllcable lf provocaLlon glven by
Lhe offended parLy ! Lrue only when Lhere exlsLs a close
relaLlon beLween Lhe provocaLlon and Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme ln Lhe dwelllng of Lhe person from whom Lhe provocaLlon
came.
! 8ecause the provocat|on |s not |mmed|ate, dwe|||ng |s
aggravat|ng.
o eople v. uequlna
" lacLs: uefendanL learned LhaL Lhe deceased and
defendanL's house were malnLalnlng llllclL
relaLlons. Cne nlghL, he wenL Lo Lhe house of
Lhe deceased and kllled hlm Lhere. uurlng Lhe
Lrlal, defendanL clalmed LhaL deceased gave
provocaLlon because of Lhe llllclL affalr wlLh hls
wlfe.
" Peld: rovocaLlon (llllclL relaLlons) noL
lmmedlaLe Lo Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme and
hence, dwelllng ls sLlll aggravaLlng. rovocaLlon
dld noL Lake place ln Lhe house of Lhe deceased.
! Cwner of dwe|||ng gave |mmed|ate provocat|on - dwe|||ng not
aggravat|ng
o Pavlng glven sufflclenL provocaLlon, owner of Lhe house
losL hls rlghL Lo Lhe respecL and conslderaLlon due Lo
hlm ln hls own house.
E#6-.*+&'6( ,+-& 1#6%. &4$& (6 1#6%6*$&'6( 3$- "'%.( ;@ &4. 677.(8.8
1$#&@
! rovocaLlon cannoL be assumed, lL musL be shown by Lhe
evldence of Lhe prosecuLlon.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!

Ik. Lven |f the offender d|d not enter the dwe|||ng, th|s c|rcumstance
app||es
! lL ls enough LhaL Lhe vlcLlm was aLLacked lnslde hls own house,
alLhough Lhe assallanL may have devlsed means Lo perpeLraLe
Lhe assaulL from wlLhouL.
/%.( '7 &4. <'22'(" &66< 12$*. 6+&-'8. &4. 83.22'("= '& '- $""#$%$&'("
1#6%'8.8 &4$& &4. *6,,'--'6( 67 &4. *#',. ;."$( '( &4. 83.22'("
! 1he acL performed cannoL be dlvlded or Lhe unlLy resulLlng from
lLs deLalls be broken up.
! uwelllng ls aggravaLlng ln abducLlon or lllegal deLenLlon
o Lx: vlcLlm was Laken from hls or her house and carrled
away Lo anoLher place (dwelllng ls aggravaLlng)
o 8uL noL aggravaLlng when deceased was called down
from hls house and he was murdered ln Lhe vlclnlLy of
Lhe house.

k. Whether or not dwe|||ng |s aggravat|ng
A3.22'(" (6& $""#$%$&'(" '( &4. 762263'(" *$-.-C
! 8oLh offender and offended parLy are occupanLs of Lhe same
house, Lrue even lf offender ls a servanL of Lhe house
! 8obbery uslng force upon Lhlngs slnce dwelllng ls lnherenL
o buL dwelllng ls aggravaLlng ln robbery wlLh vlolence
agalnsL or lnLlmldaLlon of persons because Lhls class of
robbery can be commlLLed wlLhouL Lhe necesslLy of
Lrespasslng Lhe sancLlLy of Lhe offended parLy's house.
o 8obbery wlLh homlclde - dwelllng ls aggravaLlng
o 2 klnds of robbery: wlLh vlolence agalnsL or lnLlmldaLlon
of persons and wlLh force upon Lhlngs ln lnhablLed
house.
! Crlme of Lrespass Lo dwelllng
! Cwner of Lhe dwelllng gave sufflclenL and lmmedlaLe
provocaLlon
! When Lhe dwelllng where Lhe crlme was commlLLed dld noL
belong Lo Lhe offended parLy
! Cround floor of a Lwo-sLorey bulldlng where lL was noL used as a
prlvaLe place of abode or resldence
A3.22'(" 3$- 76+(8 $""#$%$&'(" '( &4. 762263'(" *$-.- $2&46+"4 &4.
*#',.- 3.#. *6,,'&&.8 (6& '( &4. 83.22'(" 67 &4. %'*&',-
! 8oardlng house where vlcLlm ls a bedspacer
! aLernal home where Lhey were guesLs aL Lhe Llme and dld noL
reslde Lhere
! Pouse of aunL where vlcLlm was llvlng - dwelllng may mean
Lemporary dwelllng
! Sleeplng as guesLs ln Lhe house of anoLher person
A3.22'(" '- $""#$%$&'(" 34.( &4. 4+-;$(8 <'22.8 4'- .-&#$(".8 3'7. '(
&4. 46+-. -62.2@ 6**+1'.8 ;@ 4.#
F( *$-. 67 $8+2&.#@
! When adulLery ls commlLLed ln Lhe dwelllng of Lhe husband,
even lf lL ls also Lhe dwelllng of Lhe unfalLhful wlfe, lL ls
aggravaLlng because besldes Lhe laLLer's breach of Lhe fldellLy
she owes her husband, she and her paramour vlolaLed Lhe
respecL due Lo Lhe con[ugal home and Lhey boLh Lhereby ln[ured
and commlLLed a very grave offense agalnsL Lhe head of Lhe
house.
! uwelllng noL aggravaLlng ln adulLery when paramour also llves
Lhere
o uefendanLs had a rlghL Lo be ln Lhe house
o AggravaLlng clrcumsLance presenL ln such case ls abuse
of confldence
A3.22'(" (6& '(*2+8.8 '( &#.$*4.#@
GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG
Ak. 4: 1nA1 1nL AC1 8L CCMMI11LD WI1n (1) A8USL CI
CCNIIDLNCL Ck (2) C8VICUS UNGkA1LIULNLSS

Note: 1here are 2 aggravaLlng clrcumsLances ln Lhls paragraph.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
I. 8as|s of aragraph 4:
! CreaLer perverslLy of Lhe offender, as shown by Lhe means and
ways employed.

II. IIkS1 aggravat|ng c|rcumstance: Abuse of conf|dence
! 1hls clrcumsLance exlsLs only when offended parLy has glven
LrusL Lo offender who laLer abuses Lhls LrusL by commlLLlng a
crlme.
! Abuse of confldence - -,$. be a means of faclllLaLlng Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme. Cffender Laklng advanLage of Lhe
offended parLy's bellef LhaL Lhe former would noL abuse sald
confldence.
H.I+'-'&.-C
1. Cffended parLy had LrusLed Lhe offender.
2. Cffender abused such LrusL by commlLLlng a crlme agalnsL Lhe
offended parLy.
3. Abuse of confldence faclllLaLed Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
:4.#. *6(7'8.(*. 86.- (6& .0'-&
! eople v. Luchlco
o lacLs: MasLer made advances Lo hls female servanL. She
refused, fled, and Lhe masLer caughL up wlLh her and
commlLLed Lhe crlme of rape. When Lhe masLer raped
Lhe vlcLlm, she had already losL her confldence ln hlm
from Lhe momenL he made an lndecenL proposal and
offended her wlLh a klss.
o Peld: 1he confldence musL faclllLaLe Lhe commlsslon of
Lhe crlme, Lhe culprlL Laklng advanLage of offended
parLy's bellef LhaL Lhe former would noL abuse sald
confldence. no aggravaLlng clrcumsLance ln Lhls case.
J1.*'$2 #.2$&'6( 67 *6(7'8.(*. ;.&3..( $**+-.8 $(8 %'*&',
! 8eLrayal of confldence ls noL aggravaLlng
o eople v. Crumb ! arenLs lefL Lo Lhe care of Lhe
abused Lhelr daughLer. Cne day, accused led Lhe
daughLer Lo an lsolaLed place and LhreaLened her wlLh a
knlfe Lo have sexual lnLercourse wlLh hlm. 1hough
accused 7".#'4"0 Lhe confldence reposed Lo hlm by Lhe
parenLs of Lhe glrl, lL dld noL faclllLaLe Lhe commlsslon of
Lhe crlme and hence, lL's noL aggravaLlng.
! kllllng of a chlld by an amah ls aggravaLed by abuse of
confldence
o eople v. Callso ! klller of Lhe chlld ls Lhe domesLlc
servanL of Lhe famlly and someLlmes Lhe deceased
chlld's amah. AggravaLlng clrcumsLance of abuse of
confldence ls presenL.
! ulfference beLween Lhe Crumb and Callso case
o Crumb case: Lhe offended glrl could reslsL, alLhough
unsuccessfully, Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
o Callso case: Lhe nlne-monLh-old vlcLlm could noL reslsL
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
54. *6(7'8.(*. ;.&3..( &4. 677.(8.# $(8 &4. 677.(8.8 1$#&@ ,+-& ;.
',,.8'$&. $(8 1.#-6($2
! noL appllcable when publlc offlcer commlLLed esLafa agalnsL hls
voLers.
! Abuse of confldence lnherenL ln some felonles
o lnherenL ln malversaLlon (Art|c|e|c|e 217)
o Cuallfled LhefL (Art|c|e|c|e 310)
o LsLafa by converslon or mlsapproprlaLlon (Art|c|e|c|e
31S)
o Cuallfled seducLlon (Art|c|e|c|e 337)

III. SLCCND aggravat|ng c|rcumstance: Ungratefu|ness must be obv|ous
|.e man|fest and c|ear
! CLher aggravaLlng clrcumsLance: acL be commlLLed wlLh obvlous
ungraLefulness.
! Lxamples where Lhls aggravaLlng clrcumsLance ls presenL:
o Accused kllled hls faLher-ln-law whose house he llved
and who parLlally supporLed hlm (eople v. lloresca).
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o Accused was llvlng ln Lhe house of Lhe vlcLlm who
employed hlm as an overseer and ln charge of carpenLry
work, and had free access Lo Lhe house of Lhe vlcLlm
who was very klnd Lo hlm, hls famlly, and who helped
hlm solve hls problems (eople v. Lupango).
o SecurlLy guard kllled a bank offlcer and robbed Lhe bank
(eople v. nlsmal).
o vlcLlm was suddenly aLLacked whlle ln Lhe acL of glvlng
Lhe assallanLs Lhelr bread and coffee for breakfasL
(eople v. 8auLlsLa).
! Lxample where Lhls aggravaLlng clrcumsLance ls noL presenL:
o Mere facL LhaL Lhe accused and offended parLy llved ln
Lhe same house ls noL enough Lo prove abuse of
confldence where Lhe house was noL properLy of Lhe
offended parLy (eople v. Alqueza).
! ConLrasL:
o vlslLor commlLs robbery or LhefL ln Lhe house of hls hosL
o Marlano v. eople ! Lhe acL of sLeallng properLy of Lhe
hosL ls consldered as commlLLed wlLh abuse of
confldence.
____________________
Ak. S: 1nA1 1nL CkIML 8L CCMMI11LD IN 1nL ALACL CI 1nL CnILI
LkLCU1IVL, Ck IN nIS kLSLNCL, Ck WnLkL U8LIC AU1nCkI1ILS AkL
LNGAGLD IN 1nL DISCnAkGL CI 1nLIk DU1ILS Ck IN A LACL
DLDICA1LD 1C kLLIGICUS WCkSnI

I. 8as|s of aragraph S:
! CreaLer perverslLy of Lhe offender, as shown by Lhe place of Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme, whlch musL be respecLed.

II. |ace where pub||c author|t|es are engaged |n the d|scharge of the|r
dut|es (par. S), d|st|ngu|shed from contempt or |nsu|t to pub||c
author|t|es (par.2)
ar 3 ar 2
ubllc auLhorlLles ln Lhe
performance of Lhelr duLles
ubllc auLhorlLles ln Lhe
performance of Lhelr duLles
ubllc auLhorlLles ln Lhe
performance of Lhelr duLles -,$.
7" +& .3"+# %66+*"
ubllc auLhorlLles ln Lhe
performance of Lhelr duLles
%,.$+0" of Lhelr offlce
ubllc auLhorlLy may be Lhe
offended parLy
ubllc auLhorlLy should noL be Lhe
offended parLy

III. "1hat the cr|me be comm|tted |n the pa|ace of the ch|ef execut|ve
or |n h|s presence" ! Cff|c|a| or re||g|ous funct|ons, not necessary.
! lace ls aggravaLlng, regardless of wheLher SLaLe or offlclal or
rellglous funcLlons are held lf lL ls Malacanang palace or a
church.
! Chlef LxecuLlve need noL be ln Malacanang palace. Pls presence
alone ln any place where Lhe crlme ls commlLLed ls enough Lo
consLlLuLe Lhe aggravaLlng clrcumsLance even lf he ls noL
engaged ln Lhe dlscharge of hls duLles ln Lhe place where Lhe
crlme ls commlLLed.

IV. "Where pub||c author|t|es are engaged |n the d|scharge of the|r
dut|es" ! Cther pub||c author|t|es must be actua||y engaged |n the
performance of duty
! As regards Lo Lhe place where Lhe publlc auLhorlLles are
engaged ln Lhe dlscharge of Lhelr duLles, Lhere musL be some
performance of publlc funcLlons.
! 1hls aggravaLlng clrcumsLance was appreclaLed ln a crlme of
murder ln an elecLoral preclncL durlng elecLlon day as lL ls a
place where publlc auLhorlLles are engaged ln Lhe dlscharge of
Lhelr duLles" on such day (eople v. Canoy)

V. "Cr |n a p|ace ded|cated to re||g|ous worsh|p"
! CemeLerles are noL such place, however respecLable Lhey may
be, as Lhey are noL dedlcaLed Lo Lhe worshlp of Cod.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! 1hls aggravaLlng clrcumsLance was appreclaLed ln a case where
Lhe accused shoL Lhe vlcLlm +&$+0" Lhe church or ln a case of
un[usL vexaLlon where Lhe accused klssed a glrl lnslde a church
when a rellglous servlce was belng solemnlzed (eople v.
Anonuevo).

VI. Cffender must have |ntent|on to comm|t a cr|me when he entered
the p|ace
! eople v. !aurlgue
o lacLs: AL Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme, boLh
deceased and defendanL were lnslde Lhe chapel.
ueceased placed hls hand on Lhe Lhlgh of Lhe
defendanL, who goL her fan knlfe and sLabbed hlm.
o Peld: 1here ls no evldence Lo show LhaL Lhe defendanL
had murder ln her hearL when she enLered Lhe chapel
on Lhe faLal nlghL.
o 8ullng also applles ln cases of crlme commlLLed ln
Malacanang palace or where publlc auLhorlLles are
engaged ln Lhe dlscharge of Lhelr duLles.
____________________
Ak. 6: 1nA1 1nL CkIML 8L CCMMI11LD (1) IN 1nL NIGn11IML Ck IN
(2) AN UNINnA8I1LD LACL, Ck (3) 8 A 8AND, WnLNLVLk SUCn
CIkCUMS1ANCLS MA IACILI1A1L 1nL CCMMISSICN CI 1nL CIILNSL

I. 8as|s of aragraph 6:
! Cn Lhe Llme and place of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme and
means and ways employed.

II. Shou|d these c|rcumstances be cons|dered as one on|y or three
separate|y?
! Aprll 3, 1884 ! Supreme CourL of Spaln rules LhaL all be LreaLed
as one
! eople v. SanLos (Aprll 27, 1897) ! lormer rullng of only one
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance noL an absoluLe and general rule
whlch would exclude Lhe posslblllLy of Lhelr belng consldered
separaLely when Lhelr elemenLs are 0+$.+&*.(4 !"#*"+1"0 '&0 *'&
$,7$+$. +&0"!"&0"&.(4, reveallng a greaLer degree of perverslLy.
o eople v. Cunanan ! nlghLLlme and band were
consldered separaLely.

III. When aggravat|ng
! nlghLLlme, unlnhablLed place or band ls aggravaLlng when -
1. When lL faclllLaLed Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
2. When especlally soughL for by Lhe offender Lo lnsure
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme or for Lhe purpose of
lmpunlLy (eople v. ardo).
3. When Lhe offender Look advanLage Lhereof for Lhe
purpose of lmpunlLy (uS v 8llledo).
! 1o Lake advanLage of a facL or clrcumsLance ln commlLLlng a
crlme clearly lmplles an lnLenLlon Lo do so. Cne does noL avall
oneself of darkness unless on lnLended Lo so (eople v.
MaLbagon & eople v. Apduhan). 1hus, aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance of nocLurnlLy should be applled when lL appears
LhaL Lhe accused Look advanLage of Lhe darkness for a more
successful consummaLlon of hls plans.

IV. 1est to determ|ne when "such c|rcumstance may fac|||tate the
comm|ss|on of the offense"
E$#> K #.I+'#.- 6(2@ &4$& ('"4&&',.= +('(4$;'&.8 12$*.= 6# ;$(8 L,$@
7$*'2'&$&. &4. *6,,'--'6( 67 &4. 677.(-.M
! 1esL flxed by Lhe sLaLure ls an ob[ecLlve one.
! nlghLLlme may faclllLaLe Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme ! crlme
can be perpeLraLed unmolesLed, or lnLerference can be avolded
or Lhere would be greaLer cerLalnLy ln aLLalnlng Lhe ends of Lhe
offender (eople v. MaLbagon).
! Lxample: nlghLLlme faclllLaLed Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme Lo
such an exLenL LhaL Lhe defendanL was able Lo consummaLe lL
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
wlLh all lLs deLalls wlLhouL anyone nearby becomlng aware of lLs
occurrence (eople v. vlllas).
D.$('(" 67 L.-1.*'$22@ -6+"4& 76#=M L76# &4. 1+#16-. 67 ',1+('&@=M $(8
N&66< $8%$(&$". &4.#.67>M
! 1hese are oLher LesLs for Lhe appllcaLlon of Lhls aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance.
! Lspeclally soughL for"
o nlghLLlme noL especlally soughL for, when Lhe noLlon Lo
commlL Lhe crlme was concelved only shorLly before lLs
commlsslon (eople v. ardo) or when Lhe crlme was
commlLLed aL nlghL upon a mere casual encounLer
(eople v. Cayabyab).
o WalLed for nlghLLlme Lo commlL Lhe crlme ! especlally
soughL for (eople v. 8arredo).
o Accused llngered for almosL 3 hours ln Lhe evenlng aL
Lhe resLauranL before robblng lL (eople v. Lungbos).
o Where lL ls self-evldenL LhaL nlghLLlme was soughL Lo
faclllLaLe Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense when all Lhe Lhe
members of Lhe household was asleep (eople v.
8erbal), Lhereby lndlcaLlng Lhe deslre Lo carry ouL Lhe
ploL wlLh Lhe leasL deLecLlon or Lo lnsure lLs
consummaLlon wlLh a mlnlmum of reslsLance from Lhe
lnmaLes of Lhe house (eople v. ALenclo).
o 1he accused soughL Lhe sollLude of Lhe place ln order Lo
beLLer aLLaln Lhelr purpose wlLhouL lnLerference, and Lo
secure Lhemselves agalnsL deLecLlon and punlshmenL
(eople v. Cng).
! ?'"4&&',. (..8 (6& ;. -1.*'7'*$22@ -6+"4& 76# 34.( OPQ '&
7$*'2'&$&.8 &4. *6,,'--'6( 67 &4. 677.(-.= 6# ORQ &4. 677.(8.#
&66< $8%$(&$". 67 &4. -$,. &6 *6,,'& &4. *#',.
o nocLurnlLy, even Lhough noL speclally soughL, lf lL
faclllLaLed Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme and Lhe accused
Look advanLage Lhereof Lo commlL lL, may be
consldered as an aggravaLlng clrcumsLance.
! lor Lhe purpose of lmpunlLy" ! means Lo prevenL hls
(accused's) belng recognlzed, or Lo secure hlmself agalnsL
deLecLlon and punlshmenL.
o 1he crlme was aLLended by Lhe aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance of nlghLLlme because of Lhe sllence and
darkness of Lhe nlghL whlch enabled Lhe offender Lo
Lake away Lhe glrl wlLh lmpunlLy - someLhlng whlch he
could noL have done ln dayLlme (uS v. ?umul).

V. N|ghtt|me
! erlod of darkness beglnnlng aL end of dusk and endlng aL
dawn. nlghLs are from sunseL Lo sunrlse (Art|c|e|c|e 13, C|v||
Code).
?'"4&&',. ;@ $(8 67 '&-.27 '- (6& $( $""#$%$&'(" *'#*+,-&$(*..
! lL becomes so only when lL ls especlally soughL for by Lhe
offender or Laken advanLage of by hlm Lo faclllLaLe Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme or Lo lnsure hls lmmunlLy from
capLure.
! 1he lnformaLlon musL allege LhaL nlghLLlme was soughL for or
Laken advanLage of by Lhe accused or LhaL lL faclllLaLed he
commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
! 1he [urlsprudence on Lhls sub[ecL ls Lo effecL LhaL nocLurnlLy
musL have been soughL or Laken advanLage of Lo lmprove Lhe
chances of success ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme or Lo provlde
lmpunlLy for Lhe offenders.
o CLher Lhan Lhe Llme of Lhe crlme, noLhlng else
whaLsoever suggesLs LhaL Lhe aggravaLlng clrcumsLance
of nlghLLlme was dellberaLely avalled of by Lhe
appellanLs (eople v. 8oyles).
o uarkness of Lhe nlghL merely lncldenLal Lo Lhe colllslon
beLween 2 vehlcles whlch caused Lhe heaLed argumenL
and Lhe evenLual sLabblng of Lhe vlcLlm, nlghLLlme ls noL
aggravaLlng (eople v. velago).
?6& $""#$%$&'(" 34.( &4. *#',. ;."$( $& 8$@&',.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! nocLurnlLy ls noL aggravaLlng where Lhere ls no evldence LhaL
Lhe accused had purposely soughL Lhe cover of darkness of Lhe
nlghL Lo commlL Lhe crlme, nor ls Lhere evldence LhaL nlghLLlme
faclllLaLed Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlm aslde from Lhe facL LhaL
Lhe scene of Lhe crlme was lllumlnaLed.
o Crlme was a resulL of a successlon of acLs, whlch Look
place wlLhln Lhe perlod of 2 hours from 3pm Lo 7pm
wlLhouL a momenL of lnLerrupLlon, lL cannoL be sald LhaL
Lhe LhoughL of nlghLLlme as belng Lhe mosL favorable
occurred Lo Lhe accused (eople v. Luchlco).
! Commlsslon of Lhe crlme musL begln and be accompllshed ln
Lhe nlghLLlme.
o AlLhough Lhe safe was dlsposed of aL nlghLLlme, Lhe
LhefL of Lhe money was durlng Lhe dayLlme (uS v.
uowdell)
! 1he offense musL be acLually commlLLed ln Lhe darkness of Lhe
nlghL.
o uefendanLs dld noL lnLenLlonally seek nlghLLlme and
Lhey were carrylng a (+23. %6 $,66+*+"&. 7#+((+'&*" whlch
made lL easy for people nearby Lo recognlze Lhem (uS v.
aralso)
o no aggravaLlng clrcumsLance when robbery wlLh
homlclde was commlLLed aL daybreak when Lhey *%,(0
7" #"*%2&+>"0 (uS v. 1ampacan).
! When Lhe place of Lhe crlme ls lllumlnaLed by llghL, nlghLLlme ls
noL aggravaLlng.
o 1he facL LhaL Lhe place was lllumlnaLed by llghL negaLes
Lhe noLlon LhaL Lhe offenders lnLenLlonally soughL or
Laken advanLage Lhe cover of nlghLLlme ln order Lo
faclllLaLe Lhe crlme (eople v. !oson).
! Powever, 1he llghLlng of a maLchsLlck or use of flashllghL does
noL negaLe Lhe aggravaLlng clrcumsLance of nlghLLlme (eople v.
8ogello Sorlano & eople v. 8erbal) as lL ls self-evldenL LhaL Lhe
nlghLLlme was soughL by Lhe appellanL when all Lhe members of
Lhe household were asleep.

VI. Un|nhab|ted p|ace
:4$& '- +('(4$;'&.8 12$*.S
! Where Lhere are no houses aL all, a place aL a conslderable
dlsLance from Lown, or where Lhe houses are scaLLered aL a
greaL dlsLance from each oLher.
F& '- &4. ($&+#. 67 &4. 12$*. &4$& '- 8.*'-'%. (eople v. 8angug).
! AggravaLlng clrcumsLance should noL be consldered when Lhe
place where Lhe crlme was commlLLed could noL be seen and
Lhe volce of Lhe deceased could be heard from a nearby house.
(eople v. LaoLo)
! Pow aggravaLlng clrcumsLance should be deLermlned: wheLher
or noL ln Lhe place of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense Lhere was a
reasonable posslblllLy of Lhe vlcLlm recelvlng some help.
! Cpen sea ls consldered as unlnhablLed place as (6 4.21 *$( ;.
.01.*&.8 ;@ &4. %'*&', 7#6, 6&4.# 1.#-6(- and Lhe offenders
could easlly escape punlshmenL (eople v. nulla).
o 1he purely accldenLal clrcumsLance LhaL on Lhe day ln
quesLlon, anoLher banca, namely, LhaL of Lhe wlLnesses
for Lhe prosecuLlon, was also aL see, ls noL an argumenL
agalnsL Lhe conslderaLlon of such aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance (eople v. 8ubla).
! When Lhe vlcLlms are Lhe occupanLs of Lhe only house ln Lhe
place, Lhe crlme ls commlLLed ln an unlnhablLed place.
o A place abouL a kllomeLer from Lhe nearesL house or
anoLher lnhablLed place ls consldered an unlnhablLed
place (eople v. Agulnaldo).
! SollLude musL be soughL Lo beLLer aLLaln Lhe crlmlnal purpose
o lL musL appear LhaL Lhe accused soughL Lhe sollLude.
o 1he offenders musL choose Lhe place as an ald elLher (1)
Lo an easy and unlnLerrupLed accompllshmenL of Lhelr
crlmlnal deslgns, or (2) Lo lnsure concealmenL of Lhe
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
offense, LhaL he mlghL Lhereby be beLLer secured
agalnsL deLecLlon and punlshmenL.

VII. 8y a band
:4$& '- $ ;$(8S
! Whenever more Lhan Lhree armed malefacLors shall have acLed
LogeLher ln Lhe commlsslon of an offense (Art|c|e 14(6), par.2).
! 1he armed men musL acL LogeLher ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme.
o SLaLed ln Lhe deflnlLlon of armed men LhaL Lhey shall
acL LogeLher."
o 1here musL be more Lhan 3 armed men ! Lven lf Lhere
are 20 persons, buL only 3 are armed, Lhls aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance by a band cannoL be consldered.
! SLone" ls lncluded ln Lhe Lerm arms"
o 1here ls lnLenLlon Lo cause deaLh lf Lhe accused Lhrows
a sLone aL Lhe vlcLlms (eople v. 8auLlsLa).
F7 6(. 67 &4. 76+# $#,.8 1.#-6(- '- $ 1#'(*'1$2 ;@ '(8+*.,.(&= &4.@ 86
(6& 76#, $ ;$(8>
! All Lhe armed men, aL leasL 4 ln number, musL Lake dlrecL parL ln
Lhe execuLlon of Lhe acL consLlLuLlng Lhe crlme (Art|c|e. 17, par.
1, kC).
:4.( &4'- $""#$%$&'(" *'#*+,-&$(*. '- $112'*$;2.C
! Abuse of superlor sLrengLh and use of flrearms, absorbed ln
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance of by a band."
o AggravaLlng clrcumsLance of Laklng advanLage of Lhelr
superlor sLrengLh and wlLh Lhe use of flrearms ls
absorbed by Lhe generlc aggravaLlng clrcumsLance of
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense by a band.
! 8y a band" ls aggravaLlng ln robbery wlLh homlclde
! 8y a band" ls aggravaLlng ln crlmes agalnsL properLy or agalnsL
persons or ln Lhe crlme of lllegal deLenLlon or Lreason.
o Consldered ln crlmes agalnsL properLy and ln crlmes
agalnsL persons.
! noL appllcable Lo crlmes agalnsL chasLlLy.
o noL consldered ln crlme of rape by 4 armed persons
(eople v. Corpus).
! 8y a band" ls lnherenL ln brlgandage
o AggravaLlng clrcumsLance of armed men should noL be
consldered because lL ls lnherenL ln deflnlng Lhe crlme.

VIII. When n|ghtt|me, un|nhab|ted p|ace, or by a band d|d not fac|||tate
the comm|ss|on of the cr|me, was not espec|a||y sought for, or was not
taken advantage of.
! lacLs: 4 armed men casually meL anoLher group ln an
unlnhablLed place aL nlghLLlme. 1hey quarreled and ln Lhe heaL
of anger, one from Lhe oLher group was kllled. nlghLLlme,
unlnhablLed place, and by a band are noL aggravaLlng
clrcumsLances here.
! 8eason: When Lhe offenders aLLacked Lhe group of Lhe
deceased ln Lhe heaL of anger, Lhey could noL have Laken
advanLage of such clrcumsLances, and such clrcumsLances could
noL have faclllLaLed Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme as well.
____________________
Ak. 7: 1nA1 1nL CkIML 8L CCMMI11LD CN 1nL CCCASICN CI A
CCNILAGkA1ICN, SnIWkLCk, LAk1nUAkL, LIDLMIC, Ck C1nLk
CALAMI1 Ck MISICk1UNL.

I. 8as|s of aragraph 7:
! 8eference Lo Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme

II. keason for the aggravat|on
! uebased form of crlmlnallLy meL ln one who, ln Lhe mldsL of a
calamlLy, lnsLead of lendlng ald Lo Lhe affllcLed, adds Lo Lhelr
sufferlng by Laklng advanLage of Lhelr mlsforLune Lo despoll
Lhem.

III. 1he offender must take advantage of the ca|am|ty or m|sfortune
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! lf accused was provoked by Lhe offended parLy Lo commlL Lhe
crlme durlng Lhe calamlLy or mlsforLune, Lhls aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance may noL be Laken lnLo conslderaLlon for Lhe
purpose of lncreaslng Lhe penalLy because Lhe accused dld noL
Lake advanLage of lL.

IV. "Chaot|c cond|t|on" as an aggravat|ng c|rcumstance
! or oLher calamlLy or mlsforLune" - condlLlons of dlsLress slmllar
Lo Lhose precedlngly enumeraLed, LhaL ls conflagraLlon,
shlpwreck, earLhquake, or epldemlc."
! ChaoLlc condlLlons afLer llberaLlon ls noL lncluded ln Lhls
paragraph (eople v. Corpus). 8uL ln Lhe case of eople v.
en[an), Lhe chaoLlc condlLlon resulLlng from Lhe llberaLlon of
San ablo was consldered a calamlLy.
! uevelopmenL of englne Lrouble aL sea ls a mlsforLune buL noL
wlLhln Lhe conLexL of Lhe phrase oLher calamlLy or mlsforLune"
(eople v. Arpa).
____________________
Ak. 8: 1nA1 1nL CkIML 8L CCMMI11LD WI1n 1nL AID CI AkMLD
MLN Ck LkSCNS WnC INSUkL Ck AIICkD IMUNI1.

I. 8as|s of aragrapn 8:
! Means and ways of commlLLlng Lhe crlme.

II. kequ|s|tes:
1. Armed men or persons Look parL ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme, dlrecLly or lndlrecLly.
2. Accused avalled hlmself of Lhelr ald or relled upon Lhem when
Lhe crlme was commlLLed (see uS v. Abalgar).

III. ku|e for the app||cat|on of th|s c|rcumstance
! Accused musL have avalled hlmself of Lhe ald of armed men.
o Casual presence of armed men near Lhe place where
Lhe crlme was commlLLed does noL consLlLuLe an
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance when lL appears LhaL Lhe
accused dld noL avall hlmself of Lhelr ald or rely upon
Lhem Lo commlL Lhe crlme.
! 1he armed men musL Lake parL dlrecLly or lndlrecLly.
o Accused sLabbed Lhe deceased Lo deaLh alone, wlLhouL
asslsLance from anyone, even Lhough Lhere were Len
men armed wlLh daggers, and flve wlLhouL, buL Lhese
men Look no parL, dlrecLly or lndlrecLly, ln Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme. 1he accused Lherefore dld noL
avall hlmself of Lhelr ald or rely upon Lhem Lo commlL
Lhe crlme (uS v. Abalgar).
/0$,12.- 67 L3'&4 $'8 67 $#,.8 ,.(M
! A secured Lhe servlces of 3 armed Moros Lo klll her husband.
uurlng Lhe acL, A held Lhe llghL and supplled Lhe men wlLh rope
whlle Lhe 3 men clubbed her husband Lo deaLh. A was charged
wlLh parrlclde wlLh Lhe ald of armed men (eople v. Pane).
! C and L were prosecuLed for robbery wlLh rape. 1hey had
companlons who were armed when Lhey commlLLed Lhe crlme.
lL was held LhaL Lhey were gullLy of robbery wlLh rape wlLh
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance of ald of armed men (eople v. CrLlz).
! LxcepLlons:
o AggravaLlng clrcumsLance shall noL be consldered when
boLh Lhe aLLacklng parLy and Lhe parLy aLLacked were
.I+$22@ $#,.8.
o AggravaLlng clrcumsLance noL presenL when Lhe
accused as well as Lhose who cooperaLed wlLh hlm ln
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme acLed under &4. -$,. 12$(
$(8 76# &4. -$,. 1+#16-..

IV. "W|th the a|d of armed men" (ar. 8), d|st|ngu|shed from "by a
band." (ar. 6)
aragraph 8 aragraph 6
Ald of armed men ls presenL even
lf one of Lhe offenders merely
8y a band" requlres more Lhan
Lhree armed malefacLors have
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
relled on Lhelr ald. AcLual ald ls noL
necessary.
acLed LogeLher ln commlLLlng Lhe
offense.

L!'8 67 $#,.8 ,.(M '- $;-6#;.8 ;@ L.,126@,.(& 67 $ ;$(8M
! lL ls lmproper Lo be separaLely Lake lnLo accounL agalnsL Lhe
accused Lhe aggravaLlng clrcumsLance of (1) Lhe ald of armed
men, and (2) employmenL of a band ln appralslng Lhe gravlLy lf
Lhe offense, ln vlew of Lhe deflnlLlon of band whlch lncludes any
group of armed men, provlded Lhey are aL leasL 4 ln number.

V. "A|d of armed men" |nc|udes "armed women"
! Ald of armed women ls aggravaLlng ln kldnapplng and serlous
lllegal deLenLlon (eople v. Llcop).
! Some use of arms or show of armed sLrengLh ls necessary Lo
guard a kldnap vlcLlm Lo prevenL or dlscourage escape and so ln
a sense, lL may be [usLly regarded as lncluded ln or absorbed by
Lhe offense lLself (eople v. vlllanueva).
____________________
Ak. 9: 1nA1 1nL ACCUSLD IS A kLCIDIVIS1.

I. 8as|s of aragraph 9:
! CreaLer perverslLy of Lhe offender, as shown by hls lncllnaLlon
Lo crlmes.

II. Who |s a rec|d|v|st?
! Cne who, aL Lhe Llme of hls Lrlal for one crlme, shall have been
prevlously convlcLed by flnal [udgmenL of anoLher crlme
embraced ln Lhe same LlLle of Lhe 8evlsed enal Code
(Art|c|elcle 14(9), aragraph 2).
H.I+'-'&.-?
1. Cffender ls on Lrlal for an offense.
2. Pe was prevlously convlcLed by flnal [udgmenL of anoLher crlme.
3. 8oLh Lhe flrsL and second offenses are embraced ln Lhe same
LlLle of Lhe Code.
4. Cffender ls convlcLed of Lhe new offense.

III. "At the t|me of h|s tr|a| for one cr|me."
! WhaL ls conLrolllng ls Lhe Llme of Lrlal, noL Lhe Llme of Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
! lL ls noL requlred LhaL aL Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme, Lhe accused should have been prevlously convlcLed by
flnal [udgmenL of anoLher crlme.
D.$('(" 67 L$& &4. &',. 67 4'- &#'$2 76# 6(. *#',.M
! lL ls employed ln lLs general sense, lncludlng Lhe renderlng of
Lhe [udgmenL. lL ls meanL Lo lnclude everyLhlng LhaL ls done ln
Lhe course of Lhe Lrlal, from arralgnmenL unLll afLer senLence ls
announced by Lhe [udge ln open courL.
! no recldlvlsm lf Lhe subsequenL convlcLlon ls for an offense
commlLLed before Lhe offense lnvolved ln Lhe prlor convlcLlon.
o 1he accused was prosecuLed and Lrled for LhefL, esLafa
and robbery. !udgmenLs for all Lhree were rendered on
Lhe same day. Pe ls noL a recldlvlsL because Lhe
[udgmenL of Lhe flrsL Lwo were noL flnal when he was
Lrled for Lhe Lhlrd offense.
! eople v. 8aldera
o lacLs: 1he accused was convlcLed of robbery wlLh
homlclde commlLLed on uec.23,1947. Pe was 1#.%'6+-2@
convlcLed of LhefL commlLLed on uec.30,1947.
o Peld: 1he accused was noL a recldlvlsL
54.#. '- #.*'8'%'-, .%.( '7 &4. 2$1-. 67 &',. ;.&3..( &36 7.26('.- '-
,6#. &4$( PT @.$#-
! 8ecldlvlsm musL be Laken lnLo accounL as an aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance no maLLer how many years have lnLervened
beLween Lhe flrsL and second felonles.

IV. "rev|ous|y conv|cted by f|na| [udgment"
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! Sect|on 7 of ku|e 120 of the kev|sed ku|es of Cr|m|na|
rocedure ! excepL where Lhe deaLh penalLy ls lmposed, a
[udgmenL ln a crlmlnal case becomes flnal.
1. AfLer Lhe lapse of Lhe perlod for perfecLlng an appeal, or
2. When Lhe senLence has been parLlally or LoLally saLlsfled or
served, or
3. 1he accused has applled for probaLlon.
! Sect|on 6 of ku|e 122 of the kev|sed ku|es of Cr|m|na|
rocedure ! an appeal musL be Laken wlLhln 13 days from
promulgaLlon or noLlce of Lhe [udgmenL or order appealed from.

V. 1he present cr|me and the prev|ous cr|me must be "embraced |n the
same t|t|e of th|s Code."
! When one offense ls punlshable by an ordlnance or speclal law
and Lhe oLher by Lhe 8evlsed enal Code, Lhe Lwo offenses are
noL embraced ln Lhe same LlLle of Lhe Code.
! 8uL recldlvlsm was consldered aggravaLlng ln a usury case
where Lhe accused was prevlously convlcLed of Lhe same
offense.
o Art|c|e|c|e 10 - 8evlsed enal Code as supplemenLlng
speclal laws of a penal characLer.
/0$,12.- 67 *#',.- .,;#$*.8 '( &4. -$,. &'&2. 67 &4. H.%'-.8 E.($2
968.
! 8obbery and LhefL (1|t|e 10)
! Pomlclde and physlcal ln[urles (1|t|e 8)
! 1he felonles deflned and penallzed ln 8ook ll of 8evlsed enal
Code are grouped ln dlfferenL LlLles.

VI. ardon does not ob||terate the fact that the accused was a
rec|d|v|st, but amnesty ext|ngu|shed the pena|ty and |ts effects
! 1hls ls Lhe rullng ln Lhe case of uS v. SoLelo.
! ardon does noL prevenL a former convlcLlon form belng
consldered as an aggravaLlng clrcumsLance.
____________________
Ak. 10: 1nA1 1nL CIILNDLk nAS 8LLN kLVICUSL UNISnLD ICk
AN CIILNSL 1C WnICn 1nL LAW A11ACnLS AN LUAL Ck GkLA1Lk
LNAL1 Ck ICk 1WC Ck MCkL CkIMLS 1C WnICn I1 A11ACnLS A
LIGn1Lk LNAL1.

I. 8as|s of aragraph 10:
! Same as LhaL of recldlvlsm, l.e, Lhe greaLer perverslLy of Lhe
offender as shown by hls lncllnaLlon Lo crlmes.

II. kequ|s|tes:
1. Accused ls on Lrlal for an offense.
2. Pe prevlously served senLence for anoLher offense Lo whlch Lhe
law aLLaches an equal or greaLer penalLy, or for Lwo or more
crlmes Lo whlch lL aLLaches llghLer penalLy Lhan LhaL for Lhe new
offense.
3. Pe ls convlcLed of Lhe new offense.

III. ke|terac|on or nab|tua||ty
! ln relLeraclon or hablLuallLy, lL ls essenLlal LhaL Lhe offender be
prevlously punlshed, LhaL ls, he has served senLence, for an
offense ln whlch Lhe law aLLached, or provldes for an equal or
greaLer penalLy Lhan LhaL aLLached by law Lo Lhe second
offense, or for Lwo or more offenses, ln whlch Lhe law aLLaches
a llghLer penalLy.
! eople v. vlllapando ! 1he records dld noL dlsclose LhaL Lhe
accused has been so prevlously punlshed. 8elLeraclon or
hablLuallLy ls noL aLLendanL.

IV. "nas been prev|ous|y pun|shed"
! Means LhaL Lhe accused prevlously served senLence for anoLher
offense or senLences for oLher offenses before hls Lrlal for Lhe
new offense.
! Second requlslLe ls presenL:
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o When Lhe penalLy provlded by law for Lhe prevlous
offense ls equal Lo LhaL for Lhe new offense.
o When Lhe penalLy provlded by law for Lhe prevlous
offense ls greaLer.
o Accused served aL leasL Lwo senLences even lf Lhe
penalLles provlded by law for Lhe crlmes are llghLer.
LE+('-4.8 76# $( 677.(-. &6 34'*4 &4. 2$3 $&&$*4.- $( .I+$2 0 0 0
1.($2&@>M
! A served senLence for forclble abducLlon punlshable by
recluslon Lemporal Lhen commlLLed homlclde afLer belng
released, whlch ls also punlshable by recluslon Lemporal.
LE+('-4.8 76# $( 677.(-. &6 34'*4 &4. 2$3 $&&$*4.- 0 0 0 "#.$&.#
1.($2&@>M
! A served senLence for homlclde punlshable by recluslon
Lemporal Lhen commlLLed falslflcaLlon afLer punlshable by a
penalLy ranglng from 6 years and 1 day Lo 12 years.
! Suppose lLs falslflcaLlon flrsL Lhen homlclde afLer? no
hablLuallLy, because Lhe penalLy for Lhe flrsL offense ls less Lhan
LhaL for Lhe second offense. 1he penalLy for Lhe flrsL offense
musL aL leasL be equal Lo LhaL for Lhe second offense.
! Pomlclde before and homlclde afLer? 1here ls reclvldlsm,
because Lhe flrsL and Lhe second offenses are embraced ln Lhe
same LlLle of Lhe Code.
LE+('-4.8 000 76# &36 6# ,6#. *#',.- &6 34'*4 '& $&&$*4.- $ 2'"4&.#
1.($2&@>M
! 1he prevlous Lwo offenses, Lhe law provldes lesser penalLles.

V. It |s the pena|ty attached to the offense, not the pena|ty actua||y
|mposed.
! Art|c|e 14, ar. 10 ! speaks of penalLy aLLached Lo Lhe offense,
whlch may have several perlods.
! Lven lf Lhe accused served Lhe penalLy of prlslon mayor ln lLs
mlnlmum perlod and ls noL convlcLed of an offense for whlch
Lhe penalLy of prlslon mayor maxlmum ls lmposed, Lhere ls sLlll
hablLuallLy.
H.'&.#$*'6( 6# 4$;'&+$2'&@= (6& $23$@- $""#$%$&'(">
! lf penalLy ls deaLh and Lhe offenses for whlch Lhe offender has
been prevlously convlcLed are agalnsL properLy and noL dlrecLly
agalnsL persons, courLs should exerclse lLs dlscreLlon ln favor of
Lhe accused by noL Laklng Lhls clrcumsLance lnLo accounL.

VI. 1he four forms of repet|t|on:
1. 8ecldlvlsm (Art|c|e|c|e 14, ar. 9)
2. 8elLeraclon or hablLuallLy (Art|c|e|c|e 14, ar. 10)
3. MulLl-recldlvlsm or hablLual dellnquency (Art|c|e|c|e 62, par. S)
4. Cuasl-recldlvlsm (Art|c|e|c|e 160)
H.*'8'%'-, $(8 #.'&.#$*'6( 8'-&'("+'-4.8
kec|d|v|sm ke|terac|on
Lnough LhaL a flnal [udgmenL has
been rendered ln Lhe flrsL offense
necessary LhaL Lhe offender shall
have served ouL hls senLence for
Lhe flrsL offense
8equlres LhaL Lhe offenses be
lncluded ln Lhe same LlLle of Lhe
Code
revlous and subsequenL offenses
musL noL be embraced ln Lhe same
LlLle of Lhe Code.
Always Lo be Laken lnLo
conslderaLlon ln flxlng Lhe penalLy
Lo be lmposed upon Lhe accused
noL always an aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance
! llrsL 2 ! generlc aggravaLlng clrcumsLances, 3
rd
ls an
exLraordlnary aggravaLlng clrcumsLance. 4
Lh
ls a speclal
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance
U$;'&+$2 8.2'(I+.(*@
! 1here ls hablLual dellnquency when a person, wlLhln a perlod of
10 years from Lhe daLe of hls release or lasL convlcLlon of Lhe
crlmes of serlous or less serlous physlcal ln[urles, robbery, LhefL,
esLafa, or falslflcaLlon, ls found gullLy of any of sald crlmes a
Lhlrd Llme of ofLener.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! ln hablLual dellnquency, he ls elLher a recldlvlsL or punlshed for
hablLuallLy (Lwo or more crlmes).
! Pe shall suffer an addlLlonal penalLy for belng a hablLual
dellnquenL.
V+$-'W#.*'8'%'-,
Any person who shall commlL a felony afLer havlng been
convlcLed by flnal [udgmenL, before beglnnlng Lo serve such
senLence, or whlle servlng Lhe same, shall be punlshed by Lhe
maxlmum perlod of Lhe penalLy prescrlbed by law for Lhe new
felony. (Art|c|e|c|e 160)
____________________
Ak. 11: 1nA1 1nL CkIML 8L CCMMI11LD IN CCNSIDLkA1ICN CI A
kICL, kLWAkD, Ck kCMISL

I. 8as|s for aragraph 11
! CreaLer perverslLy of Lhe offender, as shown by Lhe moLlvaLlng
power lLself.

II. 1h|s aggravat|ng c|rcumstance presupposed the concurrence of two
or more offenders
! 1here musL be 2 or more prlnclpals, Lhe one who glves or offers
Lhe prlce or promlse, and Lhe one who accepLs lL.
! 8oLh of whom are prlnclpals ! Lo Lhe former, because he
dlrecLly lnduces Lhe laLLer Lo commlL Lhe crlme, Lhe laLLer
because he acLually commlLs lL.
F- &4'- 1$#$"#$14 $112'*$;2. &6 &4. 6(. 346 "$%. &4. 1#'*. 6# #.3$#8S
! ?LS. lL affecLs noL only Lhe person who recelved Lhe prlce of Lhe
reward buL also Lhe person who gave lL (uS v. arro). 1he
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance of prlce, reward or promlse Lhereof
affecLs equally Lhe offeror and Lhe accepLor (eople v.
AllncasLre)
XY5 &4'- '- *6(&#$-&.8 ;@ E.612. %> 5$22.86 $(8 5#',;#.Z$
! 8uL ln Lhe case of eople v. 1alledo and 1lmbreza, lL was held
LhaL Lhls aggravaLlng clrcumsLance cannoL be consldered agalnsL
Lhe oLher accused for Lhe reason LhaL lL was noL she who
commlLLed Lhe crlme ln conslderaLlon of sald prlce or reward.
! lf Lhe prlce, reward or promlse ls alleged ln Lhe lnformaLlon as a
quallfylng aggravaLlng clrcumsLance, lL shall be consldered
agalnsL all Lhe accused.

III. App||cat|on of th|s aragraph: r|ce reward or prom|se must be for
the purpose of |nduc|ng another to perform the deed
! lor Lhls aggravaLlng clrcumsLance Lo be consldered agalnsL Lhe
person, lnducemenL musL be prlmary conslderaLlon for Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe of Lhe crlme by hlm (eople v. aredes).
! Lvldence musL show LhaL one of Lhe accused used money or
oLher valuable conslderaLlon for Lhe purpose of lnduclng
anoLher Lo perform Lhe deed (uS v. Camao).
! lf wlLhouL prevlous promlse lL was glven volunLarlly afLer Lhe
crlme has been commlLLed as an expresslon of hls appreclaLlon
for Lhe sympaLhy and ald shown by oLher accused, lL should noL
be Laken lnLo conslderaLlon for Lhe purpose of lncreaslng Lhe
penalLy (uS v. llores).
____________________
Ak. 12: 1nA1 1nL CkIML 8L CCMMI11LD 8 MLANS CI
INUNDA1ICN, IIkL, CISCN, LkLCSICN, S1kANDING CI A VLSSLL Ck
IN1LN1ICNAL DAMAGL 1nLkL1C, DLkAILMLN1 CI A LCCCMC1IVL,
Ck 8 USL CI AN C1nLk Ak1IIICL INVCLVING GkLA1 WAS1L AND
kUIN

I. 8as|s of aragraph 11:
! 8eference Lo means and ways employed.

II. Un|ess used by the offender as a means to accomp||sh a cr|m|na|
purpose, any of the c|rcumstance |n ar. 12 cannot be cons|dered to
|ncrease the pena|ty or to change the nature of the offense
! As generlc aggravaLlng clrcumsLance.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o ln a crlme of parrlclde, Lhere ls only a generlc
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance, because Lhey cannoL quallfy
Lhe crlme.
o When anoLher aggravaLlng clrcumsLance already
quallfles Lhe crlme, any of Lhese aggravaLlng
clrcumsLances shall be consldered as generlc
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance only.
! When Lhere ls no acLual deslgn Lo klll a person ln burnlng a
house, lL ls plaln arson even lf a person ls kllled.
o When Lhe crlme lnLended Lo be commlLLed ls arson and
somebody dles as a resulL Lhereof, Lhe crlme ls slmply
arson and Lhe acL resulLlng ln Lhe deaLh of LhaL person ls
noL even an lndependenL crlme of homlclde, lL belng
absorbed (eople v. aLerno).
o Cn Lhe oLher hand, lf Lhe offender had Lhe lnLenL Lo klll
Lhe vlcLlm, burned Lhe house where Lhe laLLer was, and
Lhe vlcLlm dles, Lhe crlme ls murder, quallfled by Lhe
clrcumsLance LhaL Lhe crlme was commlLLed by means
of flre." (Art|c|e|c|e 248)

III. When used as a means to k||| another person, the cr|me |s murder
1. 8y means of flre
o ln order Lo consLlLuLe a murder, Lhere should be an
acLual deslgn Lo klll and LhaL Lhe use of flre should be
purposely adopLed as a means Lo LhaL end (uS v. 8urns).
o lf Lhe purpose of Lhe exploslon, lnundaLlon, flre or
polson ls Lo klll a predeLermlned person, Lhls
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance wlll noL be consldered as lL ls
an lnLegral elemenL of Lhe offense. 1he crlme ls murder.
o lf Lhe house was seL on flre afLer kllllng Lhe vlcLlm, Lhere
would be Lwo separaLe crlmes of arson and murder.
1here ls no aggravaLlng clrcumsLance by means of flre".
2. 8y means of exploslon
o lf Lhere ls an exploslon, and Lhe wall ls damaged Lhus
endangerlng Lhe llves of Lhe people Lhere, Lhere ls
damage of properLy (Art|c|e|c|e 324).
o lf Lhere an exploslon and people dled, buL Lhere was no
lnLenL Lo klll, lL wlll be a crlme lnvolvlng desLrucLlon buL
Lhe penalLy wlll be deaLh.
o lf Lhere ls lnLenL Lo klll and exploslon ls used, Lhere ls
murder.
3. 8y means of derallmenL of locomoLlve
o Art|c|e|c|e 330 ! deflnes and penallzes Lhe crlme of
damage Lo means of communlcaLlon, derallmenL of
cars, colllslon or accldenL musL resulL from damage Lo
rallway, Lelegraph, or Lelephone.
o 1hls ls wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo crlmlnal llablllLy of oLher
consequences of crlmlnal acL:
" uamage Lo means of communlcaLlon ls
commlLLed lf properLy ls damaged as a resulL of
Lhe derallmenL of cars.
" lf deaLh of a person also resulLs wlLhouL lnLenL
Lo klll on parL of Lhe offender, lL ls a complex
crlme of damage Lo means of communlcaLlon
wlLh homlclde.
" lf Lhere was lnLenL Lo klll and Lhe deaLh resulLs,
lL ls murder because Lhe derallmenL of cars was
Lhe means used Lo klll Lhe vlcLlm.
" lf Lhls aggravaLlng clrcumsLance quallfles a
crlme Lo murder, lL can no longer ralse Lhe
penalLy hlgher. (Art|c|e|c|e 62, ar.1)
! lL wlll be noLed LhaL each of Lhe clrcumsLances of flre, exploslon
and derallmenL of locomoLlve may be a parL of Lhe deflnlLlon of
parLlcular crlme. ln Lhese cases, Lhey do noL serve Lo lncrease
Lhe penalLy, because Lhey are already lncluded by Lhe law ln
deflnlng Lhe crlme.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
IV. ar. 12 d|st|ngu|shed from ar. 7
! ar 12 - crlme ls commlLLed by means of any of such acLs
lnvolvlng greaL wasLe or ruln.
! ar 7 - Lhe crlme ls commlLLed on Lhe occaslon of a calamlLy or
mlsforLune.
____________________
Ak. 13: 1nA1 1nL AC1 8L CCMMI11LD WI1n LVIDLN1
kLMLDI1A1ICN

I. 8as|s of aragraph 13
! @'4$ of commlLLlng Lhe crlme, because lL lmplles a 0"(+7"#'."
!('&&+&2 of Lhe acL before execuLlng lL.

II. I||ustrat|on of 8.2';.#$&. 12$(('("
! A planned Lo klll 8, where hls plan could be deduced from Lhe
followlng ouLward clrcumsLances:
o Pe caused hls co-accused, C, Lo be drunk.
o Pe remarked LhaL he had a grudge agalnsL 8.
o Pe supplled ammunlLlon Lo C.

III. Lv|dent premed|tat|on may be cons|dered as to pr|nc|pa| by
|nduct|on
! When A dlrecLly lnduces persons 8 and C Lo klll u.
o 1he crlme, ln so far as A ls concerned, was commlLLed
wlLh premedlLaLlon.

IV. Lssence of premed|tat|on
! ls LhaL Lhe execuLlon of Lhe crlmlnal acL musL be !#"*"0"0 74
*%%( .3%,23. and #"6("*.+%& upon Lhe resoluLlon Lo carry ouL Lhe
crlmlnal lnLenL durlng Lhe space of Llme sufflclenL Lo arrlve aL a
calm [udgmenL.
! LvldenL premedlLaLlon may nC1 be appreclaLed absenL any
proof as Lo how and when Lhe plan Lo klll was haLched or whaL
Llme elapse before lL was carrled ouL.
54. 1#.,.8'&$&'6( ,+-& ;. L.%'8.(&M
! 1here musL be evldence showlng LhaL Lhe accused medlLaLed
and reflecLed on hls lnLenLlon beLween Lhe Llme (1) when Lhe
crlme was concelved and (2) when lL was acLually perpeLraLed.
! lL cannoL be merely suspecLed.

V. kequ|s|tes of ev|dent premed|tat|on
1. 1he .+-" when Lhe offender deLermlned Lo commlL Lhe crlme,
2. An acL manlfesLly lndlcaLlng LhaL Lhe culprlL has clung Lo hls
deLermlnaLlon.
3. A $,66+*+"&. ('!$" %6 .+-" beLween Lhe deLermlnaLlon and
execuLlon Lo allow hlm Lo reflecL upon Lhe consequences of hls
acL and Lo allow hls consclence Lo overcome Lhe resoluLlon of
hls wlll.
Lxamp|e: uS v. Manallnde A@3"#" B #"C,+$+."$ :"#" !#"$"&.D.
! AE
$.
#"C,+$+."D Cn a cerLaln daLe, Lhe accused accepLed a
proposlLlon LhaL he would go 3,#'-"&.'0% and Lo klll Lhe 2
persons he would meeL.
! A;
&0
#"C,+$+."D Pe underLook Lhe [ourney Lo comply and provlded
hlmself wlLh Lhe weapon, whlch manlfesLs hls deLermlnaLlon Lo
commlL Lhe crlme.
! AB
#0
#"C,+$+."D Pe Look a [ourney for a day and a nlghL before
kllllng Lhe vlcLlms. Such duraLlon ls a sufflclenL lapse of Llme.

VI. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: 1he date and t|me when the offender determ|ned
to comm|t the cr|me essent|a|
! 1hls ls because Lhe lapse of Llme for Lhe purpose of Lhe 3
rd

requlslLe ls compuLed from LhaL daLe and Llme.

VII. SLCCND kLUISI1L necessary: Man|fest |nd|cat|on of c||ng|ng to
cu|pr|t's determ|nat|on
! 1he premedlLaLlon musL be based upon exLernal acLs and noL
presumed from mere lapse of Llme.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o 1he crlmlnal lnLenL musL be noLorlous and manlfesL and
Lhe purpose and deLermlnaLlon musL be plaln and have
been adopLed afLer maLure conslderaLlon on Lhe parL of
Lhe persons who concelved and resolved upon Lhe
perpeLraLlon of Lhe crlme, as a resulL 0"(+7"#'.+%&8
-"0+.'.+%& and #"6("*.+%& someLlme 7"6%#" commlsslon.
! 1he rule ls LhaL Lhe quallfylng clrcumsLance of premedlLaLlon ls
saLlsfacLorlly esLabllshed only lf lL ls proved LhaL Lhe defendanL
had 0"(+7"#'."(4 !('&&"0 Lo commlL Lhe crlme, and had
!"#$+$."&.(4 and *%&.+&,%,$(4 followed lL, noLwlLhsLandlng LhaL
he had ample Llme Lo allow hls consclence Lo overcome Lhe
deLermlnaLlon of hls wlll, lf he had so deslred afLer medlLaLlon
and reflecLlon (eople v. SarmlenLo).
J.*6(8 #.I+'-'&. .0'-&-
! lL can be sald LhaL Lhe offender clung Lo Lhelr deLermlnaLlon
when:
o Was carefully planned by Lhe offenders.
o When Lhe offenders prevlously prepared Lhe means
whlch Lhey conslder adequaLe Lo carry ouL Lhe plan.
o When Lhe grave was prepared aL an lsolaLed place.
o When Lhe defendanLs' made repeaLed sLaLemenLs of
Lhelr lnLenLlon and armed Lhemselves accordlngly.
o When Lhe defendanL commenced Lo prepare hls
weapon.
o When Lhe defendanL repeaLedly aLLempLed Lo Lake Lhe
llfe of Lhe deceased.
o Where Lhe accused repeaLedly ploLLed Lhe commlsslon
of murder.
D.#. &4#.$&- 3'&46+& &4. -.*6(8 .2.,.(& 86.- (6& -463 .%'8.(&
1#.,.8'&$&'6(
! A LhreaL Lo klll, unsupporLed by oLher evldence whlch would
dlsclose Lhe crlmlnal sLaLe of mlnd of Lhe accused ls noL a
resoluLlon lnvolved ln evldenL premedlLaLlon (eople v.
lernandez).
! 1he mere facL as soon as Lhe accused heard LhaL Lhe deceased
had escaped from sLockade he prepared Lo klll hlm ls lnsufflclenL
Lo esLabllsh evldenL premedlLaLlon. 1he proposlLlon was noLhlng
buL an expresslon of hls own deLermlnaLlon Lo commlL Lhe
crlme ! dlffer from premedlLaLlon (eople v. Carlllo).
! 1here ls no showlng LhaL, beLween Lhe day Lhe LhreaL was glven
and Lhe day Lhe kllllng acLually occurred, Lhe appellanL made
plans or soughL Lhe deceased Lo accompllsh Lhe kllllng. 1he
kllllng happened when Lhe appellanL was plowlng Lhe fleld and
Lhe deceased unexpecLedly appeared (eople v. SarmlenLo).

VIII. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Suff|c|ent |apse of t|me
! When Lhe acL was noL prompLed by Lhe lmpulse of Lhe momenL.
! When Lhe accused had ample Llme Lo make necessary
preparaLlons.
! When Lhere was ample Llme for medlLaLlon and reflecLlon and
Lo allow hls consclence Lo overcome Lhe resoluLlon of hls wlll.
! When Lhere was sufflclenL Llme for deslsLance.
! When here was sufflclenL Llme Lo reflecL upon Lhe
consequences of Lhe conLemplaLed acL.
/0'-&.(*. 67 '22W7..2'(" 6# "#+8". $26(. '- (6& 1#667 67 .%'8.(&
1#.,.8'&$&'6(
! A grudge or resenLmenL ls noL a concluslve proof of evldenL
premedlLaLlon.
H.$-6( 34@ -+77'*'.(& &',. '- #.I+'#.8
! 1o glve Lhe offender an opporLunlLy Lo coolly and serenely Lhlnk
and dellberaLe on Lhe meanlng and Lhe consequences of whaL
he planned Lo do, an lnLerval long enough for hls consclence
and beLLer [udgmenL Lo overcome hls evll deslre and scheme.
54.#. ,+-& ;. -+77'*'.(& &',. ;.&3..( &4. 6+&3$#8 $*&- $(8 &4. $*&+$2
*6,,'--'6( 67 &4. *#',.
! 1he mere facL LhaL Lhe accused was lylng ln walL before Lhe
aLLack ls nC1 sufflclenL Lo susLaln a flndlng of evldenL
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
premedlLaLlon, ln Lhe absence of proof LhaL he had been lylng ln
walL for ' $,7$.'&.+'( !"#+%0 %6 .+-"<

Ik. Consp|racy genera||y presupposes premed|tat|on
! When consplracy ls dlrecLly esLabllshed, Lhe exlsLence of evldenL
premedlLaLlon can be Laken for granLed.
! /[9/E5F\?: When consplracy ls only lmplled, evldenL
premedlLaLlon my noL be appreclaLed (ln Lhe absence of proof
as Lo how and when Lhe plan Lo klll was haLched).

k. Lv|dent premed|tat|on and pr|ce or reward can co-ex|st
! 1he aggravaLlng clrcumsLance of prlce, reward or promlse may
be Laken lnLo conslderaLlon lndependenLly of Lhe facL LhaL
premedlLaLlon has already been consldered .
! remedlLaLlon ls absorbed by reward or promlse (appllcable
only Lo Lhe lnducLor).
o 1he mere facL LhaL anoLher execuLed Lhe acL on Lhe
promlse of reward does noL necessarlly mean LhaL he
had sufflclenL Llme Lo reflecL on Lhe consequences of hls
acL.

kI. When v|ct|m |s d|fferent from that |ntended, premed|tat|on |s not
aggravat|ng
! LvldenL premedlLaLlon -'4 &%. 7" !#%!"#(4 Laken lnLo accounL
when Lhe person whom Lhe defendanL proposed Lo klll was
dlfferenL from Lhe one who became hls vlcLlm.
A'-&'("+'-4 &4. #+2'(" '( &4. 5',;62 *$-. 7#6, &4$& '( &4. ]+'22.( *$-.
! eople v. Culllen ! When Lhe person kllled ls dlfferenL from Lhe
one lnLended Lo be kllled, evldenL premedlLaLlon may nC1 be
consldered presenL.
! eople v. 1lmbol ! LvldenL premedlLaLlon MA? 8L consldered
ll lL ls shown LhaL Lhe consplraLors were deLermlned Lo klll noL
only Lhe lnLended vlcLlm buL also '&4 %&" who may help hlm puL
a vlolenL reslsLance.
F& '- (6& (.*.--$#@ &4$& &4.#. '- $ 12$( &6 <'22 $ 1$#&'*+2$# 1.#-6(
! When afLer careful and LhoughLful medlLaLlon, Lhe accused
declded Lo klll, aL Lhe flrsL opporLunlLy, :3'."1"# +&0+1+0,'( he
should meeL. LvldenL premedlLaLlon ls sLlll presenL.
A'77.#.(*.- '( #+2'("-
! 1
sL
case: When Lhe offender decldes Lo klll anoLher buL kllls a
dlfferenL person lnsLead, lL ls noL aggravaLlng (Culllen).
! 2
nd
case: lf Lhe offender decldes Lo klll An? person, lL ls
aggravaLlng (See eople v. 1lmbol).
! 3
rd
case: Where Lhe vlcLlm belonged Lo Lhe SAML CLASS, lL ls
aggravaLlng (See uS v. Zalos and 8agmacm supra)..

kII. Lv|dent premed|tat|on, wh||e |nherent |n robbery, may be
aggravat|ng |n robbery w|th hom|c|de II the premed|tat|on "|nc|uded"
the k||||ng of the v|ct|m.
lf Lhe kllllng ls only lncldenLal because Lhe orlglnal plan was only
Lo rob, Lhls aggravaLlng clrcumsLance should be dlsregarded.
____________________
Ak. 14: 1nA1 (1) CkAI1, (2) IkAUD, Ck (3) DISGUISL 8L LMLCLD.

I. 8as|s of aragraph 14
! Means employed ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme

II. App||cat|on of th|s paragraph
! 1hls clrcumsLance ls characLerlzed y Lhe lnLellecLual or menLal
raLher Lhan Lhe physlcal means Lo whlch Lhe crlmlnal resorLs Lo
carry ouL hls deslgn.

III. Craft (lnvolves lnLellecLual Lrlckery and cunnlng on Lhe parL of Lhe
accused)
! lL ls chlcanery resorLed Lo by Lhe accused Lo ald ln Lhe execuLlon
of Lhe crlme.
! Lxample:
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o When Lhe accused preLended Lo be bona flde
passengers ln Lhe Laxlcab drlven by Lhe dlseased ln
order Lo noL arouse hls susplclon and Lhen kllllng hlm,
Lhere ls crafL (eople v. uaos).
o Accused lures vlcLlm ouL of hls house (eople v.
8arbosa) or lnLo a false sense of securlLy Lo make hlm
unmlndful of Lhe Lragedy LhaL would befall hlm (eople
v. 8odrlguez)
o CrafL was used ln rape when Lhe accused offered a
drugged buL lnnocenL looklng chocolaLe Lo Lhe vlcLlm,
whlch dld noL arouse her susplclon, ln order Lo weaken
and prevenL her from reslsLlng (eople v. Cuy, CA).
9#$7&= 34.( (6& $( $""#$%$&'(" *'#*+,-&$(*.>
! Where crafL parLakes of an elemenL of Lhe offense, Lhe same
may noL be appreclaLed lndependenLly for Lhe purpose of
aggravaLlon.
! CrafL ls noL clearly esLabllshed where accused and hls
companlons dld noL camouflage Lhelr hosLlle lnLenLlons and
even announced Lhelr presence wlLh shouLs and gunshoLs
(eople v. Cunanan).

IV. Iraud (lnsldlous words or machlnaLlons used Lo lnduce Lhe vlcLlm Lo
acL ln a manner whlch would enable Lhe offender Lo carry ouL hls
deslgn)
! Lxample
o Where Lhe defendanLs lnduced Lhelr vlcLlms Lo glve up
Lhelr arms upon a promlse LhaL no harm would befall
Lhem (uS v. Abellnde).

V. na|r||ne d|st|nct|on between craft and fraud
! 1here ls crafL C8 fraud (elLher can be used) when by Lrlckery,
accused galned enLrance ln Lhe vlcLlm's house by preLendlng
Lhey had paclflc lnLenLlons (eople v. Sallllng).

U63 '- *#$7& 8'-&'("+'-4.8 7#6, 7#$+8S
! When Lhere ls a 0+#"*. +&0,*"-"&. by lnsldlous words or
machlnaLlons, fraud ls presenL.
! When Lhe acL of Lhe accused was done ln order noL .% '#%,$"
Lhe $,$!+*+%& of Lhe vlcLlm consLlLuLes crafL.

VI. D|sgu|se (8esorLlng Lo any devlce Lo conceal ldenLlLy)
! Lxample:
o uefendanL blackened hls face ln order LhaL he should
noL be recognlzed (uS v. Cofrada).
o 1he facL LhaL Lhe mask subsequenLly fell down Lhus
pavlng Lhe way for ldenLlflcaLlon does noL render Lhe
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance of dlsgulse lnappllcable
(eople v. CabaLo).
o use of an assumed name ln publlcaLlon (eople v.
Adamos).
A'-"+'-.= (6& *6(-'8.#.8
! When Lhe dlsgulse was noL effecLlve ln conceallng ldenLlLy.
! Lven Lhough Lhe accused assumed a masquerade hls face was
sLlll recognlzable due Lo Lhelr dlsLlncL feaLures (eople v. 8eyes)
54. 1+#16-. 67 &4. 677.(8.# '( +-'(" $(@ 8.%'*. ,+-& ;. &6 *6(*.$2 4'-
'8.(&'&@
! Musllm Lurbans are noL dlsgulses, slnce lL ls noL lnLended Lo
conceal ones ldenLlLy (uS v. 8odrlguez).
! ulsgulse dld noL faclllLaLe Lhe consummaLlon of Lhe kllllng, nor
Laken advanLage of by Lhe malefacLors ln Lhe course of Lhe
assaulL. 1helr mode of aLLack - l.e. arrlvlng wlLh shouLs and
gunshoLs - counLeracLed whaLever decepLlon mlghL have arlsen
from Lhelr dlsgulse (eople v. Cunanan).
____________________
Ak. 1S: 1nA1 (1) ADVAN1AGL 8L 1AkLN CI SULkICk S1kLNG1n, Ck
(2) MLANS 8L LMLCLD 1C WLAkLN 1nL DLILNSL

I. Mean|ng of "advantage be taken"
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! Means Lo use purposely "9*"$$+1" 6%#*" ouL of proporLlon Lo Lhe
means of defense avallable Lo Lhe person aLLacked.

II. I||ustrat|ons
F22+-&#$&'6(- 67 (6 $8%$(&$". 67 -+1.#'6# -&#.("&4
! Cne who aLLacks anoLher wlLh passlon and obfuscaLlon does noL
Lake advanLage of hls superlor sLrengLh.
! When a quarrel arose ,&"9!"*."0(4 and Lhe faLal blow was
sLruck aL a Llme when Lhe aggressor and hls vlcLlm were
"&2'2"0 agalnsL each oLher as man Lo man.
! When Lhe aLLack was made on Lhe vlcLlm alLernaLely, Lhere ls no
abuse of superlor sLrengLh (eople v. narclso).
F22+-&#$&'6(- 67 $;+-. 67 -+1.#'6# -&#.("&4
! When a sLrong man has lll-LreaLed a chlld, an old decreplL
person, or one weakened by dlsease or where a person's
physlcal sLrengLh has been overcome by Lhe use of drugs or
lnLoxlcanLs.
! resenL where Lhe vlcLlm who dled was a baby, and Lhe oLher
wounded vlcLlms were chlldren aged 3 and 12, because of Lhe
marked dlfference of physlcal sLrengLh beLween Lhe offended
parLles and Lhe offender.
!;+-. 67 -+1.#'6# -&#.("&4 34.( $ ,$( $&&$*<- $ 36,$( 3'&4 $
3.$16(
! An aLLack made by a man wlLh a deadly weapon upon an
unarmed and defenseless woman consLlLuLes abuse of
superlorlLy whlch hls sex and Lhe weapon used afforded hlm,
and whlch Lhe woman ls unable Lo defend herself.
! no abuse of superlor sLrengLh ln parrlclde agalnsL Lhe wlfe. 1haL
Lhe vlcLlm ls a woman ls lnherenL ln parrlclde.

III. Lv|dence of re|at|ve phys|ca| strength necessary
! 1here musL be evldence LhaL Lhe accused were physlcally
sLronger and LhaL Lhey abused such superlorlLy.
! 1he mere facL of belng a superlorlLy of numbers ls noL sufflclenL
Lo brlng Lhe case wlLhln aggravaLlng clrcumsLance.

IV. When abuse of super|or strength |s aggravat|ng
! 1hls aggravaLlng clrcumsLance depends on Lhe age, slze, and
sLrengLh of Lhe parLles.
! lL ls consldered whenever Lhere ls a noLorlous lnequallLy of
forces beLween Lhe vlcLlm and Lhe aggressor whlch ls Laken
advanLage of hlm ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
?+,;.# 67 $""#.--6#-= '7 $#,.8= ,$@ 16'(& &6 $;+-. 67 -+1.#'6#
-&#.("&4
! 1here ls no abuse of superlor sLrengLh where Lhe accused dld
noL cooperaLe ln such a way as Lo secure advanLage from Lhelr
comblned sLrengLh. 1hey dld noL explolL Lhelr superlor sLrengLh
(eople v. ?banez).
F(-&$(*.- 67 $;+-. 67 -+1.#'6# -&#.("&4 ;@ (+,.#'*$2 -+1.#'6#'&@
! When Lhe assallanLs are armed and ouLnumber Lhe vlcLlm.
! When Lhe assallanLs successlvely and slmulLaneously assaulLed
Lhe vlcLlm and Lhere was marked dlsparlLy beLween Lhe sLrengLh
of Lhe vlcLlm and Lhe sLrengLh of Lhe aggressors.
! When Lhe assallanLs cooperaLed ln such a way as Lo derlve
advanLage from Lhelr comblned sLrengLh.
54.#. '- $;+-. 67 -+1.#'6# -&#.("&4 34.( 3.$16( +-.8 '- 6+& 67
1#616#&'6( &6 &4. 8.7.(-. $%$'2$;2. &6 &4. 677.(8.8 1$#&@
! Abuse of sLrengLh ls presenL noL only when (1) Lhe offenders
en[oy numerlcal superlorlLy or (2) Lhere ls a noLorlous lnequallLy
of force beLween Lhe vlcLlm and Lhe aggressor,
! 8uL also (3) when Lhe offender uses a powerful weapon whlch ls
ouL of proporLlon Lo Lhe defense avallable Lo Lhe offended parLy
! J',+2&$(.6+- $&&$*< ;@ &36 1.#-6(- 3'&4 #.%62%.#- $"$'(-& $
8.7.(-.2.-- 1.#-6( '- $""#$%$&.8 ;@ -+1.#'6# -&#.("&4 (uS v.
8anagale).
54.#. '- (6 $;+-. 67 -+1.#'6# -&#.("&4 34.( 6(. $*&.8 $- 1#'(*'1$2 $(8
&4. 6&4.# &36 $- $**6,12'*.-
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! lL musL appear LhaL Lhe accused *%%!"#'."0 .%2".3"# ln some
way deslgned Lo weaken Lhe defense. 1hls would make Lhem
gullLy ln Lhe characLer of prlnclpals.
:4.( &4.#. '- $( $22."$&'6( 67 &#.$*4.#@= -+1.#'6# -&#.("&4 '- $;-6#;.8
! Llke nlghLLlme, superlor sLrengLh ls lnherenL ln Lreachery.
!;+-. 67 &4. -+1.#'6# -&#.("&4 '- $""#$%$&'(" '( *6.#*'6( $(8 76#*';2.
$;8+*&'6(= 34.( "#.$&2@ '( .0*.-- 67 &4$& #.I+'#.8 &6 *6,,'& &4.
677.(-.
! AlLhough Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme of coerclon or forclble
abducLlon presupposes superlorlLy of force on Lhe parL of Lhe
offenders, F". :3"& .3" $.#"&2.3 '1'+("0 %6 +$ 2#"'.(4 +& "9*"$$
%6 .3'. #"C,+#"0 6%# .3" #"'(+>'.+%& %6 .3" %66"&$"8 as where Lhe
offenders were very much superlor Lo Lhe complalnanL
\&4.# *#',.- '( 34'*4 $;+-. 67 -+1.#'6# -&#.("&4 '- $""#$%$&'("
! lllegal deLenLlon (Art|c|e 267 and 268)
! 8obbery wlLh rape
! 8obbery wlLh homlclde

V. 1he c|rcumstance of "by a band" and that of "abuse of super|or
strength, "d|st|ngu|shed
! LlemenL of band ls appreclaLed when Lhe offense ls commlLLed
by more Lhan 3 armed malefacLors regardless of Lhe
comparaLlve sLrengLh of Lhe vlcLlm.
o 8equlres: (1) aL leasL four (2) all 4 are armed.
! ln superlor sLrengLh, whaL ls Laken lnLo accounL ls noL" Lhe
number of aggressors nor Lhe facL LhaL Lhey are armed 8u1
Lhelr relaLlve physlcal mlghL vls-a-vls Lhe offended parLy.
!""#$%$&'(" *'#*+,-&$(*.- $;-6#;'(" ;$(8
! Abuse of superlorlLy absorbs cuadrllla.
! 1he Lwo concepLs should nC1 be LreaLed separaLely and dlsLlncL
from abuse of superlor sLrengLh.
! 1he aggravaLlng clrcumsLance of by a band ls absorbed ln
Lreachery.

VI. "Means emp|oyed to weaken defense"
! Lxample
o When one suddenly casLs sand or dlrL upon Lhe laLLer's
eyes and Lhen wounds or kllls hlm (eople v. SlaoLong).
F(&60'*$&'(" &4. %'*&', &6 3.$<.( 8.7.(-.
! 1hls ls for Lhe purpose of maLerlally weakenlng Lhe laLLer's
reslsLlng power.
! If the state of |ntox|cat|on |s such that the v|ct|m cannot put up
any sort of defense, treachery may be cons|dered

VII. App||cab|e on|y to cr|mes aga|nst persons, etc.
! 1hls clrcumsLance ls appllcable only Lo crlmes agalnsL persons,
and someLlmes agalnsL person and properLy, such as robbery
wlLh physlcal ln[urles or homlclde (l.e. robbery wlLh homlclde).
D.$(- &6 3.$<.( &4. 8.7.(-. $;-6#;.8 '( &#.$*4.#@
! ln eople v. Cuy, employlng means Lo weaken Lhe defense ls noL
Lhe aggravaLlng clrcumsLance. lL ls crafL.
____________________
Ak. 16: 1nA1 1nL AC1 8L CCMMI11LD WI1n 1kLACnLk (ALLVCSIA).

I. 8as|s of aragraph 16
! Means and ways employed ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.

II. Mean|ng of treachery
! When Lhe offender commlLs any of Lhe crlmes agalnsL Lhe
person employlng means, meLhods or forms ln Lhe execuLlon
Lhereof whlch Lend dlrecLly and speclally Lo lnsure lLs execuLlon,
wlLhouL rlsk Lo hlmself arlslng from Lhe defense whlch Lhe
offended parLy mlghL make.
! lL means LhaL Lhe offended parLy was noL glven opporLunlLy Lo
make a defense.
! 1reachery ls presenL when Lhe aLLack ls:
o Sudden
o unexpecLed
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o WlLhouL warnlng
o WlLhouL glvlng Lhe vlcLlm an opporLunlLy Lo defend
hlmself or repel Lhe aggresslon
o Made when Lhe deceased dld noL sense any danger as
Lhere was no grudge or mlsundersLandlng

III. ku|es regard|ng treachery
HY^/ PC !112'*$;2. 6(2@ &6 *#',.- $"$'(-& 1.#-6(-
! 8ased on Lhe phrase crlme agalnsL Lhe person".
HY^/ RC F& '- (6& (.*.--$#@ &4$& &4. ,68. 67 $&&$*< '(-+#.- &4.
*6(-+,,$&'6( 67 677.(-.
! lL ls necessary only Lo lnsure lLs "9"*,.+%& nC1 accompllshmenL.
o lL ls sufflclenL LhaL lL ."&0$ .% '& +&."&0"0 "&0.
! 1he Lreacherous characLer of Lhe means employed does noL
depend upon lLs consummaLlon oLherwlse Lhere would be no
aLLempLed or frusLraLed murder quallfled by Lreachery.
! 1reacherous characLer of Lhe offense ls dependenL on Lhe
MLAnS lLself, ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe aggressor's purpose.
! 5#.$*4.#@ *$((6& ;. 1#.-+,.8
o lL ls necessary LhaL Lhe exlsLence of Lhls quallfylng or
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance should be proven as fully as
Lhe crlme lLself ln order Lo aggravaLe Lhe llablllLy or
penalLy lncurred by Lhe culprlL.
! lllusLraLlons - nC Lreachery ln Lhe followlng cases:
o When no parLlculars are known Lo Lhe commlsslon of
Lhe crlme as Lhe wound whlch resulLed lnLo Lhe deaLh of
vlcLlm could have been accldenLal (uS v. erdon).
o When Lhe meeLlng of Lhe vlcLlm and Lhe assallanL was
only accldenLal (eople v. velaga).
o Where no wlLness saw how Lhe deceased was shoL
(eople v. 1lozon).
o When Lhe wlLness dld noL see how lL all began and could
noL provlde deLalls (eople v. narlL).
o Where Lhe aLLack was fronLal (eople v. 1ugba).
! LxcepLlons:
o When Lhe vlcLlm was Lled even wlLhouL a wlLness (uS v.
SanLos).
o ln Lhe kllllng of a chlld even lf Lhe manner of aLLack ls
noL shown (eople v. 8eLubado).
HY^/ _C 54. ,68. 67 $&&$*< ,+-& ;. *6(-*'6+-2@ $861&.8
! 8ased on Lhe words employlng, dlrecLly and speclally".
! 1hls means LhaL Lhe accused -,$. -'/" $%-" !#"!'#'.+%& Lo klll
Lhe deceased ln such a manner as Lo lnsure Lhe execuLlon of Lhe
crlme or Lo make lL lmposslble for Lhe person Lo defend hlmself
! 1he mode of aLLack -,$. 7" .3%,23. %6 by Lhe offender and
musL noL sprlng from Lhe unexpecLed Lurn of evenLs
! Lxamples where Lreachery ls 8LSLn1:
o AcL of shooLlng Lhe vlcLlm aL a dlsLance, wlLhouL Lhe
leasL expecLaLlon on hls parL LhaL he would be
assaulLed.
o 1he accused made a dellberaLe, surprlse aLLack on Lhe
vlcLlm.
o When Lhe vlcLlms hands were ralsed and he was
pleadlng for mercy wlLh one of Lhe assallanLs when
anoLher sLruck hlm.
o When Lhe assallanL sLraLeglcally placed hlmself ln a
foresLed area and flred aL Lhe unsuspecLlng vlcLlm aL a
dlsLance.
o When Lhe vlcLlm was Lled and gagged before belng
sLabbed.
o When Lhe aLLack was dellberaLe, sudden, unexpecLed
from behlnd.
o When Lhe aLLack was made wlLhouL warnlng.
! Lxamples where Lreachery ls nC1 presenL
o A fronLal encounLer wlLhouL dellberaLe surprlse aLLack.
o When Lhe malefacLors have hlm an omlnous warnlng.
o When Lhe accused dld noL camouflaged Lhelr lnLenLlons.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o When Lhere ls noLhlng ln Lhe record Lo show LhaL Lhe
accused had pondered upon Lhe mode or meLhod Lo
lnsure Lhe kllllng or remove rlsk Lo hlmself.
o When Lhere ls no evldence LhaL Lhe accused had, !#+%#
.% .3" -%-"&.8 #"$%(1"0 Lo commlL Lhe crlme or Lhere ls
no proof LhaL Lhe deaLh of Lhe vlcLlm was Lhe resulL of
-"0+.'.+%&8 *'(*,('.+%& or #"6("*.+%&<
! Mere suddenness of Lhe aLLack ls noL enough Lo consLlLuLe
Lreachery, lL musL be 0"(+7"#'."(4 chosen Loo.
! 1haL Lhe mode of aLLack was consclously adopLed -'4 7"
+&6"##"0 6#%- .3" *+#*,-$.'&*"$<

IV. Where the meet|ng between the accused and the v|ct|m |s casua|
and the attack |mpu|s|ve|y done, there |s NC treachery
! 1reachery cannoL be appreclaLed where Lhere ls noLhlng ln Lhe
record Lo show LhaL Lhe accused had pondered upon Lhe mode
or meLhod Lo lnsure Lhe kllllng of Lhe deceased or remove or
dlmlnlsh any rlsk Lo hlmself LhaL mlghL arlse from Lhe defense
LhaL Lhe deceased mlghL make.
! Maln characLerlsLlcs: dellberaLe, sudden and unexpecLed
o Mere suddenness of Lhe aLLack ls noL enough Lo
consLlLuLe Lreachery. Such meLhod or form of aLLack
musL be dellberaLely chosen by Lhe accused.
! Where Lhe meeLlng beLween Lhe accused and Lhe vlcLlm ls
casual and Lhe aLLack lmpulslvely done, Lhere ls noL Lreachery

V. Attacks show|ng |ntent|on to e||m|nate r|sk (See p.447-4S0)
! vlcLlm asleep
! vlcLlm half-awake or [usL awakened
! vlcLlm grappllng or belng held
! ALLack from behlnd
o WlLh a flrearm
o WlLh a bladed weapon

VI. kequ|s|tes of treachery
1. 1haL aL Lhe Llme of Lhe aLLack, Lhe 1+*.+- :'$ &%. +& ' !%$+.+%& .%
0"6"&0 3+-$"(6<
2. 1haL Lhe offender *%&$*+%,$(4 '0%!."0 Lhe parLlcular means,
meLhod or form of aLLack employed by hlm.
54. %'*&', 3$- (6& '( $ 16-'&'6( &6 8.7.(8 4',-.27
! Lxamples:
o When Lhe vlcLlm was made Lo lle face down wlLh hands
Lled aL Lhe back (eople v. Saqulng).
o When Lhe vlcLlm was shoL from behlnd (eople v.
8erzuela).
o When Lhe vlcLlm was shoL whlle bllndfolded (eople v.
!akosalem).
o When Lhe vlcLlm was ambushed ln Lhe dark.
! 1here ls Lreachery when Lhe offenders made a dellberaLe
surprlse or unexpecLed aLLack on Lhe vlcLlm
! 1here ls nC Lreachery when Lhe vlcLlm was already defendlng
hlmself when he was aLLacked by Lhe accused
! 1he facL LhaL advanLage was Laken of relaLlve confuslon, so LhaL
Lhe acL and ldenLlLy of Lhe offender would noL be deLecLed, and
so LhaL hls escape would be faclllLaLed uCLS nC1 adequaLely
esLabllsh Lreachery.
5#.$*4.#@ 86.- (6& *6((6&. &4. .2.,.(& 67 -+#1#'-. $26(.
! Mere sudden and unexpecLed aLLack does noL necessary glve
rlse Lo Lreachery. lL could have been done on lmpulse, as a
reacLlon Lo an acLual or lmaglned provocaLlon offered by Lhe
vlcLlm.

VII. Instances where treachery may or may not ex|st:
! When the accused gave the deceased a chance to prepare,
there was no treachery.
! No treachery where the attack |s preceded by a warn|ng.
o Calllng aLLenLlon of Lhe vlcLlm noL necessarlly a warnlng.
! No treachery where shoot|ng |s preceded by heated d|scuss|on
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o 1hls allows Lhe vlcLlm Lo lnsure Lhelr safeLy before Lhe
aLLack of Lhe defendanLs.
o kllllng unarmed vlcLlm whose hands are upralsed ls
commlLLed wlLh Lreachery.
o kllllng a woman asklng for mercy ls commlLLed wlLh
Lreachery.
! 1here |s treachery |n k||||ng a ch||d
o 1hls ls so because Lhe weakness of Lhe vlcLlm due Lo hls
Lender age.
! Intent to k||| |s not necessary |n murder w|th treachery.
o 1here ls no lncompaLlblllLy, moral or legal, beLween
alevlosa and Lhe mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance of noL havlng
lnLended Lo cause so greaL an ln[ury (ArLlcle 13)
o 8uL lnLenL Lo klll ls necessary ln murder commlLLed by
means of flre.
! 1reachery may ex|st even |f the attack |s face to face
o 1hls ls posslble where lL appears LhaL Lhe aLLack was noL
!#"*"0"0 74 ' 0+$!,." and Lhe offended parLy was
,&'7(" .% !#"!'#" 3+-$"(6 for defense.
! I|ash|ng the beam of a f|ash||ght on the face of v|ct|m
o 1hls momenLarlly bllnds Lhe vlcLlm and ls aggravaLlng
even lf Lhe aLLack was fronLal and sudden
! If the |ntervent|on of the other persons d|d not d|rect|y and
espec|a||y |nsure the execut|on of the cr|me w|thout r|sk to the
accused, there |s no treachery

VIII. 1reachery must be proved by c|ear and conv|nc|ng ev|dence
! 1reachery ls noL Lo be presumed. 1here musL be a clear showlng
from Lhe narraLlon of facLs why Lhe aLLack ls sald Lo be sudden.
! Clear and convlnclng evldence ls necessary.
!&&$*< 7#6, ;.4'(8 '- (6& $23$@- $2.%6-'$
! lL ls necessary LhaL Lhe aLLack from behlnd was consclously
adopLed and dlmlnlshed rlsk Lo Lhe offender

Ik. Must treachery be present at the beg|nn|ng of the assau|t?
! lL depends on Lhe clrcumsLances of Lhe case
! ].(.#$2 #+2.: lL musL be shown LhaL Lhe Lreacherous acLs were
presenL and !#"*"0"0 .3" *%--"&*"-"&. %6 .3" '..'*/ :3+*3
*',$"0 .3" +&G,#4 *%-!('+&"0 %6<
! /0*.1&'6(: Lven Lhough ln Lhe lncepLlon of Lhe aggresslon whlch
ended ln Lhe deaLh of Lhe deceased, Lreachery was noL presenL,
+6 .3"#" :'$ ' 7#"'/ +& .3" *%&.+&,+.4 %6 .3" '22#"$$+%& '&0 '.
.3" .+-" .3" 6'.'( :%,&0 :'$ +&6(+*."0 %& .3" 0"*"'$"0 3" :'$
0"6"&$"("$$8 .3" *+#*,-$.'&*" %6 .#"'*3"#4 -,$. 7" .'/"& +&.%
'**%,&.<
J+,,$#@ 67 &4. #+2.-
! When Lhe aggresslon +$ *%&.+&,%,$, Lreachery musL be presenL
'. .3" 7"2+&&+&2 %6 .3" '$$',(. (eople v. CaneLe, p.461).
! When Lhe assaulL &%. *%&.+&,%,$8 ln LhaL Lhere was an
lnLerrupLlon, lL ls sufflclenL LhaL Lreachery was presenL '. .3"
-%-"&. .3" 6'.'( 7(%: :'$ 2+1"& (uS v. 8aluyoL, p. 462).

k. In treachery, |t makes no d|fference whether or not the v|ct|m was
the same person whom the accused |ntended to k|||
! 1he purely accldenLal clrcumsLance LhaL as a resulL of Lhe shoLs,
a person oLher Lhan Lhe one lnLended was kllled, does nC1
modlfy Lhe naLure of Lhe crlme nor lessen hls crlmlnal
responslblllLy.
! 1reachery may be Laken lnLo accounL desplLe mlsLake ln
ldenLlLy.
! 1he reason for Lhls rule ls LhaL when Lhere ls Lreachery, lL ls
lmposslble for elLher Lhe lnLended vlcLlm or Lhe acLual vlcLlm Lo
defend hlmself agalnsL Lhe aggresslon

kI. When treachery |s not to be cons|dered as to the pr|nc|pa| by
|nduct|on
! When lL ls nC1 shown LhaL Lhe prlnclpal lnduced Lhe klller Lo
adopL Lhe means or meLhods acLually used, because Lhe former
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
lefL Lo Lhe laLLer Lhe deLalls as Lo how lL was Lo be accompllshed,
Lreachery CAnnC1 be Laken lnLo conslderaLlon as Lo Lhe
prlnclpal by lnducLlon.
! lL shall aggravaLe Lhe llablllLy of Lhe acLual klller CnL?.

kII. 1reachery, abuse of super|or strength, and means emp|oyed to
weaken the defense, d|st|ngu|shed
! ln Lreachery, means, meLhods or forms of aLLack are employed
Lo make lL +-!%$$+7(" %# 3'#0 for Lhe offended parLy Lo puL up
any sorL of defense.
! ln abuse of superlor sLrengLh, Lhe offender does noL employ
means, meLhods or forms of aLLack, he only Lakes advanLage of
hls superlor sLrengLh.
! ln means employed Lo weaken Lhe defense, Lhe offender, llke ln
Lreachery, employs means buL Lhe means employed only
:"'/"&$ Lhe defense.

kIII. When there |s consp|racy, treachery |s cons|dered aga|nst a|| the
offenders.
! 1reachery should be consldered agalnsL all persons !'#.+*+!'.+&2
%# *%%!"#'.+&2 ln Lhe perpeLraLlon of Lhe crlme, "9*"!. when
Lhere ls no *%&$!+#'*4 among Lhem.
! 1reachery should be consldered agalnsL Lhose persons who had
knowledge" of Lhe employmenL of Lreachery aL Lhe Llme of Lhe
execuLlon of Lhe acL or Lhelr cooperaLlon Lhereln.
54. ,$-&.#,'(8 -46+28 4$%. <(632.8". 67 &4. .,126@,.(& 67
&#.$*4.#@ '7 4. 3$- (6& 1#.-.(& 34.( &4. *#',. 3$- *6,,'&&.8
! 1he rule ls LhaL every consplraLor ls responslble for Lhe acLs of
Lhe oLhers ln furLherance of Lhe consplracy
! 1reachery should be appreclaLed as a generlc aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance agalnsL Lhe masLermlnd even when he was absenL
durlng Lhe crlme.


kIV. What |s absorbed |n treachery?
! 1reachery absorbs (1) abuse of super|or strength, (2) a|d of
armed men, (3) by a band (4) n|ghtt|me (S) means to weaken
the defense (6) craft (7) murder by po|son and (8) Age and sex
! When n|ghtt|me |s not absorbed |n treachery
o Slnce Lreachery resLs upon an lndependenL facLual basls,
Lhe clrcumsLance of nlghLLlme ls noL absorbed Lhereln,
buL can be percelved dlsLlncLly Lherefrom.
! Craft |s |nc|uded |n and absorbed by treachery
o CrafL ls lncluded ln and absorbed by Lhe quallfylng
clrcumsLance of Lreachery, because lL was used Lo
lnsure Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme wlLhouL rlsk Lo Lhe
culprlLs.
o When crafL was employed ln robbery wlLh homlclde,
noL wlLh a vlew Lo make Lreachery more effecLlve as
nlghLLlme or abuse of superlor sLrengLh would ln Lhe
kllllng of Lhe vlcLlm, lL ls nC1 absorbed ln Lreachery.
! Age and sex are |nc|uded |n treachery
! Dwe|||ng |s not |nc|uded |n treachery
! Defense|ess cond|t|on of v|ct|ms |s |nc|uded |n abuse of
super|or strength, not treachery.
! 1reachery, ev|dent premed|tat|on and use of super|or strength
are absorbed '( 5#.$-6( by k||||ngs.
! 1reachery |s |nherent |n murder by po|son|ng
! 1reachery cannot co-ex|st w|th pass|on or obfuscat|on
o ln passlon or obfuscaLlon, Lhe offender loses hls reason
and self-conLrol.
o ln Lreachery, Lhe mode of aLLack musL be consclously
adopLed.

____________________
Ak. 17: 1nA1 MLANS 8L LMLCLD Ck CIkCUMS1ANCLS 8kCUGn1
A8CU1 WnICn ADD IGCMIN 1C 1nL NA1UkAL LIILC1S Ck 1nL AC1.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
I. 8as|s of aragraph 17:
! Means employed

II. Ignom|ny: a clrcumsLance perLalnlng Lo Lhe -%#'( %#0"#8 whlch adds
dlsgrace and obloquy Lo Lhe maLerlal ln[ury caused by Lhe crlme

III. App||cab|||ty:
1. Crlmes agalnsL chasLlLy,
2. Less serlous physlcal ln[urles,
3. LlghL or grave coerclon, and
4. Murder

IV. "1hat means be emp|oyed"
! Lxample: wrapplng Lhe genlLal wlLh cogon before rape Lo
lncrease paln (eople v. 1orreflel, eL al., CA)

V. "1hat x x x c|rcumstances be brought about."
! Lxample: Where one rapes a marrled woman ln Lhe presence of
her husband (uS v. lglesla) or beLroLhed (uS v. Casanas).

VI. "Wh|ch add |gnom|ny to the natura| effects of the act"
! Means LhaL Lhe means or clrcumsLances -'/" .3" *#+-" -%#"
3,-+(+'.+&2 %# .% !,. .3" %66"&0"0 !'#.4 .% $3'-"<
! lL ls lncorrecL Lo appreclaLe addlng lgnomlny Lo Lhe offence
where Lhe vlcLlm ls already dead when hls body was
dlsmembered (eople v. Carmlna).
No |gnom|ny when a man |s k|||ed |n the presence of h|s w|fe
! 8ecause no means was employed nor dld any clrcumsLance
surround Lhe acL Lendlng Lo make Lhe effecLs of Lhe crlme more
humlllaLlng (uS v. Abalgar).
kape as |gnom|ny |n robbery w|th hom|c|de.
! 1hough lL ls noL speclflcally enumeraLed ln Art|c|e 14, rape,
wanLon robbery for personal galn, and oLher forms of cruelLles
are condemned and Lhelr perpeLraLlon wlll be regarded as
aggravaLlng clrcumsLances of lgnomlny.
____________________
Ak. 18 1nA1 1nL CkIML 8L CCMMI11LD AI1Lk AN UNLAWIUL
LN1k.

I. 8as|s of aragraph 18:
! Means and ways employed Lo commlL Lhe crlme.

II. Mean|ng of un|awfu| entry
! 1here ls an unlawful enLry when an enLrance ls effecLed by a
way noL lnLended for Lhe purpose.

III. 1o effect entrance, not for escape
! unlawful enLry musL be a means Lo effecL Lhe enLrance and &%.
6%# "$*'!"<

IV. keason for aggravat|on
! Cne who acLs, noL respecLlng Lhe walls erecLed by men Lo guard
Lhelr properLy and provlde for Lhelr personal safeLy, shows a
greaLer perverslLy.

V. App||cat|on of th|s c|rcumstance
! Lxamples
o When rape ls commlLLed ln a house afLer an enLry
Lhrough Lhe wlndow.
! unlawful enLry ls one of Lhe ways of commlLLlng robbery wlLh
force upon Lhlngs.
! lf Lhe crlme charged ln Lhe lnformaLlon was only LhefL, and Lhe
prosecuLlon proved unlawful enLry, lL ls only a generlc
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance (noL robbery wlLh force upon Lhlngs).
A3.22'(" $(8 +(2$37+2 .(&#@ &$<.( -.1$#$&.2@ '( ,+#8.#- *6,,'&&.8 '(
$ 83.22'("

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
Y(2$37+2 .(&#@ '- (6& $""#$%$&'(" '( &#.-1$-- &6 83.22'("
! 1respass Lo dwelllng ls commlLLed when a prlvaLe lndlvldual
shall enLer Lhe dwelllng of anoLher agalnsL Lhe wlll of Lhe laLLer
and may be commlLLed by means of vlolence (ArL. 280)
____________________
Ak. 19: 1nA1 AS A MLANS 1C 1nL CCMMISSICN CI A CkIML, A
WALL, kCCI, ILCCk, DCCk, Ck WINDCW 8L 8kCkLN.

I. 8as|s of aragraph 19:
! Means and ways employed Lo commlL Lhe crlme.
! AggravaLlng clrcumsLance of forclble enLry
o CuLLlng of Lhe canvas of Lhe LenL where soldlers are
sleeplng ls covered by par. 19 (uS v. MaLanug).

II. "As a means to the comm|ss|on of a cr|me."
! lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhe offender should have enLered Lhe
bulldlng. WhaL aggravaLes Lhe llablllLy of Lhe offender ls Lhe
breaklng of a parL of Lhe bulldlng as a means Lo Lhe commlsslon
of Lhe crlme.

III. 1o effect entrance on|y
! 1he clrcumsLance ls aggravaLlng CnL? ln Lhose cases where Lhe
offender resorLed Lo any of sald means Lo "&."# Lhe house. lf Lhe
wall ls broken ln order Lo geL ouL of Lhe place, lL ls nC1 an
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance.

IV. Where break|ng of door or w|ndow |s |awfu|
! ku|e 113, Sect|on 11 (kev|sed ku|es of Cr|m|na| rocedure) An
offlcer . may break lnLo any bulldlng ln maklng arresLs.
! ku|e 126, Sect|on 7 (kC) An offlcer may break open any ouLer
or lnner door or wlndow Lo execuLe a warranL.
____________________
Ak. 20: 1nA1 1nL CkIML 8L CCMMI11LD (1) WI1n 1nL AID CI
LkSCNS UNDLk III1LLN LAkS CI AGL, Ck (2) 8 MLANS CI MC1Ck
VLnICLLS, AIkSnIS, Ck C1nLk SIMILAk MLANS.

I. 8as|s of aragraph 20:
! Means and ways employed Lo commlL Lhe crlme.

II. 1wo d|fferent aggravat|ng c|rcumstances |n paragraph 20
! llrsL one Lends Lo repress Lhe frequenL pracLlce resorLed Lo by
professlonal crlmlnals Lo avall Lhemselves of mlnors Laklng
advanLage of Lhelr lrresponslblllLy.
! Second one ls lnLended Lo counLeracL Lhe greaL faclllLles found
by modern crlmlnals ln sald means Lo commlL crlme and flee
and abscond once Lhe same ls commlLLed.

III. "W|th the a|d of persons under f|fteen years of age"
! lacLs: A caused 14-year-old 8 Lo cllmb Lhe wall of Lhe house of
C, Lo enLer Lhrough Lhe wlndow and sLeal lLems. 8 Lhrew Lhem
ouLslde and A reLrleved Lhem.
! Peld: ar. 20 should be Laken as an aggravaLlng clrcumsLance.

IV. "8y means of motor veh|c|es"
! Means LhaL Lhe vehlcle ls used (1) ln golng Lo Lhe place of Lhe
crlme, (2) ln carrylng away Lhe effecLs Lhereof and (3) ln
faclllLaLlng Lhelr escape.
! lf Lhe moLor vehlcle was used CnL? ln faclllLaLlng Lhe escape, lL
should nC1 be an aggravaLlng clrcumsLance. lL should faclllLaLe
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
! /-&$7$= 34'*4 '- *6,,'&&.8 ;@ ,.$(- 67 8.*.'& 6# $;+-. 67
*6(7'8.(*.= *$((6& ;. *6,,'&&.8 ;@ ,.$(- 67 ,6&6# %.4'*2.>
! 54.7&= 34'*4 '- *6,,'&&.8 ;@ ,.#.2@ &$2<'(" 1.#-6($2 1#61.#&@
34'*4 (..8 (6& ;. *$##'.8 $3$@= *$((6& ;. *6,,'&&.8 ;@
,.$(- 67 ,6&6# %.4'*2.->

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
/0$,12.- 67 *#',.- *6,,'&&.8 ;@ ,.$(- 67 ,6&6# %.4'*2.
! lorclbly Laklng and carrylng away a woman by means of an
auLomoblle ls aggravaLed forclble abducLlon.
! When Lhe accused hlres a Laxl where he sLabs hls vlcLlm.

V. "Cr other s|m||ar means"
! 1he expresslon should be undersLood as referrlng Lo moLorlzed
vehlcles or oLher efflclenL means of LransporLaLlon slmllar Lo
auLomoblle or alrplane.
! vehlcles LhaL are moLorlzed (blcycles are noL lncluded)

____________________
Ak. 21: 1nA1 1nL WkCNG DCNL IN 1nL CCMMISSICN CI 1nL CkIML
8L DLLI8LkA1LL AUGMLN1LD 8 CAUSING C1nLk WkCNG NC1
NLCLSSAk ICk I1'S CCMMISSICN.

I. 8as|s of aragraph 21:
! Ways employed ln commlLLlng Lhe crlme.

II. Crue|ty: when Lhe culprlL en[oys and dellghLs ln maklng hls vlcLlm
suffer slowly and gradually, causlng hlm unnecessary physlcal paln ln Lhe
consummaLlon of Lhe crlmlnal acL.
! lL ls essenLlal LhaL Lhe wrong done was lnLended Lo prolong Lhe
sufferlng of Lhe vlcLlm.

III. kequ|s|tes of crue|ty:
1. 1haL Lhe ln[ury caused be 0"(+7"#'."(4 +&*#"'$"0 by causlng
oLher wrong.
2. 1haL Lhe oLher wrong be ,&&"*"$$'#4 for Lhe execuLlon of Lhe
purpose of Lhe offender.




IV. "8e de||berate|y augmented by caus|ng other wrong."
! 1hls phrase means LhaL Lhe accused aL Lhe Llme of Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme had 0"(+7"#'." +&."&.+%& Lo prolong Lhe
sufferlng of Lhe vlcLlm.

V. "Cther wrong not necessary for |ts comm|ss|on"
! lacLs: A and 8 sLruck C wlLh Lhelr guns Lo make hlm polnL Lhe
place where he was keeplng hls money.
! Peld: 1here was oLher wrong" buL lL necessary for Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme of robbery. no cruelLy.

VI. Crue|ty refers to phys|ca| suffer|ng of v|ct|m purpose|y |ntended by
offender
! 1hls requlres dellberaLe prolongaLlon of Lhe physlcal sufferlng of
Lhe vlcLlm.
! CruelLy cannoL be presumed.
:4.( &4. -.#'.- 67 $*&- *$+-'(" +((.*.--$#@ -+77.#'("- 67 %'*&', &66<
12$*. '( #$1'8 -+**.--'6(= &4.#. ,$@ ;. (6 *#+.2&@
! 1he mere facL of lnfllcLlng varlous successlve wounds upon a
person ln order Lo cause hls deaLh, &% '!!#"*+'7(" .+-"
+&."#1"&+&2 7".:""& .3" +&6(+*.+%& of one wound and LhaL of
anoLher Lo show LhaL Lhe offender wanLed Lo prolong Lhe
sufferlng of Lhe vlcLlm, ls nC1 sufflclenL for Laklng Lhls
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance lnLo conslderaLlon.
E2+#$2'&@ 67 36+(8- $26(. 86.- (6& -463 *#+.2&@
! ln Lhe absence of a showlng LhaL Lhe oLher wounds found on Lhe
body of Lhe vlcLlm were lnfllcLed Lo prolong hls sufferlng before
Lhe faLal wound was dealL, lL cannoL be concluded LhaL cruelLy
was duly proven.
?6 *#+.2&@ 34.( 6&4.# 3#6(" 3$- 86(. $7&.# &4. %'*&', 3$- 8.$8
! lor cruelLy Lo be appreclaLed, lL musL be proven LhaL Lhe
wounds were lnfllcLed whlle Lhe vlcLlm was sLlll allve ln order Lo
prolong physlcal sufferlng.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
VII. Ignom|ny d|st|ngu|shed from crue|ty
! lgnomlny lnvolves moral sufferlng
! CruelLy refers Lo physlcal sufferlng
H$1.-= #6;;.#@ $(8 6&4.# 76#,- 67 *#+.2&'.- $#. $""#$%$&'("
*'#*+,-&$(*.- 67 '"(6,'(@ $(8 *#+.2&@ '( &#.$-6(
! 8apes, wanLon robbery for personal galn, and oLher forms of
cruelLles are condemned and Lhelr perpeLraLlon wlll e regarded
as aggravaLlng clrcumsLances of +2&%-+&4 and of *#,"(.4<
____________________
Aggravat|ng c|rcumstance pecu||ar to certa|n fe|on|es.
! nlghLLlme pecullar ln vlolaLlon of domlclle (Art 128)
! When dlrecL assaulL ls commlLLed wlLh a weapon or by a publlc
offlcer or when Lhe offender Lhe offender lays hands upon a
person ln auLhorlLy (Art 148)
! CruelLy pecullar ln slavery (Art 272)
! When grave LhreaLs be made ln wrlLlng or Lhrough a mlddleman
(Art 282)
! When robbery wlLh vlolence agalnsL or lnLlmldaLlon of persons
(excepL robbery wlLh homlclde or rape) ls commlLLed ln an
unlnhablLed place or by a band (Art 29S)
! lf Lhe robbery wlLh Lhe use of force upon Lhlngs ls commlLLed ln
an unlnhablLed place (Art 300)

CLASS DISCUSSICN
ar. 18:
! lf Lhe enLry was galned by unhlnglng Lhe door Lhe home. Would
LhaL consLlLuLe unlawful enLry under ar.18? Cr would lL
consLlLuLe forclble enLry under ar.19?





!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
1I1LL CNL - ILLCNILS AND CIkCUMS1ANCLS WnICn AIILC1 CkIMINAL
LIA8ILI1
CnA1Lk 4: AL1LkNA1IVL CIkCUMS1ANCLS

Art|c|e 1S. !"#$% '()'#*+. A|ternat|ve c|rcumstances are those,
wh|ch must be taken |nto cons|derat|on as aggravat|ng or m|t|gat|ng
accord|ng to the nature and effects of the cr|me and the other
cond|t|ons attend|ng |ts comm|ss|on. 1hey are the re|at|onsh|p,
|ntox|cat|on and the degree of |nstruct|on and educat|on of the
offender.

1he a|ternat|ve c|rcumstance of re|at|onsh|p sha|| be taken |nto
cons|derat|on when the offended party |n the spouse, ascendant,
descendant, |eg|t|mate, natura|, or adopted brother or s|ster, or
re|at|ve by aff|n|ty |n the same degrees of the offender.

1he |ntox|cat|on of the offender sha|| be taken |nto cons|derat|on as a
m|t|gat|ng c|rcumstances when the offender has comm|tted a fe|ony |n
a state of |ntox|cat|on, |f the same |s not hab|tua| or subsequent to the
p|an to comm|t sa|d fe|ony but when the |ntox|cat|on |s hab|tua| or
|ntent|ona|, |t sha|| be cons|dered as an aggravat|ng c|rcumstance.

CIN1S
I. A|ternat|ve C|rcumstances
! Def|n|t|on: 1hose whlch musL be Laken lnLo conslderaLlon as
aggravaLlng or mlLlgaLlng accordlng Lo Lhe naLure and effecLs of
Lhe crlme and oLher condlLlons aLLendlng lLs commlsslon.

II. 8as|s:
! 1he naLure and effecLs of Lhe crlme and Lhe oLher condlLlons
aLLendlng lLs commlsslon.
____________________


I. 1he a|ternat|ve c|rcumstances are:
1) 8elaLlonshlp
2) lnLoxlcaLlon
3) uegree of lnsLrucLlon and educaLlon of Lhe offender

II. ke|at|onsh|p ! 1he alLernaLlve clrcumsLance of relaLlonshlp shall be
Laken lnLo conslderaLlon when Lhe offended parLy ls:
a) Spouse
b) AscendanL
c) uescendanL
d) LeglLlmaLe, naLural, or adopLed broLher or slsLer, or
e) 8elaLlve by afflnlLy ln Lhe same degree of Lhe offender
,+"#% %#-.+$/#0 $)'-12#2
! SLepfaLher or sLepmoLher and sLepson or sLepdaughLer lncluded
by analogy as slmllar Lo LhaL of ascendanL and descendanL.
! AdopLlve parenL and adopLed chlld slmllar Lo ascendanL and
descendanL.
! 8u1 uncle and nlece ls noL covered.
3"#) 4$+$5.+$)5 .)2 6"#) .55%./.+$)5
! Genera| ru|e: Lhe relaLlonshlp ls mlLlgaLlng ln crlmes agalnsL
properLy:
o 8obbery (Art|c|e 294-302)
o usurpaLlon (Art|c|e 312)
o lraudulenL lnsolvency (Art|c|e 314)
o Arson (Art|c|e 321-322, 32S-326)
! Genera| ku|e: lL ls aggravaLlng ln crlmes agalnsL persons ln cases
where Lhe offended parLy ls a relaLlve of a hlgher degree Lhan
Lhe offender, or when Lhe offender and Lhe offended parLy are
relaLlves of Lhe same level, as kllllng a broLher, broLher-ln-law, a
half-broLher, or adopLed broLher.
! no crlmlnal buL only clvll llablllLy shall resulL from Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme of (1) 1hefL, (2) Swlndllng (3) Mallclous
mlschlef.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o lf commlLLed or caused muLually by spouses,
ascendanLs, descendanLs, or relaLlves by afflnlLy ln Lhe
same llne, broLhers and slsLers and broLhers-ln-law and
slsLers-ln-law, lf llvlng LogeLher.
78 +"# '%$4# .5.$)0+ *#%0()0 $0 .)9 (8 +"# 0#%$(10 *"90$'.- $):1%$#0; +"#
8.'+ +".+ +"# (88#)2#2 *.%+9 $0 . 2#0'#)2.)+ (8 +"# (88#)2#% $0 <,!
4$+$5.+$)5=
! When Lhe crlme agalnsL Lhe persons ls any of Lhe serlous
physlcal ln[urles (Art|c|e 263), even lf Lhe offended parLy ls a
descendanL of Lhe offender, relaLlonshlp ls aggravaLlng.
o Art|c|e 263 provldes a hlgher penalLy for Lhe
commlsslon of serlous physlcal ln[urles agalnsL persons
enumeraLed ln Art|c|e 264 (faLher, moLher, or chlld
wheLher leglLlmaLe or llleglLlmaLe, any of hls ascendanLs
or descendanLs, or spouse).
! When Lhe crlme ls less serlous physlcal ln[urles or sllghL physlcal
ln[urles, Lhe ordlnary rule applles.
o MlLlgaLlng lf Lhe offender ls of lower degree.
o AggravaLlng lf Lhe offender ls of hlgher degree.
! 8u1 when Lhe crlme agalnsL persons ls homlclde or murder,
relaLlonshlp ls aggravaLlng even lf Lhe vlcLlm of Lhe crlme ls a
relaLlve of lower degree.
o 8elaLlonshlp ls aggravaLlng when Lhe sLepmoLher kllled
her sLepdaughLer (eople v. orLenLo).
>#-.+$()0"$* $0 4$+$5.+$)5 $) +%#0*.00 +( 26#--$)5
! Where Lhe son-ln-law bellevlng hls wlfe Lo be aL her faLher's
house aLLempLed Lo force an enLry, relaLlonshlp ls mlLlgaLlng.
>#-.+$()0"$* $0 )#$+"#% 4$+$5.+$)5 )(% .55%./.+$)5; 6"#) %#-.+$()0"$*
$0 .) #-#4#)+ (8 +"# (88#)0#=
! arrlclde, adulLery, concublnage.
7) '%$4#0 .5.$)0+ '".0+$+9; %#-.+$()0"$* $0 .-6.90 .55%./.+$)5=
! ln crlmes agalnsL chasLlLy, llke acLs of lasclvlousness,
relaLlonshlp ls always aggravaLlng, regardless of wheLher Lhe
offender ls a relaLlve of a hlgher or lower degree of Lhe
offended parLy.
! 1hls ls because of Lhe naLure and effecL of Lhe crlme commlLLed.
Powever, Lhe rule may dlffer dependlng on aLLendlng
clrcumsLances.
o uS v. AncheLa ! broLher-ln-law kllled due Lo hls
adulLerous relaLlonshlps wlLh Lhe wlfe of Lhe accused !
relaLlonshlp mlLlgaLlng alLhough Lhe general rule ls LhaL
such relaLlonshlp ls supposed Lo be aggravaLlng.
o uS v. velarde ! wlLh Lhe deslre Lo subdue hls broLher-
ln-law who was Lhen sufferlng an aLLack of lnsanlLy,
accused sLruck hlm wlLh a club and exceeded Lhe llmlLs
of hls dlscreLlon ln Lhe heaL of Lhe sLruggle !
relaLlonshlp ls mlLlgaLlng.

III. Intox|cat|on
?#)#%.- >1-#@
! MlLlgaLlng: (1)lf lnLoxlcaLlon ls noL hablLual or (2) lf lnLoxlcaLlon
ls noL subsequenL Lo Lhe plan Lo commlL Lhe felony.
! AggravaLlng: (1) lf lnLoxlcaLlon ls hablLual, or (2) lf lL ls
lnLenLlonal (subsequenL Lo Lhe plan Lo commlL a felony).
A3"#) +"# (88#)2#% ".0 '(44$++#2 . 8#-()9 $) . 0+.+# (8 $)+(B$'.+$()C
! lor an accused Lo be enLlLled Lo Lhe mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance of
lnLoxlcaLlon, lL musL be shown LhaL (a) aL Lhe Llme of Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlmlnal acL, he has Laken such quanLlLy of
alcohollc drlnks as Lo blur hls reason and deprlve hlm of a
cerLaln degree of conLrol and (b) LhaL such lnLoxlcaLlon ls noL
hablLual, or subsequenL Lo Lhe plan Lo commlL Lhe felony.
! Accused's sLaLe of lnLoxlcaLlon musL be proved.
o Cnce lnLoxlcaLlon ls esLabllshed by saLlsfacLory
evldence, absenL conLrary proof lL ls presumed Lo be
non-hablLual or unlnLenLlonal.
! urunkenness musL affecL menLal faculLles
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o 1he 8C says noLhlng abouL Lhe degree of lnLoxlcaLlon
needed Lo mlLlgaLe, buL obvlously Lo produce such
effecL, lL musL dlmlnlsh Lhe agenL's capaclLy Lo know Lhe
ln[usLlce of hls acLs,a nd hls wlll Lo acL accordlngly.
A3"#) +"# $)+(B$'.+$() $0 ".D$+1.-C
! A hablLual drunkard ls one glven Lo lnLoxlcaLlon by excesslve use
of lnLoxlcaLlng drlnks. 1he hablL should be acLual and conflrmed.
o unnecessary LhaL such hablL ls dally).
A,% 01D0#E1#)+ +( +"# *-.) +( '(44$+ . 8#-()9C
! Lven lf lnLoxlcaLlon ls noL hablLual, lL ls aggravaLlng when
subsequenL Lo Lhe plan Lo commlL Lhe crlme.
! Lvldence for lnLoxlcaLlon Lo be aggravaLlng
o Lvldence LhaL Lhe lnLoxlcaLlon was hablLual, lnLenLlonal
or subsequenL Lo Lhe plan Lo commlL Lhe felony musL be
proved by Lhe prosecuLlon.
>#.0()0 8(% +"# .-+#%).+$/# '$%'140+.)'# (8 $)+(B$'.+$()
! As a mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance, lL flnds lLs reason ln Lhe facL LhaL
when a person ls under Lhe lnfluence of llquor, hls exerclse of
wlll power ls lmpalred.
! As an aggravaLlng clrcumsLance, because lL ls lnLenLlonal, Lhe
reason ls LhaL Lhe offender resorLed Lo lL ln order Lo bolsLer hls
courage Lo commlL a crlme.
o lL ls aggravaLlng when hablLual because Lhe consLanL
use of lnLoxlcaLlng llquor lessens Lhe lndlvldual
reslsLance Lo evll LhoughLs and undermlnes Lhe wlll
power maklng hlmself a poLenLlal evlldoer agalnsL
whose acLlvlLles, socleLy has Lhe rlghL for lLs own
proLecLlon Lo lmpose a more severe penalLy.

IV. Degree of Instruct|on and educat|on of the offender
! Low degree of lnsLrucLlon and educaLlon or lack f lL ls generally
mlLlgaLlng. Plgh degree of lnsLrucLlon and educaLlon ls
aggravaLlng, when Lhe offender avalls hlmself of hls learnlng ln
commlLLlng Lhe crlme.
F.'G (8 $)0+%1'+$() .0 4$+$5.+$)5
! Art|c|e 1S applles only Lo hlm who really has noL recelved any
lnsLrucLlon.
! Lack of sufflclenL lnLelllgence ls requlred ln llllLeracy.
o Lack of sufflclenL lnsLrucLlon ls noL mlLlgaLlng when Lhe
offender ls a clLy resldenL who knows how Lo slgn hls
name (eople v. CabrlLo).
! Lack of lnsLrucLlon musL be dlrecLly and poslLlvely proved by Lhe
defense.
! 1he quesLlon of lack of lnsLrucLlon cannoL be ralsed for Lhe flrsL
Llme ln Lhe appellaLe courL.
! Crdlnarlly mlLlgaLlng ln all crlmes
o Lxcept|on: Lreason, murder, crlmes agalnsL chasLlLy,
crlmes agalnsL properLy such as esLafa, LhefL, robbery,
arson.
o 1he excepLlon Lo Lhe excepLlon depends on aLLendlng
clrcumsLances.
" Murder mlLlgaLed by low degree of lnsLrucLlon
because lL caused accused Lo belleve ln
wlLchcrafL (eople v. Laolao).
H$5" 2#5%## (8 $)0+%1'+$() .0 .55%./.+$)5
! uegree of lnsLrucLlon ls aggravaLlng when Lhe offender avalled
hlmself or Look advanLage of lL ln commlLLlng Lhe crlme.
o uocLor uslng hls knowledge prepared a cerLaln klnd of
polson LhaL would avold deLecLlon.

V. Non-hab|tua| |ntox|cat|on, |ack of |nstruct|on and obfuscat|on are
not to be taken separate|y
! As non-hablLual lnLoxlcaLlon lmplles a dlsLurbance of Lhe
reasonlng powers of Lhe offender, hls lack of lnsLrucLlon cannoL
have any lnfluence over hlm, and obfuscaLlon whlch has Lhe
same effecL on hls reasonlng powers cannoL be consldered
lndependenLly of non-hablLual lnLoxlcaLlon.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
CLASS DISCUSSICN
S|tuat|oners
! Member of a culLural mlnorlLy geLs coconuLs from whaL he
belleves ls parL of hls ancesLral domaln. Powever, Lhe land was
LlLled Lo someone else. ls low degree of educaLlon mlLlgaLlng?
! AccounLanL Look a chance Lo geL more peLLlcash Lhan was
acLually asked by hls/her boss. uld she Lake advanLage of her
poslLlon?
o osslble answer: She wouldn'L have been enLrusLed
wlLh all Lhese Lhlngs lf she wasn'L an accounLanL.
! oslLlon of flnanclal advlser could be aggravaLlng.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
1I1LL 1WC - LkSCNS CkIMINALL LIA8LL ICk ILLCNILS

Art|c|e 16. !"# %&' (&)*)+%,,- ,)%.,'. 1he fo||ow|ng are cr|m|na||y
||ab|e for grave and |ess grave fe|on|es:
1. r|nc|pa|s
2. Accomp||ces
3. Accessor|es
1he fo||ow|ng are cr|m|na||y ||ab|e for ||ght fe|on|es:
1. r|nc|pa|s
2. Accomp||ces

CIN1S
I. 1reb|e of D|v|s|on of persons cr|m|na||y ||ab|e
! 1he Lreble dlvlslon of persons crlmlnally llable for an offense
resLs upon Lhe very naLure of Lhelr parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
! When a cr|me |s comm|tted by many, w|thout be|ng equa||y
shared by a||, a d|fferent degree of respons|b|||ty |s |mposed
upon each and every one of them. In that case, they are
cr|m|na||y ||ab|e e|ther as pr|nc|pa|s, accomp||ces or
accessor|es.

II. Accessor|es are not ||ab|e for ||ght fe|on|es
! keason: ln Lhe commlsslon of llghL felonles, Lhe soclal wrong as
well as Lhe lndlvldual pre[udlce ls so small LhaL penal sancLlon ls
deemed noL necessary for accessorles.

III. ku|es re|at|ve to ||ght fe|on|es:
1. LlghL felonles are punlshable only hen Lhey have been
consummaLed (Art|c|e 7).
2. 8uL when Lhe llghL felonles are commlLLed agalnsL persons or
properLy, Lhey are punlshable even lf Lhey are only ln Lhe
aLLempLed or frusLraLed sLage of execuLlon. Cnly prlnclpals and
accompllces are llable for llghL felonles (Art|c|e 7).
3. Cnly prlnclpals and accompllces are llable for llghL felonles
(Art|c|e 16).
4. Accessorles are noL llable for llghL felonles even lf Lhey are
commlLLed agalnsL persons or properLy (Art|c|e 16).

IV. Act|ve sub[ect and pass|ve sub[ect of cr|me
! Act|ve sub[ect (cr|m|na|)
o Cnly naLural persons can be Lhe acLlve sub[ecL of crlme
because of Lhe hlghly personal naLure of Lhe crlmlnal
responslblllLy.
! Cnly naLural persons because he along by hls
acL can seL ln moLlon a cause of by hls lnacLlon
make posslble Lhe compleLlon of a modlflcaLlon
of Lhe exLernal world.
! Cnly naLural persons can acL wlLh mallce
! !urldlcal persons cannoL commlL crlmes wlLh
wlllful purpose or mallclous lnLenL.
! enalLles conslsLlng ln lmprlsonmenL or
deprlvaLlon of llberLy can only be execuLed on
naLural persons
o !urldlcal persons, however, are crlmlnally llable under
cerLaln speclal laws.
! Cfflcers, noL Lhe corporaLlon, are crlmlnally
llable.
! As a genera| ru|e, a dlrecLor or oLher offlcer of a
corporaLlon ls crlmlnally llable for hls acLs
Lhough ln hls offlclal capaclLy, lf he parLlclpaLed
ln Lhe unlawful acL elLher dlrecLly or as an alder,
abeLLor or accessory, buL ls noL llable crlmlnally
for Lhe corporaLe acLs performed by oLher
offlcers or agenLs Lhereof.
! lL ls a seLLled rule LhaL slnce a corporaLlon can
only acL Lhrough lLs offlcers and agenLs, Lhe
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
presldenL or manager can be held crlmlnally
llable for Lhe vlolaLlon of a law by Lhe enLlLy.
! ass|ve sub[ect (|n[ured party)
o 1he passlve sub[ecL of a crlme ls Lhe holder of Lhe
ln[ured rlghL: Lhe man, Lhe [urlsLlc person, Lhe sLaLe.
o Genera| ku|e: Corpse or anlmal cannoL be passlve
sub[ecL. As such, Lhe dead and anlmals have no rlghLs
LhaL may be ln[ured.
o Lxcept|on: Art|c|e 3S3, Lhe crlme of defamaLlon may be
commlLLed lf Lhe lmpuLaLlon Lends Lo blacken Lhe
memory of one who ls dead.

Art|c|e 17. /&)+()0%,1. 1he fo||ow|ng are cons|dered pr|nc|pa|s:
1. 1hose who take a d|rect part |n the execut|on of the act,
2. 1hose who d|rect|y force or |nduce others to comm|t |t,
3. 1hose who cooperate |n the comm|ss|on of the offense by
another act w|thout wh|ch |t wou|d not have been
accomp||shed.

CIN1S
1wo or more persons part|c|pat|ng |n the cr|me.
! Slngle lndlvldual commlLLlng a crlme ls always a prlnclpal by
dlrecL parLlclpaLlon (Lake dlrecL parL ln Lhe execuLlon of Lhe acL).
! (par 1.) prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon
(par 2.) prlnclpal by lnducLlon
(par 3.) prlnclpal by lndlspenslble cooperaLlon

D|fference between a pr|nc|pa| under any of the three categor|es
enumerated |n Art|c|e 17 and a co-consp|rator.
! rlnclpal ln ArLlcle 17: crlmlnal llablllLy ls llmlLed Lo hls own acLs
! Co-consplraLor: (hls) responslblllLy lncludes Lhe acLs of hls fellow
consplraLors (eople v. eralLa)
____________________
Ak 1: 1nCSL WnC 1AkL A DIkLC1 Ak1 IN 1nL LkLCU1ICN CI 1nL
AC1." (ltloclpols by Jltect pottlclpotloo.)

I. "1ake a d|rect part |n the execut|on of the act."
! rlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon petsooolly tokes pott lo tbe
execotloo of tbe oct coostltotloq tbe ctlme.
! Lx. Cne who shooLs aL and kllls anoLher (homlclde) or one who
burns Lhe house of anoLher (arson) petsooolly execotes Lhe acL
of kllllng anoLher or Lhe acL of burnlng Lhe house of anoLher.
! 1he one who orders or lnduces anoLher Lo commlL a crlme ls a
prlnclpal by lnducLlon whlle Lhe oLher who follows Lhe order and
execuLes Lhe acL consLlLuLlng Lhe crlme ls a prlnclpal by dlrecL
parLlclpaLlon. (eople v. Lao)

II. 1wo or more offenders as pr|nc|pa|s by d|rect part|c|pat|on.
! 1wo or more persons may Lake dlrecL parL ln Lhe execuLlon of
Lhe acLs consLlLuLlng crlme - prlnclpals by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon.
2'34)1)5'1 6#& 57# #& *#&' 0'&1#+1 5# .' (#+1)8'&'8 %1 0&)+()0%,1 .-
8)&'(5 0%&5)()0%5)#+9 (co-ptloclpols)
1. 1haL Lhey parLlclpaLed ln Lhe crlmlnal resoluLlon,
2. 1haL Lhey carrled ouL Lhelr plan and personally Look parL ln lLs
execuLlon by acLs whlch Jltectly Lended Lo Lhe some eoJ.

III. I|rst requ|s|te - art|c|pat|on |n the cr|m|na| reso|ut|on.
! 1wo ore more persons are sald Lo have parLlclpaLed ln Lhe
crlmlnal resoluLlon when Lhey were ln coospltocy aL Lhe Llme of
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
! When Lhere has been consplracy or unlLy of purpose and
lnLenLlon ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme - a person may be
convlcLed for Lhe crlmlnal acL of anoLher.
A. Consp|racy.
! A consplracy exlsLs when Lwo or more persons come Lo an
agreemenL concernlng Lhe commlsslon of a felony and declde Lo
commlL lL (Art|c|e 8., ar. 2).
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! 1he consplracy ln Lhls flrsL requlslLe ls noL a felony buL only a
manner of lncurrlng crlmlnal llablllLy.
:# .' % 0%&5- 5# % (#+10)&%(-; #+' *415 "%<' 5"' )+5'+5)#+ 5#
0%&5)()0%5' )+ 5"' 5&%+1%(5)#+ 7)5" % <)'7 5# 5"' 64&5"'&%+(' #6 5"'
(#**#+ 8'1)=+ %+8 04&0#1'>
! 1o hold an accused gullLy as co-prlnclpal by reason of
consplracy: lL musL be esLabllshed LhaL he performed an overL
acL ln furLherance of Lhe consplracy elLher by acLlvely
parLlclpaLlng ln Lhe acLual commlsslon of Lhe crlme or by lendlng
moral asslsLance Lo hls co-consplraLors by hls presence aL Lhe
scene of Lhe crlme or by exerLlng moral ascendancy over Lhe
resL of Lhe consplraLors Lo move Lhem lnLo execuLlng Lhe
consplracy. (eople v. CorLez)
! Mere knowledge, acqulescence or approval of Lhe acL w/o
cooperaLlon or agreemenL Lo cooperaLe - noL enough Lo
consLlLuLe one parLy Lo a consplracy - Lhere musL be lnLenLlonal
parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe LransacLlon wlLh a vlew Lo Lhe furLherance of
Lhe common deslgn and purpose. (eople v. lzon)
?),'+(' 8#'1 +#5 *%@' #+' % (#+10)&%5#&>
! Sllence ls noL a clrcumsLance lndlcaLlng parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe
same crlmlnal deslgn. (eople v. Censola)
A#+10)&%(- 5&%+1('+81 (#*0%+)#+1")0>
! 1he facL LhaL Lhe Lwo accused may have happened Lo leave
LogeLher, and one of Lhem lefL a closlng warnlng Lo Lhe vlcLlm,
cannoL lnsLanLly prove a flndlng of consplracy. (eople v.
adrones)
/%&5)()0%5)#+ )+ 5"' (&)*)+%, &'1#,45)#+ '11'+5)%,>
! lL ls noL enough LhaL a person parLlclpaLed ln Lhe assaulL made
by anoLher ln order Lo conslder hlm a co-prlnclpal ln Lhe crlme
commlLLed. Pe musL also parLlclpaLe ln Lhe crlmlnal resoluLlon
of Lhe oLher.
! CooperaLlon whlch Lhe law punlshed: asslsLance whlch ls
knowlngly or lnLenLlonally glven and whlch ls noL posslble
wlLhouL prevlous knowledge of Lhe crlmlnal purpose (eople v.
Cruz)
o eople v. CrLlz and Zausa
" lacLs: 8ancoyo (deceased) and CrLlz have known each oLher
for a long Llme because Lhelr wlves were slsLers. AfLer gaLherlng
corn from Lhe flelds, 8ancoyo asked CrLlz from ouLslde hls
house for some waLer buL CrLlz sald LhaL Lhey couldn'L glve hlm
waLer because Lhey had none. 8ancoyo asked agaln Lo whlch
CrLlz replled LhaL Lhey had no waLer so he cannoL compel Lhem
Lo glve hlm some waLer and lmmedlaLely descended from hls
house carrylng a shoLgun and polnLed lL aL 8ancoyo. 8ancoyo,
seelng Lhe aggresslve aLLlLude of CrLlz, flung hlmself over CrLlz
and Lhey sLruggled for Lhe weapon. Zausa, when she saw Lhls,
was lnslde Lhe house and grabbed her spear and rushed ouLslde
and aLLacked 8ancoyo by sLabblng hlm on Lhe lefL slde of hls
abdomen and hls lnLesLlnes proLruded. 8ancoyo dled of
perlLonlLls LhaL nlghL.
" Peld: CrLlz should be acqulLLed because he dld noL Lake parL
ln Lhe aLLack of Zausa because lL appears LhaL Lhere was no plan
or agreemenL beLween Lhem Lo carry ouL Lhe aLLach LhaL caused
8ancoyo's deaLh. Also, barely a few seconds elapsed whlch
lnLerval ln lnsufflclenL Lo glve rlse Lo Lhe crlmlnal agreemenL.
! ln Lhe absence of a prevlous plan or agreemenL Lo commlL a
crlme, Lhe crlmlnal responslblllLy arlslng from dlfferenL acLs
dlrecLed agalnsL Lhe same person ls lndlvldual and noL collecLlve
- each of Lhe parLlclpanLs ls llable only for Lhe acLs commlLLed
by hlmself (unlLed SLaLes v. 8eyes and !avler).
o unlLed SLaLes v. 8eyes and !avler " 1here was no concerLed
acLlon beLween !avler and 8eyes even Lhough !avler was holdlng
Lhe offended parLy and 8eyes suddenly and unexpecLedly
lnfllcLed morLal wounds on sald offended parLy. lL was held LhaL
!avler was nelLher a prlnclpal nor an accompllce of Lhe crlme of
homlclde convlcLed of 8eyes because he had no reason Lo
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
belleve LhaL 8eyes would do a homlcldal aLLack and LhaL ln
holdlng Lhe off. arLy he was volunLarlly cooperaLlng Lhereln
! ln cases above: no anLerlor consplracy = no unlLy of purpose and
lnLenLlon lmmedlaLely before Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme, Lhelr
crlmlnal responslblllLy ls lndlvldual
! ln Lhe absence of concerLed acLlon pursuanL Lo a common
crlmlnal deslgn, each of Lhe accused - responslble only for Lhe
consequences of hls own acLs.
o AraneLa, !r. v. CA " 1he accused who lnfllcLed Lhe morLal
wound was held gullLy of murder whlle Lhe oLher assallanLs are
only gullLy of sllghL physlcal ln[urles/less serlous physlcal
ln[urles.

8. Lx|stence of consp|racy.
! LxlsLence of consplracy Joes oot tepolte an agreemenL fot oo
opptecloble leoqtb of tlme prlor Lo Lhe execuLlon of lLs purpose.
lrom Lhe legal vlewpolnL, consplracy exlsLs ls aL Lhe Llme of Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe offense Lhe accused had Lhe some potpose
ooJ wete oolteJ lo lts execotloo. (eople v. 8lnaslng)
! Consplracy arlses on Lhe very lnsLanL LhaL Lhe ploLLers agree
expressly or lmplledly Lo commlL Lhe felony and forLhwlLh
declde Lo pursue lL. - each and everyone of Lhe consplraLors ls
made crlmlnally llable for Lhe crlme acLually commlLLed by
anyone of Lhem. (eople v. Monroy)

C. roof of consp|racy.
! ulrecL evldence of consplracy: lnLerlocklng [udlclal confesslons
of several accused and Lhe LesLlmony of one accused who ls
dlscharged and made a wlLness agalnsL hls co-accused who dld
noL make any confesslon.
" ln Lhe absence of any colluslon among Lhe declaranLs, Lhelr
confesslons may form a compleLe plcLure of Lhe whole slLuaLlon
and may be consldered collecLlvely as corroboraLlve and/or
conflrmaLory of Lhe evldence lndependenL Lherefrom (eople v.
CasLelo)
" 1wo or more exLra[udlclal confesslons glven separaLely,
unLalnLed by colluslon, and whlch Lally wlLh one anoLher ln all
maLerlal respecLs, are admlsslble as evldence of Lhe consplracy
of Lhe declaranLs. (eople v. bernardo)
! 1o esLabllsh consplracy, lL ls noL essenLlal LhaL Lhere be proofs Lo
Lhe prevlous agreemenL and declslon Lo commlL Lhe crlme - lL ls
sufflclenL LhaL Lhe malefacLors shall have octeJ lo coocett
potsooot to tbe some objectlve. (eople v. San Luls)
B#&*%, %=&''*'+5 #& 0&'<)#41 %(34%)+5%+(' %*#+= 1'<'&%, 0'&1#+1
+#5 +'('11%&- )+ (#+10)&%(->
! ln consplracy, no formal agreemenL among Lhe consplraLors ls
necessary, noL even prevlous acqualnLance among Lhemselves -
sufflclenL LhaL Lhelr mlnds meeL undersLandlngly Lo brlng abouL
an lnLelllgenL and dellberaLe agreemenL Lo commlL Lhe offense
charged.
! SufflclenL LhaL aL Lhe Llme of Lhe aggresslon all accused
manlfesLed ln Lhelr acLs a common lnLenL or deslre Lo aLLack Lo
so LhaL Lhe acL of one becomes Lhe acL of all (eople v. Cupo).
! Consplracy need noL be proved by dlrecL evldence (need noL be
shown LhaL Lhe parLles acLually came LogeLher and agreed ln
express Lerms Lo enLer lnLo and pursue a common deslgn) - can
be lnferred from proof of facLs and clrcumsLances when Laken
LogeLher lndlcaLe Lhey are parLs of a compleLe whole
o Lxample: 1wo or more persons almed aL Lhe
accompllshmenL of Lhe same unlawful ob[ecL, each
dolng a parL so LhaL Lhelr acLs even Lhough apparenLly
lndependenL were connecLed and cooperaLlve, showlng
a closeness of personal assoc. and concurrence of
senLlmenL - a consplracy may be lnferred Lhough no
acLual meeLlng among Lhem ls proved (eople v. MaLeo)
! eople v. Carduque " All Lhe accused were already armed
when Lhey meL, Lhey wenL LogeLher ln a [eep Lo Lhe house
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
where Lhey robbed Lhe offended parLy and raped hls malds -
Lhelr consplracy ls lmplled even Lhough some of Lhe accused
were only Lhere Lo show Lhe locaLlon of Lhe house
! eople v. CaLublg " Cffenders were all presenL aL Lhe scene of
Lhe crlme, acLed ln concerL ln aLLacklng, assaulLlng, beaLlng,
chaslng, and sLabblng Lhe vlcLlms and robblng Lhem Lhen fleelng
golng Lo Lhelr separaLe ways - Lhey showed Lhrough Lhelr
concerLed acLlons LhaL Lhey acLed ln unlson and cooperaLed
wlLh each oLher Lo accompllsh a common felonlous purpose (Lo
rob vlcLlms)
A#+10)&%(- *415 .' '15%.,)1"'8 .- 0#1)5)<' %+8 (#+(,41)<' '<)8'+('>
! Whlle consplracy may be lmplled from clrcumsLances aLLendlng
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme, lL ls neverLheless a rule LhaL
consplracy musL be esLabllshed by poslLlve and concluslve
evldence (eople v. AncheLa)
! roof beyond reasonable doubL = degree of proof Lo prove
consplracy (same as degree of proof Lo esLabllsh Lhe crlme), lL
musL be esLabllshed by poslLlve and concluslve evldence,
consplracy cannoL be appreclaLed when facLs are conslsLenL
wlLh Lhe non-parLlclpaLlon of Lhe accused ln Lhe fancled cabal
(eople v. lurugganan)
! Mere presence aL Lhe scene of Lhe crlme aL Lhe Llme of lLs
commlsslon ls noL by lLself sufflclenL Lo esLabllsh consplracy
(eople v. 1acca)
C# (#+10)&%(-; %1 1"#7+ .- 5"' %(51 #6 5"' 8'6'+8%+5>
! eople v. Culosay " AppellanL sLabbed Lhe deceased once on
Lhe arm and ran away and hls broLher was Lhe one who cuL off
Lhe deceased's head. AppellanL ls answerable only for hls
lndlvldual acL - Lhere was no consplracy because he dldn'L sLay
Lo llquldaLe Lhe deceased wlLh hls broLher.
! eople v. Lacao " SponLanelLy of respecLlve reacLlons of
several accused, resulLlng ln an aLLack where Lhey all
parLlclpaLed, rules ouL Lhe exlsLence of consplracy. 8especLlve
llablllLles shall be deLermlned by Lhe naLure of Lhelr lndlvldual
parLlclpaLlons ln Lhe felonlous acL. (1wo of whlch are only llable
as accompllces.)
! eople v. Madera " 1wo appellanLs noL co-prlnclpals nor
accompllces - Lhey were noL armed, dld noLhlng Lo help co-
appellanL, mere passlve presence aL scene of Lhe crlme (Lhey
were [usL sLandlng behlnd co-appellanL when he shoL vlcLlm)
A#+10)&%(- 1"#7+ .- ()&(4*15%+('1>
! eople v. vlnas " 8roLhers nelson and norman vlnas consplred
Lo carry ouL Lhe kllllng even Lhough lL was only norman who had
a grudge agalnsL Lhe deceased because nelson assaulLed Lhe
deceased and Lhey boLh Lold Sumpay Lhelr plan Lo klll varela.
! eople v. Manzano " A communlLy of deslgn Lo klll: Lhree
broLhers and nephew avenged Lhelr faLher (or grandfaLher)
showlng concerLed acLlons ln commlLLlng Lhe crlme
! eople v. Sallllng " 1he four appellanLs were llnked Lo each
oLher by frlendshlp or some sorL of relaLlonshlp = consplracy
(1hey all had a speclflc role ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme)
! eople v. umbrero " Consplracy may be shown by Lhe
appellanLs' acLuaLlons lmmedlaLely prlor Lo, durlng, and rlghL
afLer Lhe shooLlng of Lhe vlcLlm
! eople v. 1lmbol "
- lacLs: 1hree accused arrlved LogeLher aL Lhe asudeco offlces.
1hey menaclngly demanded approval of Lhelr 60-40 share of Lhe
mlll denled by Lhe 8oard of ulrecLors of asudeco. 1hey shoL
res. ue Leo, Conzales (of asudeco) and CapL. Cllvas (peace
offlcer) and fled Lhe scene LogeLher.
-Peld: ClrcumsLances demonsLraLe consplracy when Lhe accused
have all meL LogeLher days before Lhe crlme.
A#+10)&%(- )1 )*0,)'8 7"'+ 5"' %((41'8 "%8 % (#**#+ 04&0#1' %+8
7'&' 4+)5'8 )+ )51 'D'(45)#+>
o eople v. uamaso "
lacLs: 1he deceased slapped Lhe face of one of Lhe Lhree
appellanLs ln fronL of a carlnderla. 1he appellanLs boarded a Laxl
and borrowed a gun of a securlLy guard aL Creenhllls and came
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
back Lo Lhe carlnderla where Lhe deceased was shoL by one of
Lhe appellanLs from lnslde Lhe Laxl. AfLerwards, Lhe Lhree
reLurned Lhe weapon and proceeded Lo Lhe headquarLers of Lhe
8lzal SecurlLy and roLecLlve Agency.
Peld: 1here ls unlLy of purpose and unlLy of execuLlon
esLabllshlng consplracy.
o eople v. uelgado " CommunlLy of purpose on parL of Lhree
accused lnferable from Lhe clrcumsLances: Lhey came LogeLher
Lo Lhe scene of Lhe occurrence and Lhey each acLed agalnsL Lhe
vlcLlm Lhen lefL LogeLher Lo Lhe house of anoLher person, leavlng
Lhe vlcLlm unconsclous on Lhe ground.

D. Un|ty of purpose and |ntent|on |n the comm|ss|on of the cr|me |s
shown |n the fo||ow|ng cases: (Lvldences of [olnL responslblllLy)
a. Spontaneous agreement at the moment of the comm|ss|on of
the cr|me suff|c|ent to create [o|nt respons|b|||ty.
Lxample:
! AccepLance of Lwo accused of Lhe challenge posLed by
Lhe deceased and Lhelr concerL aLLack on Lhe same
clearly showed a communlLy of purpose and deslgn.
(eople v. lbanez)
b. Act|ve cooperat|on by a|| the offenders |n the perpetrat|on of
the cr|me.
(1) lacLs: A sLruck deceased, 8 whlpped llps of deceased, C
selzed deceased's lefL hand whlle u held Lhe rlghL, L sLabbed
deceased wlLh knlfe.
Peld: no proof of anLerlor consplracy buL Lhe manner ln
whlch accused cooperaLed ln Lhe perpeLraLlon of Lhe
homlclde shows Lhey were moved by a common moLlve and
Lhelr lnLenLlon was Lo klll deceased
ulsseotloq. Ooly loJlvlJool tespooslblllty lo tbls cose fot ooly
qove tbe fotol blow
! No part|c|pat|on |n the cr|m|na| des|gn when the act of one
came so c|ose upon the hee|s of that of the other.
keosoo. Pe had no Llme Lo see LhaL Lhe oLher lnLended Lo case
Lhe deceased Lhe wound he dld (eople v. Manalo)
o SlmulLanelLy pet se ls noL a badge of consplracy lf Lhe
requlslLe concurrence of wllls ls absenL. lL ls noL
sufflclenL LhaL Lhe aLLack ls [olnL and slmulLaneous, lL ls
necessary LhaL Lhe assallanLs are anlmaLed by one and
Lhe same purpose. - ln slLuaLlons where assaulLs are noL
slmulLaneous buL lnsLead successlve, greaLer proof ls
needed Lo esLabllsh concerL of crlmlnal deslgn (eople
v. 1lvldad)
(2) eople v. Macabuhay
lacLs: A, 8, C, u, and L were ln l's house. Someone Lhrew a
sLone aL LhaL house. All 3 wenL Lo C's house 40 yards away
Lo avenge Lhe sLone-Lhrowlng. 1hey suspecLed Lhe deceased
who was ln C's house Lo be Lhe sLone-Lhrower and Lhey
selzed hlm and L sLabbed hlm.
Peld: A, 8, C, u, L - all llable as prlnclpals by dlrecL
parLlclpaLlon for deaLh of deceased - same moLlve: avenge
sLone-Lhrowlng.
(3) eople v. Cruz, !r. " Consplracy was well-esLabllshed: one
of Lhe appellanL's companlons announced Lhe holdup whlle
Lhe appellanL and hls oLher companlons proceeded Lo rob
Lhe vlcLlms.
(4) eople v. Carplo " Consplracy manlfesLed ln Lhe
coordlnaLed acLs of Lhe assallanLs: one held hand of vlcLlm,
anoLher sLabbed hlm, Lhlrd gave flsL blows and Lhe flrsL one
flnally shooLs deceased
c. Contr|but|ng by pos|t|ve acts to the rea||zat|on of a common
cr|m|na| |ntent.
(1) eople v. Agbuya "
lacLs: lamlly feud beLween allsoc (famlly of C = deceased)
and Agbuya (famlly of A and u = accused)
Peld: Pomlclde was commlLLed by Lhe acL of Lhe one of Lhe
Lwo accused ln shooLlng Lhe deceased wlLh a gun whlch was
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
glven by Lhe co-accused, hls faLher, and where lL also
appeared LhaL Lhe laLLer conLrlbuLed Lo Lhe commlsslon of
Lhe homlclde by varlous oLher slgnlflcanL acLs - boLh faLher
and son were properly convlcLed as prlnclpals ln Lhe crlme.
1here was common crlmlnal lnLenL ln Lhe case because
faLher and son Look common cause (famlly feud)
(2) eople v. Mancao " Wounds whlch caused deceased's
deaLh were noL lnfllcLed by Mancao hlmself buL by co-
accused Agullar buL Mancao havlng been Lhe lnsLlgaLor and
aggressor by calllng hls harvesLers Lo hls ald (one of whlch
was Agullar) - and wanLlng Lhem Lo carry ouL Lhe crlmlnal
acL sLarLed by hlm - Mancao ls noL only llable for hls own
acLs buL also for Lhe acLs of Lhose who alded hlm
Mancao conLrlbuLed Lhe followlng poslLlve acLs:
- 8elng Lhe lnsLlgaLor
- 8elng Lhe aggressor
- Calllng hls harvesLers
d. resence dur|ng the comm|ss|on of the cr|me by a band and
|end|ng mora| support thereto, a|so create [o|nt respons|b|||ty
w|th the mater|a| executors.
(1) u.S. v. AncheLa " 1here were 7 defendanLs ln Lhls case.
Peld: All of Lhem prevlously concerLed acLlon, meL LogeLher
and wlLnessed Lhe capLure and laLer, Lhe vlolenL kllllng of
Lhe deceased. Some Look a dlrecL parL ln Lhe acLual
commlsslon of Lhe crlme, oLhers were deLermlned
lnsLlgaLors who lnduced Lhe former Lo commlL lL, whlle Lhe
remalnder cooperaLed ln Lhe same by Lhelr presence and
lendlng Lhelr moral supporL. - all are Lhus dlrecLly
responslble for Lhe consequences and lncldenLs of Lhe same
(2) u.S. v. SanLos "
lacLs: A band of 23 men capLured Amerlcan soldlers and
deLalned Lhem somewhere. 1he soldlers were kllled by
some of Lhe members of Lhe band ln fronL of Lhe accused.
Peld: lL ls lf no lmporLance LhaL Lhe accused dld noL hlmself
sLrlke Lhe blow or blows by whlch Lhe prlsoners were kllled.
lt ls sofflcleot tbot be wos pteseot ot tbe ploce of tbe
commlssloo of tbe oct, ooqmeotloq wltb bls otms ooJ
pteseoce Lhe power of Lhe band, Lhus aldlng Lhe common
acL of all - he was consldered as a prlnclpal by dlrecL
parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe crlme prosecuLed.
Consp|racy |s presumed when the cr|me |s comm|tted by a band.
! u.S. v. Asllo " Accused was a member of a band LhaL wenL Lo
Lhe house of Lhe deeased Lo klll hlm. Lven lf Lhere was no
evldence LhaL Lhe accused flred a shoL aL Lhe deceased, he ls sLlll
llable for homlclde.
- A band = presumpLlve of a prevlous undersLandlng beLween
one offender and Lhe oLhers who formed Lhe band, accused lenL
hls LhoughL and acLlon for Lhe reallzaLlon of Lhe crlmlnal ob[ecL
lncreaslng Lhe offenslve sLrengLh of sald band
! eople v. 8azar " 8obbery was commlLLed by a band: all Lhe
members of Lhe band are presumed Lo be consplraLors or co-
prlnclpals also ln Lhe assaulLs commlLLed by Lhe band ln Lhe
absence of a showlng LhaL appellanLs aLLempLed Lo prevenL Lhe
kllllng of Lhe vlcLlm Lhey are equally gullLy of hls deaLh aL Lhe
hands of Lhelr companlons.
! LxcepLlon " u.S. v. lresnldo " When aL Lhe sLarL of Lhe
encounLer Lhe accused fled from Lhe scene of Lhe flghL beLween
Lhe consLabulary and Lhe lnsurgenL band - he ls noL crlmlnally
llable
e. Where one of the accused knew of the p|an of the others to k|||
the two v|ct|ms and he accepted the ro|e ass|gned to h|m,
wh|ch was to shoot one of the v|ct|ms, and he actua||y
performed that ro|e, he |s a co-pr|nc|pa| by d|rect part|c|pat|on
|n the doub|e murder (eople v. ue La Cruz).

L. 1here may be consp|racy even |f there |s no ev|dent premed|tat|on
on the part of the accused.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! Lven lf appellanLs were unarmed, whlch may lndlcaLe lack of
evldenL premedlLaLlon, Lhls does noL necessarlly negaLe Lhe
exlsLence of consplracy because consplracy does noL necessarlly
requlre an agreemenL for an appreclable Llme prlor Lo Lhe
occurrence.
! lrom legal vlewpolnL consplracy exlsLs lf: aL Llme of commlsslon
of offense - accused had same purpose and were unlLed ln lLs
execuLlon (eople v. 8lnaslng)

I. When there |s no consp|racy, each of the offenders |s ||ab|e on|y for
the act performed by h|m. " eople v. CasLlllo
! lacLs: Cuarlno was quarrellng wlLh 1erencla and pollceman
Machlca Lrled Lo sLop Lhem. Cuarlno sLabbed Machlca lnsLead.
1hen ollceman Campos was able Lo brlng Cuarlno Lo Lhe
munlclpal bulldlng where anoLher ollceman 8oco hlL Cuarlno.
Chlef of ollce CasLlllo came and shoL Lo deaLh Cuarlno ln fronL
of Lhe Lhree pollcemen Machlca, Campos, and 8oco (who all had
lnfllcLed serlous physlcal ln[urles Lo Cuarlno)
! Peld: Cnly Chlef CasLlllo was gullLy of murder quallfled by
Lreachery. Machlca, Campos, and 8oco were llable for serlous
physlcal ln[urles only because Lhere was no compeLenL proof
LhaL Lhe Lhree pollcemen lnLended Lo klll Cuarlno - no
consplracy or unlLy of purpose and lnLenLlon among Lhem plus
Chlef CasLlllo. 1he Lhree dld noL parLlclpaLe ln Lhe shooLlng by
CasLlllo and could noL have sLopped lL even lf Lhey wanLed Lo
because Chlef CasLlllo [usL drew ouL hls gun and flred.
! ln homlclde, lmmedlaLe parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe crlmlnal deslgn
enLerLalned by Lhe slayer, ls essenLlal Lo Lhe responslblllLy of
one who ls alleged Lo have Laken a dlrecL parL ln Lhe kllllng even
lf he has noL hlmself lnfllcLed an ln[ury maLerlally conLrlbuLlng Lo
Lhe deaLh (eople v. 1amayo)

G. L|ab|||ty of part|c|pants where there |s consp|racy.
! When Lhere ls consplracy, Lhe acL of one ls Lhe acL of all. "
CollecLlve crlmlnal responslblllLy
! u.S. v. 8undal " uefendanLs afLer consplrlng LogeLher Lo klll
deceased, wenL Lo hls house for purposes of carrylng ouL Lhelr
lnLenL and prepared Lo cooperaLe Lo LhaL end (even Lhough
havlng dlfferenL roles ln Lhe commlsslon) all wlll be held equally
gullLy as prlnclpals lrrespecLlve of Lhe lndlvldual parLlclpaLlon of
each ln Lhe maLerlal acL of Lhe murder
! Consplracy adequaLely proven = all consplraLors - llable as co-
prlnclpals. 1he degree of acLual parLlclpaLlon by each of Lhe
consplraLors ls lmmaLerlal. As consplraLors, each ls equally
responslble for Lhe acLs of Lhelr co-consplraLors. (eople v. ue la
Cruz)
E)%.),)5- #6 % (#+10)&%5#& 6#& %+#5"'& (#+10)&%5#&F1 %(51 7")(" 8)66'&
&%8)(%,,- %+8 14.15%+5)%,,- 6&#* 5"%5 7")(" 5"'- )+5'+8'8 5# (#**)5>
! ConsplraLor should necessarlly be llable for Lhe acLs of anoLher
consplraLor even Lhough such acLs dlffer radlcally or
subsLanLlally from LhaL whlch Lhey lnLended Lo commlL. (eople
v. Lnrlquez)
! 8oyd v. u.S. " Wound made wlLh Lhe knlfe on leg of person
assaulLed was Lhe prlmary cause of deaLh and Lhe auLhor of Lhls
ln[ury has noL been ldenLlfled (Lhe aLLorneys of Lhe accused
defended LhaL Lhe lnfllcLlon of ln[ury by means of a cuLLlng
lnsLrumenL was noL wlLhln Lhe scope of Lhe agreemenL and LhaL
Lhe one who should be held llable ls Lhe one who lnfllcLed Lhe
wound).
Peld: 1he CourL dld noL agree. Accused had undoubLedly
consplred Lo do so grave personal ln[ury Lo Lhe deceased whlch
have resulLed ln deaLh, Lhe accused cannoL escape from Lhe
legal effecLs of Lhelr acLs LhaL a wound was lnfllcLed ln a
dlfferenL way from LhaL whlch Lhey lnLended.
! As has been sald by Lhe uS Supreme CourL: lf a number of
persons agree Lo commlL, and enLer upon Lhe commlsslon of a
crlme whlch wlll probably endanger human llfe such as robbery,
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
all of Lhem are responslble for Lhe deaLh of a person LhaL ensues
as a consequence"
! u.S. v. aLLen " ConsplraLors who [oln ln a crlmlnal aLLack on a
defenseless man wlLh dangerous weapons - vlcLlm knocked
down - Lrles Lo escape - pursues hlm wlLh lncreased numbers -
conLlnue Lhe assaulL - are llable for manslaughLer when Lhe
vlcLlm ls kllled by a knlfe wound lnfllcLed by one of Lhem durlng
Lhe beaLlng, alLhough ln Lhe beglnnlng Lhey dld noL conLemplaLe
Lhe use of a knlfe
! eople v. LsplrlLu " lour assallanLs acLed ln consplracy,
preLended Lo look for a losL carabao ln 8ernardo's house and
Lhen kllled hlm. As consplraLors, Lhey are each llable for Lhe
aLLack on 8ernardo, regardless of who acLually pulled Lhe Lrlgger
or wlelded Lhe club LhaL kllled hlm
! LlablllLy of offenders ln robbery lf commlLLed by a band: any
member of a band (aL leasL four armed men) ls llable for any
assaulL commlLLed by Lhe oLher member of Lhe band, unless lL
be shown LhaL he aLLempLed Lo prevenL Lhe same. (Art|c|e 296
of kC)
!"'&' 5"'&' )1 (#+10)&%(- 5# (#**)5 % 6',#+-; %,, 5"' (#+10)&%5#&1 %&'
,)%.,' 6#& )51 (#+1'34'+('1>
! eople v. vlllamora " 1here was no consplracy Lo klll deceased
and 8arauel only hlL hlm wlLh an lron bar.
Peld: Slnce Lhere was consplracy Lo punlsh Acuna, wlLh resulLed
Lo hls deaLh, ALL Lhe consplraLors are responslble for Lhe
consequences LhaL arose from Lhe punlshmenL.
Note. 1he rullng ls ln accordance wlLh Lhe provlslon of Art|c|e 4,
par. 1, of the kC.
A#+10)&%(- *%- (#<'& 0'&1#+1 0&'<)#41,- 4+8'5'&*)+'8>
! lf lL appears LhaL Lhere was a qeoetol ploo Lo klll anyone who
mlghL puL up vlolenL reslsLance, Lhen Lhe accused are llable for
all Lhe naLural and lnherenL consequences of such plan (eople
v. 1lmbol)
G (#+10)&%5#& )1 +#5 ,)%.,' 6#& %+#5"'&F1 (&)*' 7")(" )1 +#5 %+ #.H'(5 #6
5"' (#+10)&%(- #& 7")(" )1 +#5 % +'('11%&- %+8 ,#=)(%, (#+1'34'+('
5"'&'#6>
! eople v. umall ! Cnly Lhe Puks (allles of defendanL umall)
commlLLed robbery whlch was nC1 an ob[ecL of Lhe consplracy
Peld: uefendanL umall noL llable for robbery 8u1 llable for
sedlLlon, arson, and murder - Lhe ob[ecLs of Lhe consplracy
I5"'& 8'6'+8%+51 +#5 "',8 ,)%.,' 6#& 5"' @),,)+=1 #6 0'&1#+1 +#5 (#<'&'8
.- 5"' (#+10)&%(->
! eople v. ue la Cerna " AppellanL cannoL be held llable for Lhe
kllllng od Lhe deceased (Cablzares) even Lhough Lhere was a
consplracy beLween hlm and hls co-consplraLor because Lhe
consplracy was Lo klll 8afael only and no one else.
1he rule has always been LhaL co-consplraLors are llable only for
acLs done potsooot to tbe coospltocy.
lor oLher acLs done ouLslde Lhe conLemplaLlon of Lhe co-
consplraLors or whlch are noL necessary and loglcal
consequences of Lhe lnLended crlme, only Lhe acLual
perpeLraLors are llable.
When Lhe consplraLors selecLed a parLlcular vlcLlm and anoLher
person was kllled by one of Lhem, only LhaL consplraLor who
kllled anoLher person ls llable.
! versus eople v. Lnrlquez & eople v. 8osarlo " ConsplraLors
are llable for Lhe acLs of anoLher consplraLor even Lhough such
acLs dlffer radlcally and subsLanLlally from LhaL whlch Lhey
lnLend Lo commlL (ln accordance Lo provlslon of ArL. 4 par. 1 of
8C)
G 0'&1#+ )+ (#+10)&%(- 7)5" #5"'&1; 7"# "%8 8'1)15'8 .'6#&' 5"' (&)*'
7%1 (#**)55'8 .- 5"' #5"'&1; )1 +#5 (&)*)+%,,- ,)%.,'>
! eople v. 1lmbol " AppellanL was a member of Lhe consplracy
buL deslsLed before Lhe crlmes were commlLLed (lefL Lhe
asudeco offlces long before kllllngs Look place)
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
Peld: AppellanL ualmaclo 1lmbol ls noL crlmlnally llable.
Consplracy alone wlLhouL Lhe execuLlon of lLs purpose ls noL a
crlme punlshable by law excepL ln speclal lnsLances" (Art. 8)
! eople v. Mappala " An acL of a consplraLor who ran away as
soon as Lhe aggresslon was sLarLed by hls co-consplraLors, and
called for help of oLher people who responded ls an acL of
deslsLance whlch removes Lhe case from Lhe esLabllshed rule
LhaL Lhe acL of one ls Lhe acL of all.
!"'+ 5"'&' )1 (#+10)&%(-; )5 )1 +#5 +'('11%&- 5# %1('&5%)+ 5"' 10'()6)(
%(5 #6 '%(" (#+10)&%5#&>
! lL ls noL necessary Lo ascerLaln Lhe speclflc acLs of aggresslon
commlLLed by each of Lhe culprlLs slnce havlng parLlclpaLed ln
Lhe crlmlnal resoluLlon Lhe acL of one ls Lhe acL of all. (eople v.
Mendoza)
! Consplracy havlng been esLabllshed: lL ls lmmaLerlal who of Lhe
consplraLors flred Lhe faLal shoL (eople v. Canoy)
! All persons Laklng parL ln Lhe crlme shall be held gullLy as
prlnclpals. (Lven Lhough noL all accused Look parL ln acLual
commlsslon of every acL consLlLuLlng Lhe crlme - each ls
responslble for all Lhe acLs of oLhers done ln furLherance of Lhe
consplracy) 1he degree of acLual parLlclpaLlon ls lmmaLerlal.
(eople v. Maranlon)
!"'+ 5"'&' )1 (#+10)&%(-; 5"' 6%(5 5"%5 %+ ','*'+5 #6 5"' #66'+1' )1 +#5
0&'1'+5 %1 &'=%&81 #+' #6 5"' (#+10)&%5#&1 )1 )**%5'&)%,>
! u.S v. Pernandez " Complex crlme of seducLlon by means of
usurpaLlon of offlclal funcLlons, Cne of Lhe accused preLended
Lo be a mlnlsLer and fake-marrled Lhe oLher accused wlLh a glrl
ln order for Lhe glrl Lo have marlLal relaLlons wlLh Lhe oLher
accused
Peld: LlemenL of performance of offlclal funcLlons was presenL
wlLh accused only. 8uL Lhe oLher accused was senLenced Lo Lhe
penalLy for and Lhe same crlme complexed wlLh seducLlon
whlch he acLually commlLLed.

G,, %&' ,)%.,' 6#& 5"' (&)*' #6 %.84(5)#+; '<'+ )6 #+,- #+' %(5'8 7)5"
,'78 8'1)=+1>
! LssenLlal elemenL of Lhe crlme of abducLlon: lewd deslgns on
Lhe parL of Lhe offender (Art. 342 - forclble abducLlon, Art. 343
- consenLed abducLlon)
! eople v. Loyola " Canarla consplred wlLh Loyola Lo forclbly
abducL Carldad and Canarla made poslLlve over acLs necessary
Lo Lhe reallzaLlon of Lhe abducLlon
Peld: Lven Lhough Loyola alone acLed wlLh lewd deslgns,
Canarla was sLlll llable for abducLlon because ln a consplracy Lhe
acL of one ls Lhe acL of all
J+ *4,5)0,' &%0'; '%(" &%0)15 )1 '34%,,- ,)%.,' 6#& 5"' #5"'& &%0'1>
! Lach defendanL ls responslble noL only for rape personally
commlLLed by hlm buL also for Lhe rape commlLLed by Lhe
oLhers because Lhey cooperaLed ln Lhe commlsslon of rape
perpeLraLlon by Lhe oLhers, by acLs wlLhouL whlch would noL
have been accompllshed

n. KD('05)#+19 (from equal llablllLy)
1. Cr|me of parr|c|de - elemenL of relaLlonshlp musL be presenL as
regards all Lhe offenders
" Lx. Wlfe and son of deceased consplred and dld klll laLLer -
boLh are gullLy of parrlclde 8u1 lf wlfe and a sLranger consplred
and kllled deceased, only Lhe wlfe ls gullLy of parrlclde and Lhe
sLranger wlll be gullLy of homlclde or murder
" 8eason for excepLlon. Art. 62 par. 3 provldes LhaL
aggravaLlng clrcumsLances whlch arlse from prlvaLe relaLlons of
offender wlLh offended parLy shall serve Lo aggravaLe only
llablllLy of prlnclpals, accompllces, and accessorles Lo whom
such clrcumsLances are aLLendanL. rovlslon applles when
elemenL of felony arlses from prlvaLe relaLlon of offender wlLh
offended parLy.
2. Cr|me of murder where Lreachery ls an elemenL of Lhe crlme -
all offenders musL aL leasL have knowledge of Lhe employmenL
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
of Lreachery aL Llme of execuLlon of acL or Lhelr cooperaLlon
Lhereln
o Lx. A and 8 consplred Lo klll C buL carrled ouL Lhelr plan
wlLhouL prevlously conslderlng Lhe means, meLhods, or
forms, ln kllllng C, only A employed Lreachery buL slnce
8 was presenL when A employed Lreachery - boLh are
llable for murder 8u1 lf 8 remalned ouLslde so LhaL he
dld noL know LhaL A employed Lreachery - only A ls
llable for murder and 8 ls llable for homlclde
o 8eason for excepLlon: Art. 62 par 4. rovldes LhaL
clrcumsLances whlch conslsL ln Lhe maLerlal execuLlon of
Lhe ac, or ln Lhe means employed Lo accompllsh lL, shall
serve Lo aggravaLe Lhe llablllLy of only Lhose persons
who had knowledge of Lhem aL Lhe Llme of Lhe
execuLlon of Lhe acL or Lhelr cooperaLlon Lhereln

I. art|c|pat|on |n another's cr|m|na| reso|ut|on must e|ther precede or
be coetaneous w|th the cr|m|na| act. (CoeLaneous: of Lhe same age or
duraLlon) " eople v. 1an ulong
! lacLs: ulong ln order Lo avold an execuLlon of [udgmenL agalnsL
hlm ln a clvll case Lransferred hls properLles by conveyance Lo
8aranda who only parLlclpaLed by falsely LesLlfylng ln courL LhaL
he acqulred sald properLles wlLh sufflclenL conslderaLlon
! Peld: 8aranda's alleged parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe fraud only conslsLs
of hls asserLlon of ownershlp ln Lhe properLles conveyed whlch
does noL [usLlfy hls convlcLlon as a parLlclpanL ln Lhe fraud. Pls
resoluLlon Lo accepL Lhe beneflL of Lhe fraudulenL conveyances
may have been formed only oftet Lhe acL of ulong. Pls gullL as
co-consplraLor ln Lhe fraud ls, Lherefore noL proved.
! Note. 8aranda would be llable as co-prlnclpal lf he concurred
wlLh ulong ot tbe tlme ot befote Lhe execuLlon of Lhe deeds of
conveyance.

:"'&' (#4,8 .' +# (#+10)&%(- 5# (#**)5 %+ #66'+1' 5"&#4="
+'=,)='+('>
! Consplracy presupposes an agreemenL and a declslon Lo commlL
a felony, when lL appears LhaL Lhe ln[urles lnfllcLed on Lhe
offended parLy were due Lo Lhe reckless lmprudence of Lwo or
more persons, lL ls noL proper Lo conslder consplracy beLween
or among Lhem.
J+ (%1'1 #6 (&)*)+%, +'=,)='+(' #& (&)*'1 04+)1"%.,' .- 10'()%, ,%7;
%,,#7)+= #& 6%),)+= 5# 0&'<'+5 %+ %(5 5# .' 0'&6#&*'8 .- %+#5"'&;
*%@'1 #+' % (#L0&)+()0%,>
! eople v. SanLos " professlonal drlver of passenger Lruck leL hls
conducLor drlve Lhe Lruck and Lhey had an accldenL wlLh a
[eepney whlch resulLed Lo Lhe deaLh of one lLs passengers
Peld: 8oLh Lhe drlver and Lhe conducLor were held llable as co-
prlnclpals of homlclde and damage Lo properLy Lhrough reckless
lmprudence under AcL. no 3992 and ArL. 363 of 8C.
! u.S. v. Sly Cong 8leng and Co kong " a sLoreowner's employee
sold adulLeraLed coffee and Lhe sLoreowner dld noL know LhaL
Lhe coffee was sold by hls employee
Peld: 8oLh Lhe sLoreowner and Lhe employee were held llable as
prlnclpals (crlmlnally llable under Lhe ure lood and urugs AcL)

IV. Second requ|s|te (of prlnclpals by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon): 1hat the
cu|pr|ts "carr|ed out the|r p|an and persona||y took part |n |ts
execut|on by acts wh|ch d|rect|y tended to the same end."

A. 1he pr|nc|pa|s by d|rect part|c|pat|on must be at the scene of the
cr|me, persona||y tak|ng part |n |ts execut|on.
! Genera| ku|e: rlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon musL personally
Lake parL ln execuLlng Lhe crlmlnal plan Lo be carrled ouL. 1hls
means LhaL be most be ot tbe sceoe of tbe commlssloo of tbe
ctlme, petsooolly tokloq pott lo lts execotloo.
! eople v. Cng ChlaL Lay " Peld LhaL one of Lhe accused noL a
prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon because he was absenL from Lhe
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
scene of Lhe flre when Lhe crlme of arson was commlLLed by
oLher accused
! Lxcept|on to the ru|e " eople v. SanLos
o 1here was consplracy Lo kldnap and klll Lhe vlcLlm and
only one of Lhe consplraLors kldnapped Lhe vlcLlm and
afLer Lurnlng hlm over Lo hls co-consplraLors for
execuLlon, lefL Lhe spoL where Lhe vlcLlm was kllled.
o Peld: 1he one who kldnapped Lhe vlcLlm was llable for
murder commlLLed by Lhe oLhers because he already
performed hls parL and Lhe kllllng was done by hls co-
consplraLors ln pursuance of Lhe consplracy.

8. 1he acts of each offender must d|rect|y tend to the same end.
! Whlle prlnclpals by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon personally Lake parL ln
Lhe execuLlon of Lhelr common purpose, lL ls noL necessary LhaL
each of Lhem should perform a poslLlve acL dlrecLly conLrlbuLlng
Lo Lhe accompllshmenL of Lhelr common purpose.
! eople v. Mandagay " Murder case where offenders prevlously
agreed Lo commlL sald crlme, noL only Lhe one who lnfllcLs Lhe
faLal wound ls consldered a prlnclpal buL also Lhe oLhers Lo held
Lhe vlcLlm or sLood guard ouLslde. 1he acLs of each and every
one of Lhe offenders are all dlrecLed Lo Lhe same end, whlch ls
Lhe kllllng of Lhe vlcLlm. Crlmlnal responslblllLy ln such a case ls
collecLlve.
I+,- 1'&<)+= %1 =4%&8 04&14%+5 5# 5"' (#+10)&%(- )1 % 0&)+()0%, .-
8)&'(5 0%&5)()0%5)#+>
! eople v. Canumay " AppellanLs were parL of plan Lo rob
vlcLlm. AL Llme of robbery Lhey sLood guard ouLslde Lhe house.
Peld: 1hey are equally llable as Lhe oLhers.
! u.S. v. 8eogllon " Cne who sLands guard ouLslde Lhe house Lo
keep oLhers away or warnlng fellow consplraLors whlle Lhe
laLLer are murderlng Lhe occupanL - Lakes dlrecL parL ln
commlsslon of crlme of murder and ls gullLy as a prlnclpal by
dlrecL parLlclpaLlon. Pe ls ln facL pteseot, olJloq, and obettloq ln
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
Lxcept|on: eople v. Samano
! lacLs: Accused [olnLly Lrled for murder of Lhree persons. 1hey
were members of a guerllla unlL and were belng charged of
Laklng Lhe deceased Lo Lhelr headquarLers and beaLlng hlm Lo
deaLh whlle lnvesLlgaLlng hlm on charges of esplonage. Accused
Samano and AlcanLara acLed as guards aL place of crlme buL dld
so ln obedlence Lo superlor orders and wltboot koowleJqe LhaL
Lhe deceased under lnvesLlgaLlon would be kllled. 1here was oo
evlJeoce LhaL Lhere was coospltocy beLween Lhose who pleaded
gullLy and Lhe presenL appellanLs.
! Peld: When Lhere ls no consplracy or unlLy of crlmlnal purpose
and lnLenLlon lndlcaLlng parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe crlmlnal resoluLlon,
mere posslve pteseoce aL Lhe scene of anoLher's crlme does noL
consLlLuLe compllclLy.

C. When the second requ|s|te |s |ack|ng, there |s on|y consp|racy.
! 8evlew of second requlslLe: persons who have parLlclpaLed ln
Lhe crlmlnal resoluLlon, musL carry ouL Lhelr plan and personally
Lake parL ln lLs execuLlon by acLs whlch dlrecLly Lend Lo Lhe same
end.
! ll Lhls 2
nd
requlslLe ls lacklng: Lhere ls, aL mosL, only consplracy
among several defendanLs who parLlclpaLed ln crlmlnal
resoluLlon, lf Lhe crlme Lhey agreed and declded Lo commlL ls
noL Lreason, rebelllon or sedlLlon, Lhey are noL crlmlnally llable.
! eople v. Asaad " lour accused merely aLLended conferences
and assenLed ouL of respecL and fear and afLer commlsslon of
murders Lhey [olned oLher accused ln celebraLlng wlLh a flesLa,
by way of cusLom, Lhey were nelLher co-prlnclpals nor
accompllces
! 1hls ls why ualmaclo 1lmbol was acqulLLed of Lhe charge of
murder because he merely consplred wlLh hls co-accused Lo klll
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
deceased buL lefL Lhe place before Lhey began shooLlng hlm
(eople v. 1lmbol)
! eople v. elaglo " C's parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe flrsL meeLlng
lnvolved hlm ln Lhe consplracy because he Lold Lhe oLher Lhe
locaLlon of Lhe house Lo be robbed, Lhls however ls lnadequaLe
Lo make hlm crlmlnally llable as a consplraLor. 1hls because
consplracy alone wlLhouL execuLlon of lLs purpose ls noL a crlme
punlshable by law excepL ln speclal lnsLances whlch does noL
lnclude robbery. (Art. 8)
____________________
Ak 2: "1nCSL WnC DIkLC1L ICkCL Ck INDUCL C1nLkS 1C CCMMI1
I1." (rlnclpals by lnducLlon.)

I. aragraph No. 2 of Art|c|e 17 prov|des for the second c|ass of
pr|nc|pa|s.
! Second class of prlnclpals = Lhose who dlrecLly force or lnduce
oLhers Lo commlL lL (Lhe acL)" (Art. 17 kC).
! 1hose who dlrecLly lnduce oLhers Lo commlL Lhe acL are called
prlnclpals by lnducemenL" or prlnclpals by lnducLlon" from Lhe
Spanlsh oototes pot loJoccloo".
! lnducemenL" comprlses prlce, promlse of reward, command
and pacLo (oplnlon of vlada and SC of Spaln).

II. 1he pr|nc|pa| by |nduct|on becomes ||ab|e on|y when the pr|nc|pa|
by d|rect part|c|pat|on comm|tted the act |nduced.
! eople v. Cng ChlaL Lay " Cne cannoL be held gullLy of havlng
lnsLlgaLed Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme wlLhouL flrsL belng
shown LhaL Lhe crlme was acLually commlLLed by anoLher.

III. 1wo ways of becom|ng pr|nc|pa| by |nduct|on.
under ArLlcle 17 par. 2:
(1) by dlrecLly fotcloq anoLher Lo commlL a crlme, and
(2) by dlrecLly loJocloq anoLher Lo commlL a crlme.

(1) 8y d|rect|y forc|ng another to comm|t a cr|me.
1wo ways of dlrecLly forclng anoLher Lo commlL a crlme:
1. 8y uslng ltteslstlble fotce.
2. 8y causlng oocoottolloble feot.
o ln Lhese cases (uslng force or causlng fear), Lhere ls no
consplracy, noL even a unlLy of crlmlnal purpose and
lnLenLlon. Cnly Lhe one uslng force or causlng fear ls
crlmlnally llable. 1he maLerlal execuLor ls noL crlmlnally
llable because of Art. 12 par. S and 6.
(2) 8y d|rect|y |nduc|ng another to comm|t a cr|me.
1wo ways of dlrecLly lnduclng anoLher Lo commlL a crlme:
1. 8y glvlng ptlce, ot offetloq tewotJ ot ptomlse.
o 8oLh Lhe one glvlng Lhe prlce or offerlng reward or
promlse and Lhe one commlLLlng Lhe crlme ln
conslderaLlon Lhereof are prlnclpals (former by
lnducemenL and laLLer by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon). 1bete ls
collectlve ctlmlool tespooslblllty.
2. 8y uslng wotJs of commooJ.
o 8oLh Lhe person who used Lhe words of command and
Lhe persons who commlLs Lhe crlme (because of Lhe
words of command) are equally llable. 1here ls also
collectlve tespooslblllty.

IV. kequ|s|tes to be cons|dered a pr|nc|pa| by |nducement
1. 1haL Lhe lnducemenL be made dlrecLly wltb tbe loteotloo of
procurlng Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme, and
2. 1haL such lnducemenL be Lhe Jetetmloloq coose of Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme by Lhe maLerlal execuLor.
! u.S. v. ldanan ! 1o consLlLuLe lnducemenL, Lhere musL be on
Lhe parL of Lhe lnducer Lhe most posltlve tesolotloo and Lhe
most petslsteot effott Lo secure Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme
LogeLher wlLh Lhe presenLaLlon Lo Lhe person lnduced of Lhe
very sLrongesL klnd of LempLaLlon Lo commlL Lhe crlme.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
V. I||ustrat|on of the f|rst (and second) requ|s|te.
! eople v. CLadora:
(llrsL requlslLe) - lL was clear LhaL she had Lhe lnLenLlon of
procurlng Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme when she furnlshed her
co-accused Lhe gun Lo klll Lhe deceased
(Second requlslLe) - 1he accused promlsed her co-accused
pecunlary galn whlch was Lhe deLermlnlng cause of Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme
! eople v. AlconLln:
(llrsL requlslLe) - A marrled woman suggesLed Lo her paramour
LhaL he klll her husband, Peld: Lhe proposlLlon of Lhe woman
consLlLuLed someLhlng mote tboo mere counsel or advlce LhaL
her co-defendanL was enLlrely free Lo accepL or noL
(Second requlslLe) - 1he marrled woman's promlse of belng
able Lo freely llve LogeLher wlLh Lhe paramour was Lhe
deLermlnlng cause of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme

VI. A thought|ess express|on w|thout |ntent|on to produce the resu|t |s
not an |nducement to comm|t a cr|me.
! A chance word spoken wlLhouL reflecLlon/ a wrong appreclaLlon
of a slLuaLlon/ an lronlcal phrase/ a LhoughLless acL may glve
blrLh Lo a LhoughL or resoluLlon Lo commlL a crlme ln Lhe mlnd
of one - wltboot tbe ooe wbo spoke tbe wotJ ot petfotmeJ tbe
oct bovloq ooy expectotloo LhaL hls suggesLlon would be
followed or any real lnLenLlon LhaL lL produce Lhe resulL.
! ln such a case, Lhe one who spoke Lhe word or performed Lhe
acL would noL be gullLy of Lhe crlme commlLLed by Lhe oLher.
(u.S. v. ldanan)
KD%*0,' #6 )*0&48'+5 %8<)('; +#5 (#+15)545)+= 1466)()'+5 )+84('*'+5>
! A declslon of Lhe SC of Spaln (clLed ln u.S. v. ldanan) held LhaL a
woman who robbed her husband because a person Lold her LhaL
LhaL's Lhe only Lhlng Lo do Lo hlm because he was sLlngy and
LreaLed her badly - Lhe person was noL gullLy of Lhe crlme
commlLLed of Lhe crlme of robbery by lnducemenL because an
lmprudenL and lll-concelved advlce ls noL sufflclenL, Lhe person
dld noL have Lhe lnLenLlon of procurlng Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme.

VII. 1he |nducement may be by acts of command, adv|ce, or through
|nf|uence, or agreement for cons|derat|on.
! lnducemenL and Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme whereln Lhe
lnducer becomes Lhe prlnclpal (wlLh same exLenL and effecL as lf
he had physlcally commlLLed Lhe crlme) may exlsL ln:
o octs of commooJ
o of oJvlce
o oqteemeot fot o cooslJetotloo
o Lhrough an lofloeoce so effectlve LhaL lL alone
deLermlnes Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme
:"' 7#&81 #6 %8<)(' #& 5"' )+6,4'+(' *415 "%<' %(54%,,- *#<'8 5"'
"%+81 #6 5"' 0&)+()0%, .- 8)&'(5 0%&5)()0%5)#+>
! An lnexperlenced boy of Lender age was persuaded by a person
Lo sLeal Lhe [ewels of hls grandmoLher, Lhe person was found
gullLy of LhefL by lnducemenL
! Mlnors under 13 are easlly suscepLlble Lo suggesLlons of lnducer
because Lhey have no dlscernmenL or [udgmenL of Lhelr own so
when Lhey are lnduced Lo commlL a crlme, Lhe lnfluence of Lhe
lnducer ls Lhe deLermlnlng cause of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme
!#&81 #6 (#**%+8 #6 % 6%5"'& *%- )+84(' ")1 1#+ 5# (#**)5 % (&)*'>
! Moral lnfluence of Lhe words of a faLher (hls words of
command) may deLermlne Lhe course of conducL of a son
(because of Lhe obedlence due Lo hlm)
! versus: same words comlng from a sLranger whlch would make
no lmpresslon
! eople v. 8auLlsLa " 1he accused (exerclslng domlnance and
ascendancy) compelled hls 3-year old son Lo Lhrow a sLone aL
anoLher boy whlch caused ln[ury Lo Lhe laLLer's eye was a
prlnclpal by lnducemenL.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
VIII. Mean|ng of the second requ|s|te.
! lL ls necessary LhaL Lhe lnducemenL be Lhe Jetetmloloq coose of
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme by Lhe prlnclpal by dlrecL
parLlclpaLlon - LhaL, wltboot socb loJocemeot tbe ctlme woolJ
oot bove beeo commltteJ. (ueclslon of SC of Spaln)
! lnducemenL exlsLs lf Lhe naLure of Lhe command or advlce ls
LhaL wlLhouL lLs concurrence - Lhe crlme would noL have
maLerlallzed (eople v. Cruz)
! 1he second requlslLe does noL exlsL lf Lhe prlnclpal by dlrecL
parLlclpaLlon had petsoool teosoo Lo commlL Lhe crlme (such
LhaL he would commlL Lhe same even wlLhouL Lhe lnducemenL)
:"' )+84('*'+5 *415 0&'('8' 5"' %(5 )+84('8 %+8 *415 .' 1#
)+6,4'+5)%, )+ 0&#84()+= 5"' (&)*)+%, %(5 5"%5 7)5"#45 )5; 5"' %(5 7#4,8
+#5 "%<' .''+ 0'&6#&*'8>
! rlce glven Lo Lhe prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon oftet Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme, wltboot ptlot ptomlse Lo glve a prlce
or reward, coolJ oot be oo loJocemeot.
! 1he one charged of lnduclng Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme ls noL
llable lf Lhe person who acLually commlLLed a crlme had a
reason of hls own Lo commlL Lhe crlme
! eople v. CasLlllo
o lacLs: Marlncho CasLlllo (son) was slapped on Lhe face
by Lhe deceased vargas. AfLer 2 monLhs, appellanL
CasLlllo (faLher) was Lalklng Lo vargas whlle holdlng a
revolver (buL noL polnLed Lo hlm). Suddenly, Marlncho
came from behlnd and hacked Lhe head of vargas.
When he was abouL Lo hack hlm Lhe second Llme, hls
faLher Lold hlm ?ou klll hlm" and Lhen Lhey
surrendered Lo Lhe auLhorlLles.
o Peld: CasLlllo ls noL gullLy of belng a co-prlnclpal by
lnducemenL because Marlncho has already glven vargas
a faLal blow on Lhe head before CasLlllo allegedly sald
?ou klll hlm" because Lhe uLLerances musL be sufflclenL
enough Lo be Lhe deLermlnlng cause of commlLLlng Lhe
crlme
M- 41)+= 7#&81 #6 (#**%+8>
! eople v. Censola " WlLh respecL Lo command - lL musL be Lhe
movlng cause of Lhe offense. 1he evldence showed LhaL Lhe
accused would have acLed on hls own vollLlon even wlLhouL Lhe
words of command (8uflno, sLrlke hlm!")
! eople v. Agaplnay " An uLLerer wlll noL be llable as prlnclpal
by lnducemenL lf Lhe lmprudenL uLLerance was sald ln Lhe
exclLemenL of Lhe hour or ln heaL of anger (and noL ln a naLure
of a command LhaL had Lo be obeyed)
! lL musL appear LhaL Lhe lnducemenL was of such naLure and was
made ln such a way as Lo become Lhe Jetetmloloq coose of tbe
ctlme and LhaL such lnducemenL was uLLered wltb tbe loteotloo
of ptoJocloq tbe tesolt. (eople v. CasLlllo)
! 1he lnclLlng words musL have greaL domlnanc and lnfluence
over Lhe person who acL, Lhey oughL Lo be dlrecL and as
efflcaclous or powerful as physlcal or moral coerclon or vlolence
lLself. (eople v. Canlal)
G,, 6)<' &'34)1)5'1 *415 .' 0&'1'+5 )+ #&8'& 5"%5 % 0'&1#+ 41)+= 7#&81
#6 (#**%+8 .' "',8 ,)%.,' %1 0&)+()0%, .- )+84('*'+59
1. 1haL Lhe one uLLerlng Lhe words of command musL have Lhe
lnLenLlon of procurlng Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
2. 1haL Lhe one who made Lhe command musL have an
osceoJoocy or lofloeoce over Lhe person who acLed.
o lllosttotloo. u.S. v. Canao " When 8 (a very lnfluenLlal
flgure ln Lhelr communlLy) selecLed A (hls nephew who
was poor and depended on hlm) Lo commlL Lhe crlme -
Lhe lnfluence exerclsed by 8 over A was so greaL and
powerful LhaL Lhe laLLer could noL reslsL lL.
3. 1haL Lhe words used musL be so Jltect, so efflcocloos, so
powetfol as Lo amounL Lo physlcal or moral coerclon.
o lllosttotloo.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
(a) K66)(%()#41 - a person who makes accused belleve
LhaL Lhe person Lo be kllled was Lhe one who sLole
Lhe accused's properLy = gullLy as prlnclpal by
lnducemenL, even Lhough Lhe accused seem Lo
have a personal reason, lL was Lhe lnducLor who
made hlm belleve so
(b) /#7'&64, N u.S. v. Canao (supra)
4. 1he words of command musL be uLLered prlor Lo Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
o 1hls requlslLe ls lacklng when Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme has already been commenced when Lhe words of
lnducemenL are uLLered.
o A son who was already ln combaL wlLh anoLher was Lold
by Lhe faLher PlL hlm" - Lhe faLher was noL
responslble for Lhe ln[urles lnfllcLed afLer advlce glven
3. 1he maLerlal execuLor of Lhe crlme has no personal reason Lo
commlL Lhe crlme.
o lf Lhe prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon has a personal
reason Lo commlL Lhe crlme, Lhe supposed words of
lnducemenL cannoL be Lhe deLermlnlng cause.
o eople v. kllchl Cmlne "
lacLs: Cmlne shouLed peqole y motole Lo AuLor and
he sLruck Lhe deceased on Lhe breasL buL before Lhe
uLLerance he had already sLruck Lhe deceased wlLh a
flsL blow on Lhe rlghL eye
Peld: Cmlne was noL a prlnclpal by lnducLlon because
AuLor had already sLruck beforehand and Lhe uLLerance
was noL sufflclenL because lL doesn'L show LhaL Cmlne
has any parLlcular lnfluence over AuLor. AuLor = gullLy
of serlous physlcal ln[urles and Cmlne was acwulLLed.
2'34)1)5'1 (#+1)8'&'8 )+ 8'5'&*)+)+= 5"' ,)%.),)5- #6 % 0'&1#+ %((41'8 %
0&)+()0%, .- )+84('*'+5> " eople v. Calmbre
! lacLs: AppellanL was belng prosecuLed for uLLerlng you had
beLLer klll hlm" when hls co-accused was aLLacklng Lhe vlcLlm.
! Peld: AppellanL was acqulLLed because he lacked Lhe flrsL
requlslLe because Lhere was noLhlng Lo show LhaL appellanL had
any reason Lo have Cllpmo kllled, lacked second requlslLe
because he had no sufflclenL moral lnfluence over co-accused Lo
make hlm obey bllndly, and fourLh requlslLe was lacklng because
hls co-accused had already boloed Lhe vlcLlm before he uLLered
Lhe words
! Can a person who ls presenL durlng a homlclde buL has no dlrecL
parL ln Lhe acL can be held crlmlnally llable for lnclLlng and
encouraglng anoLher wlLh expresslons llke go ahead", hlL
hlm", Lhere you have hlm", now ls Lhe Llme"?
o lL depends upon wheLher Lhese words were spoken
under condlLlons LhaL glve Lhem a Jltect ooJ
Jetetmlootlve lnfluence upon Lhe mlnd of Lhe prlnclpal
acLor. (eople v. 1amayo)

k. Ascendancy or |nf|uence as to amount to mora| coerc|on |s not
necessary when there |s consp|racy.
! 1o conslder as prlnclpal by lnducLlon one who advlses or lnclLes
anoLher Lo perpeLraLe an offense, lL ls essenLlal Lo show LhaL Lhe
advlsor had so greaL an ascendancy or lnfluence LhaL hls words
were so efflcaclous and powerful as Lo amounL Lo moral
coerclon.
! roof of such exLremes ls usually requlred Lo [usLlfy such
concluslon.
! roof ln unnecessary where Lhe prlnclpal acLor admlLs belng
lmpelled and LhaL he acLed pursuanL Lo a prevlous plan or
consplracy Lo klll and promlse Lo condone hls lndebLedness
(eople v. ullp)
! 1here ls collectlve ctlmlool tespooslblllty when words of
lnducemenL were used.
Cne who p|anned the cr|me comm|tted by another |s a pr|nc|pa| by
|nducement.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! ersons who planned Lhe crlme commlLLed by oLher persons are
gullLy as auLhors by lnducemenL.

kI. If the cr|me comm|tted |s not contemp|ated |n the order g|ven, the
|nducement |s not mater|a| and not the determ|n|ng cause thereof. "
eople v. Lawas
! lacLs: Accused Lawas was head of Lhe home guards ln a barrlo
ln Lanao and he orderd hls men Lo shooL aL Moros suspecLed of
havlng kllled 11 ChrlsLlan resldenLs. Some of Lhe home guards
flred aL women and chlldren aL Lhe second floor of Lhe house.
! Peld: Lawas ls noL gullLy of murder for Lhe kllllng of Lhe women
and chlldren as prlnclpal by lnducLlon because hls order was Lo
flre aL Moros on Lhe ground and clearly dld noL lnLend for
women and chlldren Lo be flred aL.
r|nc|pa| by |nduct|on |n fa|s|f|cat|on.
! eople v. o Clok 1o " 1he employee dld Lhe overL acL of
enLerlng false facLs on Lhe resldence cerLlflcaLe of Lhe accused
because Lhe accused lnduced hlm Lo do so by supplylng hlm
Lhose facLs.
Peld: Accused was a prlnclpal by lnducemenL. 1he employee
was a mere lnnocenL agenL of performlng Lhe acL consLlLuLlng
Lhe crlme hence employee was noL crlmlnally llable because he
had no knowledge of Lhe falslLy of Lhe facLs supplled by Lhe
accused.

kII. D|st|ngu|sh pr|nc|pa| by |nducement from the offender who made
proposa| to comm|t a fe|ony.
r|nc|pa| by |nducement Cffender who proposed to
comm|t a fe|ony
1here ls lnducemenL Lo commlL a
crlme
1here ls lnducemenL Lo commlL a
crlme
Llable only when crlme ls
commlLLed by prlnclpal by dlrecL
parLlclpaLlon
Mere proposal Lo commlL a felony
ls punlshable ln Lreason or
rebelllon, person Lo whom
proposal ls made should nC1
commlL Lhe crlme
lnducemenL lnvolves An? crlme MusL lnvolve CnL? Lreason and
rebelllon Lo be punlshable

kIII. Lffects of acqu|tta| of pr|nc|pa| by d|rect part|c|pat|on upon the
||ab|||ty of pr|nc|pa| by |nducement.
(1) Consplracy ls negaLlve by acqulLLal of co-defendanL.
(2) lL musL be shown LhaL Lhe crlme has acLually been commlLLed by
anoLher oLherwlse, one cannoL be gullLy of lnsLlgaLlng Lhe crlme
" lf Lhe one charged as prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon was
acqulLLed because he acLed wlLhouL crlmlnal lnLenL or mallce -
hls acqulLLal ls noL ground for acqulLLlng Lhe prlnclpal by
lnducemenL
" 8eason for rule: ln exempLlng clrcumsLances, when Lhe acL ls
noL volunLary because of lack of lnLenL - Lhere ls a crlme
commlLLed buL no crlmlnal, ln lnLenLlonal felonles, acL of a
person does noL make hlm crlmlnal unless hls mlnd be crlmlnal

kIV. ossessor of recent|y sto|en property |s a pr|nc|pa|.
! ossessor of a recenLly sLolen arLlcle ls consldered a prlnclpal,
noL an accessory or accompllce, unless he proves oLherwlse
saLlsfacLorlly and LhaL anoLher person who gave hlm Lhe arLlcle
was Lhe one who sLole lL (Sect|on S([), ku|e 131, ku|es of Court)
____________________
Ak. 3: "1nCSL WnC CCCLkA1L IN 1nL CCMMISSICN CI 1nL
CIILNSL 8 ANC1nLk AC1 WI1nCU1 WnICn I1 WCULD NC1 nAVL
8LLN ACCCMLISnLD." (ltloclpols by loJlspeoslble coopetotloo.)

I. Mean|ng of the term "cooperate".
! 1o cooperaLe means to Jeslte or wlsb lo commoo a Lhlng. 1he
common wlll or purpose does noL necessarlly mean pervlous
undersLandlng because lL can be explalned or lnferred from Lhe
clrcumsLances of each case. (eople v. Apelgldo)
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
II. kequ|s|tes:
1. arLlclpaLlon ln Lhe crlmlnal resoluLlon - Lhere ls elLher anLerlor
consplracy or unlLy of crlmlnal purpose and lnLenLlon
lmmedlaLely before Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme charged, and
2. CooperaLlon ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense by performlng
oootbet oct, wlLhouL whlch lL would noL have been
accompllshed.

III. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: art|c|pat|on |n the cr|m|na| reso|ut|on
! Co-dellnquency ln par. 3 requlres parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe crlmlnal
resoluLlon - Lhere musL be consplracy (same as ArL 17. par. 1)
! 8uL concurrence wlLh Lhe prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe
purpose of Lhe laLLer ls sufflclenL because Lhe cooperaLlon ls
lndlspenslble Lo Lhe accompllshmenL of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
offense.
O%- 5"'&' .' (##0'&%5)#+ .- %(51 #6 +'=,)='+('P
! A person becomes a co-prlnclpal Lhrough acLs of negllgence
cooperaLes ln Lhe commlsslon of esLafa Lhrough falslflcaLlon or
malversaLlon Lhrough falslflcaLlon (wlLhouL whlch Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme could noL have been accpomllshed)
! 1he one who cooperaLed ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme was
held gullLy of Lhe same crlme Lhrough reckless lmprudence
(Samson v. CA)

IV. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Cooperat|on must be |nd|spens|b|e w|thout
wh|ch the comm|ss|on of the cr|me wou|d not have been
%((#*0,)1"'8.
! lf Lhe cooperaLlon ls oot lndlspenslble, Lhe offender ls only an
occompllce.
QA##0'&%5' D D D .- %+#5"'& %(5R
! AcL of Lhe prlnclpal by lndlspenslble cooperaLlon should be
Jlffeteot from Lhe acL of Lhe prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon.
! Law says by anoLher acL" whlch means lL should noL be Lhe acL
of one who would be classlfled as prlnclpal by dlrecL
parLlclpaLlon.
xomples.
(1) u.S. v. !avler
o lacLs: C was Lhe one who forced and dragged Lhe glrl Lo
Lhe back of Lhe house where ! was walLlng Lo
perpeLraLe Lhe crlme. C had a prevlous agreemenL wlLh
!. AfLer dellverlng Lhe glrl, C lefL so LhaL ! can
consummaLe Lhe prearranged rape.
o Peld: C cooperaLed ln Lhe perpeLraLlon of Lhe crlme by
acLs wlLhouL whlch lLs commlsslon would noL have
been accompllshed.
! AcL of cooperaLlon: forclble Laklng of Lhe glrl Lo Lhe place of
commlsslon of rape by oLher accused
! AcL of execuLlon: sexual lnLercourse wlLh Lhe woman agalnsL her
wlll
(2) u.S. v. Llm 8uanco "
o lacLs: 8, employee of a bank, lndorsed upon a check
drawn by 8 so LhaL 8, even wlLhouL sufflclenL funds ln
Lhe bank, may sLlll draw Lhe amounL of Lhe check when
he presenLs lL Lo Lhe cashler of Lhe bank. 1he
lndorsemenL of 8 was ln connlvance wlLh 8 knowlng he
dldn'L have funds buL lndorsed lL sLlll.
o Peld: 8 was a prlnclpal by lndlspenslble cooperaLlon.
# AcL of cooperaLlon: CerLlflcaLlon LhaL Lhe check was
enLlLled Lo paymenL
# AcL of execuLlon: Crlme of esLafa by 8 commlLLed as
prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon - Lhe fraudulenL
cashlng of Lhe cash LhaL damaged Lhe bank
! ln Lhe 2 cases, Lhe cooperaLlon of Lhe oLher accused was Lhe
performance of an acL dlfferenL from Lhe acL of execuLlon of Lhe
crlme commlLLed by Lhe oLher accused.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! lf cooperaLlon of one accused conslsLs ln dolng an acL necessary
ln Lhe execotloo of tbe ctlme = prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon
Lx. ln a homlclde case one of Lhe offenders held Lhe vlcLlm whlle
Lhe oLher was sLabblng hlm = one who held vlcLlm was prlnclpal
by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon 8u1 Lhere are cases where Lhe Supreme
CourL consldered such accused as a prlnclpal by lndlspenslble
cooperaLlon

V. L|ab|||ty of consp|rators who took turns |n rap|ng a g|r|.
! eople v. vllla ! lour persons Look Lurns ln raplng a glrl, oLhers
held her whlle one had lnLercourse wlLh her.
Peld: Lach of Lhem ls responslble for hls own acL of rape and
also for Lhe acLs of Lhe oLhers. lour senLences were lmposed on
each accused.
____________________
1o be ||ab|e as pr|nc|pa|s, the offender must fa|| under any of the three
concepts def|ned |n Art|c|e 17.
! A person who asslsLs one who commlLs Lhe crlme of arson and
who knows Lhe laLLer's purpose (buL whose parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe
arson ls noL known) may noL be consldered as a prlnclpal
because hls acLs were nelLher dlrecL nor absoluLely necessary
for Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense nor dld lL lnduce Lhe sald
commlsslon (SC of Spaln declslon)

Co||ect|ve cr|m|na| respons|b|||ty.
! resenL when offenders are crlmlnally llable ln Lhe same
manner and Lo same exLenL, penalLy lmposed musL be same for
all.
! Who has collecLlve crlmlnal responslblllLy?
o rlnclpals by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon.
o rlnclpal by lnducLlon wlLh Lhe prlnclpal by dlrecL
parLlclpaLlon (LxCL1 Lhe prlnclpal by lnducLlon who
dlrecLly forced anoLher Lo commlL a crlme).
o rlnclpal by lndlspenslble cooperaLlon wlLh Lhe prlnclpal
by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon.

Ind|v|dua| Cr|m|na| respons|b|||ty.
! lf Lhere ls no prevlous consplracy/ unlLy of crlmlnal purpose and
lnLenLlon lmmedlaLely before commlsslon of crlme/ communlLy
of crlmlnal deslgn = ctlmlool tespooslblllty arlslng from dlfferenL
acLs dlrecLed agalnsL one and Lhe same person ls loJlvlJool and
noL collecLlve.
! Lach of Lhe parLlclpanLs ls llable only for Lhe acL commlLLed by
hlm.
KD%*0,' #6 )+8)<)84%, &'10#+1).),)5-. " clLed ln eople v. MarLlnez
! lacLs: ueceased assaulLed a group of Lhree lndlvlduals, ln Lhelr
(lncompleLe) self-defense, Lwo of Lhem caused less serlous
physlcal ln[urles on Lhe assallanL deceased whlle one lnfllcLed a
faLal wound.
! Peld: Cnly Lhe one who gave Lhe faLal wound would be
prlnclpally llable for homlclde and Lhe oLhers llable only for less
serlous physlcal ln[urles.

Art|c|e 18. G((#*0,)('1 Accomp||ces are those persons who, not
be|ng |nc|uded |n Art|c|e 17, cooperate |n the execut|on of the offense
by prev|ous or s|mu|taneous acts.

CIN1S
I. uas|-co||ect|ve cr|m|na| respons|b|||ty.
! 8eLween collecLlve and lndlvldual crlmlnal responslblllLy "
poosl-collectlve crlmlnal responslblllLy.
! ln quasl-collecLlve: some are prlnclpals and oLhers are
occompllces.

II. 1he part|c|pat|on of an accomp||ce presupposes the comm|ss|on of
the cr|me by the pr|nc|pa| by d|rect part|c|pat|on.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! rlnclpal elemenL of compllclLy: concurrence of wlll of
accompllce wlLh Lhe wlll of Lhe auLhor of Lhe crlme (prlnclpal).
! Accompllce cooperaLes by: prevlous or slmulLaneous acLs ln Lhe
execuLlon of Lhe offense by Lhe prlnclpal.

III. "Not be|ng |nc|uded |n Art|c|e 17."
! An accompllce does noL fall under any of Lhe Lhree concepLs
deflned ln Art|c|e 17.
! 1hose who cooperaLed by prevlous or slmulLaneous acLs cannoL
be held llable as prlnclpals buL as accompllces.
J+ (%1' #6 8#4.5 %1 5# 7"'5"'& 0&)+()0%, #& %((#*0,)('>
! ln case of uCu81 - parLlclpaLlon of offender ls consldered as
accompllce raLher Lhan prlnclpal.
! eople v. CelemenLe: eyewlLness unable Lo asserL lf appellanLs
hlL Lhe fallen man (uncerLaln parLlclpaLlon ln homlclde) and
Lhere was no consplracy shown.
o Peld: appellanLs declared accompllces only.
!"'&' 5"'&' )1 8#4.5 %1 5# 7"'5"'& %((41'8 %(5'8 %1 0&)+()0%, #& %1
%((#*0,)('; %((41'8 1"#4,8 .' "',8 ,)%.,' #+,- %1 %((#*0,)('>
! Mere presence aL scene, knowledge of plan, and acqulescence =
lnsufflclenL ground Lo hold a person as consplraLor Lherefore
wlll be held llable only as accompllce.
! CuanLum of proof lacklng = mllder form of crlmlnal llablllLy: as
accompllce.
!"'+ 5"' 0%&5)()0%5)#+ #6 %+ %((41'8 )1 +#5 8)1(,#1'8; "' )1 #+,- %1
%((#*0,)('>
! eople v. ublna: lf a person asslsLs ln arson because he knows
Lhe purpose of Lhe prlnclpal, buL hls parLlclpaLlon ls undlsclosed.
! Peld: Pls acLlons are nelLher dlrecL nor absoluLely necessary for
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense nor lnduce Lhe crlme.
! ln crlmlnal cases: parLlclpaLlon of accused musL be proved by
poslLlve and compeLenL evldence (beyond reasonable doubL) 8?
Lhe prosecuLlon - can'L be presumed.

IV. An accomp||ce does not have prev|ous agreement of understand|ng
or |s not |n consp|racy w|th the pr|c|pa| by d|rect part|c|pat|on.
! Accompllce does noL enLer lnLo consplracy wlLh prlnclpal by
dlrecL parLlclpaLlon nor does he have a prevlous agreemenL or
undersLandlng wlLh hlm Lo commlL a crlme 8u1 he parLlclpaLes
Lo a cerLaln polnL ln Lhe common crlmlnal deslgn.
nC1L: An accompllce geLs a penalLy ooe Jeqtee lowet Lhan LhaL
provlded for Lhe prlnclpal ln a consummaLed felony (Art|c|e S2).

S)15)+(5)#+ .'57''+ %((#*0,)(' %+8 (#+10)&%5#&>
! Common Lo boLh: knowlng and agreemenL wlLh crlmlnal deslgn.
ConsplraLor Accompllce
knowledge of Lhe crlmlnal
lnLenLlon ls because Lhey declded
Lhe speclflc course of acLlon
CeLs knowledge of Lhe crlmlnal
lnLenL afLer prlnclpals have
reached Lhe declslon - and Lhen
Lhey agree Lo cooperaLe ln lLs
execuLlon
ueclde LhaL a crlme should be
commlLLed
Merely concurs Lo do Lhe crlme,
merely assenL Lo Lhe plan and
cooperaLe ln lLs accompllshmenL
AuLhors of a crlme lnsLrumenLs who perform acLs noL
essenLlal Lo perpeLraLlon of
offense

O%- % (#L(#+10)&%5#& .' "',8 ,)%.,' %1 %+ %((#*0,)(' #+,-P
! lf Lechnlcally Lhe accused are co-consplraLors 8u1 Lhelr
parLlclpaLlon was noL absoluLely lndlspenslble Lo Lhe
consummaLlon of Lhe murder " courL should favor mllder form
of llablllLy = accompllce.
! eople v. Anln: Peld: Lven wlLh knowledge of crlmlnal lnLenL buL
Lhe overL acLs of co-accused was sLlll noL lndlspenslble Lo Lhe
crlme of homlclde = accused only an accompllce.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! eople v. nlerra " Peld: Lven wlLh communlLy of deslgn buL
role ln homlclde or murder was of a mlnor characLer =
accompllce only
! versus eople v. Manzano and eople v. Mendoza" Peld: Cnce
proved LhaL accused had coosplteJ wlLh oLhers accused, llablllLy
only as accompllce ls unLenable, Lhe acL of one ls Lhe acL of all

Commun|ty of Des|gn art|c|pat|on |n the Cr|m|na|
keso|ut|on
uoes noL necessarlly mean LhaL
Lhere ls consplracy buL lL may
develop lnLo one
lmplles consplracy
Mere concurrence wlLh crlmlnal
purpose
LnLerlng lnLo an agreemenL and
decldlng Lo commlL a felony

V. In order that a person may be cons|dered an accomp||ce, the
fo||ow|ng requ|s|tes must concur.
1. 1here be communlLy of deslgn: koowloq tbe ctlmlool Jeslqo of
Lhe prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon and coocots wltb blm/bet ln
LhaL purpose.
2. 1haL he cooperaLes ln Lhe execuLlon of Lhe offense by ptevloos
ot slmoltooeoos octs by supplylng motetlol ot motol olJ ln Lhe
execuLlon of Lhe crlme ln an efflcaclous way.
3. 1here be a telotloo betweeo tbe octs by tbe ptloclpol ooJ tbe
occompllce.

VI. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Commun|ty of des|gn
! 1here musL be a prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon before Lhere
could be an accompllce.
! 1he prlnclpal orlglnaLes Lhe deslgn and Lhe accompllce merely
concurs wlLh lL.
! CooperaLlon whlch Lhe law punlshes: asslsLance knowlngly or
lnLenLlonally glven and whlch ls noL posslble wlLhouL ptevloos
koowleJqe of tbe ctlmlool potpose.
! (Shown ln) eople v. Llngad) " 1axl drlver knowlng LhaL co-
accused were golng Lo make a hold-up leL's Lhem use hls cab Lo
where Lhe crlme wlll be sLaged and walLed for Lhem afLer,
PLLu: Laxl drlver ls an accompllce
! (noL shown ln) u.S. v. 8ello " SenLry permlLLed some convlcLs
Lo go ouL of [all accompanles by guard Lhen Lhe convlcLs
commlLLed robbery
PLLu: SenLry noL llable as accompllce because he had no
knowledge of Lhelr lnLenLlon Lo commlL robbery when he leL
Lhem ouL

A. now an accomp||ce acqu|res know|edge of the cr|m|na| des|gn of
the pr|nc|pa|.
1. rlnclpal lnforms or Lells Lhe accompllce of Lhe former's crlmlnal
purpose.
o u.S. v. SoLLo " MasLer Lold hls servanL LhaL he would
abducL Lhe a glrl under 18 years and he prompLed sald
servanL Lo lnduce Lhe glrl Lo leave her home and Lhe
servanL dld.
PLLu: ServanL was an accompllce and masLer was a
prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon.
2. When Lhe accompllce saw Lhe crlmlnal acLs of Lhe prlnclpal.
o eople v. 1amayo " 8amon was choklng Lhe deceased
Lhen !ose dellvered a blow on Lhe head of Lhe deceased
whlch 8amon saw buL he sLlll conLlnued wlLh choklng
Lhe deceased.
PLLu: 8amon ls an accompllce, showed LhaL 8amon
approved/parLlclpaLed wlLh Lhe crlmlnal deslgn of !ose
because he conLlnued choklng deceased afLer Lhe blow.
o eople v. Cagallngan " A Cagallngan sLabbed Lhe
deceased flrsL Lhen ! Cagallngan an 8omlna !r. sLabbed
Lhe deceased afLer.
PLLu: Lven lf Lhere shows a communlLy of deslgn wlLh
Lhe prlnclpal, Lhe sLabblng of ! Cagallngan and 8omlna
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
!r. were noL lndlspenslble Lo Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme because A Cagallngan's sLabblng was faLal
already, Lherefore Lhe Lwo are only accompllces.
o eople v. Manansala: " Lven afLer Lhe flrsL knlfe LhrusL
dellvered Lo Lhe deceased, Lhe accused dld noL Lry Lo
sLop Lhe oLher accused elLher by word or overL acL
PLLu: Accused ls an accompllce because even lf hls
lnlLlal lnLenL was free from gullL, lL became LalnLed afLer
he saw Lhe flrsL knlfe LhrusL dellvered.
! ln case Lhere ls no consplracy or unlLy of crlmlnal
purpose/lnLenLlon among accused, whaL should be consldered
ls Lhe crlmlnal deslgn/lnLenL enLerLalned by Lhe accused LhaL
lnfllcLed Lhe more or mosL serlous wound on Lhe vlcLlm. 1hls can
be lnferred from Lhe naLure of Lhe weapon or Lhe body parL
ln[ured.
A#+(4&&'+(' 7)5" 5"' (&)*)+%, 04&0#1' #6 %+#5"'& *%- *%@' #+' % (#L
0&)+()0%,>
! Lven lf only one of Lhe accused orlglnaLed Lhe crlmlnal deslgn
and Lhe oLher merely concurred 8u1 8LlC8L Lhe acLual
commlsslon of Lhe crlme 8C1P of Lhem agreed and declded Lo
commlL lL, Lhen Lhe oLher wlll now be held a prlnclpal and noL
an accompllce because he has become a co-consplraLor.
C# @+#7,'8=' #6 5"' (&)*)+%, 8'1)=+ #6 5"' 0&)+()0%, N +#5 %+
%((#*0,)('>
! eople v. lbanez " PLLu: Lven lf Lhe acL of Lhe accused (holdlng
deceased's neck from behlnd) colnclded wlLh Lhe oLher
accused's acL of sLabblng, slmoltooeoosoess does noL lLself
demonsLraLe Lhe coocotteoce of wlll oot tbe oolty of octloo ooJ
potpose whlch are Lhe bases of Lhe responslblllLy of Lwo or
more lndlvlduals
! u.S. v. llores " Llmbo was employee of Lhe 8ureau of rlnLlng
and sLole bank cerLlflcaLes for caLLle reglsLraLlon and sold Lo co-
defendanL llores. llores used Lhese Lo sell horses, whlch Lhey
goL Lhrough LhefL. Llmbo had no parL nor knowledge nor share
ln Lhe sale of Lhe sLolen horses.
PLLu: Llmbo llable only for LhefL of bank cerLlflcaLes buL was
nelLher a prlnclpal nor an accompllce nor an accessory of Lhe
LhefL commlLLed by Lhe oLher defendanLs
1he accomp||ce |ntends by h|s acts, to comm|t or take part |n the
execut|on of the cr|me " Carlno v. eople
! lAC1S: AppellanL was Lhe close frlend of ur. Lava (Lhe accused ln
crlme of rebelllon). Lava has been helplng appellanL's famlly ln
Lerms of healLh servlces and ln reLurn when accused ur. Lava
asked for shelLer and food from appellanL, he provlded Lhe
same for Lava noL knowlng LhaL he was helplng a rebel". Lava
was parL of Lhe Puks and appellanL helped Lava open bank
accounLs and asslsLed Lhem wlLh money maLLers.
! PLLu: AppellanL was noL consldered an accompllce Lo rebelllon
because hls acLs of helplng dld noL fall under Lhe deflnlLlon of
rebelllon ln 8C nor does he fall under ArL 18's deflnlLlon of
accompllce because hls lnLenL Lo rebel agalnsL Lhe governmenL
was noL proven and hls asslsLance was noL efflcaclous enough Lo
make lnsurrecLlon or rebelllon successful.

8. Commun|ty of des|gn.
! eople v. Mallao " Accused faclllLaLed commlsslon of crlme by
provldlng hls house as Lhe venue of Lhe crlme. Lven Lhough he
had no dlrecL parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe crlme's execuLlon, he was
presenL LhroughouL lL, and he dld noL do anyLhlng Lo sLop Lhe
malefacLors nor help Lhe vlcLlm Lherefore he ls gullLy as
accompllce ln crlme of rape wlLh homlclde
:"' (#**4+)5- #6 8'1)=+ +''8 +#5 .' 5# (#**)5 5"' (&)*' %(54%,,-
(#**)55'8> J5 )1 1466)()'+5 )6 5"'&' 7%1 % (#**#+ 04&0#1' 5# (#**)5 %
0%&5)(4,%& (&)*' %+8 5"%5 5"' (&)*' %(54%,,- (#**)55'8 7%1 % +%54&%,
#& 0&#.%.,' (#+1'34'+('1 #6 5"' )+5'+8'8 (&)*'>
1. eople v. Largo " verzo caused Salazar and Largo Lo load a Llme
bomb ln a plane whlch kllled Lhe deceased and oLhers
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
PLLu: Salazar and Largo were accompllces ln Lhe crlme of verzo
who was Lhe prlnclpal
2. u.S. v. ue !esus " 1hree men enLered CseLe's house Lo abducL
hls daughLer buL lnsLead Lhey ended up kllllng CseLe. 1wo oLher
men were sLaLloned ouLslde by Lhe carrlage whlch broughL
Lhem Lhere Lo be lookouLs.
PLLu: 1he Lwo are accompllces because even lf Lhe homlclde
was noL parL of Lhe orlglnal plan, lL was a posslblllLy Lo carry ouL
Lhe abducLlon
!"'+ 5"' #7+'& #6 5"' =4+ @+'7 5"%5 )5 7#4,8 .' 41'8 5# @),, %
0%&5)(4,%& 0'&1#+; %+8 5"' 0&)+()0%, 41'8 )5 5# @),, %+#5"'& 0'&1#+; 5"'
#7+'& #6 5"' =4+ )1 +#5 %+ %((#*0,)(' %1 5# 5"' @),,)+= #6 5"' <)(5)*>
! eople v. ue la Cerna " Seraplo borrowed Lhe rlfle of Sulplclo ln
order Lo klll 8afael (as per Lhelr agreemenL) buL Lhen Seraplo
used lL Lo klll Caslano. 1here was no evldence LhaL Sullplclo was
aware LhaL Seraplo would do so
PLLu: Sulplclo acqulLLed for Lhe kllllng of Caslano

VII. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Cooperates |n the execut|on of the offense
! 1he accompllce cooperaLes wlLh Lhe prlnclpal by dlrecL
parLlclpaLlon 8u1 hls cooperaLlon ls only necessary and noL
lndlspensable.
! Powever lf Lhere ls consplracy: Lhe naLure of Lhe cooperaLlon
becomes lmmaLerlal.
KD%*0,'1 #6 (##0'&%5)#+ .- %((#*0,)('9
a. M- 0&'<)#41 %(51>
o Lendlng of a dagger or plsLol Lo murderer knowlng hls
crlmlnal purpose
o u.S. v. llores " harmaclsL (knowlng Lhe crlmlnal
purpose) furnlshes Lhe accused wlLh Lhe drug whlch he
used ln order Lo help hlm rape Lhe vlcLlm
b. M- 1)*4,5%+'#41 %(51>
o eople v. Lscarro " no prevlous agreemenL or
undersLandlng wlLh co-defendanL buL defendanL held
hand of vlcLlm and Lrled Lo Lake away hls revolver whlle
co-defendanL aLLacked vlcLlm
o eople v. CrlsosLomo " no consplracy among Lhe 6
persons - Lhree deLalned offended woman were
prlnclpals ln crlme of lllegal deLenLlon and Lhree oLhers
held vlcLlm's companlon Lo prevenL laLLer from helplng
vlcLlm were accompllces

A. 1he cooperat|on of an accomp||ce |s not due to a consp|racy.
eople v. lranclsco
! lAC1S: lranclsco (Lhen Mayor ln lsabela) was accompanled by
8erganlo, 8adua, uasalla, and 1agasa when he broughL Corpus
from Lhe munlclpal bulldlng Lo Lhe consLabulary and wanLed Lhe
Corporal Lo deLaln hlm Lhere. 8uL Corporal refused because Lhey
dldn'L have a deLenLlon cell and so Lhey broughL Corpus Lo
anoLher 8arrlo and Corpus dlsappeared and was noL seen
anymore.
! PLLu: Companlons of lranclsco were held as accompllces
because even lf Lhere was no consplracy, Lhey helped lranclsco
belng Corpus around ln a [eep. 1helr acLs consLlLuLe cooperaLlon
by slmulLaneous or prevlous acLs.

8. When the acts of the accused are not |nd|spensab|e |n the k||||ng,
they are mere|y accomp||ces.
! eople v. vlllegas " naLure of Lhe kllllng was an offshooL of a
sponLaneous Lurn of evenLs - noL a prevlously concelved
ambush as seen by Lhe use of sLones of Lhe accused. Peld as
accompllces because Lhey cooperaLed by slmulLaneous acLs
whlch were noL lndlspensable.
! eople v. 8esayaga " AcLs of blocklng Lhe people who Lrled Lo
help vlcLlm ls one of help and cooperaLlon Lo assallanLs buL noL
lndlspensable Lo sLabblng of vlcLlm. Peld as accompllce
! eople v. arcon " no consplracy buL one acLed as look-ouL or
guard ln crlme of robbery wlLh homlclde held as accompllce
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
C. 1he accomp||ce mere|y supp||es the pr|nc|pa| w|th mater|a| or mora|
a|d w|thout consp|racy w|th the |atter.
! eople v. 8allll " no proof appellanL consplred wlLh
malefacLors buL he wenL wlLh Lhem, knew of crlmlnal lnLenL,
and sLayed ouLslde of house whlle oLher robbed and kllled
vlcLlm. Peld: AppellanL ls an accompllce because he supplled
maLerlal and moral ald
! eople v. vlcenLe " lnfllcLlng sLab wounds Lo vlcLlm only afLer
vlcLlm fell on ground and only because he wanLed Lo show a
feellng of camaraderle wlLh oLher accused or a show-off" or an
expresslon of sympaLhy - gullLy only as accompllce because hls
acL was noL necessary and lndlspensable for Lhe crlmlnal assaulL

D. Wounds |nf||cted by an accomp||ce |n cr|mes aga|nst persons shou|d
not have caused the death of the v|ct|m. (Should noL be faLal)
! Accompllce should noL have lnfllcLed a morLal wound (or else
llable as prlnclpal)
! u.S. v. Zalsos " 8oLh were llable as co-prlnclpals because boLh
lnfllcLed a morLal wound on Lhe neck of Lhe vlcLlm even lf 8
orlglnaLed Lhe lnLenLlon Lo assaulL deceased and Z [usL asslsLed
acLlon of lnlLlaLor of Lhe crlme
B#,,#7)+= (%1'1 N #5"'& %((41'8 7'&' "',8 %1 %((#*0,)('1 #+,- N
7#4+8 )+6,)(5'8 .- 5"'* 7'&' +#5 5"' (%41' #6 8'%5"9
! eople v. Azcona " wounds lnfllcLed dld noL maLerlally
conLrlbuLe Lo deaLh of deceased
! eople v. 1amayo " wound lnfllcLed noL of a characLer LhaL
would resulL Lo deaLh of deceased
! eople v. CorLes " accused armed wlLh clubs sLruck vlcLlm, AS
he fell by faLal blow made by prlnclpal, and he dld noL cause
serlous ln[urles on deceased
! eople v. AnLonlo " sLonlng vlcLlm already morLally wounded
by oLher accused

L. In these cases, the fo||ow|ng ru|es are |nd|cated:
1. Cne who had Lhe orlglnal crlmlnal deslgn ls Lhe person who
commlLLed resulLlng crlme.
2. 1he accompllce, afLer concurrlng ln crlmlnal purpose of
prlnclpal, cooperaLes by prevlous or slmulLaneous acLs.
lf by slmulLaneous acL - accompllce acLs wblle crlme ls belng
commlLLed by prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon or lmmeJlotely
tbeteoftet (ex. rlnclpal already aLLacked Lhe vlcLlm)
3. Accompllce ln crlmes agalnsL persons does noL lnfllcL Lhe more
or mosL serlous wounds.
! Lxample: C sLabbed 8 flrsL, and as 8 was ln dylng condlLlon, A
gave a flsL blow on 8's face - A ls an accompllce
! 8eason: When A gave a flsL blow afLer C gave a morLal wound, lL
shows LhaL A concurred ln Lhe crlmlnal purpose of C.

I. 8e|ng present and g|v|ng mora| support when a cr|me |s be|ng
comm|tted w||| make a person respons|b|e on|y as accomp||ce |n the
cr|me comm|tted.
! lf knowledge of crlmlnal purpose of prlnclpal ls absenL = glvlng
ald or encouragemenL elLher morally or maLerlally ln
commlsslon of crlme or mere presence aL scene of crlme "
does noL make one an accompllce (eople v. 1ollng)
! eople v. ublna " ublna consplred wlLh flve persons Lo klll
Carag because he losL ln an elecLlon Lo hlm and he was also
lnsulLed by Carag. 1he flve persons broughL 3 oLhers where
Carag was kllled buL Lhey dld noL parLlclpaLe ln Lhe acL of kllllng
lLself.
PLLu: 1he 3 oLhers' presence and company was noL
lndlspensable and essenLlal Lo Lhe perpeLraLlon of Lhe murder
buL Lhey were presenL and Lhey gave moral supporL =
accompllces.
:"' *#&%, %)8 *%- .' 5"&#4=" %8<)('; '+(#4&%='*'+5; #& %=&''*'+5>
! MaLerlal ald: exLernal acLs
! Moral ald: Lhrough advlce, encouragemenL, or agreemenL
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! 8uL Lhe advlce, encouragemenL, or agreemenL should noL be Lhe
deLermlnlng cause of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme by Lhe
prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon or else Lhe one who gave lL
would be a prlnclpal by lnducemenL,

VIII. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: ke|at|on between the acts
:"'&' *415 .' % &',%5)#+ .'57''+ 5"' (&)*)+%, %(5 #6 5"' 0&)+()0%, %+8
5"' %(5 #6 5"' #+' ("%&='8 %1 %((#*0,)('>
! noL enough LhaL a person enLerLalns an ldenLlcal crlmlnal deslgn
as LhaL of Lhe prlnclpal - Lhere musL be a relaLlon beLween Lhe
crlmlnal acL of prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon and of person
charged as accompllce.
! eople v. ue la Cruz " 8eyes aLLacked and passed hls hand over
hls glrlfrlend's body and Lhelr famllles declded LhaL Lhe faLher of
8eyes would punlsh hlm. 8roLher of Lhe glrl planned Lo avenge
Lhe honor of hls slsLer armed hlmself wlLh a plsLol. When he was
abouL Lo aLLack 8eyes, 8eyes was sLabbed by hls slsLer and dled.
8roLher was accused as accompllce.
PLLu: no llablllLy by reason of parLlclpaLlon lf Lhere ls no
relaLlon beLween crlmlnal acL of prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon
(glrl) and of Lhe person charged as accompllce (broLher).

An accomp||ce may be ||ab|e for a cr|me d|fferent from that wh|ch the
pr|nc|pa| comm|tted.
1. eople v. 8ablera " lL was noL shown LhaL C and u knew of Lhe
manner A aLLacked 8 buL Lhey knew LhaL A had unlawfully
aLLacked 8.
PLLu: C and u were gullLy as accompllces ln crlme of homlclde
(A was gullLy of murder quallfled by Lreachery)
2. CLher cases:
! eople v. valdellon " nA8lC guard A asked C Lo help hlm (A)
geL some sacks of rlce from Lhe nA8lC warehouse Lhen A sold
Lhem Lo u
PLLu: C ls only gullLy as accompllce ln commlsslon of slmple
LhefL. A gullLy of quallfled LhefL because of Lhe quallfylng
clrcumsLance of grave abuse of confldence (Lhls dld noL apply Lo
C because he wasn'L afflllaLed wlLh nA8lC)
! eople v. uoble " AppellanLs [olned ln plan Lo rob by provldlng
banca for Lhe robbery buL Lhere was kllllng commlLLed ln Lhe
course of Lhe robbery by Lhe prlnclpals (oLhers)
PLLu: AppellanLs only accompllces because Lhey couldn'L have
prevenLed Lhe kllllng because Lhey were lefL aL Lhe banca

Ik. Accomp||ce v. r|nc|pa|
S)15)+=4)1" %((#*0,)(' 6&#* 0&)+()0%, )+ ='+'&%,: Accomp||ce.
! uoes noL Lake dlrecL parL ln commlsslon of acL.
! uoes noL force nor lnduce oLhers Lo commlL lL.
! uoes noL cooperaLe ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme by anoLher
acL wlLhouL whlch lL would noL have been accompllshed.
! CooperaLes ln Lhe execuLlon of Lhe acL by prevlous or
slmulLaneous acLlons.
S)15)+=4)1" %+ %((#*0,)(' 6&#* % 0&)+()0%, .- (##0'&%5)#+.
Accompllce rlnclpal by CooperaLlon
arLlclpaLlon of offender ln a case
of compllclLy (accompllce) -
necessary only.
Case of a co-prlnclpal by
cooperaLlon - lndlspenslble.

! Lx. Cne lends dagger or plsLol knowlng borrower ls golng Lo
commlL murder - cooperaLlon wlLh a prevlous acL buL noL
lndlspensable cause offender could have borrowed or goLLen
weapon from someone/somewhere else
! eople v. 1emplonuevo " Accused (wlLh knowledge of
lnLenLlon of oLher accused Lo klll Lhe deceased) sLruck deceased
on forehead wlLh plece of wood faclllLaLlng subsequenL slaylng
of deceased because lL made hlm unconsclous
PLLu: Accused ls gullLy as accompllce
! eople v. Ceronlmo " 8omeo held Lhe vlcLlm whlle Lhe oLhers
boloed hlm (wlLhouL consplracy among Lhem)
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
PLLu: 8omeo ls only an accompllce because oLhers could have
hacked deceased even wlLhouL hlm holdlng
S)15)+=4)1" %((#*0,)(' 6&#* % 0&)+()0%, .- 8)&'(5 0%&5)()0%5)#+>
1. u.S. v. ulrls " erson enLerLalned owner of a house (some
dlsLance away from Lhe sald place) whlle robbers were
assaulLlng lL - so LhaL owner wlll noL reLurn unLll afLer robbery
has been consummaLed - an Accompllce ln Lhe crlme because
he cooperaLed by a slmulLaneous acL buL noL lndlspensable.
! 8uL lf Lhe person was ln Lhe same place Lalklng Lo Lhe owner of
Lhe house (dlsLracLlng hlm and servlng as guard Lo warn
companlons robblng Lhe place) - he ls a prlnclpal by dlrecL
parLlclpaLlon
2. no clear-cuL dlsLlncLlon beLween acLs of accompllce and acLs of
prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon - ln case of doubL: resolve ln
favor of less responslblllLy or as mere accompllce
3. 8eLween or among prlnclpals llable for Lhe same offense: Lhere
musL be consplracy
8eLween prlnclpals and accompllces: Lhere ls nC consplracy

Art|c|e 19. Accessor|es. Accessor|es are those who, hav|ng
know|edge of the comm|ss|on of the cr|me, and w|thout hav|ng
part|c|pated there|n, e|ther as pr|nc|pa|s or accomp||ces, take part
subsequent to |ts comm|ss|on |n any of the fo||ow|ng manners:
1. 8y prof|t|ng themse|ves or ass|st|ng the offender to prof|t by
the effects of the cr|me.
2. 8y concea||ng or destroy|ng the body of the cr|me, or the
effects or |nstruments thereof, |n order to prevent |ts
d|scovery.
3. 8y harbor|ng, concea||ng, or ass|st|ng |n the escape of the
pr|nc|pa|s of the cr|me, prov|ded the accessory acts w|th abuse
of h|s pub||c funct|ons or whenever the author of the cr|me |s
gu||ty of treason, parr|c|de, murder, or an attempt to take the
||fe of the Ch|ef Lxecut|ve, or |s known to be hab|tua||y gu||ty
of some other cr|me.

CIN1S
I. Def|n|t|on
! An accessory does noL parLlclpaLe ln Lhe crlmlnal deslgn, nor
cooperaLe ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe felony, buL wlLh knowledge
of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme he subsequenLly Lakes parL ln
Lhree ways menLloned ln Lhe arLlcle.

II. Important words and phrases |n Art|c|e 19
QT%<)+= @+#7,'8='R
! An accessory musL have knowledge of Lhe crlme, and wlLh LhaL
knowledge Look parL ln subsequenL Lo lLs commlsslon.
o ln Lhe absence of Lhe purchaser's knowledge aL Lhe Llme
of LransacLlon LhaL such goods were of lllegal orlgln, Lhe
cusLomer who purchases such goods cannoL be held
crlmlnally responslble as accessory (eople v. Labrador).
! Mere possesslon of sLolen properLy does noL make Lhe accused
an accessory where Lhe Lhlef was already convlcLed.
o 8aLlonal: lL ls wlLhln Lhe real of posslblllLles LhaL Lhe
lndlvldual recelved Lhe sLolen properLy honesLly, ln Lhe
legal course of LransacLlon wlLhouL knowlng LhaL lL was
sLolen (eople v. 8aclmo).
! LnLerLalnlng susplclon LhaL a crlme has been commlLLed ls noL
enough.
o knowledge and susplclon are noL synonymous Lerms:
! Susplclon " belng Lhe lmaglnaLlon of Lhe
exlsLence of someLhlng wlLhouL proof, or upon
very sllghL evldence or upon no evldence aL all.
! knowledge " known acLual facLs.
! knowledge of Lhe commlsslon of a crlme may be acqulred
subsequence Lo Lhe acqulslLlon of sLolen properLy.
o uS v. MonLano
! lacLs: 8obbers Look and carrled away a carabao.
1hese were found ln Lhe possesslon of A who
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
acqulred Lhem wlLhouL knowlng Lhey had been
lllegally Laken. Cwners lnformed A LhaL Lhey
were sLolen and agreed Lo pay half of whaL A
had pald for Lhem. When Lhe owners reLurned
wlLh Lhe paymenL, A sald Lhe carabaos were
reLurned Lo Lhe seller.
! lssue: ls A llable as an accessory?
! Peld: ?es. 1o declare Lhe accused gullLy as
accessory, lL ls noL necessary LhaL he should
have acqulred Lhe properLy knowlng aL LhaL
Llme LhaL lL had been sLolen. lL ls sufflclenL LhaL
afLer acqulrlng LhaL knowledge, he concealed or
8)10#1'8 of Lhe properLy, 5"'&'.- 8'0&)<)+= 5"'
#7+'& 5"'&'#6>
! knowledge of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme may be esLabllshed
by clrcumsLanLlal evldence.
o eople v. ualena " When a person knew hls co-accused
had no leglLlmaLe buslness and Lhere was no raLlonal
reason for Lhe accused Lo belleve LhaL hls co-accused's
possesslon of sald goods were leglLlmaLe, Lhe
concluslon ls LhaL he had knowledge of Lhelr lllegal
source.
QA#**)11)#+ #6 5"' (&)*'R
! 1he crlme commlLLed by Lhe prlnclpal musL be proved beyond
reasonable doubL.
! eople v. ardlLo " where Lhere ls doubL as Lo wheLher Lhe
woman commlLLed Lhe crlme of parrlclde or noL (l.e. noL
concluslvely proven), Lhe facL LhaL Lhe servanL helped bury Lhe
body does noL make hlm an accessory ln parrlclde.
Q!)5"#45 "%<)+= 0%&5)()0%5'8 5"'&')+ ')5"'& %1 0&)+()0%,1 #&
%((#*0,)('1R
! lacLs: A aLLacked 8, and 8 fell. C and u Lhen each hlL 8 wlLh a
plece of wood. 8 dled and was burled by all Lhree.
! lssue: Can anyone be held as an accessory?
! Peld: no. A ls prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon. C and u are
accompllces.
Q:%@' 0%&5 14.1'34'+5 5# )51 (#**)11)#+R
! 1he accessory Lakes parL afLer Lhe crlme has been commlLLed.
____________________
Ak 1: 8 kCII1ING 1nLMSLLVLS Ck ASSIS1ING 1nL CIILNDLk 1C
kCII1 8 1nL LIILC1S CI 1nL CkIML.

I. Note:
! 1he crlme commlLLed by Lhe prlnclpal ln Lhls paragraph may be
any crlme.
! lL musL noL be a llghL felony.

II. "8y prof|t|ng themse|ves by the effects of the cr|me"
! Lxamples:
o Cne who recelved a properLy knowlng lL was sLolen, and
used lL (eople v. 1anchoco).
o Cne who shared Lhe reward for Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme proflLed Lhrough lL (uS v. Lmpalnado).
! 1he accessory should noL Lake Lhe properLy wlLhouL Lhe consenL
of Lhe prlnclpal oLherwlse lL would be LhefL
! When ls proflLlng by Lhe effecLs of Lhe crlme punlshed as Lhe acL
of prlnclpal and noL Lhe acL of accessory?
o When a person knowlngly acqulred or recelved properLy
Laken by Lhe brlgands (Art|c|e 307).

III. "Ass|st|ng the offender to prof|t by the effects of the cr|me"
! Lxamples:
o A person knowlng Lhe lLem was sLolen, sells lL for Lhe
Lhlef (uS v. Calanco).
o 1hose who acLed as runner or courlers ln kldnapplng for
ransom (eople v. Magslno).
! An accessory should noL be ln consplracy wlLh Lhe prlnclpal
(oLherwlse he would also be punlshed as prlnclpal).
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o uS v. 1an 1lap Co
o lacLs: A consplred wlLh oLhers Lo sLeal goods, and
agreed Lo pay upon dellvery of goods.
o Peld: A ls gullLy of Lhe crlme of LhefL as prlnclpal, noL
[usL accessory.
____________________
Ak. 2: 8 CCNCLALING Ck DLS1kCING 1nL 8CD CI 1nL CkIML 1C
kLVLN1 I1S DISCCVLk.

I. Note:
! 1he crlme commlLLed by Lhe prlnclpal ln Lhls paragraph may be
any crlme.
! lL musL noL be a llghL felony.

II. "8ody of the cr|me"
! cotpos uellctl " Lhe body of Lhe offense.
! A speclflc offense was ln facL commlLLed by someone.
! Lxamples:
o AsslsLlng ln Lhe burlal of Lhe vlcLlm (uS v. Leal).
o Maklng lL appear LhaL Lhe vlcLlm had Lo be kllled
because he reslsLed by placlng a gun ln hls hand when
already dead (uS v. Culson)
o 1he mere acL of carrylng Lhe cadaver of one unlawfully
kllled when lL was burled Lo prevenL Lhe dlscovery of Lhe
crlme, ls sufflclenL Lo make hlm responslble as an
accessory (eople v. CalleLo)
! 1here musL be an aLLempL Lo hlde Lhe body of Lhe crlme.
o eople v. ue la Cruz
o lacLs: Accused was ordered Lo board Lhe [eep noL
knowlng or even suspecLlng Lhe reason for lL. Pe dld noL
Lake parL ln Lhe kllllng, nor proflL, nor Lry Lo help conceal
lL as Lhe bodles were merely Lhrown ln Lhe dlLch.
o Peld: Accused musL be acqulLLed.
! Conceallng or desLroylng Lhe effecLs or lnsLrumenLs of Lhe crlme
Lo prevenL lLs dlscovery.
o Accused ls an accessory has he helped hlde Lhe weapon
used Lo klll. 1he plsLol or knlfe ls Lhe lnsLrumenL of Lhe
crlme.

III. "1o prevent |ts d|scovery"
! lLs" refers Lo Lhe crlme.
! WhaL ls belng concealed ls Lhe body of Lhe crlme, Lhe effecLs or
lnsLrumenLs nC1 Lhe prlnclpal who commlLLed Lhe crlme. 1here
musL be an efforL Lo prevenL Lhe dlscovery of Lhe crlme.
____________________
Ak. 3: 8 nAk8CkING, CCNCLALING Ck ASSIS1ING IN 1nL LSCAL CI
1nL kINCIAL CI 1nL CkIML.

I. 1wo c|asses of accessor|es contemp|ated |n ar. 3
! ubllc Cfflcers
o 8equlslLes:
! 1he accessory ls a publlc offlcer.
! Pe harbors, conceals or asslsLs ln Lhe escape of
Lhe prlnclpal.
! 1he publlc offlcer acLs wlLh abuse of hls publlc
funcLlons.
! 1he crlme commlLLed by Lhe prlnclpal ls any
crlme, provlded lL ls noL a llghL felony.
! rlvaLe ersons
o 8equlslLes:
! 1haL Lhe accessory ls a prlvaLe person
! 1haL he harbors, conceals or asslsLs ln Lhe
escape of Lhe auLhor of Lhe crlme.
! 1haL Lhe crlme commlLLed by Lhe prlnclpal ls
elLher:
1reason
arrlclde
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
Murder
ALLempL on Lhe llfe of Lhe resldenL
1haL Lhe prlnclpal ls known Lo be
hablLually gullLy of some oLher crlme.

II. "nab|tua||y gu||ty of some other cr|me"
! Lxample: A person who prevlously punlshed for less physlcal
ln[urles Lhree Llmes, and Lhen commlLs esLafa ls a hablLually
gullLy", and whoever helps ln hls escape becomes an accessory.
o 8LCulSl1L: 1he accessory musL have knowledge of Lhe
prlnclpal belng hablLually gullLy of some oLher crlme.
! A mayor who refused Lo prosecuLe Lhe offender ls an accessory.
o uS v. ?acaL " Mayor of Lhe Lwon of Cablao refused Lo
prosecuLe Lhe crlme of homlclde Lhus maklng lL posslble
for Lhe offender Lo escape.
! Cne who kepL sllenL wlLh regard Lo Lhe crlme he wlLnessed ls
noL an accessory.
o uS v. Caballeros " erson who saw Lhe commlsslon of
murder and kepL sllenL and does noL reporL Lo
auLhorlLles, ls noL llable for anyLhlng.
o uS v. 8omulo " erson who volunLeers false
lnformaLlon Lended Lo decelve Lhe prosecuLlon and
asslsL ln conceallng Lhe gullLy parLy ls llable.

III. Accessor|es ||ab|||ty |s subord|nate and subsequent
! 8eason: 1he accessory's parLlclpaLlon Lhereln ls subsequenL Lo
Lhe crlme's commlsslon, and hls gullL ls dlrecLly relaLed Lo LhaL
of Lhe prlnclpal.
o lf Lhe facLs alleged are noL proven ln Lhe prosecuLlon
lnsLlLuLed or do noL consLlLuLe a crlme, no legal grounds
exlsL for convlcLlng a defendanL as an accessory slnce no
crlme has been perpeLraLed (uS v. Mendoza).
! ls convlcLlon of accessory posslble even lf prlnclpal ls acqulLLed?
o ?LS, lf Lhe crlme was ln facL commlLLed, buL Lhe
prlnclpal was acqulLLed because of Art|c|e 12.
o See p. 390 - 391 for examples.
! Apprehenslon and convlcLlon of Lhe prlnclpal ls noL necessary
for Lhe accessory Lo be held crlmlnally llable.
o So long as Lhe requlslLes for Lhe exlsLence of Lhe crlme
are presenL and LhaL someone commlLLed Lhem, Lhe
accessory may be held crlmlnally llable.
o ln Lhe same way, Lhe Lrlal of Lhe accessory may be
resolved prlor Lo LhaL of Lhe prlnclpal so long as Lhe
above ls saLlsfled.
o 1he accessory may be prosecuLed and convlcLed even lf
Lhe prlnclpal ls noL yeL apprehended, so long as Lhe
crlme has been proved Lo exlsL.
! 1he accused cannoL be held llable as accessory lf Lhe prlnclpal
charged wlLh murder dled before Lrlal because had he been
allve, he mlghL have been found gullLy of only homlclde.

IV. Accessory d|st|ngu|shed from pr|nc|pa| and from accomp||ce.
rlnclpal Accompllce Accessory
1akes dlrecL parL or cooperaLe or
lnduce ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme
uoes noL Lake dlrecL parL or
cooperaLe ln or lnduce Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme
CooperaLes ln Lhe commlsslon of
Lhe offense prlor, durlng or afLer.
uoes noL cooperaLe ln Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe offense by acLs
elLher prlor LhereLo or
slmulLaneous LherewlLh.
arLlclpaLlon Lakes place prlor,
durlng and afLer
arLlclpaLlon always Lakes place
Al1L8 Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme.




!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
Art|c|e 20. Accessor|es who are exempt from cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty. 1he
pena|t|es prescr|bed for accessor|es sha|| not be |mposed upon those
who are such w|th respect to the|r spouses, ascendants, descendants,
|eg|t|mate, natura|, and adopted brothers and s|sters, or re|at|ves by
aff|n|ty w|th|n the same degrees, w|th the s|ng|e except|on of
accessor|es fa|||ng w|th|n the prov|s|ons of paragraph 1 of the next
preced|ng art|c|e.

CIN1S
I. 8as|s for exempt|on
! 8ased on Lles of blood, and preservaLlon of Lhe cleanllness of
one's name, whlch compels one Lo conceal crlmes commlLLed
by relaLlves so near as Lhose menLloned ln Lhls arLlcle.

II. r|nc|pa|s re|ated to accessor|es exempt from cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty
! When prlnclpal ls hls:
o Spouse
o uescendanL
o AscendanL
o LeglLlmaLe, naLural or adopLed broLher, slsLer or relaLlve
by afflnlLy wlLhln Lhe same degree.

III. Lxtent of coverage
! LxempLlon applles even lf Lhe accessory ls relaLed Lo only Lwo of
found prlnclpals gullLy of murder (uS v. Abanzado).
! 8elaLlonshlp by afflnlLy beLween survlvlng spouse and blood
relaLlves of Lhe deceased spouse survlves even afLer Lhe deaLh
of Lhe deceased spouse.
! nephew or nlece ls noL lncluded among such relaLlves.

IV. Accessory |s not exempt from cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty even |f the pr|nc|pa|
|s re|ated to h|m |f such accessory (1) prof|ted by the effects of the
cr|me, or (2) ass|sted the offender to prof|t by the effects of the cr|me
! lf Lhe accessory performs Lhe Lwo acLs menLloned, he ls llable
even lf Lhe prlnclpal falls wlLhln Lhe llsLed relaLlves because such
acLs are prompLed noL by affecLlon buL be deLesLable greed.
! Cnly accessorles under paragraphs 2 and 3 of Art|c|e 19 are
exempL from crlmlnal llablllLy lf Lhey are relaLed Lo Lhe
prlnclpals.
o Lxamples of exempLlons:
! A son who helps hls faLher bury Lhe body of Lhe
murdered vlcLlm.
! Crandson who havlng knowledge of Lhe robbery
by hls grandfaLher desLroys Lhe body of Lhe
crlme.
! erson who helps hls broLher escape afLer Lhe
laLLer commlLLed Lreason.
! uoes conceallng of Lhe effecLs of Lhe crlme, noL Lo prevenL lLs
dlscovery, buL Lo obLaln galn, fall under Art|c|e 19(2)?
o lacLs: Pusband conceals Lhe properLy sLolen by hls wlfe
Lo proflL from lL laLer.
o Peld: Pusband ls llable as an accessory slnce he ls drlven
noL by affecLlon for hls wlfe, buL proflL.
! LlablllLy of a publlc offlcer when relaLed Lo Lhe prlnclpal
o lacLs: ubllc offlcer abused hls offlce ln order Lo asslsL
Lhe escape of hls broLher who had commlLLed murder.
o lssue: ls he llable as an accessory?
o Peld: Pe ls an accessory 8u1 does noL have crlmlnal
llablllLy. 1les of blood or relaLlonshlp consLlLuLes a more
powerful lncenLlve Lhan Lhe call of duLy.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
1I1LL 1nkLL - LNAL1ILS
CnA1Lk 1: LNAL1ILS IN GLNLkAL

LNAL1ILS IN GLNLkAL

CIN1S
I. Def|n|t|ons
! enalLy ls Lhe sufferlng LhaL ls lnfllcLed by Lhe SLaLe for Lhe
Lransgresslon of a law.
o Slgnlfles paln l.e. sufferlng undergone because of Lhe
acLlon of human socleLy, by one who commlLs a crlme.

II. D|fferent [ur|d|ca| cond|t|ons of pena|ty (acc. Lo Lhe classlcal school)
1. MusL be !"#$%&'()* ,%--*"(./ - wlLhouL affecLlng Lhe lnLegrlLy of
Lhe human personallLy.
2. MusL be &#00*.,%"1'* 2('3 '3* #--*.,* - dlfferenL crlmes
musL be punlshed wlLh dlfferenL penalLles.
3. MusL be !*",#.14 - no one should be punlshed for Lhe crlme of
anoLher.
4. MusL be 4*/14 - lL ls Lhe consequence of a [udgmenL accordlng
Lo law.
3. MusL be &*"'1(.5
6. MusL be *6%14 -#" 1445
7. MusL be &#""*&'(#.14.

III. State's purpose for pun|sh|ng cr|me
! 1o secure [usLlce ! 1he sLaLe has.
o An exlsLence of lLs own Lo malnLaln.
o A consclence of lLs own Lo asserL.
o Moral prlnclples Lo be vlndlcaLed.

IV. 1heor|es [ust|fy|ng pena|ty
1. revenLlon ! and suppress Lhe danger Lo Lhe SLaLe arlslng from
Lhe crlmlnal acLs of Lhe offender.
2. Self-defense ! measure of such Lo proLecL socleLy from Lhe
LhreaL and wrong lnfllcLed by Lhe crlmlnal.
3. 8eformaLlon ! ob[ecL of punlshmenL ls Lo correcL offender.
4. LxemplarlLy ! Lo deLer oLhers from commlLLlng crlmes.
3. !usLlce ! reLrlbuLlve [usLlce, a vlndlcaLlon of absoluLe rlghL and
moral law vlolaLed by Lhe crlmlnal.
7#&(14 $*-*.,* 1.$ *8*0!41"('9 :%,'(-9 '3* !*.14'9 #- $*1'3
! When a person has proved Lo be a dangerous enemy of socleLy,
lL musL proLecL lLself by Laklng Lhe llfe ln reLrlbuLlon for Lhe
offense, and Lo serve as an example and warnlng Lo oLhers.

V. 1hree-fo|d purpose of pena|t|es under kC
1. 8eLrlbuLlon or explaLlon ! commensuraLe wlLh Lhe gravlLy of
Lhe offense.
2. CorrecLlon or reformaLlon ! shown by Lhe rules LhaL regulaLe
Lhe execuLlon of penalLles conslsLlng ln deprlvaLlon of llberLy.
3. Soclal defense ! shown by lnflexlble severlLy Lo recldlvlsLs and
hablLual dellnquenLs.

VI. Const|tut|ona| restr|ct|on on pena|t|es
! Lxcesslve flnes shall noL be lmposed, nor cruel punlshmenL
lnfllcLed"
o Cruel and unusual ! punlshmenL LhaL ls so
dlsproporLlonaLe Lo Lhe offense so as Lo shock Lhe moral
sense of all reasonable men.
o ConsLlLuLlonal sLrlcLure refers Lo penalLles whlch are
lnhuman and barbarous, or shocklng Lo Lhe consclence
(Weems v. uS), and flnes and lmprlsonmenL are noL ln
Lhls caLegory (eople v. ulonlslo).




!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
Art|c|e 21. ;*.14'(*, '31' 019 <* (0!#,*$5 = No fe|ony sha|| be
pun|shab|e by any pena|ty not prescr|bed by |aw pr|or to |ts
comm|ss|on.

CIN1S
I. State po||cy about pun|sh|ng cr|mes
! 1hls arLlcle prohlblLs Lhe governmenL from punlshlng any person
for any felony wlLh any penalLy, whlch has noL been prescrlbed
by Lhe law.
o Pas no appllcaLlon Lo Lhe 8C, because all felonles
deflned ln Lhe 8C has a prescrlbed penalLy.
o May only be lnvoked when a person ls belng Lrled for an
acL or omlsslon for whlch no penalLy has been
prescrlbed by law.
! 1hls ls a guaranLee Lo Lhe clLlzen of Lhls counLry LhaL no acL of
hls wlll be consldered crlmlnal unLll Lhe governmenL has made lL
so by law and has provlded a penalLy.

II. keason for the prov|s|on
! A law cannoL be raLlonally obeyed unless lL ls flrsL shown.
! Man cannoL be expecLed Lo obey an order LhaL has noL been
glven.

III. Lxamp|es
># !*.14'9 !"*,&"(<*$ <9 412 !"(#" '# (', &#00(,,(#.
! uS v. ?am 1ung Way
! lacLs: A allegedly reproduced and sold fraudulenL coples of
anoLher's llLerary work. no copyrlghL law.
! Peld: A cannoL be punlshed because aL LhaL Llme no law deflned
and penallzed such acL.
7%<,($(1"9 !*.14'9 -#" 1 &"(0* &1.?' <* (0!#,*$ (- @.#' !"*,&"(<*$ <9
412 !"(#" '# (', &#00(,,(#.A
! uS v. MacasaeL
! lacLs: MacasaeL was charLed and convlcLed for vlolaLlng Act No.
1189 punlshable by a flne. AL LhaL Llme, no law provlded for
lmprlsonmenL for fallure Lo pay flne by reason of lnsolvency. Act
No. 1732 whlch provldes such penalLy, and Look effecL durlng
Lrlal. 1he courL lmposed subsldlary lmprlsonmenL.
! Peld: Subsldlary lmprlsonmenL cannoL be lmposed because lL
Look effecL Al1L8 Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.

Art|c|e 22. B*'"#1&'()* *--*&' #- !*.14 412, - ena| |aws sha|| have a
retroact|ve effect |n so far as they favor the person gu||ty of a fe|ony,
who |s not a hab|tua| cr|m|na|, as th|s term |s def|ned |n ku|e S of
Art|c|e 62 of th|s Code, a|though at the t|me of the pub||cat|on of such
|aws a f|na| sentence has been pronounced and the conv|ct |s serv|ng
the same.

CIN1S
I. Art|c|e 22 not app||cab|e to prov|s|ons of kev|sed ena| Code
! AppllcaLlon Lo 8C may only be lnvoked where some former or
subsequenL law ls under conslderaLlon.
! Art|c|e 10 doesn'L bar appllcaLlon of Art|c|e 22 Lo speclal laws.
o lf by amendmenL Lo Lhe 8C or speclal law, Lhe
punlshmenL ls made less severe Lhan provlded for ln Lhls
Code, Lhe accused may lnvoke Art|c|e 22.
MusL .*&*,,1"(49 "*41'*:
1. 1o penal laws exlsLlng prlor Lo Lhe 8C, ln whlch Lhe penalLy was
less severe Lhan Lhose of Lhe code Ck
2. 1o laws enacLed subsequenL Lo Lhe 8C, ln whlch Lhe penalLy ls
more favorable Lo Lhe accused.

II. GLNLkAL kULL: G|ve cr|m|na| |aws prospect|ve effect
! eople v. Changco
! lacLs: 8efore Art|c|e 36S (kC) was amended, sllghL physlcal
ln[urles Lhrough reckless lmprudence was noL punlshable. Cn
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
SepLember 21, 1934, accused commlLLed such acL. Cn !une 21,
1937, kA 1790 was approved Lhus maklng Lhe amendmenLs.
! lssue: Can accused be punlshed?
! Peld: 1he amended Art|c|e 36S punlshlng Lhe acL cannoL be
glven reLroacLlve effecL such as Lo punlsh Lhe accused.
C()(./ 1 412 "*'"#1&'()* *--*&'D (. %.-1)#"1<4* '# '3* 1&&%,*$ 2(44
)(#41'* '3* &#.,'('%'(#.14 (.3(<('(#. 1, '# *8 !#,' -1&'# 4125
! See Crlmlnal Law ln Ceneral" or p.608

III. LkCL1ICN: to g|ve cr|m|na| |aws retroact|ve effect when favorab|e
to the accused.
! Lapuz v. CourL of Appeals
! lacLs: 8us drlver convlcLed separaLely of (1) homlclde wlLh
serlous physlcal ln[urles Lhrough reckless lmprudence and (2)
damage Lo properLy Lhrough reckless lmprudence for Lhe
desLrucLlon caused Lo Lhe oLher bus. kA S87 amendlng Lhe
MoLor vehlcle law Look effecL afLer Lhe lncldenL, whlch made
Lhe drlver llable for only one complex crlme under Lhe 8C
lnsLead of Lwo separaLe crlmes.
! lssue: Can kA S87 be used?
! Peld: Lven Lhough kA S87 Look effecL afLer Lhe lncldenL, lL can
be glven reLroacLlve effecL.
E8&*!'(#. 1!!4(*, '# 1 412 $*14(./ 2('3 !"*,&"(!'(#. #- &"(0*5

IV. keason for the except|on
! 1he soverelgn ln enacLlng a subsequenL penal law more
favorable Lo Lhe accused has recognlzed LhaL Lhe greaLer
severlLy of Lhe former law ls un[usL.
! Powever, the new |aw may prov|de otherw|se
o kA 4661 decreaslng Lhe prescrlpLlon of llbel from 2
years Lo 1 year provldes LhaL lL shall noL apply Lo cases
of llbel already flled ln courL aL Lhe Llme of lLs approval.


V. kev|sed ena| Code was not g|ven retroact|ve effect
! 1hus, acLs commlLLed ln vlolaLlon of a condlLlonal pardon (a
vlolaLlon of 8C) prlor Lo Lhe effecLlvlLy of Lhe 8C cannoL be
punlshed (eope v. Carballo).

VI. "A|though at the t|me of the pub||cat|on of such |aws a f|na|
sentence has been pronounced and the conv|ct |s serv|ng the same"
! rovlslon of Art|c|e 22 LhaL penal laws shall have reLroacLlve
effecL lnsofar as Lhey favor Lhe person gullLy of a felony ls
appllcable even lf Lhe accused has already sLarLed or ls servlng
hls senLence.
! 1he favorable reLroacLlve effecL of a new law may flnd Lhe
defendanL ln one of Lhese Lhree slLuaLlons:
o 1he crlme has been commlLLed and prosecuLlon beglns.
o SenLence has been passed buL servlce has noL begun.
o 1he senLence ls belng carrled ouL.
! ln any case, Lhe favorable new sLaLuLe beneflLs hlm and should
apply Lo hlm.
! Lxample: case of 8obln adllla where hls senLence was
shorLened afLer Lhe passlng of a new law LhaL decreased Lhe
penalLy of lllegal possesslon of flrearms.

VII. "Who |s not a hab|tua| cr|m|na|?"
! PablLual crlmlnals are noL enLlLled Lo beneflL of Lhe provlslons of
Lhe new favorable sLaLuLe.
! A person shall be deemed Lo be a hablLual dellnquenL lf wlLhln a
perlod of Len years from Lhe daLe of hls release or lasL
convlcLlon of Lhe crlmes of serlous or less serlous physlcal
ln[urles, robbery, LhefL, esLafa, or falslflcaLlon, he ls found gullLy
of any sald crlmes a Lhlrd Llme or ofLener (ku|e S, Art|c|e 62)




!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
VIII. In connect|on to c|v|| ||ab|||ty
B*'"#1&'()* *--*&' .#' 1!!4(&1<4* '# &()(4 4(1<(4('9
! 1he prlnclple LhaL crlmlnal sLaLuLes are reLroacLlve so far as Lhey
favor Lhe culprlL does noL apply Lo Lhe laLLer's clvll llablllLy
because Lhe rlghLs of Lhe offended parLy or lnnocenL Lhlrd
parLles are noL wlLhln Lhe glfL of arblLrary dlsposal of Lhe SLaLe.
FGH 1 .*2 412 I>JBEK7I>C &()(4 4(1<(4('9 JK>H <* "*'"#1&'()*
! 1hus, CA 284 whlch lncreased Lhe mlnlmum lndemnlLy for Lhe
deaLh of a person by reason of Lhe commlsslon of a crlme from
1,000 Lo 2,000 was noL glven reLroacLlve effecL (eople v.
anallgan, CA).

Ik. Art|c|e 22 v. Art|c|e 366
1

! 1he Lwo arLlcles mean LhaL whlle felonles and mlsdemeanors
commlLLed prlor Lo Lhe daLe of effecLlveness of Lhe 8C shall be
punlshed ln accordance wlLh Lhe Code or AcLs ln force aL Lhe
Llme of Lhelr commlsslon, Lhe same should noL be Lhe case ll
such Code or AcLs are unfavorable Lo Lhe gullLy parLy for Lhe
general prlnclple on Lhe reLroacLlvlLy of favorable penal laws,
recognlzed ln Art|c|e 22, should Lhen apply.

k. kLLAL CI LAWS: Lagr|mas case v. 1amayo case
Lagr|mas 1amayo
Iacts ! eLlLloner convlcLed for
assaulL upon a publlc offlclal
and penallzed under Art|c|e
2S1 of Lhe old penal code.
! Art|c|e 149 of Lhe 8C
does noL prescrlbe a penalLy
! Accused was convlcLed for
vlolaLlng a munlclpal
ordlnance.
! endlng hls appeal, Lhe
ordlnance was repealed and
Lhe acL complalned of was no

1
ArLlcle 366. "##$%&'(%)* )+ $',- .*'&(./ #0%)0 () (1%- 2)/.. - WlLhouL
pre[udlce Lo Lhe provlslons conLalned ln ArLlcle 22 of Lhls Code, felonles and
mlsdemeanors, commlLLed prlor Lo Lhe daLe of effecLlveness of Lhls Code shall
be punlshed ln accordance wlLh Lhe Code or AcLs ln force aL Lhe Llme of Lhelr
commlsslon.
for Lhe same crlme. longer a crlme.
ne|d eLlLlon denled. 1he lnLenL
of Lhe 8C was Lo lnsure
ellmlnaLlon of crlmes
penallzed by former acLs
before lLs enforcemenL. lL
should noL have Lhe effecL of
pardonlng Lhe gullLy.
Case dlsmlssed. A person
cannoL be prosecuLed,
convlcLed and punlshed for
acLs no longer crlmlnal.

DIS1INC1ICN:
Lagr|mas 1amayo
LeglslaLure re-enacLed Lhe
provlslon of Art|c|e 2S1 of Lhe old
enal Code ln Lhe 8C, buL does
noL punlsh an assaulL upon a
publlc school Leacher anymore.
Art|c|e 149 of Lhe 8C $($ .#'
1<,#4%'*49 "*!*143
1he repeal (compleLely ellmlnaLlng
Lhe secLlon of Lhe ordlnance under
whlch Lhe accused was belng
prosecuLed) 21, 1<,#4%'*.

L3*"* '3* "*!*14 (, <9 "**.1&'0*.'5
! Where Lhe repeal ls by reenacLmenL, Lhe courL has [urlsdlcLlon
Lo Lry and punlsh an accused person under Lhe old law.
J"(0(.14 4(1<(4('9 %.$*" -#"0*" 412 (, #<4('*"1'*$ 23*. '3* "*!*14 (,
1<,#4%'*
! 1he repeal ln Lhe case of eople v. 1amayo ls absoluLe, noL a
reenacLmenL or repeal by lmpllcaLlon. no savlng clause Loo.
J"(0(.14 4(1<(4('9 %.$*" "*!*14*$ 412 ,%<,(,',M
1. When Lhe provlslons of Lhe former law are reenacLed, or
2. When Lhe repeal ls by lmpllcaLlon, or
3. When Lhere ls a savlng clause
! 8lghL Lo punlsh offenses commlLLed under an old penal law ls
noL exLlngulshed lf Lhe offenses are sLlll punlshed ln Lhe
repeallng law.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
B*!*14 #- !*.14 412 23(&3 (0!4(*$49 "*!*14*$ 1. #4$ !*.14 412 "*)()*,
'3* #4$ 4125
! 1hus, when Act 1697 whlch repealed provlslons of Lhe old enal
Code, was lLself repealed by old AdmlnlsLraLlve Code, Lhe
penalLy of Lhe old enal Code whlch was llghLer Lhan Act 1697
was lmposed (uS v. Sollman, supra)
># "*'"#1&'()* *--*&' #- !*.14 412, 1, "*/1"$, :%"(,$(&'(#. #- &#%"'
! 1he [urlsdlcLlon of a courL Lo Lry a crlmlnal acLlon ls Lo be
deLermlned by Lhe law ln force aL Lhe Llme of lnsLlLuLlng Lhe
acLlon, noL aL Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
! !urlsdlcLlon of courLs ln crlmlnal cases ls $*'*"0(.*$ <9 '3*
144*/1'(#., of Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon, noL by Lhe flndlngs
Lhe courL may make afLer Lrlal.

kI. What pena|ty may be |mposed for the comm|ss|on of a fe|ony?
! Cnly Lhe penalLy prescrlbed by law prlor Lo Lhe commlsslon of
Lhe felony may be lmposed (Art|c|e 21).
! lelonles are punlshable under Lhe laws ln force aL Lhe Llme of
Lhelr commlsslon (Art|c|e 366).
! 8uL Lhe penalLy prescrlbed by a law enacLed afLer Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe felony may be lmposed, lf lL ls favorable Lo
Lhe offender (Art|c|e 22).

Art|c|e 23. E--*&' #- !1"$#. <9 '3* #--*.$*$ !1"'9. A pardon of the
offended party does not ext|ngu|sh cr|m|na| act|on except as prov|ded
|n Art|c|e 344 of th|s Code, but c|v|| ||ab|||ty w|th regard to the |nterest
of the |n[ured party |s ext|ngu|shed by h|s express wa|ver.

CIN1S
I. "A pardon by the offended party does not ext|ngu|sh cr|m|na|
act|on"
! Crlme commlLLed ls an offense agalnsL Lhe sLaLe. ln crlmlnal
cases, Lhe lnLervenLlon of Lhe aggrleved parLles ls llmlLed Lo
belng wlLnesses for Lhe prosecuLlon.
! Cnly Lhe Chlef LxecuLlve can pardon offenders (Art|c|e 36).
J#0!"#0(,* $#*, .#' *8'(./%(,3 &"(0(.14 4(1<(4('9
! 1here may be a compromlse upon Lhe clvll llablllLy arlslng from
an offense, buL such compromlse shall noL exLlngulsh Lhe publlc
acLlon for Lhe lmposlLlon of Lhe legal penalLy (Art|c|e 2034, C|v||
Code).
! A conLracL sLlpulaLlng for Lhe renunclaLlon of Lhe rlghL Lo
prosecuLe an offense or walvlng Lhe crlmlnal llablllLy ls vold. 1he
conslderaLlon or sub[ecL-maLLer ls lllegal.

II. "Lxcept as prov|ded |n Art|c|e 344 of th|s Code"
! 1he offended parLy ln Lhe crlmes of 1$%4'*"9 and &#.&%<(.1/*
CAnnC1 lnsLlLuLe crlmlnal prosecuLlon ll he shall have
consenLed or pardoned Lhe offenders.
o ln case of pardon, 8C1P offenders musL be pardoned.
o 1he pardon may be lMLlLu Lhrough conLlnued lnacLlon
of Lhe offended parLy afLer learnlng Lhe offense.
! ln Lhe crlmes of ,*$%&'(#.D 1<$%&'(#.D "1!* #" 1&', #-
41,&()(#%,.*,,4 Lhere shall be no crlmlnal prosecuLlon lf Lhe
offender has been Lx8LSSL? pardoned by Lhe offended parLy
or her parenLs, grandparenLs, or guardlan.
;1"$#. %.$*" K"'(&4* NOO 0%,' <* 01$* <*-#"* ,'1"' #- !"#,*&%'(#.
! When complalnL for Lhe above crlmes have been flled ln courL, a
moLlon Lo dlsmlss based solely on pardon by Lhe offended parLy
glven afLer Lhe flllng of Lhe complalnL wlll be denled by courL.
! 1he CnL? acL LhaL can exLlngulsh Lhe penal acLlon afLer
lnsLlLuLlon of crlmlnal acLlon ls marrlage beLween offender and
offended parLy.
;1"$#. %.$*" K"'(&4* NOO (, #.49 1 <1" '# &"(0(.14 !"#,*&%'(#.
! Art|c|e 89 provldlng for Lhe LoLal exLlncLlon of crlmlnal llablllLy
does noL menLlon pardon by Lhe offended parLy as one of Lhe
causes of LoLally exLlngulshlng crlmlnal llablllLy.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
III. "8ut c|v|| ||ab|||ty w|th regard to the |nterest of the |n[ured party |s
ext|ngu|shed by h|s express wa|ver"
! 1wo classes of ln[ury:
o Soclal ln[ury ! dlsLurbance and alarm resulLlng from
Lhe offense.
o ersonal ln[ury ! caused Lo Lhe vlcLlm who suffered
damage elLher Lo hls person, properLy, honor or her
chasLlLy.
! Soclal ln[ury ls soughL Lo be repalred by lmposlLlon of penalLy.
1he sLaLe has an lnLeresL and Lherefore cannoL be exLlngulshed
by pardon of offended parLy.
! ersonal ln[ury ls repalred Lhrough lndemnlLy, whlch ls clvll ln
naLure, and can Lhus be Lx8LSSL? walved. 1he SLaLe has noL
reason Lo lnslsL on lLs paymenL.

Art|c|e 24. P*1,%"*, #- !"*)*.'(#. #" ,1-*'9 23(&3 1"* .#" &#.,($*"*$
!*.14'(*,5 1he fo||ow|ng sha|| not be cons|dered as pena|t|es:
1. 1he arrest and temporary detent|on of accused persons, as
we|| as the|r detent|on by reason of |nsan|ty or |mbec|||ty, or
|||ness requ|r|ng the|r conf|nement |n a hosp|ta|.
2. 1he comm|tment of a m|nor to any of the |nst|tut|ons
ment|oned |n Art|c|e 80 and for the purposes spec|f|ed there|n.
3. Suspens|on from the emp|oyment of pub||c off|ce dur|ng the
tr|a| or |n order to |nst|tute proceed|ngs.
4. I|nes and other correct|ve measures wh|ch, |n the exerc|se of
the|r adm|n|strat|ve d|sc|p||nary powers, super|or off|c|a|s may
|mpose upon the|r subord|nates.
S. Depr|vat|on of r|ghts and the reparat|ons wh|ch the c|v|| |aws
may estab||sh |n pena| form.

CIN1S
I. "As we|| as the|r detent|on by reason of |nsan|ty or |mbec|||ty"
! 8efers Lo accused persons" who are deLalned by reason of
lnsanlLy or lmbeclllLy".
! 1PLl8" ln Lhe second clause of par.1 refers Lo accused
persons".

II. 1hey are not cons|dered pena|t|es
! 8ecause Lhey are noL lmposed as a resulL of [udlclal proceedlngs
! ar. 1, 3 and 4 are prevenLlve measures.
! ar. 2 ls noL a penalLy because lL ls noL lmposed by Lhe courL.
1he lmposlLlon of Lhe senLence ln such case ls suspended.
! llnes menLloned ln ar. 4 should noL be lmposed by Lhe courL,
or else Lhey wlll consLlLuLe a penalLy.
! ar. 3 ls lllusLraLe ln Lhe case of parenLs who are sLrlpped of
Lhelr parenLal auLhorlLy lf found gullLy of Lhe crlme of corrupLlon
of Lhelr mlnor chlldren.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
1I1LL 1nkLL - LNAL1ILS
CnA1Lk 2: CLASSIIICA1ICN CI LNAL1ILS

Art|c|e 2S. !"#$%&'"( *+',+ -$. /" '-01("2. 1he pena|t|es wh|ch
may be |mposed accord|ng to th|s Code, and the|r d|fferent c|asses, are
those |nc|uded |n the fo||ow|ng:

SCALL
kINCIAL LNAL1ILS
3$0'&$% 04#'(+-"#&5
Death.

677%',&'8" 0"#$%&'"(5
kec|us|on perpetua,
kec|us|on tempora|,
erpetua| or temporary abso|ute d|squa||f|cat|on,
erpetua| or temporary spec|a| d|squa||f|cat|on,
r|s|on mayor.

3199",&'1#$% 0"#$%&'"(5
r|s|on correcc|ona|,
Arresto mayor,
Suspens|on,
Dest|erro.

:';+& 0"#$%&'"(5
Arresto menor,
ub||c censure.

!"#$%&'"( ,1--1# &1 &+" &+9"" 09","2'#; ,%$(("(5
I|ne, and
8ond to keep the peace.


ACCLSSCk LNAL1ILS
erpetua| or temporary abso|ute d|squa||f|cat|on,
erpetua| or temporary spec|a| d|squa||f|cat|on,
Suspens|on from pub||c off|ce, the r|ght to vote and be voted for, the
profess|on or ca|||ng.
C|v|| |nterd|ct|on,
Indemn|f|cat|on,
Iorfe|ture or conf|scat|on of |nstruments and proceeds of the offense,
ayment of costs.

CIN1S
I. "1he pena|t|es wh|ch may be |mposed accord|ng to th|s Code x x x
are those |nc|uded" |n Art|c|e 2S on|y
! 1he 8evlsed enal Codes does noL prescrlbe Lhe penalLy of llfe
lmprlsonmenL for any of Lhe felonles Lhereln deflned, LhaL
penalLy belng lnvarlably lmposed for serlous offenses penallzed
noL by Lhe 8C buL by speclal law.
! Lxamples:
o SenLence of flve years ln 8lllbld" ls defecLlve because lL
does noL speclfy Lhe exacL penalLy prescrlbed ln Lhe 8C
(uS v. Avlllar)
o enalLy of llfe lmprlsonmenL or cadena perpeLua ls
erroneous as lL has been abollshed. 1he correcL Lerm ls
recluslon perpeLua. (eople v. AbleLes).
! 8ecluslon perpeLua ls noL Lhe same as llfe lmprlsonmenL as Lhe
Code does noL prescrlbe llfe lmprlsonmenL as a penalLy. lL ls a
penalLy used by speclal laws. 8ecluslon perpeLua enLalled
lmprlsonmenL for aL leasL 30 years afLer whlch Lhe convlcL
becomes ellglble for parole. lL also carrled wlLh accessory
penalLles such as perpeLual speclal dlsquallflcaLlon.

II. k.A. 9346 proh|b|ted the |mpos|t|on of the death pena|ty
! Slgned lnLo law on !une 24, 2006 and provlded for Lhe
lmposlLlon of penalLy of recluslon perpeLua ln lleu of deaLh
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
when Lhe law vlolaLed makes use of Lhe nomenclaLure of Lhe
penalLles of Lhe 8C.

III. r|nc|pa| v. Accessory ena|t|es
! 1wo classlflcaLlons
o r|nc|pa| ena|t|es ! Lhose expressly lmposed by Lhe
courL ln Lhe [udgmenL of convlcLlon.
o Accessory ena|t|es ! Lhose LhaL are deemed lncluded
ln Lhe lmposlLlon of Lhe prlnclpal penalLles.
! rlnclpal enalLles accordlng Lo Lhelr dlvlslblllLy
o D|v|s|b|e ena|t|es ! are Lhose LhaL have flxed duraLlon
and are dlvlslble lnLo Lhree perlods
o Ind|v|s|b|e ena|t|es ! Lhose whlch have no flxed
duraLlon.
" ueaLh
" 8ecluslon erpeLua
" erpeLual absoluLe or speclal dlsquallflcaLlon
" ubllc censure
!"#$%&'"( $9" "'&+"9 09'#,'0$% 19 $,,"((19.
! erpeLual or Lemporary absoluLe/speclal dlsquallflcaLlon and
suspenslons may be prlnclpal or accessory penalLles, because
Lhey are formed ln Lwo general classes.
! Art|c|e 236 ! punlshes Lhe crlme of anLlclpaLlon of duLles of
publlc offlce Lhrough suspenslon as prlnclpal penalLy.
! Art|c|e 226, 227 and 228 ! punlshlng lnfldellLy of publlc offlcers
ln Lhe cusLody of documenLs, provlde for Lemporary speclal
dlsquallflcaLlon as a prlnclpal penalLy.

IV. C|ass|f|cat|on of pena|t|es accord|ng to sub[ect-matter
1. Corporal (deaLh)
2. ueprlvaLlon of freedom (recluslon, prlslon, arresLo)
3. 8esLrlcLlon of freedom (desLlerro)
4. ueprlvaLlon of rlghLs (dlsquallflcaLlon and suspenslon)
3. ecunlary (llne)

V. C|ass|f|cat|on of pena|t|es accord|ng to the|r grav|ty
1. CaplLal
2. AffllcLlve
3. CorrecLlonal
4. LlghL
! Corresponds Lo Art|c|e 9: Crave, less grave, llghL felony

VI. ub||c Censure |s a pena|ty
! 8elng a penalLy, noL properly lmposed ln acqulLLal.
! 1he courL may only lmpose a penalLy lf Lhe accused ls found
gullLy. 1he power Lo meLe ouL punlshmenLs, a flndlng of gullL
musL precede Lhe punlshmenL.

VII. Court acqu|tt|ng the accused may cr|t|c|ze h|s acts or conduct
! 1he courL, whlle acqulLLlng an accused, may permlL lLself
neverLheless Lo crlLlclze or reprehend hls acLs or conducL ln
connecLlon wlLh Lhe LransacLlon ouL of whlch Lhe accusaLlon
arose.

Art|c|e 26. When aff||ct|ve, correct|ona|, or ||ght pena|ty. A f|ne,
whether |mposed as a s|ng|e of as an a|ternat|ve pena|ty, sha|| be
cons|dered an aff||ct|ve pena|ty, |f |t exceeds 6,000 pesos, a
correct|ona| pena|ty, |f |t does not exceed 6,000 pesos but |s not |ess
than 200 pesos, and a ||ght pena|ty |f |t |ess than 200 pesos.

CIN1S
I. "Whether |mposed as a s|ng|e or as an a|ternat|ve pena|ty"
! Lxample: Art|c|e 144 punlshlng dlsLurbance of proceedlngs, Lhe
penalLy ls arresLo mayor or a flne ranglng from 200 Lo 1,000.
!"#$%&'"( ,$##1& /" '-01("2 '# &+" $%&"9#$&'8"
! 1he law does noL permlL any courL Lo lmpose a senLence ln Lhe
alLernaLlve, lLs duLy belng Lo lndlcaLe Lhe penalLy lmposed
deflnlLely and poslLlvely.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
II. Art|c|e 26 mere|y c|ass|f|es f|nes and has noth|ng to do w|th the
def|n|t|on of ||ght fe|ony
! lf Lhe flne prescrlbed by Lhe law for a felony ls exacLly 200, lL ls
a llghL felony because Art|c|e 9, ar. 3 whlch deflnes llghL
felonles should prevall.

I|ne |s:
1. AffllcLlve - over 6,000
2. CorrecLlon - 200 Lo 6,000
3. LlghL penalLy - less Lhan 200

8ond to keep the peace |s by ana|ogy:
1. AffllcLlve - over 6,000
2. CorrecLlonal - 200 Lo 6,000
3. LlghL penalLy - less Lhan 200
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
1I1LL 1nkLL - LNAL1ILS
CnA1Lk 3: DUkA1ICN AND LIILC1 CI LNAL1ILS
SLC1ICN 1: DUkA1ICN CI LNAL1ILS

Art|c|e 27. !"#$%&'() +",+"-%.. Any person sentenced to any of the
perpetua| pena|t|es sha|| be pardoned after undergo|ng the pena|ty for
th|rty years, un|ess such person by reason of h|s conduct or some
other ser|ous cause sha|| be cons|dered by the Ch|ef Lxecut|ve as
unworthy of pardon.

!"#$%&'() -"/+(,.$. 1he pena|ty of rec|us|on tempora| sha|| be from
twe|ve years and one day to twenty years.

0,'&'() /.1(, .)2 -"/+(,.,1 2'&3%.$'4'#.-'(). 1he durat|on of the
pena|t|es of pr|s|on mayor and temporary d|squa||f|cat|on sha|| be
from s|x years and one day to twe|ve years, except when the pena|ty
of d|squa||f|cat|on |s |mposed as an accessory pena|ty, |n wh|ch case |ts
durat|on sha|| be that of the pr|nc|pa| pena|ty.

0,'&'() #(,,"##'().$5 &%&+")&'()5 .)2 2"&-'",,(. 1he durat|on of the
pena|t|es of pr|s|on correcc|ona|, suspens|on and dest|erro sha|| be
from s|x months and one day to s|x years, except when suspens|on |s
|mposed as an accessory pena|ty, |n wh|ch case, |ts durat|on sha|| be
that of the pr|nc|pa| pena|ty.

6,,"&-( /.1(,. 1he durat|on of the pena|ty of arresto mayor sha||
be from one month and one day to s|x months.

6,,"&-( /")(,7 1he durat|on of the pena|ty of arresto menor sha||
be from one day to th|rty days.

8()2 -( 9""+ -:" +".#". 1he bond to keep the peace sha|| be
requ|red to cover such per|od of t|me as the court may determ|ne.

CIN1S
I. Durat|on of each d|fferent pena|t|es
1. 8ecluslon perpeLua - 20 yrs. and 1 day Lo 40 yrs.
2. 8ecluslon Lemporal - 12 yrs. and 1 day Lo 20 yrs.
3. rlslon mayor and Lemporary dlsquallflcaLlon - 6 years. and 1
day Lo 12 yrs, excepL when dlsquallflcaLlon ls accessory penalLy,
ln whlch case lLs duraLlon ls LhaL of Lhe prlnclpal penalLy.
4. rlslon correcLlonal, suspenslon, and desLlerro - 6 monLhs and 1
day Lo 6 yrs, excepL when suspenslon ls an accessory penalLy ln
whlch case lLs duraLlon ls LhaL of Lhe prlnclpal penalLy.
3. ArresLo mayor - 1 monLh and 1 day Lo 6 monLhs.
6. ArresLo menor - 1 day Lo 30 days
7. 8ond Lo keep Lhe peace - Lhe perlod durlng whlch Lhe bond
shall be effecLlve ls dlscreLlonary on Lhe courL.

II. 1emporary d|squa||f|cat|on and suspens|on when |mposed as
accessory pena|t|es, have d|fferent durat|ons - they fo||ow the
durat|on of the pr|nc|pa| pena|ty.

III. In what cases |s dest|erro |mposed?
1. Serlous physlcal ln[urles or deaLh under excepLlonal
clrcumsLances (Art|c|e 247).
2. ln case of fallure Lo glve bond for good behavlor (Art|c|e 284).
3. As a penalLy for Lhe concublne ln concublnage (Art|c|e 334).
4. ln cases where afLer reduclng Lhe penalLy by one or more
degrees, desLlerro ls Lhe proper penalLy.

IV. 8ond to keep the peace |s not spec|f|ca||y prov|ded so as a pena|ty
for any fe|ony and therefore cannot be |mposed by the court.
! 8ond for good behavlor under Art|c|e 284 of Lhe Code ls only
requlred of a person maklng a grave or llghL LhreaL, and noL ln
oLher cases or crlmes.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
Art|c|e 28. ;(/+%-.-'() (4 +").$-'"&7 < If the offender sha|| be |n
pr|son, the term of the durat|on of the temporary pena|t|es sha|| be
computed from the day on wh|ch the [udgment of conv|ct|on sha||
have become f|na|.

If the offender be not |n pr|son, the term of the durat|on of the pena|ty
cons|st|ng of depr|vat|on of ||berty sha|| be computed from the day
that the offender |s p|aced at the d|sposa| of the [ud|c|a| author|t|es for
the enforcement of the pena|ty. 1he durat|on of the other pena|t|es
sha|| be computed on|y from the day on wh|ch the defendant
commences to serve h|s sentence.

CIN1S
I. ku|es |n computat|on of pena|t|es:
1. When the offender |s |n pr|son: Lhe duraLlon of Lemporary
penalLles ls from Lhe day on whlch Lhe [udgmenL of convlcLlon
becomes flnal.
o 8eason for 8ule 1 ! CompuLaLlon beglns from Lhe daLe
convlcLlon becomes flnal and noL from Lhe day of hls
deLenLlon, because under Art|c|e 24 Lhe arresL and
Lemporary deLenLlon ls noL aconsldered a penalLy.
o An accused who appealed wlll commence servlng hls
senLence from Lhe daLe Lhe appellaLe courL
promulgaLed lLs declslon, nC1 when Lhe Lrlal courL
promulgaLed lL (Ccampo v. CA).
2. When the offender |s not |n pr|son: Lhe duraLlon of penalLles
conslsLlng ln deprlvaLlon of llberLy, ls from Lhe day LhaL Lhe
offender ls placed aL Lhe dlsposal of [udlclal auLhorlLles for Lhe
enforcemenL of Lhe penalLy.
3. 1he durat|on of other pena|t|es: Lhe duraLlon ls from Lhe day on
whlch Lhe offender commences Lo serve hls senLence.

II. ku|es |n cases of temporary pena|t|es:
! lf under deLenLlon ! 8ule 1 applles
! lf noL deLalned ! 8ule 3 applles
Lxamp|es of temporary pena|t|es:
1) 1emporary absoluLe dlsquallflcaLlon
2) 1emporary speclal dlsquallflcaLlon
3) Suspenslon

III. ku|es |n cases of pena|t|es cons|st|ng of depr|vat|on of ||berty
! noL ln prlson ! 8ule 2 applles.
! ln prlson (e.g. prevenLlve lmprlsonmenL) ! 8ule 3 applles
! Lxempt|on: offender ls enLlLled Lo deducLlon of full Llme or 4/3
of Lhe Llme of hls deLenLlon (See Art|c|e 29).
Lxamp|es of pena|t|es cons|st|ng |n depr|vat|on of ||berty:
1) lmprlsonmenL
2) uesLlerro

Art|c|e 29. 0",'(2 (4 +,"=")-'=" '/+,'&()/")- 2"2%#-"2 4,(/ -",/ (4
'/+,'&()/")-7 < Cffenders or accused who have undergone prevent|ve
|mpr|sonment sha|| be cred|ted |n the serv|ce of the|r sentence
cons|st|ng of depr|vat|on of ||berty, w|th the fu|| t|me dur|ng wh|ch
they have undergone prevent|ve |mpr|sonment |f the detent|on
pr|soner agrees vo|untar||y |n wr|t|ng to ab|de by the same d|sc|p||nary
ru|es |mposed upon conv|cted pr|soners, except |n the fo||ow|ng cases:
1. When they are rec|d|v|sts, or have been conv|cted prev|ous|y
tw|ce or more t|mes of any cr|me, and
2. When upon be|ng summoned for the execut|on of the|r
sentence they have fa||ed to surrender vo|untar||y.

If the detent|on pr|soner does not agree to ab|de by the same
d|sc|p||nary ru|es |mposed upon conv|cted pr|soners, he sha|| be
cred|ted |n the serv|ce of h|s sentence w|th four-f|fths of the t|me
dur|ng wh|ch he has undergone prevent|ve |mpr|sonment. (As
amended by kepub||c Act No. 6127, Iune 17, 1970).

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
Whenever an accused has undergone prevent|ve |mpr|sonment for a
per|od equa| to or more than the poss|b|e max|mum |mpr|sonment of
the offense charged to wh|ch he may be sentenced and h|s case |s not
yet term|nated, he sha|| be re|eased |mmed|ate|y w|thout pre[ud|ce to
the cont|nuat|on of the tr|a| thereof or the proceed|ng on appea|, |f the
same |s under rev|ew. In case the max|mum pena|ty to wh|ch the
accused may be sentenced |s dest|erro, he sha|| be re|eased after th|rty
(30) days of prevent|ve |mpr|sonment. (As amended by kepub||c Act
No. 6127, and further amended by L.C. No. 214, prom. Iu|y 10, 1987.)
When |s there prevent|ve |mpr|sonment?

CIN1S
I. When |s there prevent|ve |mpr|sonment?
! 1he accused undergoes prevenLlve lmprlsonmenL when Lhe
offense charged ls nonballable, or even lf ballable, he cannoL
furnlsh Lhe requlred ball.
! revenLlve penalLles are consldered even ln Lhe case of
perpeLual punlshmenLs. 1hls arLlcle does noL make any
dlsLlncLlon beLween Lemporal and perpeLual penalLles.

II. 1he fu|| t|me or four-f|fths of the t|me dur|ng wh|ch the offenders
have undergone prevent|ve |mpr|sonment sha|| be deducted from the
pena|ty |mposed
! lull 1lme ! lf Lhe deLenLlon prlsoner agrees volunLarlly ln
wrlLlng Lo ablde by Lhe same dlsclpllnary rules lmposed upon
convlcLed prlsoners.
o Lxcept|on: ?ouLhful offenders shall be credlLed ln Lhe
servlce of hls senLence wlLh Lhe full Llme he spenL ln
acLual conflnemenL and deLenLlon. 1he wrlLLen consenL
Lo ablde by Lhe dlsclpllnary rules ls noL necessary.
(Art|c|e 197, D No. 603).
! 4/3 1lme ! lf Lhe deLenLlon prlsoner does noL agree Lo ablde by
sald dlsclpllnary rules.

III. 1he cred|t |s g|ven |n the serv|ce of sentences "cons|st|ng of
depr|vat|on of ||berty"
! lf Lhe offense for whlch Lhe offender ls undergolng prevenLlve
lmprlsonmenL ls punlshable by lmprlsonmenL or a flne, and
upon convlcLlon Lhe courL lmposed on hlm only a flne, Lhere ls
noL credlL Lo be glven.
! 1he flne lmposed cannoL be lessened ln llghL of one's prevenLlve
lmprlsonmenL.

IV. Dest|erro const|tutes "depr|vat|on of ||berty"
! AlLhough desLlerro ls noL lmprlsonmenL, a person penallzed wlLh
such may sLlll be credlLed wlLh Lhe Llme he underwenL
prevenLlve lmprlsonmenL.
! lf desLlerro ls Lhe maxlmum penalLy Lo whlch Lhe accused may
be senLenced, he musL sLlll be released afLer servlng whaLever
prlson senLence (for example arresLo menor) ls requlred, slnce
desLlerro ls noL served ln prlson (See p.634).

V. 1he conv|ct |s to be re|eased |mmed|ate|y |f the pena|ty |mposed
after tr|a| |s |ess than the fu|| t|me or four-f|fths of the t|me of the
prevent|ve |mpr|sonment.
! 1he accused ls Lo be released lmmedlaLely whenever he has
undergone prevenLlve lmprlsonmenL for a perlod equal Lo or
more Lhan Lhe posslble maxlmum lmprlsonmenL for Lhe
offenses charged.

VI. Cffenders not ent|t|ed to the fu|| t|me or four-f|fths of the t|me of
prevent|ve |mpr|sonment:
1. 8ecldlvlsLs or Lhose prevlously convlcLed Lwlce or more of any
crlme (PablLual dellnquenL ls lncluded).
2. 1hose who, upon belng summoned for Lhe execuLlon of Lhelr
senLence, falled volunLarlly Lo surrender.


!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
1I1LL 1nkLL - LNAL1ILS
CnA1Lk 3: DUkA1ICN AND LIILC1 CI LNAL1ILS
SLC1ICN 2: LIILC1S CI LNAL1ILS ACCCkDING 1C 1nLIk kLSLC1IVL
NA1UkL

Art|c|e 30. !""#$%& (" %)# *#+,-%.#& (" *#/*#%0,- (/ %#1*(/,/2 ,3&(-0%#
4.&50,-.".$,%.(+6 7 1he pena|t|es of perpetua| or temporary abso|ute
d|squa||f|cat|on for pub||c off|ce sha|| produce the fo||ow|ng effects:
1. 1he depr|vat|on of the pub||c off|ces and emp|oyments wh|ch
the offender may have he|d even |f conferred by popu|ar
e|ect|on.
2. 1he depr|vat|on of the r|ght to vote |n any e|ect|on for any
popu|ar e|ect|ve off|ce or to be e|ected to such off|ce.
3. 1he d|squa||f|cat|on for the off|ces or pub||c emp|oyments and
for the exerc|se of any of the r|ghts ment|oned.
In case of temporary d|squa||f|cat|on, such d|squa||f|cat|on as |s
compr|sed |n paragraphs 2 and 3 of th|s art|c|e sha|| |ast dur|ng
the term of the sentence.
4. 1he |oss of a|| r|ghts to ret|rement pay or other pens|on for any
off|ce former|y he|d.

Art|c|e 31. !""#$% (" %)# *#+,-%.#& (" *#/*#%0,- (/ %#1*(/,/2 &*#$.,-
4.&50,-.".$,%.(+6 7 1he pena|t|es of perpetua| or temporary spec|a|
d|squa||f|cat|on for pub||c off|ce, profess|on or ca|||ng sha|| produce the
fo||ow|ng effects:
1. 1he depr|vat|on of the off|ce, emp|oyment, profess|on or
ca|||ng affected,
2. 1he d|squa||f|cat|on for ho|d|ng s|m||ar off|ces or emp|oyments
e|ther perpetua||y or dur|ng the term of the sentence,
accord|ng to the extent of such d|squa||f|cat|on.



Art|c|e 32. !""#$%& (" %)# *#+,-%.#& (" *#/*#%0,- (/ %#1*(/,/2 &*#$.,-
4.&50,-.".$,%.(+ "(/ %)# #8#/$.&# (" %)# /.9)% (" &0""/,9#6 7 1he perpetua|
or temporary spec|a| d|squa||f|cat|on for the exerc|se of the r|ght of
suffrage sha|| depr|ve the offender perpetua||y or dur|ng the term of
the sentence, accord|ng to the nature of sa|d pena|ty, of the r|ght to
vote |n any popu|ar e|ect|on for any pub||c off|ce or to be e|ected to
such off|ce. Moreover, the offender sha|| not be perm|tted to ho|d any
pub||c off|ce dur|ng the per|od of h|s d|squa||f|cat|on.

Art|c|e 33. !""#$%& (" %)# *#+,-%.#& (" &0&*#+&.(+ "/(1 ,+2 *03-.$ ("".$#:
*/("#&&.(+ (/ $,--.+9: (/ %)# /.9)% (" &0""/,9#6 7 1he suspens|on from
pub||c off|ce, profess|on or ca|||ng, and the exerc|se of the r|ght of
suffrage sha|| d|squa||fy the offender from ho|d|ng such off|ce or
exerc|s|ng such profess|on or ca|||ng or r|ght of suffrage dur|ng the
term of the sentence.

1he person suspended from ho|d|ng pub||c off|ce sha|| not ho|d
another hav|ng s|m||ar funct|ons dur|ng the per|od of h|s suspens|on.

Art|c|e 34. ;.<.- .+%#/4.$%.(+6 7 C|v|| |nterd|ct|on sha|| depr|ve the
offender dur|ng the t|me of h|s sentence of the r|ghts of parenta|
author|ty, or guard|ansh|p, e|ther as to the person or property of any
ward, of mar|ta| author|ty, of the r|ght to manage h|s property and of
the r|ght to d|spose of such property by any act or any conveyance
|nter v|vos.

Art|c|e 3S. !""#$%& (" 3(+4 %( =##* %)# *#,$#6 7 It sha|| be the duty of
any person sentenced to g|ve bond to keep the peace, to present two
suff|c|ent suret|es who sha|| undertake that such person w||| not
comm|t the offense sought to be prevented, and that |n case such
offense be comm|tted they w||| pay the amount determ|ned by the
court |n |ts [udgment, or otherw|se to depos|t such amount |n the
off|ce of the c|erk of the court to guarantee sa|d undertak|ng.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
1he court sha|| determ|ne, accord|ng to |ts d|scret|on, the per|od of
durat|on of the bond. (kead a|so Art. 284)

Shou|d the person sentenced fa|| to g|ve the bond as requ|red he sha||
be deta|ned for a per|od wh|ch sha|| |n no case exceed s|x months, |f he
sha|| have prosecuted for a grave or |ess grave fe|ony, and sha|| not
exceed th|rty days, |f for a ||ght fe|ony.

CIN1S
I. erpetua| v. 1emporary
! erpeLual ! effecLlve durlng Lhe llfeLlme of Lhe convlcL even
afLer servlng hls senLence.
! 1emporary ! lasLs durlng Lhe Lerm of Lhe senLence and
removed afLer servlce of Lhe same
o Lxcept: (1) ueprlvaLlon of publlc offlce or employmenL,
and (2) loss of all rlghLs Lo reLlremenL pay or oLher
penslon for any offlce formerly held.

II. Cut||ne of the effects of pena|t|es under Art|c|es 30-3S
1. 1he penalLles of perpeLual or Lemporary absoluLe
dlsquallflcaLlon for publlc offlce produce Lhe followlng effecLs:
a. ueprlvaLlon of publlc offlces and employmenLs,
even lf by elecLlon.
b. ueprlvaLlon of rlghL Lo voLe or Lo be elecLed.
c. ulsquallflcaLlon for Lhe offlces or publlc
employmenLs and for Lhe exerclse of any of Lhe
rlghLs menLloned.
d. Loss of rlghL Lo reLlremenL pay or penslon for any
offlce formerly held.
2. 1he penalLles of perpeLual or Lemporary speclal ulsquallflcaLlon
for publlc offlce, professlon or calllng produce Lhe followlng
effecLs:
a. ueprlvaLlon of Lhe offlce, employmenL, professlon or
calllng affecLed.
b. ulsquallflcaLlon for holdlng slmllar offlces or
employmenLs perpeLually or durlng Lhe Lerm of Lhe
senLence.
3. 1he penalLles of perpeLual or Lemporary speclal dlsquallflcaLlon
for Lhe exerclse of Lhe rlghL Lo suffrage produce Lhe followlng
effecLs:
a. ueprlvaLlon of Lhe rlghL Lo voLe or Lo be elecLed Lo any
publlc offlce.
b. CannoL hold any publlc offlce durlng Lhe perlod of
dlsquallflcaLlon.
4. 1he penalLles of suspenslon from publlc offlce, professlon or
calllng or Lhe rlghL Lo suffrage produce Lhe followlng effecLs:
a. ulsquallflcaLlon from holdlng such offlce or exerclslng
such professlon or calllng or rlghL of suffrage durlng Lhe
Lerm of Lhe senLence.
b. lf suspended from publlc offlce, Lhe offender cannoL
hold anoLher offlce havlng slmllar funcLlons durlng Lhe
perlod of suspenslon.
3. Clvll lnLerdlcLlon shall produce Lhe followlng effecLs:
a. ueprlvaLlon of Lhe rlghLs of parenLal auLhorlLy or
guardlanshlp of any ward.
b. ueprlvaLlon of marlLal auLhorlLy.
c. ueprlvaLlon of Lhe rlghL Lo manage hls properLy and of
Lhe rlghL Lo dlspose of such properLy by any acL or any
conveyance lnLer vlvos.
6. 8onds Lo keep Lhe peace:
a. 1he offender musL presenL Lwo sureLles who shall
underLake LhaL Lhe offender wlll noL commlL Lhe offense
soughL Lo be prevenLed, and ln LhaL case LhaL such
offense be commlLLed Lhey wlll pay Lhe amounL
deLermlned by Lhe courL.
b. 1he offender musL deposlL such amounL wlLh Lhe clerk
of courL Lo guaranLee sald underLaklng.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
c. 1he offender may be deLalned, lf he cannoL glve Lhe
bond, for a perlos noL less Lhan 6 monLhs lf prosecuLed
for grave or less grave felony, or for a perlod noL Lo
exceed 30 days, lf for a llghL felony.

II. D|squa||f|cat|on |f WI1nnCLDING of a pr|v||ege, NC1 den|a| of a r|ght
! ManlfesL purpose of Lhe resLrlcLlons ls Lo preserve Lhe purlLy of
elecLlons.
o Cne rendered lnfamous by convlcLlon of a felony, or
oLher base offense lndlcaLlve of moral LurplLude, ls unflL
Lo exerclse Lhe prlvllege of suffrage or Lo hold offlce.

III. What suspens|on from exerc|se of profess|on covers
! Suspenslon, whlch deprlves Lhe offender of Lhe rlghL of
exerclslng any klnd of professlon or calllng covers such calllng or
Lrade as for lnsLance LhaL of broker, masLer plumber, eLc.

IV. 8ond to keep peace |s not ba|| bond
! 8ond Lo keep Lhe peace or for good behavlor ls lmposed as a
penalLy ln LhreaLs (Art|c|e 284).
! 1hls dlffers from ball bond whlch alms Lo secure provlslonal
release pendlng flnal [udgmenL.

Art|c|e 36. >,/4(+? .%& #""#$%6 7 A pardon sha|| not work the restorat|on
of the r|ght to ho|d pub||c off|ce, or the r|ght of suffrage, un|ess such
r|ghts be express|y restored by the terms of the pardon.

A pardon sha|| |n no case exempt the cu|pr|t from the payment of the
c|v|| |ndemn|ty |mposed upon h|m by the sentence.

CIN1S
I. Lffects of pardon by the res|dent
1. A pardon shall noL resLore Lhe rlghL Lo hold publlc offlce or Lhe
rlghL of suffrage.
2. lL shall noL exempL Lhe culprlL from Lhe paymenL of Lhe clvll
lndemnlLy. 1he pardon cannoL make an excepLlon Lo Lhls rule.

II. L|m|tat|on upon the exerc|se of the pardon|ng power:
1. 1haL Lhe power can be exerclsed only afLer convlcLlon.
o Any appllcaLlon of pardon should noL be accepLed unLll
Lhe appeal ls wlLhdrawn.
o Agencles and lnsLrumenLallLles of Lhe govL. musL requlre
proof (e.g. cerLlflcaLlon of Lhe courL regardlng
wlLhdrawal of such appeal).
2. 1haL such power does noL exLend Lo cases of lmpeachmenL

III. ardon granted |n genera| terms does not |nc|ude accessory
pena|t|es
! Cnly Lhe effecL of Lhe prlnclpal penalLy ls exLlngulshed.
! Lxcept|on: Where facLs show LhaL Lhe purpose of Lhe Chlef
LxecuLlve ls preclsely Lo resLore losL rlghLs.
o When an absoluLe pardon ls granLed Al1L8 Lhe Lerm of
lmprlsonmenL has explred lL removes all LhaL ls lefL of
Lhe consequences of convlcLlon.
! Suppose a pardon ls granLed afLer Lhe convlcL served 30 years of
lmprlsonmenL. uoes lL also pardon Lhe perpeLual absoluLe
dlsquallflcaLlon?
o no, because Art|c|e 30 ls sllenL abouL Lhe lengLh and
Art|c|e 36 requlres LhaL such resLoraLlon be LkkLSS.

IV. ardon of Ch|ef Lxecut|ve v. ardon of offended party
Ch|ef Lxecut|ve Cffended arty
LxLlngulshes crlmlnal llablllLy uoesn'L exLlngulsh crlmlnal llablllLy
uoesn'L lnclude clvll llablllLy Clvll llablllLy can be walved
ardon should be Al1L8
convlcLlon and Lo any of Lhe
offenders.
ardon should be 8LlC8L
lnsLlLuLlon of crlmlnal prosecuLlon
and Lo boLh offenders.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
Art|c|e 37. ;(&%6 7 What are |nc|uded. - Costs sha|| |nc|ude fees and
|ndemn|t|es |n the course of the [ud|c|a| proceed|ngs, whether they be
f|xed or una|terab|e amounts prev|ous|y determ|ned by |aw or
regu|at|ons |n force, or amounts not sub[ect to schedu|e.

CIN1S
I. 1he fo||ow|ng are |nc|uded |n costs:
1. lees
2. lndemnlLles ln Lhe course of [udlclal proceedlngs

II. ku|es:
1. CosLs are chargeable Lo Lhe accused ln case of convlcLlon.
a. 1hus ln case of acqulLLal, Lhe cosLs are de oflclo, each
parLy bearlng hls own expenses.
2. no cosLs agalnsL Lhe 8epubllc, unless Lhe law provldes Lhe
conLrary (Sec. 1, ku|e 142, ku|es of Court)
3. aymenL of cosLs ls dlscreLlonary (of Lhe courLs)
a. WheLher Lhe cosLs should be assessed agalnsL Lhe
accused lle wlLhln Lhe dlscreLlon of Lhe courL. 1he
governmenL may requesL Lhe courL Lo assess cosLs
agalnsL Lhe accused, buL noL as a rlghL. no aLLorney's
fees shall be Laxed as a cosL agalnsL Lhe adverse parLy.

Art|c|e 38. >#$0+.,/2 -.,3.-.%.#&6 7 Crder of payment. - In case the
property of the offender shou|d not be suff|c|ent for the payment of a||
h|s pecun|ary ||ab|||t|es, the same sha|| be met |n the fo||ow|ng order:
1. 1he reparat|on of the damage caused.
2. Indemn|f|cat|on of consequent|a| damages.
3. 1he f|ne.
4. 1he costs of the proceed|ngs.

CIN1S
I. What are the pecun|ary ||ab|||t|es of persons cr|m|na||y ||ab|e?
1. 1he reparaLlon of Lhe damage caused
2. lndemnlflcaLlon of Lhe consequenLlal damages
3. llne
4. CosL of proceedlngs

II. When |s Art|c|e 38 app||cab|e?
! lL ls appllcable ln case Lhe properLy of Lhe offender should noL
be sufflclenL for Lhe paymenL of all hls pecunlary llablllLles. 1he
order of paymenL ls provlded ln Lhls arLlcle, and musL be
observed.
! 1here ls reparaLlon ln Lhe crlme of rape when Lhe dress of Lhe
woman was Lorn. 1hls ls dlsLlncL from lndemnlLy (uS v. ?ambao).

Art|c|e 39. @03&.4.,/2 *#+,-%26 7 If the conv|ct has no property w|th
wh|ch to meet the f|ne ment|oned |n paragraph 3 of the next
preced|ng art|c|e, he sha|| be sub[ect to a subs|d|ary persona| ||ab|||ty
at the rate of one day for each e|ght pesos, sub[ect to the fo||ow|ng
ru|es:
1. If the pr|nc|pa| pena|ty |mposed be pr|s|on correcc|ona| or
arresto and f|ne, he sha|| rema|n under conf|nement unt|| h|s
f|ne referred |n the preced|ng paragraph |s sat|sf|ed, but h|s
subs|d|ary |mpr|sonment sha|| not exceed one-th|rd of the
term of the sentence, and |n no case sha|| |t cont|nue for more
than one year, and no fract|on or part of a day sha|| be
counted aga|nst the pr|soner.
2. When the pr|nc|pa| pena|ty |mposed be on|y a f|ne, the
subs|d|ary |mpr|sonment sha|| not exceed s|x months, |f the
cu|pr|t sha|| have been prosecuted for a grave or |ess grave
fe|ony, and sha|| not exceed f|fteen days, |f for a ||ght fe|ony.
3. When the pr|nc|pa| pena|ty |mposed |s h|gher than pr|s|on
correcc|ona| no subs|d|ary |mpr|sonment sha|| be |mposed
upon the cu|pr|t.
4. If the pr|nc|pa| pena|ty |mposed |s not to be executed by
conf|nement |n a pena| |nst|tut|on, but such pena|ty |s of f|xed
durat|on, the conv|ct, dur|ng the per|od of t|me estab||shed |n
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
the preced|ng ru|es, sha|| cont|nue to suffer the same
depr|vat|on as those of wh|ch the pr|nc|pa| pena|ty cons|sts.
S. 1he subs|d|ary persona| ||ab|||ty wh|ch the conv|ct may have
suffered by reason of h|s |nso|vency sha|| not re||eve h|m from
the f|ne |n case h|s f|nanc|a| c|rcumstances shou|d |mprove. (As
amended by kepub||c Act No. S46S, Apr|| 21, 1969.)

CIN1S
I. What |s Subs|d|ary ena|ty?
! lL ls a subsldlary personal llablllLy Lo be suffered by Lhe convlcL
who has nC properLy wlLh whlch Lo meeL Lhe flne, aL Lhe raLe of
one day for each elghL pesos.
o 8eLroacLlve appllcaLlon of kA No. S46S: An act
amend|ng Art|c|e 29 of kC |ncreas|ng the rate per day
of subs|d|ary pena|ty from two pesos and f|fty
centavos to e|ght pesos.
! 1here ls no subsldlary penalLy for nonpaymenL of (1) reparaLlon
of Lhe damage caused, (2) lndemnlLy, and (3) cosLs of
proceedlngs.
! lL ls Lhe penalLy prescrlbed or lmposed by Lhe courL, noL Lhe
penalLy provlded for Lhe Code whlch should be consldered ln
deLermlnlng wheLher or noL subsldlary penalLy should be
lmposed.
! Subsldlary lmprlsonmenL ls noL lmprlsonmenL for debL slnce lL
does noL arlse from an obllgaLlon Lo pay a sum of money arlslng
from a conLracL.

II. Iudgment of conv|ct|on must |mpose subs|d|ary |mpr|sonment
! 1haL Lhe accused wlll undergo subsldlary lmprlsonmenL ln case
of lnsolvency can only be lmposed lf speclflcally lmposed ln Lhe
[udgmenL of convlcLlon.
! Subsldlary lmprlsonmenL ls noL an accessory penalLy.
! 1he declslon need noL sLaLe LhaL Lhere should noL be any
subsldlary lmprlsonmenL when Lhe law forblds lL.

III. "If accused has no property w|th wh|ch to meet the f|ne"
! Art|c|e 39 applles only when Lhe accused has no properLy wlLh
whlch Lo meeL Lhe flne. lf Lhe accused has enough properLy, he
cannoL choose subsldlary lmprlsonmenL lnsLead of paylng.

IV. 1he word "pr|nc|pa|" shou|d be om|tted
! Spanlsh: cuando la pena lmpuesLa ! when Lhe penalLy lmposed
! Spanlsh LexL should be conLrolllng.

V. ku|es:
1. rlslon Correclonal or arresLo and flne ! Subsldlary
lmprlsonmenL noL Lo exceed 1/3 of Lhe Lerm of Lhe senLence
and ln no case Lo conLlnue for more Lhan one year. lracLlon or
parL of a day noL counLed.
2. llne only- Subsldlary lmprlsonmenL noL Lo exceed 6 monLhs, lf
Lhe culprlL ls prosecuLed for a grave or less grave felony, and noL
Lo exceed 13 days lf for a llghL felony
3. Plgher Lhan rlslon Correclonal- nC subsldlary lmprlsonmenL
4. enalLy ls noL Lo be execuLed by conflnemenL buL of flxed
duraLlon- Subsldlary penalLy shall conslsL ln Lhe same
deprlvaLlons as Lhose of Lhe prlnclpal penalLy, under Lhe same
rules as ln nos 1,2,3.
3. ln case Lhe flnanclal clrcumsLances lmprove- Pe shall pay Lhe
flne noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe facL Lhe convlcL suffered subsldlary
personal llablllLy Lherefor.

VI. 1he pena|ty |mposed must be (1) pr|s|on correcc|ona|, (2) arresto
mayor, (3) arresto menor, (4) suspens|on, (S) dest|erro or (6) f|ne on|y
! lf Lhe penalLy lmposed by Lhe courL ls noL one of Lhem,
subsldlary penalLy cannoL be lmposed. 1here ls no subsldlary
penalLy, lf Lhe penalLy lmposed by Lhe courL ls prlslon mayor,
recluslon Lemporal, or recluslon perpeLua.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o lf lmprlsonmenL ls 6 years and 1 day, lL ls prlslon mayor,
and Lherefore no subsldlary lmprlsonmenL can be
lmposed.
! enalLy noL Lo be execuLed by conflnemenL, buL has a flxed
duraLlon (e.g. suspenslon, desLlerro) ! can lmpose subsldlary.
! enalLy noL Lo be execuLed by conflnemenL, buL has no flxed
duraLlon (e.g. publlc censure) ! cannoL lmpose subsldlary.

VII. Add|t|ona| pena|ty for hab|tua| de||nquency shou|d be |nc|uded |n
determ|n|ng whether or no subs|d|ary pena|ty shou|d be |mposed
! Lven lf Lhe penalLy lmposed ls noL hlgher Lhan prlslon
correcLlonal, lf Lhe accused ls a hablLual dellnquenL who
deserves an addlLlonal penalLy of 12 years and 1 day of
recluslon Lemporal, Lhere ls no subsldlary lmprlsonmenL.

VIII. 1he subs|d|ary pena|ty |s the "same depr|vat|on as those of wh|ch
the pr|nc|pa| pena|ty cons|sts"
! lf Lhe prlnclpal penalLy ls lmprlsonmenL, Lhe subsldlary penalLy
musL also be lmprlsonmenL.
! lf Lhe prlnclpal penalLy ls suspenslon, Lhe subsldlary penalLy
musL also be suspenslon.

Ik. 1he conv|ct who served subs|d|ary pena|ty may st||| be requ|red to
pay the f|ne
! See ArLlcle 39, paragraph 3.

k. No Subs|d|ary ena|ty |n the fo||ow|ng cases:
1. When Lhe penalLy lmposed ls hlgher Lhan rlslon Correclonal
2. lor fallure Lo pay Lhe reparaLlon of Lhe damage caused,
lndemnlflcaLlon and Lhe cosLs of Lhe proceedlngs
3. When Lhe penalLy lmposed ls flne and a penalLy noL Lo be
execuLed by conflnemenL ln a penal lnsLlLuLlon whlch has nC
flxed duraLlon

kI. Subs|d|ary |mpr|sonment under spec|a| |aws
! ersons convlcLed of vlolaLlon of speclal laws are llable Lo
subsldlary lmprlsonmenL ln case of lnsolvency ln Lhe paymenL of
lndemnlLy, excepL where Lhe lndemnlLy conslsLs ln unpald
lnLernal revenue Lax.
! Act No. 1732 (8ules ln case Lhe courL shall lmpose a flne as a
whole or as parL of Lhe punlshmenL for any crlmlnal offense
made punlshable by any speclal law.)
o 1hese provlslons are appllcable Lo offense made
punlshable by acLs of Lhe hlllpplne LeglslaLure.
! ku|es
o When Lhe courL merely lmposes a flne, Lhe subsldlary
llablllLy shall noL exceed 6 monLhs, aL Lhe aLe of one day
of lmprlsonmenL for every 2.30
o ln case boLh flne and lmprlsonmenL are lmposed, Lhe
subsldlary llablllLy shall noL exceed 1/3 of Lhe Lerm of
Lhe lmprlsonmenL, and ln no case shall lL exceed 1 year.
o ln case Lhe lmprlsonmenL ls for more Lhan 6 years ln
addlLlon Lo a Llne, Lhere shall be no subsldlary
lmprlsonmenL.
o When a flne ls lmposed for vlolaLlon of any munlclpal
ordlnance or ordlnances of Lhe ClLy of Manlla, Lhe raLe ls
one day for ever 1.00, unLll Lhe flne ls saLlsfled,
!"#$%&'&( LhaL Lhe LoLal subsldlary lmprlsonmenL does
noL exceed 6 monLhs lf Lhe penalLy lmposed ls flne
alone, and noL more Lhan 1/3 of Lhe prlnclpal penalLy, lf
Lhe lL ls lmposed LogeLher wlLh lmprlsonmenL.
! Slnce Lhe 1ax Code does noL provlde for Lhe lmposlLlon of a
subsldlary penalLy ln case of lnsolvency, no subsldlary
lmprlsonmenL can be lmposed.

kII. Subs|d|ary |mpr|sonment, ||ke accessory pena|t|es, not essent|a| |n
determ|n|ng [ur|sd|ct|on
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! WhaL deLermlnes [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe CourL ln crlmlnal cases ls
Lhe exLenL of Lhe penalLy, whlch Lhe law lmposes for Lhe crlme
charged ln Lhe lnformaLlon or complalnL.
! lL ls seLLled rule LhaL subsldlary lmprlsonmenL, llke accessory
penalLles, ls noL essenLlal ln Lhe deLermlnaLlon of Lhe crlmlnal
[urlsdlcLlon of a courL.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
1I1LL 1nkLL - LNAL1ILS
CnA1Lk 3: DUkA1ICN AND LIILC1 CI LNAL1ILS
SLC1ICN 3: LNAL1ILS IN WnICn C1nLk ACCLSSCk LNAL1ILS AkL
INnLkLN1

Art|c|e 40. !"#$% ' ($) #**"))+,- ."/#0$1")2 ' 1he death pena|ty, when |t
|s not executed by reason of commutat|on or pardon sha|| carry w|th |t
that of perpetua| abso|ute d|squa||f|cat|on and that of c|v|| |nterd|ct|on
dur|ng th|rty years fo||ow|ng the date of sentence, un|ess such
accessory pena|t|es have been express|y rem|tted |n the pardon.

Art|c|e 41. 3"*04)1+/ .",."$4# #/5 ,"*04)1+/ $"6.+,#02 ' 1he|r
accessory pena|t|es. - 1he pena|t|es of rec|us|on perpetua and
rec|us|on tempora| sha|| carry w|th them that of c|v|| |nterd|ct|on for
||fe or dur|ng the per|od of the sentence as the case may be, and that
of perpetua| abso|ute d|squa||f|cat|on wh|ch the offender sha|| suffer
even though pardoned as to the pr|nc|pa| pena|ty, un|ess the same
sha|| have been express|y rem|tted |n the pardon.

Art|c|e 42. 7,1)1+/ 6#-+, ' ($) #**"))+,- ."/#0$1")2 ' 1he pena|ty of
pr|s|on mayor sha|| carry w|th |t that of temporary abso|ute
d|squa||f|cat|on and that of perpetua| spec|a| d|squa||f|cat|on from the
r|ght of suffrage wh|ch the offender sha|| suffer a|though pardoned as
to the pr|nc|pa| pena|ty, un|ess the same sha|| have been express|y
rem|tted |n the pardon.

Art|c|e 43. 7,1)1+/ *+,,"**1+/#0 ' ($) #**"))+,- ."/#0$1")2 ' 1he pena|ty
of pr|s|on correcc|ona| sha|| carry w|th |t that of suspens|on from
pub||c off|ce, from the r|ght to fo||ow a profess|on or ca|||ng, and that
of perpetua| spec|a| d|squa||f|cat|on from the r|ght of suffrage, |f the
durat|on of sa|d |mpr|sonment sha|| exceed e|ghteen months. 1he
offender sha|| suffer the d|squa||f|cat|on prov|ded |n th|s art|c|e
a|though pardoned as to the pr|nc|pa| pena|ty, un|ess the same sha||
have been express|y rem|tted |n the pardon.
Art|c|e 44. 8,,")$+ ' ($) #**"))+,- ."/#0$1")2 ' 1he pena|ty of arresto
sha|| carry w|th |t that of suspens|on of the r|ght to ho|d off|ce and the
r|ght of suffrage dur|ng the term of the sentence.

CIN1S
I. Cut||ne of accessory pena|t|es INnLkLN1 |n pr|nc|pa| pena|t|es:
1. ueaLh, when noL execuLed by reason of commuLaLlon or pardon
! a) erpeLual absoluLe dlsquallflcaLlon b) Clvll lnLerdlcLlon for
30 years
2. 8ecluslon erpeLua and 8ecluslon 1emporal ! a) Clvll
lnLerdlcLlon for llfe or durlng Lhe senLence 2) erpeLual absoluLe
dlsquallflcaLlon
3. rlslon Mayor ! a) 1emporary absoluLe dlsquallflcaLlon, b)
perpeLual speclal dlsquallflcaLlon from suffrage
4. rlslon Correclonal ! a) Suspenslon fro ubllc offlce, professlon
or calllng, b) perpeLual dlsquallflcaLlon from suffrage lf Lhe
duraLlon of Lhe lmprlsonmenL exceeds 18 monLhs
3. ArresLo ! a) suspenslon of Lhe rlghL Lo hold publlc offlce and
Lhe rlghL of suffrage durlng Lhe Lerm of Lhe senLence

II. Dest|erro has no accessory pena|ty

III. "Un|ess express|y rem|tted |n the pardon"
! 1he accessory penalLles ln Art|c|e 40-43 musL be suffered by Lhe
offender, alLhough pardoned as Lo Lhe prlnclpal penalLles. 1o be
relleved of Lhem, lL musL be Lx8LSSL? 8LMl11Lu ln pardon.

IV. ersons who served out the pena|ty may not have the r|ght to
exerc|se the r|ght to suffrage:
! Genera| ku|e:
o AbsoluLe pardon for any crlme for whlch one year
lmprlsonmenL or more was meLed ouL resLores Lhe
prlsoner hls pollLlcal rlghLs.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o Where Lhe penalLy ls less Lhan one year, Lhe
dlsquallflcaLlon does noL aLLach, excepL when Lhe crlme
commlLLed ls one agalnsL properLy.
" A was prosecuLed for physlcal ln[urles and
condemned Lo 10 monLhs lmprlsonmenL.
1hough noL pardoned, he ls noL dlsquallfled.
" 8 was convlcLed of LhefL and served 10 monLhs.
unless glven an absoluLe pardon, 8 can'L voLe.
" C was senLenced Lo 4 years lmprlsonmenL for
physlcal ln[urles or esLafa. unless pardoned, he
cannoL exerclse Lhe rlghL Lo suffrage.
! naLure of Lhe crlme ls lmmaLerlal when Lhe penalLy lmposed ls
one-year lmprlsonmenL or more.

V. Accessory pena|t|es are deemed |mposed
! Accessory penalLles are undersLood Lo be ALWA?S lmposed
upon Lhe offender by Lhe mere facL LhaL Lhe law flxes a cerLaln
penalLy for a glven crlme (See Art|c|e 73).

Art|c|e 4S. 9+/:1)*#$1+/ #/5 :+,:"1$4," +: $%" .,+*""5) +, 1/)$,46"/$)
+: $%" *,16"2 ' Lvery pena|ty |mposed for the comm|ss|on of a fe|ony
sha|| carry w|th |t the forfe|ture of the proceeds of the cr|me and the
|nstruments or too|s w|th wh|ch |t was comm|tted.

Such proceeds and |nstruments or too|s sha|| be conf|scated and
forfe|ted |n favor of the Government, un|ess they be the property of a
th|rd person not ||ab|e for the offense, but those art|c|es wh|ch are not
sub[ect of |awfu| commerce sha|| be destroyed.

CIN1S
I. Cut||ne of the prov|s|on of th|s art|c|e
1. Lvery penalLy lmposed carrles wlLh lL Lhe forfelLure of Lhe
proceeds of Lhe crlme and Lhe lnsLrumenLs or Lools used ln Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme
2. 1he proceeds and lnsLrumenLs or Lools are conflscaLed and
forfelLed ln favor of Lhe governmenL.
3. roperLy of a Lhlrd person noL llable for Lhe offense ls noL
sub[ecL Lo conflscaLlon and forfelLure.
4. roperLy noL sub[ecL of lawful commerce shall be desLroyed.

II. No forfe|ture where there |s not cr|m|na| case
! AlLhough selzure may be made, Lhe selzed lLems cannoL be
dlsposed or desLroyed unLll afLer convlcLlon (hlllps v. Munlclpal
Mayor).
o 1he rullng ls based on Lhe phrase every penalLy
lmposed". A penalLy cannoL be lmposed unless Lhere ls
a crlmlnal case flled, Lrled and Lhe accused convlcLed.
! lorfelLure cannoL be ordered lf Lhe accused ls acqulLLed,
because no penalLy ls lmposed.
! CourLs cannoL order Lhe conflscaLlon of properLy belonglng Lo a
Lhlrd person lf Lhe laLLer ls noL lndlcLed.
o lnsLrumenLs of Lhe crlme belonglng Lo lnnocenL Lhlrd
person may be recovered.
! ConflscaLlon can be ordered only lf Lhe properLy ls submlLLed ln
evldence or placed aL Lhe dlsposal of Lhe courL.
o uS v. lllarL
" lacLs: 1he accused planned Lo sell 430 LlckeLs
for an auLomoblle raffle. 1he courL ordered Lhe
conflscaLlon of Lhe auLomoblle and Lhe money
obLalned from selllng Lhe LlckeLs. none of Lhese
were ln Lhe possesslon of Lhe parLles or Lhe
courL LhaL Lhe Llme Lhe order of conflscaLlon
was made.
" Peld: 1he courL had noL [urlsdlcLlon Lo order Lhe
conflscaLlon of Lhe properLy noL ln Lhe
possesslon of elLher Lhe courL lLself or Lhe
parLles lnvolved.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
III. Art|c|e wh|ch are forfe|ted when the order of forfe|ture |s a|ready
f|na|, cannot be returned even |n case of an acqu|tta|.
! Com. of CusLoms v. Lncarnaclon
! lacLs: ArLlcle broughL by a crew member of AL were
conflscaLed by CusLoms for noL havlng declared lL. 1he order of
forfelLure became flnal whlle Lhe crew member was charged
wlLh vlolaLlon of Lhe 8C. 1he crew member was laLer acqulLLed,
and Lhe courL ordered Lhe reLurn of Lhe arLlcles.
! Peld: 1he courL erred ln orderlng Lhe release of Lhe arLlcles
because such arLlcles already belong Lo Lhe governmenL.

IV. Conf|scat|on and forfe|ture are add|t|ona| pena|t|es
! Where Lhe penalLy lmposed dld noL lnclude Lhe conflscaLlon of
Lhe dollars lnvolved, Lhe conflscaLlon and forfelLure soughL
would be an addlLlonal penalLy and would amounL Lo an
lncrease of Lhe penalLy already lmposed Lhereby placlng Lhe
accused ln double [eopardy. 1hus, lL cannoL be allowed (eople
v. Ale[andro aeL y velasco).

V. Where the accused has appea|ed, conf|scat|on and forfe|ture not
ordered by the tr|a| court may be |mposed by the appe||ate court

Summary of ku|es:
1. no forfelLure where Lhere ls no crlmlnal case.
2. CourLs cannoL order Lhe conflscaLlon of properLy belonglng Lo a
Lhlrd person ls Lhe laLLer ls noL lndlcLed.
3. ConflscaLlon can be ordered only lf Lhe properLy ls submlLLed ln
evldence or placed aL Lhe dlsposal of Lhe courL.
4. ArLlcles whlch are forfelLed, when Lhe order of forfelLure ls
already flnal, cannoL be reLurned even ln case of an acqulLLal.
3. ConflscaLlon and forfelLure are addlLlonal penalLles.

Ciiminal Law I Atty. uiovanni vallente

!!! (!) " !!!
1I1LL 1nkLL - LNAL1ILS
CnA1Lk 4: ALICA1ICN CI LNAL1ILS
SLC1ICN 1: kULLS ICk 1nL ALICA1ICN CI LNAL1ILS 1C 1nL
LkSCNS CkIMINALL LIA8LL AND ICk 1nL GkADUA1ICN CI 1nL
SAML.

Art|c|e 46. !"#$%&' &) *" +,-)."/ 0-)# -1+#2+-$%. +# 3"#"1$%4 1he
pena|ty prescr|bed by |aw for the comm|ss|on of a fe|ony sha|| be
|mposed upon the pr|nc|pa|s |n the comm|ss|on of such fe|ony.

Whenever the |aw prescr|bes a pena|ty for a fe|ony |n genera| terms |t
sha|| be understood as app||cab|e to the consummated fe|ony.

CIN1S
I. GLNLkAL kULL: ena|ty prescr|bed |n genera| terms
! 1he penalLy prescrlbed by law ln !"#"$%& ("$)* shall be
lmposed:
1. upon Lhe prlnclpals
2. lor consummaLed felony

II. LkCL1ICN: When the |aw f|xes a pena|ty for frustrated or
attempted fe|ony
! 1he excepLlon ls when Lhe penalLy Lo be lmposed upon Lhe
prlnclpal ln frusLraLed or aLLempLed felony ls +,-". /0 &%12

III. Graduat|on of pena|t|es by degrees or by per|ods
! 1he graduaLlon of penalLles by degrees refers Lo sLages of
execuLlon (consummaLed, frusLraLed, aLLempLed) and Lo Lhe
degree of Lhe crlmlnal parLlclpaLlon of Lhe offender (prlnclpal,
accompllce or accessory).
! 1he dlvlslon of a dlvlslble penalLy refers Lo Lhe proper perlod of
Lhe penalLy whlch should be lmposed when aggravaLlng or
mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances aLLend Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.

Art|c|e 47. 5# 67$& 2$.". &7" /"$&7 -"#$%&' .7$%% #)& *" +,-)."/8
90&),$&+2 1":+"6 ); /"$&7 -"#$%&' 2$.".4 1he death pena|ty sha|| be
|mposed |n a|| cases |n wh|ch |t must be |mposed under ex|st|ng |aws,
except when the gu||ty person |s be|ow 18 years of age at the t|me of
the comm|ss|on of the cr|me or |s more than seventy years of age or
when upon appea| or automat|c rev|ew of the case by the SC, the
requ|red ma[or|ty vote |s not obta|ned for the |mpos|t|on of the death
pena|ty, |n wh|ch cases the pena|ty sha|| be 1"2%0.+)# -"1-"&0$<

In a|| cases where the death pena|ty |s |mposed by the Court for
automat|c rev|ew and [udgment by the court "# *$#2= w|th|n 20 days
but not ear||er than 1S days after promu|gat|on of the [udgment or
not|ce of den|a| of any mot|on for new tr|a| or recons|derat|on. 1he
transcr|pt sha|| a|so be forwarded w|th|n 10 days after the f|||ng therof
by the stenograph|c reporter (9. $,"#/"/ *' >9 #)< ?@ABC

CIN1S
I. Ma[or|ty vote of the SC |s requ|red for the |mpos|t|on of death
! 1he voLe of 8 members ls requlred (Art.VIII, Sect|on4[1]).
>"-0*%+2 92& ?B@ D$# *" 3+:"# 1"&1)$2&+:" ";;"2&
! 1hls provldes LhaL 8 [usLlces musL concur ln Lhe lmposlLlon of
deaLh penalLy. lL ls procedural and noL subsLanLlve and
appllcable Lo cases pendlng aL Lhe Llme of lLs approval.
E7" 1"2)1/. ); $%% 2$.". +,-).+#3 &7" -"#$%&' ); /"$&7= 1"2%0.+)#
-"1-"&0$ )1 %+;" +,-1+.)#,"#& .7$%% *" ;)16$1/"/ *' &7" D)01& );
9--"$%. &) &7" FD ;)1 1":+"6

II. Court of Appea|s to rev|ew death pena|ty cases
! eople v. MaLeo ! 1he CourL now deems lL wlse and
compelllng Lo provlde ln deaLh penalLy cases a revlew by Lhe
CourL of Appeals before lL ls elevaLed Lo Lhe SC Lo mlnlmlze Lhe
posslblllLy of error ln [udgmenL (parLlcularly of facLual lssues).

Ciiminal Law I Atty. uiovanni vallente

!!! (!) " !!!
III. 1he tr|a| court must requ|re the prosecut|on to present ev|dence,
desp|te p|ea of gu||ty when the cr|me charged |s pun|shed w|th death
! 1he essence of [udlclal revlew ls LhaL whlle socleLy allows vlolenL
reLrlbuLlon for helnous crlmes, lL always musL make cerLaln LhaL
Lhe blood of Lhe lnnocenL ls noL spllled or Lhe gullLy made Lo
suffer more Lhan Lhelr [usL measure of punlshmenL.
! A senLence of deaLh ls valld only lf lL ls suscepLlble of a falr and
reasonable examlnaLlon by Lhe courL.

IV. 1he 1987 Const|tut|on mere|y suspended the |mpos|t|on of death
pena|ty
! Sect|on 19, Art|c|e 3, 1987 Const|tut|on does noL expressly
declare Lhe abollLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy.
! lL merely suspended Lhe lmposlLlon of deaLh penalLy.

V. kA 76S9 v. kA 9346
! uecember 31, 1993 ! kA 76S9 resLored Lhe deaLh penalLy.
! !une 24, 2006 ! kA 9346 prohlblLed Lhe lmposlLlon of deaLh
penalLy, and ln lleu of lL, recluslon perpeLua was lmposed.
G7"1" &7" -"#$%&' ); 1"2%0.+)# -"1-"&0$ +. +,-)."/= +# %+"0 ); &7"
/"$&7 -"#$%&'= &7"1" +. $ #""/ &) -"1;"2& $# $--"$%
! erfecLlng an appeal means dolng all Lhe acLs necessary Lo place
Lhe case on Lhe courL's calendar.
1


VI. Impos|t|on of Death ena|ty
H"$&7 -"#$%&' +. #)& +,-)."/ +# &7" ;)%%)6+#3 2$.".I
1. When Lhe gullLy person ls below 18 years of age aL Lhe Llme of
Lhe 34)),**,4# of Lhe crlme.
2. When Lhe gullLy person ls more Lhan 70 years of age.
3. When upon appeal or auLomaLlc revlew of Lhe case by Lhe SC,
Lhe voLe of 8 members ls noL obLalned for Lhe lmposlLlon of Lhe
deaLh penalLy.

1
Supieme Couit of the State of New Yoik,
http:www.couits.state.ny.uscouitsau2faqs.shtml
H"$&7 -"#$%&' .7$%% #)& *" +,-)."/ 67"# 30+%&' -"1.)# +. ):"1 JK '"$1.
! 1hls refers Lo Lhe Llme when Lhe flnal declslon ls rendered.
LM2"-&+)#$% 2$.". +# 67+27 /"$&7 -"#$%&' 6$. #)& +,-)."/
! eople v. uela Cruz ! Conslderlng LhaL Lhe clrcumsLances under
whlch Lhe offense was perpeLraLed ln llghL of Lhe deplorable
condlLlons exlsLlng ln Lhe naLlonal penlLenLlary.
! eople v. Marcos ! When Lhe facLs of Lhe case Lend Lo show
LhaL Lhe crlme was nC1 Lhe resulL of any dellberaLe and well-
formed nefarlous consplracy of a crlmlnal group. AppellanL
obvlously dld noL fully reallze Lhe gravlLy of Lhe crlme.

VII. Iust|f|cat|on for death pena|ty
1. Soclal defense
2. LxemplarlLy
H"$&7 -"#$%&' #)& 210"% $#/ 0#0.0$%
! ueaLh penalLy ls noL excesslve, un[usL or cruel. unlshmenLs are
cruel when Lhey lnvolve LorLure or llngerlng deaLh. CruelLy
lmplles someLhlng lnhuman and barbarous, LhaL ls more Lhan
Lhe exLlngulshmenL of llfe.
D1+,". 67"1" /"$&7 -"#$%&' +. +,-)."/
1. 1reason
2. lracy
3. Cuallfled plracy
4. Cuallfled brlbery
3. arrlclde
6. Murder
7. lnfanLlclde
8. kldnapplng and serlous lllegal deLenLlon
9. 8obbery wlLh homlclde
10. uesLrucLlve arson
11. 8ape wlLh homlclde
12. lunder
13. CerLaln vlolaLlons of Lhe uangerous urugs AcL
14. Carnapplng
Ciiminal Law I Atty. uiovanni vallente

!!! (!) " !!!

VIII. "Death pena|ty sha|| be |mposed |n a|| cases |n wh|ch |t must be
|mposed under ex|st|ng |aw."
! As long as deaLh penalLy remalns ln Lhe sLaLuLe books, lL ls Lhe
duLy of Lhe [udlclal offlcers Lo respecL and apply Lhe law
regardless of prlvaLe oplnlon (eople v. Llmaco).

Art|c|e 48. !"#$%&' ;)1 2),-%"M 21+,". N When a s|ng|e act const|tutes 2
or more grave or |ess grave fe|on|es, or when an offense |s a necessary
means for comm|tt|ng the other, the pena|ty for the most ser|ous
cr|me sha|| be |mposed, the same to be app||ed |n |ts max|mum per|od.

CIN1S
I. At |east two cr|mes must be comm|tted
! 1he commlsslon of aL leasL Lwo crlmes. 8uL Lwo or more grave
or less grave felonles musL be Lhe resulL of a slngle acL, or an
offense musL be a necessary means for commlLLlng Lhe oLher.

II. A comp|ex cr|me |s on|y one cr|me
! AlLhough Lwo or more crlmes are commlLLed, Lhey consLlLuLe
only one crlme ln Lhe eyes of Lhe law ! one crlmlnal lnLenL.
! 1wo klnds of Complex Crlme:
1. Compound Cr|me ! When a slngle acL consLlLuLes Lwo or more
grave or less grave felonles.
2. Comp|ex Cr|me roper ! When an offense ls a necessary
means for commlLLlng Lhe oLher.

III. "When a s|ng|e act const|tutes two or more grave or |ess grave
fe|on|es"
! kequ|s|tes:
1. 1haL only a slngle acL ls performed by Lhe offender.
2. 1haL Lhe slngle acL produces
a. 1wo or more grave felonles or
b. Cne or more grave and one or more less grave
c. 1wo or more less grave felonles
Lxamp|es:
! 1he slngle acL of Lhrowlng a hand grenade produclng murder
and mulLlple aLLempLed murder (eople v. Culllen).
! laclng a Llme bomb ln a plane whlch caused lL Lo explode mld-
alr kllllng 13 persons ls a complex crlme of mulLlple murder and
desLrucLlon of properLy (eople v. Largo).
! See p.678 - 680b for oLher examples of compound crlme.
LCLL V. LAWAS (See p.680-682)
! When ln obedlence Lo an order several accused slmulLaneously
shoL many persons, wlLhouL evldence how many each kllled,
Lhere ls only one slngle offense, Lhere belng a slngle crlmlnal
lmpulse (eople v. Lawas)
! OPELI 1hls rule ls appllcable only when Lhere ls no evldence aL
all Lo show Lhe number of persons kllled by each of several
defendanLs.
! 1he slngle crlmlnal lmpulse" has no legal basls buL ls accepLable
when lL ls noL cerLaln who among Lhe accused kllled or ln[ured
each of Lhe several vlcLlms.
! 1he rullng ln eople v. Lawas ls noL appllcable when Lhere was
consplracy Lo perpeLuaLe Lhe kllllngs.
LCLL V. 8LkSAMIN
! G7"# +& +. 6+&7+# &7" .2)-" ); -)..+*+%+&' &7$& &7" &6) :+2&+,.
6"1" Q+%%"/ *' )#" $#/ &7" .$," ,+..+%"
! AbsenL showlng LhaL Lhe vlcLlms dled from more Lhan one
bulleL, Lhe crlme should be classlfled as a complex crlme.
! 8ullng ln Lhe 8ersamln case ls appllcable only when Lhere ls no
evldence as Lo how many wounds Lhe vlcLlms recelved and
Lhere ls a posslblllLy LhaL Lhey were kllled by one and Lhe same
mlsslle.
No s|ng|e acts:
! Several shoLs from 1hompson sub-machlne gun causlng several
deaLhs, alLhough caused by a slngle acL of presslng Lhe Lrlgger
are consldered several acLs (eople v, ueslerLo)
Ciiminal Law I Atty. uiovanni vallente

!!! (!) " !!!
o lL ls noL Lhe acL of presslng Lhe Lrlgger whlch should be
consldered as produclng several felonles, buL Lhe
number of bulleLs whlch acLually produced Lhem.
! AcL dlrecLed agalnsL Lwo dlfferenL persons even Lhough
resulLlng from one crlmlnal lmpulse are dlsLlncL crlmes (eople
v. Alflndo).
! 1wo vlcLlms each recelved more Lhan one bulleL wound. 1hey
were sLandlng far aparL from each oLher. Accused llable for Lwo
separaLe murders (eople v. 8asaraln).

IV. Cr|mes not covered by Art|c|e 48
>$-" 6+&7 7),+2+/" +. $ .-"2+$% 2),-%"M 21+," #)& 2):"1"/ *' 91&< RS
! Art|c|e 266-8 punlshes rape wlLh homlclde speclflcally.
O) 2),-%"M 21+," ); $1.)# 6+&7 7),+2+/" 0#/"1 91&< RS
! Art|c|e 320 as amended by kA No.76S9 provldes a penalLy.
E7";& ); ;+1"$1, $#/ +%%"3$% -).."..+)# ); .$," ;+1"$1, /) #)& ;)1, $
2),-%"M 21+," N &7"' $1" &6) /+.&+#2& 21+,".
! lllegal possesslon requlres lnLenL Lo use noL [usL own, whlch ls
noL Lhe case ln every LhefL (eople v. LsLolsLa).

V. L|ght fe|on|es produced by the same act shou|d be treated and
pun|shed as separate offenses or may be absorbed by the grave fe|ony
1. Several llghL felonles resulLlng from one slngle acL - noL complex
a. Colllslon beLween Lwo auLomoblles resulLlng lnLo
damage of properLy and sllghL physlcal ln[urles.
2. When Lhe crlme ls commlLLed by force or vlolence, sllghL
physlcal ln[urles are absorbed.
a. SllghL physlcal ln[urles absorbed ln rape.

VI. App||cab|e to cr|me through neg||gence
! Art. 48 speaks of felonles whlch make lL appllcable Lo Art. 36S
whlch deflnes and penallzes crlmlnal negllgence (faulL).
! Munlclpal mayor who accldenLally dlscharges a gun ln a school
program kllllng a glrl and ln[urlng a boy ls llable for a complex
crlme of homlclde wlLh less serlous physlcal ln[urles Lhrough
reckless lmprudence (eople v. CasLro).

VII. "When an offense |s a necessary means for comm|tt|ng the other"
! Complex crlmes do noL exlsL when Lhe Lwo crlmes are punlshed
under dlfferenL sLaLuLes.
>LTU5F5ELF
1. 1haL aL leasL Lwo offenses are commlLLed.
2. 1haL one or some of Lhe offenses musL be necessary Lo commlL
Lhe oLher.
3. 1haL boLh or all Lhe offenses musL be punlshed under Lhe same
sLaLuLe.
IIkS1 kLUISI1L: 1nA1 A1 LLAS1 1WC CIILNSLS CCMMI11LD
! eople v. 8arbas ! 1he falslflcaLlon of Lhe cedula cerLlflcaLe
whlch ls a crlme under Art|c|e 171 was necessary Lo commlL Lhe
crlme of malversaLlon under Art|c|e 217, because Lhe accused
had Lo falslfy Lhe dupllcaLe of Lhe cedulas Lo obLaln from Lhe
Laxpayers Lhe money whlch he laLer mlsapproprlaLed.
! eople v. MangulaL ! 1he crlme of forclble abducLlon was a
necessary means for commlLLlng Lhe crlme of rape.
SLCCND kLUISI1L: NLCLSSAk 1C CCMMI1 1nL C1nLk
! necessary" lnLerpreLed Lo noL mean lndlspensable.
! 1he phrase merely slgnlfled LhaL, for lnsLance, a crlme such as
slmple esLafa can be and ordlnarlly ls commlLLed ln Lhe manner
deflned ln Lhe 8C, buL lf Lhe esLafador resorLs Lo or employs
falslflcaLlon, merely Lo faclllLaLe and lnsure hls commlLLlng
esLafa, Lhen he ls gullLy of Lhe complex crlme of esLafa Lhorugh
falslflcaLlon.
1nIkD kLUISI1L: UNISnLD UNDLk 1nL SAML S1A1U1L
! Pomlclde and lllegal possesslon of flrearms are punlshed under
dlfferenL sLaLuLes.
! kA No. 8294 made Lhe use of unllcensed flrearm ln murder or
homlclde noL as a separaLe crlme buL as a speclal aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance.
Ciiminal Law I Atty. uiovanni vallente

!!! (!) " !!!

VIII. In comp|ex cr|me, when the offender executes var|ous acts, he
must have a s|ng|e purpose
! eople v. Callardo ! Lo commlL esLafa, Lhe accused had Lo
commlL 17 falslflcaLlons.
! Conzalez v. ClLy llscal ! 27 vouchers were falslfled noL for Lhe
slngle purpose of esLafa. Cne or more offenses noL necessary
means for commlLLlng oLhers.

Ik. No comp|ex cr|me:
G7"# &6) )1 ,)1" 21+,". $1" 2),,+&&"/ *0& VWC #)& *' $ .+#3%" $2&
$#/ V?C )#" +. #)& $ #"2"..$1' ,"$#. ;)1 2),,+&&+#3 &7" )&7"1<
G7"# +# &7" /";+#+&+)# ); $ ;"%)#' )#" );;"#." +. $ ,"$#. &) 2),,+&
&7" )&7"1= &7"1" +. #) 2),-%"M 21+,"<
! no complex crlme when Lrespass Lo dwelllng ls a dlrecL means
Lo commlL a grave offense llke rape, homlclde or murder.
G7"# )#" );;"#." +. 2),,+&&"/ &) 2)#2"$% &7" )&7"1
! AfLer commlLLlng homlclde, Lhe accused seL Lhe house where Ll
was perpeLraLed on flre.
! 1he amounL approprlaLed Lo hlmself was ln Lhe possesslon and
aL Lhe dlsposal of Lhe accused and he could have approprlaLed lL
Lo hlmself wlLhouL Lhe necesslLy of Lhe falslfled documenL. 1wo
crlmes were commlLLed. 1he falslflcaLlon was a means Lo
conceal, noL Lo commlL malversaLlon (uS v. CeLa).
5# &7" 21+," ); 1"*"%%+)# 6+&7 ,01/"1= $1.)#= 1)**"1' )1 )&7"1 2),,)#
21+,".
! Murder, arson and robbery are lngredlenLs ln Lhe crlme of
rebelllon and are absorbed and lnherenL ln lL.

k. When two cr|mes produced by a s|ng|e act are respect|ve|y w|th|n
the exc|us|ve [ur|sd|ct|on of two courts of d|fferent [ur|sd|ct|on, the
court of h|gher [ur|sd|ct|on sha|| try the comp|ex cr|me.
! An accused should noL be harassed wlLh varlous prosecuLlons
based on Lhe same acL by spllLLlng lL lnLo varlous charges.
kI. Art|c|e 48 |s |ntended to favor the cu|pr|t
! lL could have no beLLer purpose Lhan Lo prescrlbe a penalLy
lower Lhan Lhe aggregaLe of Lhe penalLles for each offense, lf
lmposed separaLely.
! When Lwo or more crlmes are Lhe resulL of a slngle acL, Lhe
offender ls deemed less perverse Lhan when he commlLs sald
crlmes Lhrough separaLe and dlsLlncL acLs.

kII. 1he pena|ty for comp|ex cr|me |s the pena|ty for the most ser|ous
cr|me, the same |s to be app||ed |n |ts max|mum per|od.
! 1he same rule observed when an offense ls a necessary means
for commlLLlng Lhe oLher.
! 8uL when one of Lhe offenses, as a means Lo commlL Lhe oLher,
was commlLLed by one of Lhe accused by reckless lmprudence,
LhaL Lhe accused who commlLLed Lhe offense by reckless
lmprudence ls llable for hls acL only.
! When Lhe homlclde, physlcal ln[urles, and Lhe burnlng of Lhe
house are Lhe resulL of one slngle acL of negllgence, Lhere ls only
one penalLy, buL Lhere are Lhree clvll llablllLles.
G7"# &6) ;"%)#+". 2)#.&+&0&+#3 $ 2),-%"M 21+," $1" -0#+.7$*%" *'
+,-1+.)#,"#& $#/ ;+#"= 1".-"2&+:"%'= )#%' &7" -"#$%&' ); +,-1+.)#,"#&
.7)0%/ *" +,-)."/<

kIII. Art|c|e 48 app||es on|y to cases where the Code does not prov|de a
def|n|te spec|f|c pena|ty for a comp|ex cr|me (See "IV").
____________________
LUkALI1 CI CkIMLS
I. Def|n|t|on
! ConslsLs ln Lhe successlve execuLlon by Lhe same lndlvldual of
dlfferenL crlmlnal acLs upon any of whlch no convlcLlon has yeL
been declared.

II. k|nds of p|ura||ty of cr|mes
! lormal or ldeal ! one crlmlnal llablllLy
Ciiminal Law I Atty. uiovanni vallente

!!! (!) " !!!
! 8eal or maLerlal ! Lhere are dlfferenL crlmes ln Lhe law as well
as ln Lhe consclence of Lhe offender. ln such case, Lhe offender
wlll be punlshed for each and ever offense he commlLLed.
o Lx: A sLabbed 8 wlLh a knlfe. A also sLabbed C. 1here are
Lwo acLs, Lwo crlmes.

III. |ura||ty of cr|me v. kec|d|v|sm
! 8ecldlvlsm ! Lhere musL be convlcLlon by flnal [udgmenL of Lhe
flrsL or prlor offense.
! lurallLy ! no convlcLlon of any of Lhe crlmes commlLLed.

IV. 3 Groups of forma| or |dea| type
1. When Lhe offender commlLs complex crlmes (Art. 48)
2. When Lhe law speclally flxes a slngle penalLy for Lwo or more
offenses commlLLed.
3. When Lhe offender commlLs conLlnued crlme.
____________________
CCN1INULD CkIML
I. Def|n|t|on
! A prlnclple whereln a slngle crlme conslsLlng of serles of acLs buL
all arlslng from one crlmlnal resoluLlon.
! AlLhough Lhere are a serles of acLs, Lhere ls only one crlme
commlLLed. Cne penalLy should be lmposed.
! See p.702-704 for examples
o 1he serles of acLs born of a slngle crlmlnal lmpulse may
be perpeLraLed durlng a long perlod of Llme.
o When Lwo acLs are deemed dlsLlncL from one anoLher
alLhough proceedlng from Lhe same crlmlnal lmpulse

II. A cont|nued cr|me |s not a comp|ex cr|me
! ln conLlnued crlmes, one offense ls noL a necessary means for
commlLLlng anoLher. As such, penalLy lmposed noL ln max.
! 1he prlnclple ls applled ln connecLlon wlLh Lwo or more crlmes
commlLLed wlLh a slngle lnLenL.
III. Cont|nued cr|me v. 1rans|tory cr|me
! 1ranslLory crlme ! movlng crlme" llke kldnapplng a person for
Lhe purpose of ransom.
! When a LranslLory crlme ls commlLLed, Lhe crlmlnal acLlon may
be lnsLlLuLed and Lrled ln Lhe courL of Lhe munlclpallLy, clLy or
provlnce whereln any of Lhe essenLlal lngredlenLs Lhereof Look
place. 1he slngleness of Lhe crlme, commlLLed by execuLlng Low
or more acLs ls noL consldered.

IV. Cont|nued cr|me v. kea| or mater|a| p|ura||ty
8eal or maLerlal ConLlnued crlme
Serles of acLs performed by Lhe offender
Lach acL ls a separaLe crlme
generaLed by dlfferenL crlmlnal
lmpulses.
ulfferenL acLs consLlLuLe only one
crlme because all Lhe acLs arlse
from one crlmlnal lmpulse.

Art|c|e 49. !"#$%&' &) *" +,-)."/ 0-)# &7" -1+#2+-$%. 67"# &7" 21+,"
2),,+&&"/ +. /+;;"1"#& ;1), &7$& +#&"#/"/4 In cases |n wh|ch the fe|ony
comm|tted |s d|fferent from that wh|ch the offender |ntended to
comm|t, the fo||ow|ng ru|es sha|| be observed:
1. If the pena|ty prescr|bed for the fe|ony comm|tted be h|gher
than that correspond|ng to the offense wh|ch the accused
|ntended to comm|t, the pena|ty correspond|ng to the |atter
sha|| be |mposed |n |ts max|mum per|od.
2. If the pena|ty prescr|bed for the fe|ony comm|tted be |ower
than that correspond|ng to the one wh|ch the accused
|ntended to comm|t, the pena|ty for the former sha|| be
|mposed |n |ts max|mum per|od.
3. 1he ru|e estab||shed by the next preced|ng paragraph sha|| not
be app||cab|e |f the acts comm|tted by the gu||ty person sha||
a|so const|tute an attempt or frustrat|on of another cr|me, |f
the |aw prescr|bes a h|gher pena|ty for e|ther of the |atter
offenses, |n wh|ch case the pena|ty prov|ded for the attempt
Ciiminal Law I Atty. uiovanni vallente

!!! (!) " !!!
or the frustrated cr|me sha|| be |mposed |n the max|mum
per|od.

CIN1S
I. Art. 14 has reference to the prov|s|on of the 1
st
paragraph of Art.4
! When Lhe crlme acLually commlLLed ls dlfferenL from LhaL
lnLended, Lhe penalLy Lo be lmposed musL be governed by Lhls
arLlcle.

II. Art|c|e 14 app||es on|y when there |s ,+.&$Q" +# +/"#&+&' of the v|ct|m
of the cr|me, and the pena|ty for the cr|me comm|tted |s d|fferent from
that for the cr|me |ntended to be comm|tted.
! aragraph 1 of Art|c|e 4 covers
1. 5/"$$%(,4 63(7* 8MlsLake ln Lhe 8low9 ! A flred hls gun aL hls
faLher, wlLh lnLenL Lo klll hlm, buL he ),**".9 and hlL C, kllllng
Lhe laLLer.
2. :$$4$ ,# ;"$*4#%" (MlsLake ln ldenLlLy) ! A, Lhlnklng LhaL a
person was 8, flred aL Lhe person who Lurned ouL Lo be C, Lhe
faLher of A.
3. ;$%"("$ ,#("#(,4#") (More serlous consequence noL lnLended)
! A, wlLhouL lnLenL Lo klll, boxed 8, who fell and hlL Lhe
pavemenL. 8 dled due Lo Lhe fracLure of Lhe skull.
! 1he rules sLaLed ln paragraphs 1 and 2 of ArLlcle 49 CAnnC1
apply Lo cases lnvolvlng (1) %/"$$%(,4 ,3(7* and (3) <$%"("$
,#("#(,4#")2
! lL ls only appllcable Lo (2) "$$4$ ,# <"$*4#%" ! slnce only one
crlme ls produced by Lhe acL of Lhe offender, Lhere could be no
complex crlme (Art|c|e 38) whlch presupposes Lhe commlsslon
of aL leasL Lwo crlmes.

III. Art|c|e 49 |s app||cab|e on|y when the |ntended cr|me and the cr|me
actua||y comm|tted are pun|shed w|th d|fferent pena|t|es
! lf Lhe lnLended crlme and Lhe crlme acLually commlLLed are
punlshed wlLh Lhe *%)" 4$ "=7%& penalLles. ArLlcle 49 ls nC1
appllcable.

IV. Art|c|e 49 d|st|ngu|shed from Art|c|e 48
! ln ArLlcle 49, Lhe &"**"$ penalLy ls Lo be lmposed, Lo be applled
ln Lhe maxlmum perlod
! ln ArLlcle 48, Lhe penalLy for Lhe more or )4*( serlous crlme
shall be lmposed, Lhe same Lo be applled ln lLs maxlmum perlod

V. ku|e 3 |n Art|c|e 49 |s not necessary
8ecause Lhe cases conLemplaLed ln LhaL paragraph may well be
covered by ArLlcle 48, ln vlew of Lhe facL LhaL Lhe same acL
commlLLed by Lhe gullLy person, whlch glves rlse Lo one crlme,
also consLlLuLes an aLLempL or a frusLraLlon of anoLher crlme.

Art|c|e S0. !"#$%&' &) *" +,-)."/ 0-)# -1+#2+-$%. ); $ ;10.&1$&"/ 21+,"<
N 1he pena|ty |ower |n degree than that prescr|bed by |aw for the
consummated fe|ony sha|| be |mposed upon the pr|nc|pa|s |n a
frustrated fe|ony.

Art|c|e S1. !"#$%&' &) *" +,-)."/ 0-)# -1+#2+-$%. ); $&&",-&"/ 21+,"< -
1he pena|ty |ower by two degrees than that prescr|bed by |aw for the
consummated fe|ony sha|| be |mposed upon the pr|nc|pa|s |n an
attempt to comm|t a fe|ony.

Art|c|e S2. !"#$%&' &) *" +,-)."/ 0-)# $22),-%+2". +# $ 2)#.0,,$&"/
21+,"< N 1he pena|ty next |ower |n degree than that prescr|bed by |aw
for the consummated fe|ony sha|| be |mposed upon the accomp||ces |n
the comm|ss|on of a consummated fe|ony.



Ciiminal Law I Atty. uiovanni vallente

!!! (!) " !!!
Art|c|e S3. !"#$%&' &) *" +,-)."/ 0-)# $22"..)1+". &) &7" 2),,+..+)#
); $ 2)#.0,,$&"/ ;"%)#'< - 1he pena|ty |ower by two degrees than
that prescr|bed by |aw for the consummated fe|ony sha|| be |mposed
upon the accessor|es to the comm|ss|on of a consummated fe|ony.

Art|c|e S4. !"#$%&' &) *" +,-)."/ 0-)# $22),-%+2". +# $ ;10.&1$&"/
21+,"< - 1he pena|ty next |ower |n degree than that prescr|bed by |aw
for the frustrated fe|ony sha|| be |mposed upon the accessor|es to the
comm|ss|on of a frustrated fe|ony.

Art|c|e SS. !"#$%&' &) *" +,-)."/ 0-)# $22"..)1+". ); $ ;10.&1$&"/
21+,"< - 1he pena|ty |ower by two degrees than that prescr|bed by |aw
for the frustrated fe|ony sha|| be |mposed upon the accessor|es to the
comm|ss|on of a frustrated fe|ony.

Art|c|e S6. !"#$%&' &) *" +,-)."/ 0-)# $22),-%+2". +# $# $&&",-&"/
21+,"< - 1he pena|ty next |ower |n degree than that prescr|bed by |aw
for an attempt to comm|t a fe|ony sha|| be |mposed upon the
accomp||ces |n an attempt to comm|t the fe|ony.

Art|c|e S7. !"#$%&' &) *" +,-)."/ 0-)# $22"..)1+". ); $# $&&",-&"/
21+,"< - 1he pena|ty |ower by two degrees than that prescr|bed by |aw
for the attempt sha|| be |mposed upon the accessor|es to the attempt
to comm|t a fe|ony.

CIN1S
I. D|agram of the app||cat|on of Art|c|es S0 to S7
>4#*7))%(". ?$7*($%(". 5((")<(".
rlnclpals 0 1 2
Accompllces 1 2 3
Accessorles 2 3 4
! 0" ! penalLy prescrlbed by law lmposed on Lhe <$,#3,<%& ,# %
34#*7))%(". 4++"#*" (accordlng Lo provlslons of ArLlcle 46)
! CLher flgures ! degrees Lo whlch penalLy musL be lowered Lo
meeL dlfferenL slLuaLlons anLlclpaLed by law.
! lor Art|c|es S0, S1, S2, S3 ! 8asls for reducLlon of penalLy by
one or Lwo degrees: Lhe penalLy prescrlbed by law for
consummaLed crlme.
! lor Art|c|es S4-SS ! 8asls for reducLlon: penalLy prescrlbed by
law for frusLraLed felony.
! lor Art|c|es S6-S7 ! baslc penalLy used for reducLlon by one or
Lwo degrees: for aLLempLed felony.
! ln maklng any reducLlon by one or Lwo degrees: basls used ls
LhaL already prescrlbed nC1 as already reduced.
! under Art|c|e S1: penalLy for aLLempLed crlme ls LhaL for
consummaLed felony reduced by Lwo degrees nC1 penalLy for
Lhe frusLraLed felony na reduced by one degree (ue los Angeles
v. eople)

II. Lxamp|es:
1. lacLs: A convlcLed of aLLempLed homlclde - A shoL 8 wlLh lnLenL
Lo klll buL wlLhouL lnfllcLlng a morLal wound.
o enalLy for consummaLed homlclde: recluslon Lemporal.
o 1o flnd Lhe penalLy LhaL ls lower by one or more
degrees: look ln Scale no. 1 of ArLlcle 71.
! Peld: 8ecause A only commlLLed aLLempLed homlclde: penalLy
Lo be lmposed ls LhaL whlch ls lower by Lwo degrees Lhan
recluslon Lemporal ! whlch ls prlslon correcclonal.
o enalLy for frusLraLed homlclde: one degree lower Lhan
recluslon Lemporal ! whlch ls prlslon mayor ln Lhe
same Scale no. 1 of ArLlcle 71

2. lacLs: A (prlnclpal), 8 (accompllce), C (accessory) convlcLed of
consummaLed homlclde.
! Peld:
o A's penalLy - recluslon Lemporal (as prlnclpal)
Ciiminal Law I Atty. uiovanni vallente

!!! (!) " !!!
o 8's penalLy - prlslon mayor (as accompllce: penalLy nexL
lower ln degree Lhan prescrlbed for consummaLed
homlclde)
o C's penalLy - prlslon correcclonal (as accessory: Lwo
degrees lower Lhan LhaL prescrlbed for consummaLed
homlclde)

! ln Lhe examples - penalLles shall be lmposed ln Lhe proper
perlod and shall be sub[ecL Lo Lhe provlslons of Lhe
lndeLermlnaLe SenLence Law.


III. Lxcept|ons to the ru|es estab||shed |n Art|c|es S0 to S7.
Art|c|e 60 ! Art|c|es S0-S7 shall noL apply Lo cases where Lhe
law expressly prescrlbes Lhe penalLy for a frusLraLed or
aLLempLed felony, or Lo be lmposed upon accompllces or
accessorles.
E7" -"#$%&' ;)1 ;10.&1$&"/ -$11+2+/"= ,01/"1= )1 7),+2+/"= ,$' *" &6)
/"31"". %)6"18 $#/ &7" -"#$%&' ;)1 $&&",-&"/ -$11+2+/"= ,01/"1= )1
7),+2+/" ,$' *" &71"" /"31"". %)6"1<
Art|c|e 2S0 ! 1he courLs (ln vlew of facLs of case) may lmpose
upon person gullLy of frusLraLed crlme of parrlclde, murder, or
homlclde - penalLy lower by one degree Lhan LhaL whlch should
be lmposed under Art|c|e S0, CourLs may reduce by one degree
penalLy under Art|c|e S1 lmposed for an aLLempL Lo commlL any
of sald crlmes.

IV. What are the bases for the determ|nat|on of the extent of pena|ty
to be |mposed under the rev|sed ena| Code?
1. SLage reached by Lhe crlme ln lLs developmenL
(aLLempLed/frusLraLed/consummaLed).
2. arLlclpaLlons Lhereln of Lhe persons llable.
3. AggravaLlng or mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances whlch aLLended Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
! lor 1 (sLages of execuLlon) and 2 (parLlclpaLlon of persons llable)
! penalLy ls graduaLed by degree.

V. What |s a degree |n re|at|on to pena|ty?
! uLC8LL: one enLlre/whole penalLy, one unlL of Lhe penalLles
enumeraLed ln Lhe graduaLes scales found ln Art|c|e 71.
o Lach of Lhe penalLles of recluslon perpeLua, recluslon
remporal, prlslon mayor eLc. lS a degree
! When Lhere ls mlLlgaLlng or aggravaLlng clrcumsLance: penalLy ls
lowered or lncreased by perlod only LxCL1 when penalLy ls
dlvlslble and Lhere are Lwo ore more mlLlgaLlng 1,(@47(
aggravaLlng clrcumsLances - lf Lhls happens, penalLy ls lowered
by a degree.

VI. What |s a per|od of pena|ty?
! L8lCu: one of Lhe Lhree equal porLlons (elLher mlnlmum/
medlum/ maxlmum) of a dlvlslble penalLy (Art|c|e 6S).
9 -"1+)/ ); $ /+:+.+*%" -"#$%&'= 67"# -1".21+*"/ *' &7" D)/" $. $
-"#$%&' ;)1 $ ;"%)#'= +. +# +&."%; $ /"31""<
! (Lxample) ln Art|c|e 140 - penalLy for leader of a sedlLlon ls
prlslon mayor ln lLs mlnlmum perlod and flne
! lL (mlnlmum perlod) belng a degree - penalLy lower Lhan LhaL
penalLy ls prlslon correcLlonal ln lLs maxlmum perlod

Art|c|e S8. 9//+&+)#$% -"#$%&' &) *" +,-)."/ 0-)# 2"1&$+# $22"..)1+".<
N 1hose accessor|es fa|||ng w|th|n the terms of paragraph 3 of Art|c|e
19 of th|s Code who shou|d act w|th abuse of the|r pub||c funct|ons.
Sha|| suffer the add|t|ona| pena|ty of abso|ute perpetua|
d|squa||f|cat|on |f the pr|nc|pa| offender sha|| be gu||ty of a grave
fe|ony, and that of abso|ute temporary d|squa||f|cat|on |f he sha|| be
gu||ty of a |ess grave fe|ony.



Ciiminal Law I Atty. uiovanni vallente

!!! (!) " !!!
CIN1S
I. Add|t|ona| pena|t|es for pub||c off|cers who are gu||ty as accessor|es
under paragraph 3 of Art|c|e 19.
! ubllc offlcers who help Lhe auLhor of a crlme by mlsuslng Lhelr
offlce and duLles shall suffer Lhe addlLlonal penalLles of:
1. AbsoluLe perpeLual dlsquallflcaLlon - lf prlnclpal offended gullLy
of grave felony.
2. AbsoluLe Lemporary dlsquallflcaLlon - lf prlnclpal offender gullLy
of less grave felony.
! ArLlcle 38 llmlLs lLs provlslons Lo grave or less grave felonles
because lL ls noL posslble Lo have accessorles llable for llghL
felonles (Art. 16)

II. 1h|s art|c|e app||es on|y to pub||c off|cers who abused the|r pub||c
funct|ons.
! Accessorles referred Lo ln Art|c|e S8 - Lhose falllng wlLhln Lhe
Lerm of paragraph 3 of Art|c|e 19 (recall: harborlng, conceallng,
or asslsLlng ln Lhe escape.).
! AddlLlonal penalLy ln Art|c|e S8 lmposed only on accessorles
who mlsused hls publlc offlce or auLhorlLy ln parLlclpaLlng ln
crlme (who should acL wlLh abuse of Lhelr publlc funcLlons").

Art|c|e S9. !"#$%&' &) *" +,-)."/ +# 2$." ); ;$+%01" &) 2),,+& &7" 21+,"
*"2$0." &7" ,"$#. ",-%)'"/ )1 &7" $+,. .)037& $1" +,-)..+*%"< N
When the person |ntend|ng to comm|t an offense has a|ready
performed the acts for the execut|on of the same but neverthe|ess the
cr|me was not produced by reason of the fact that the act |ntended
was by |ts nature one of |mposs|b|e accomp||shment or because the
means emp|oyed by such person are essent|a||y |nadequate to produce
the resu|t des|red by h|m, the court, hav|ng |n m|nd the soc|a| danger
and the degree of cr|m|na||ty shown by the offender, sha|| |mposed
upon h|m the pena|ty of $11".&) ,$')1 or a f|ne rang|ng from 200-S00
pesos.

CIN1S
I. ena|ty for |mposs|b|e cr|me.
! enalLy for lmposslble crlme ls %$$"*(4 )%04$ or a flne ranglng
from 200 Lo 300 pesos.

II. 8as|s for |mpos|t|on of proper pena|ty: (1) soc|a| danger, and (2)
degree of cr|m|na||ty shown by the offender.
! CourL musL Lake lnLo conslderaLlon Lhe soclal danger and Lhe
degree of crlmlnallLy shown by Lhe offender (Art|c|e S9)
! (Lxample) erson flred revolver upon enemy 1 kllomeLer away
shows sLupldlLy raLher Lhan dangerousness.
! Accordlng Lo oslLlvlsL Lheory: such person should noL be
punlshed - Lhere ls nelLher soclal danger" nor degree of
crlmlnallLy" shown by hlm, acL ls absoluLely harmless, no"
common sense.
! 8uL one who dlscharged shoLgun aL anoLher from 200 yards
away - gullLy of dlscharge of flrearm (Art|c|e 2S4) noL of
lmposslble crlme - no proof of lnLenL Lo klll on parL of offender
and lL was posslble of accompllshlng Lhe evll lnLenL of offender
(Lo frlghLen offended parLy) (eople v. Agbuya).

III. Is the pena|ty for |mposs|b|e cr|me proper?
! enalLy of arresLo mayo or flne of 200-300 - sub[ecL Lo
crlLlclsm because arLlcle uses words offense" and crlme"
whlch lnclude llghL felony.
! Cne who aLLempL Lo commlL llghL felony of lmposslble
maLerlallzaLlon may be punlshed by penalLy of arresLo mayor
(hlgher Lhan Lhe prescrlbed for consummaLed llghL felony or
arresLo menor).
! rovlslon of Art|c|e S9 llmlLed Lo cases where acL performed
would be grave felonles or less grave felonles.


Ciiminal Law I Atty. uiovanni vallente

!!! (!) " !!!
Art|c|e 60. LM2"-&+)#. &) &7" 10%". ".&$*%+.7"/ +# 91&+2%". AK &) AJ< - 1he
prov|s|ons conta|ned |n Art|c|es S0 to S7, |nc|us|ve, of th|s Code sha||
not be app||cab|e to cases |n wh|ch the |aw express|y prescr|bes the
pena|ty prov|ded for a frustrated or attempted fe|ony, or to be
|mposed upon accomp||ces or accessor|es.

CIN1S
I. Art|c|es S0 to S7 do not app|y when the |aw express|y prescr|bes the
pena|ty for a frustrated or attempted fe|ony or to be |mposed upon
accomp||ces or accessor|es.
! Cn Lhe occaslon or ln consequence of an aLLempLed or
frusLraLed robbery, Lhe offender commlLs a homlclde - law
provldes ln Art|c|e 297: Lhe speclal penalLy of recluslon
Lemporal ln lLs maxlmum perlod Lo recluslon perpeLua shall be
lmposed upon Lhe offender.
! lf noL for Lhls provlslon ln Art|c|e 60 - penalLy Lo be lmposed ls
recluslon Lemporal: penalLy nexL lower ln degree Lhan recluslon
perpeLua Lo deaLh - whlch ls Lhe penalLy for consummaLed
offense of robbery wlLh homlclde.
! 8eason: enormlLy of Lhe offense of aLLempLed or frusLraLed
robbery wlLh homlclde = law provldes speclal penalLy Lherefore.

II. Accomp||ce, pun|shed as pr|nc|pa|.
! Ceneral rule: Accompllce punlshed by penalLy one degree lower
Lhan penalLy lmposed upon prlnclpal.
! 2 CASLS LhaL Lhe Code punlshes accompllce wlLh same penalLy
upon prlnclpal are:
o Art|c|e 346 ! AscendanLs, guardlans, curaLors,
Leachers, and any person who by abuse of auLhorlLy or
confldenLlal relaLlonshlp, shall cooperaLe as accompllces
ln Lhe crlmes of rape, acLs of lasclvlousness seducLlon,
corrupLlon of mlnors, whlLe slave Lrade or abducLlon.
o Art|c|e 268 ! Cne who furnlshed Lhe place for Lhe
perpeLraLlon of Lhe crlme of sllghL lllegal deLenLlon.
" lurnlshlng Lhe place for Lhe perpeLraLlon of Lhe
crlme ls ordlnarlly Lhe acL of an accompllce.

III. Accessory pun|shed as pr|nc|pa|
! Art|c|e 142 ! knowlngly conceallng cerLaln evll acLs are usually
acLs of Lhe accessory buL under Lhls arLlcle ls punlshed as acL of
Lhe prlnclpal.
D"1&$+# $22"..)1+". $1" -0#+.7"/ 6+&7 $ -"#$%&' )#" /"31"" %)6"1
+#.&"$/ ); &6) /"31"".
! Art|c|e 162 ! knowlngly uslng counLerfelLed seal or forged
slgnaLure or sLamp of Lhe resldenL.
! Art|c|e 168 ! lllegal possesslon and use of a false Lreasury noLe
or bank noLe.
! Art|c|e 173(3) ! uslng a falslfled documenL.
! Art|c|e 173(2) ! uslng a falslfled dlspaLch.

Art|c|e 61. >0%". ;)1 31$/0$&+#3 -"#$%&+".. Ior the purpose of
graduat|ng the pena|t|es wh|ch, accord|ng to the prov|s|ons of Art|c|es
S0 to S7, |nc|us|ve, of th|s Code, are to be |mposed upon persons gu||ty
as pr|nc|pa|s of any frustrated or attempted fe|ony, or as accomp||ces
or accessor|es, the fo||ow|ng ru|es sha|| be observed:
1. When the pena|ty prescr|bed for the fe|ony |s s|ng|e and
|nd|v|s|b|e, the pena|ty next |ower |n degrees sha|| be that
|mmed|ate|y fo||ow|ng that |nd|v|s|b|e pena|ty |n the respect|ve
graduated sca|e prescr|bed |n Art|c|e 71 of th|s Code.
2. When the pena|ty prescr|bed for the cr|me |s composed of two
|nd|v|s|b|e pena|t|es, or of one or more d|v|s|b|e pena|t|es to be
|mpose to the|r fu|| extent, the pena|ty next |ower |n degree
sha|| be that |mmed|ate|y fo||ow|ng the |esser of the pena|t|es
prescr|bed |n the respect|ve graduated sca|e.
3. When the pena|ty prescr|bed for the cr|me |s composed of one
or two |nd|v|s|b|e pena|t|es and the max|mum per|od of
another d|v|s|b|e pena|ty, the pena|ty next |ower |n degree
sha|| be composed of the med|um and m|n|mum per|ods of the
Ciiminal Law I Atty. uiovanni vallente

!!! (!) " !!!
proper d|v|s|b|e pena|ty and the max|mum per|ods of the
proper d|v|s|b|e pena|ty and the max|mum per|od of that
|mmed|ate|y fo||ow|ng |n sa|d respect|ve graduated sca|e.
4. When the pena|ty prescr|bed for the cr|me |s composed of
severa| per|ods, correspond|ng to d|fferent d|v|s|b|e pena|t|es,
the pena|ty next |ower |n degree sha|| be composed of the
per|od |mmed|ate|y fo||ow|ng the m|n|mum prescr|bed and of
the two next fo||ow|ng, wh|ch sha|| be taken from the pena|ty
prescr|bed, |f poss|b|e, otherw|se from the pena|ty
|mmed|ate|y fo||ow|ng |n the above ment|oned respect|ve
graduated sca|e.
S. When the |aw prescr|bes a pena|ty for a cr|me |n some manner
not espec|a||y prov|ded for |n the four preced|ng ru|es, the
courts, proceed|ng by ana|ogy, sha|| |mpose correspond|ng
pena|t|es upon those gu||ty as pr|nc|pa|s of the frustrated
fe|ony, or of attempt to comm|t the same, and upon
accomp||ces and accessor|es.

CIN1S
I. Art|c|e 61 prov|des for the ru|es to be observed |n |ower|ng the
pena|ty by one or two degrees
! ArLlcle 46 provldes LhaL penalLy prescrlbed by law ln general
Lerms shall be lmposed upon <$,#3,<%& ,# 34#*7))%(". +"&4#0
! ArLlcles 30-37 provldes LhaL penalLy prescrlbed by law for Lhe
felony shall be lowered one or Lwo degrees:
(1) rlnclpal ln frusLraLed felony - one degree lower,
(2) rlnclpal ln aLLempLed felony - Lwo degrees lower,
(3) Accompllce ln consummaLed felony - one degree lower, and
(4) Accessory ln consummaLed felony - Lwo degrees lower.
! 8ules ln ArLlcle 61 also applles ln deLermlnlng ),#,)7) of Lhe
lndeLermlnaLe penalLy under Lhe lndeLermlnaLe SenLence Law
! A,#,)7) of Lhe lndeLermlnaLe penalLy ls wlLhln Lhe range of
penalLy #"-( &41"$ Lhan prescrlbed by 8C for Lhe offense
! 8ules also apply ln lowerlng penalLy by one or Lwo degrees by
reason of presence of <$,B,&"!". mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance (Art.
68 & 69), or when Lhe penalLy ls dlvlslble and Lhere are 2 or
more generlc mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances and nC %!!$%B%(,#!
clrcumsLance (Art. 64)

II. 1he |ower pena|ty sha|| be taken from the graduated sca|e |n Art|c|e
71.
! Scale no. 1 ln ArLlcle 71 (penalLles ln order):
1. ueaLh
2. C"3&7*,4# <"$<"(7%D
3. C"3&7*,4# (")<4$%&D
4. ;$,*,4# )%04D
3. ;$,*,4# 34$$"33,4#%&D
6. 5$$"*(4 )%04$D
7. E"*(,"$$4D
8. 5$$"*(4 )"#4$D
9. ;7/&,3 3"#*7$"D
10. llne.
! 6#.,B,*,/&" penalLles: (1) deaLh, (2) $"3&7*,4# <"$<"(7%, (3) publlc
censure
! E,B,*,/&" penalLles: $"3&7*,4# (")<4$%& down Lo %$$"*(4 )"#4$
! ulvlslble penalLles dlvlded lnLo 3 perlods: (1) ),#,)7)D (2)
)".,7)D (3) )%-,)7)
____________________
I||ustrat|ons of the ru|es:
I. IIkS1 kULL: When the pena|ty |s s|ng|e and |nd|v|s|b|e.
! Lx. C"3&7*,4# <"$<"(7% - penalLy for kldnapplng and falllng Lo
reLurn a mlnor (Art. 270)
! ln Scale no. 1 of ArLlcle 71 - penalLy lmmedlaLely followlng
$"3&7*,4# <"$<"(7% ls $"3&7*,4# (")<4$%& (Lherefore lL ls Lhe
penalLy nexL lower ln degree).


Ciiminal Law I Atty. uiovanni vallente

!!! (!) " !!!
II. SLCCND kULL:
A. ena|ty |s composed of two |nd|v|s|b|e pena|t|es.
! lndlvlslble penalLles: $"3&7*,4# <"$<"(7% Lo deaLh
! 1hey are Lhe penalLles for parrlclde (Art. 246)
! enalLy lmmedlaLely followlng &"**"$ of Lhe penalLles (or
recluslon perpeLua) ! $"3&7*,4# (")<4$%&
8. When the pena|ty |s composed of one or more d|v|s|b|e pena|t|es to
be |mposed to the|r fu|| extent.
! E,B,*,/&" penalLy lmposed Lo full exLenL ! recluslon Lemporal
o enalLy lmmedlaLely followlng dlvlslble penalLy of
recluslon Lemporal ! prlslon mayor
! 1wo .,B,*,/&" penalLles lmposed Lo full exLenL ! <$,*,4#
34$$"33,4#%& (4 <$,*,4# )%04$2
o enalLy lmmedlaLely followlng Lhe &"**"$ penalLy
beLween prlslon correcclonal Lo prlslon mayor !
arresLo mayor (Scale no. 1 ArL. 71)
III. 1nIkD kULL:
A. When the pena|ty |s composed of two |nd|v|s|b|e pena|t|es and the
max|mum per|od of a d|v|s|b|e pena|ty.
! enalLy for murder (Art. 248) ! recluslon Lemporal ln
maxlmum perlod Lo deaLh.
! 8elcuslon perpeLua (= ln beLween recluslon Lemporal & deaLh)
! lncluded ln penalLy
! enalLy for murder has: 2 lndlvlslble penalLles (recluslon
perpeLua - deaLh) and 1 dlvlslble penalLy (recluslon Lemporal ln
max perlod)
! roper dlvlslble penalLy: recluslon Lemporal - penalLy
lmmedlaLely followlng lL: prlslon mayor
! under Lhlrd rule: penalLy nexL lower ! composed of medlum &
mlnlmum perlods of recluslon Lemporal and max perlod of
prlslon mayor
! (1hls Lhe same penalLy compuLed ln eople v. Cng 1a)
5%%0.&1$&+)#:
uLA1P
8ecluslon erpeLua
1. Maxlmum
(1) enalLy for Lhe
prlnclpal ln
consummaLed felony.
2. Medlum

8ecluslon 1emporal
3. Mlnlmum
1. Maxlmum
(2) enalLy for
accompllce, or
penalLy for Lhe
prlnclpal ln frusLraLed
felony.
2. Medlum
rlslon Mayor
3. Mlnlmum

8. When the pena|ty |s composed of one |nd|v|s|b|e pena|ty and the
max|mum per|od of a d|v|s|b|e pena|ty.
! Lx: 8ecluslon Lemporal ln max perlod Lo recluslon perpeLua
! Same rule observed ln lowerlng penalLy by 1-2 degrees

IV. ICUk1n kULL: When the pena|ty |s composed of severa| per|ods.
! Several" mean 'conslsLlng ln more Lhan 2 perlods'
! lourLh rule: conLemplaLes penalLy composed of aL leasL 3
perlods.
! Several perlods MuS1 correspond Lo dlfferenL dlvlslble penalLles
! enalLy composed of several perlods correspondlng Lo dlfferenL
dlvlslble penalLles ! prlslon mayor (medlum perlod) 1C
recluslon Lemporal (mlnlmum perlod)
! erlod lmmedlaLely followlng mlnlmum (= prlslon mayor ln
medlum perlod) ! ls prlslon mayor ln mlnlmum perlod
! 1wo perlods nexL followlng are: max and med perlods of prlslon
correcclonal (=penalLy nexL followlng scale ln ArLlcle 71 slnce lL
cannoL be Laken from penalLy prescrlbed)
I||ustrat|on:
1. Maxlmum
2. Medlum 8ecluslon Lemporal
3. Mlnlmum
1. Maxlmum
(1) enalLy for Lhe
prlnclpal ln
Ciiminal Law I Atty. uiovanni vallente

!!! (!) " !!!
1. Maxlmum
2. Medlum
consummaLed felony. rlslon mayor
3. Mlnlmum
1. Maxlmum
2. Medlum
(2) enalLy for
accompllce, or
penalLy for Lhe
prlnclpal ln frusLraLed
felony.

rlslon correcclonal
3. Mlnlmum

V. III1n kULL: 8y ana|ogy, because "not spec|f|ca||y prov|ded for |n
the four preced|ng ru|es"
A. When the pena|ty has two per|ods.
! CerLaln offenses ln 8C: punlshed wlLh penalLy 34)<4*". 4+ (14
<"$,4.*:
o LlLher of same penalLy: lor abducLlon (Art. 343) -
prlslon correcclonal ln lLs mlnlmum and medlum
perlods.
o Cr of dlfferenL penalLles: lor physlcal ln[urles (Art. 263,
subsec. 4) - arresLo mayor ln max perlod Lo prlslon
correcclonal ln mlnlmum perlod
! ln Lhese cases: penalLy lower by one degree ! ls formed by 2
perlods Laken from Lhe same penalLy prescrlbed (lf posslble) C8
from perlods of penalLy numerlcally followlng Lhe lesser of Lhe
penalLles prescrlbed
! 1hese cases - noL covered by fourLh rule (cause penalLy
conLemplaLed ln 4
Lh
rule musL conLaln aL leasL 3 perlods)
! enalLy under flfLh rule (by analogy) - conLalns 1 or 2 perlods
only
LM$,-%"I
! enalLy nexL lower Lhan prlslon correcclonal ln lLs mln and med
perlods ! ls arresLo mayor ln lLs med and max perlods
Maxlmum
Medlum rlslon correcclonal
Mlnlmum
enalLy prescrlbed for
Lhe felony
Maxlmum
Medlum
enalLy nexL lower
ArresLo mayor
Mlnlmum

8. When the pena|ty has one per|od.
! lf penalLy ls any one of Lhe 3 perlods of a dlvlslble penalLy -
penalLy nexL lower ln degree = ls Lhe perlod nexL followlng Lhe
glven penalLy.
! Lx. enalLy lmmedlaLely lnferlor Lo prlslon mayor ln maxlmum
perlod ls prlslon mayor ln medlum perlod
! lf penalLy ls recluslon Lemporal ln medlum perlod - penalLy nexL
lower ln degree = recluslon Lemporal ln mlnlmum perlod
! enalLy prescrlbed by Code for a felony ls a degree
! lf penalLy prescrlbed for felony ls 1 of 3 perlods of dlvlslble
penalLy ! LhaL perlod becomes a degree & Lhe perlod
lmmedlaLely below ls Lhe penalLy nexL lower ln degree

VI. S|mp||f|ed ru|es: (for rules ln ar. 4 and 3 of ArL. 61)
(1) lf penalLy prescrlbed by Code conslsLs ln 3 perlods
(correspondlng Lo dlfferenL dlvlslble penalLles) ! penalLy nexL
lower ln degree ls penalLy conslsLlng ln 3 perlods down Lhe scale
(2) lf penalLy prescrlbed by Code conslsLs ln 2 perlods ! penalLy
nexL lower ln degree ls Lhe penalLy conslsLlng ln 2 perlods down
Lhe scale
(3) lf penalLy prescrlbed by Code conslsLs ln only 1 perlod !
penalLy nexL lower ln degree ls Lhe nexL perlod down ln Lhe
scale
! lf Lhe glven penalLy ls composed of 1/2/3 perlods ! penalLy
nexL lower ln degree should begln where Lhe glven penalLy ends
(because oLherwlse lf lL were Lo sklp over lnLermedlaLe ones lL
would be lower buL noL nLx1 lower ln degree (eople v. PalooL)
! u.S. v. luenLes ! Peld: enalLy nexL lower ln degree Lo prlslon
correcclonal ln medlum perlod = ls arresLo mayor ln medlum
perlod.
Ciiminal Law I Atty. uiovanni vallente

!!! (!) " !!!
8eason for rullng: a degree conslsLs ln 1 whole or 1 unlL of Lhe
penalLles enumeraLed ln Lhe graduaLed scales ln ArLlcle 71. 1o
lower a penalLy by 1 degree - lLs necessary Lo keep a dlsLance of
one whole penalLy or one unlL of penalLles ln ArL. 71 beLween
one degree and anoLher
! eople v. Co ao & eople v. Cayrama ! Lhere ls a dlsLance of
only 1/3 of a degree V10%+#3 +# X0"#&". 2$." 6$. .0-"1."/"/ *'
&7" 10%+#3. +# &7"." 2$.".C<

VII. M|t|gat|ng and aggravat|ng c|rcumstances are d|sregarded |n the
app||cat|on of the ru|es for graduat|ng pena|t|es.
! nC1L: Lach paragraph of Art|c|e 61 beglns wlLh When Lhe
penalLy prescrlbed for Lhe felony" or crlme".
! ln lowerlng Lhe penalLy - penalLy prescrlbed by Lhe 8C for Lhe
crlme ls Lhe basls (w/o regard Lo Lhe mlLlgaLlng or aggravaLlng
clrcumsLances w/c aLLended Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme)
! lL ls only afLer Lhe penalLy nexL lower ln degree ls already
deLermlned LhaL Lhe mlLlgaLlng and/or aggravaLlng
clrcumsLances should be consldered.


!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

1I1LL 1nkLL - LNAL1ILS
CnA1Lk 4: ALICA1ICN CI LNAL1ILS
SLC1ICN 2: kULLS ICk 1nL ALICA1ICN CI LNAL1ILS WI1n kLGAkD
1C MI1IGA1ING AND AGGkAVA1ING CIkCUMS1ANCLS, AND nA8I1UAL
DLLINULNC

Art|c|e 62. !""#$%& (" %)# *%%#+,*+$# (" -.%./*%.+/ (0 *//0*1*%.+/
$.0$2-&%*+$#& *+, (" )*3.%2*4 ,#4.+52#+$67 8 M|t|gat|ng or aggravat|ng
c|rcumstances and hab|tua| de||nquency sha|| be taken |nto account for
the purpose of d|m|n|sh|ng or |ncreas|ng the pena|ty |n conform|ty
w|th the fo||ow|ng ru|es:
1. Aggravat|ng c|rcumstances wh|ch |n themse|ves const|tute a
cr|me spec|a||y pun|shab|e by |aw or wh|ch are |nc|uded by the
|aw |n def|n|ng a cr|me and prescr|b|ng the pena|ty therefor
sha|| not be taken |nto account for the purpose of |ncreas|ng
the pena|ty.
1(a). When |n the comm|ss|on of the cr|me, advantage was
taken by the offender of h|s pub||c pos|t|on, the pena|ty to be
|mposed sha|| be |n |ts max|mum regard|ess of m|t|gat|ng
c|rcumstances.
1he max|mum pena|ty sha|| be |mposed |f the offense was
comm|tted by any person who be|ongs to an
organ|zed]synd|cated cr|me group.
An organ|zed]synd|cated cr|me group means a group of two or
more persons co||aborat|ng, confederat|ng or mutua||y he|p|ng
one another for purposes of ga|n |n the comm|ss|on of the
cr|me.
2. 1he same ru|e sha|| app|y w|th respect to any aggravat|ng
c|rcumstances |nherent |n the cr|me to such a degree that |t
must of necess|ty accompany the comm|ss|on thereof.
3. Aggravat|ng or m|t|gat|ng c|rcumstances wh|ch ar|se from the
mora| attr|butes of the offender, or from h|s pr|vate re|at|ons
w|th the offended party, or from any other persona| cause,
sha|| on|y serve to aggravate or m|t|gate the ||ab|||ty of the
pr|nc|pa|s, accomp||ces, and accessor|es as to whom such
c|rcumstances are attendant.
4. 1he c|rcumstances wh|ch cons|st |n the mater|a| execut|on of
the act, or |n the means emp|oyed to accomp||sh |t, sha|| serve
to aggravate or m|t|gate the ||ab|||ty of those persons on|y who
had know|edge of them at the t|me of the execut|on of the act
or the|r cooperat|on there|n.
S. nab|tua| de||nquency sha|| have the fo||ow|ng effects:
(a) Upon a th|rd conv|ct|on, the cu|pr|t sha|| be sentenced to
the pena|ty prov|ded by |aw for the |ast cr|me of wh|ch he
be found gu||ty and to the add|t|ona| pena|ty of 90.&.(+
$(00#$$.(+*4 |n |ts med|um and max|mum per|ods,
(b) Upon a fourth conv|ct|on, the cu|pr|t sha|| be sentenced to
the pena|ty prov|ded for the |ast cr|me of wh|ch he be
found gu||ty and to the add|t|ona| pena|ty of 90.&.(+ -*6(0
|n |ts m|n|mum and med|um per|ods, and
(c) Upon a f|fth or add|t|ona| conv|ct|on, the cu|pr|t sha|| be
sentenced to the pena|ty prov|ded for the |ast cr|me of
wh|ch he be found gu||ty and to the add|t|ona| pena|ty of
90.&.(+ -*6(0 |n |ts max|mum per|od to 0#$42&.(+ %#-9(0*4
|n |ts m|n|mum per|od.
Notw|thstand|ng the prov|s|ons of th|s art|c|e, the tota| of the
two pena|t|es to be |mposed upon the offender, |n conform|ty
herew|th, sha|| |n no case exceed 30 years.
Ior the purposes of th|s art|c|e, a person sha|| be deemed to be
hab|tua| de||nquent, |f w|th|n a per|od of ten years from the
date of h|s re|ease or |ast conv|ct|on of the cr|mes of ser|ous or
|ess ser|ous phys|ca| |n[ur|es, 0(3(: )20%(: #&%*"*: or
"*4&.".$*%.(+: he |s found gu||ty of any of sa|d cr|mes a th|rd
t|me or oftener. ;<& *-#+,#, 36 =#9234.$ <$% >(7 ?@AB7C

CIN1S
I. Lffects of the attendance of aggravat|ng or m|t|gat|ng c|rcumstances
or of hab|tua| de||nquency.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

1. AggravaLlng clrcumsLances (generlc and speclflc) have effecL of
! lncreaslng penalLy (w/o exceedlng Lhe max provlded by law).
2. MlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances have effecL of ! dlmlnlshlng Lhe
penalLy.
3. PablLual dellnquency has effecL ! lncreaslng penalLy (cause of
recldlvlsm LhaL ls lmplled ln hablLual dellnquency) LuS
lmposlng an addlLlonal penalLy.
____________________
AkAGkAn 1:
I. Aggravat|ng c|rcumstances that:
(1) ln Lhemselves consLlLuLe a crlme especlally punlshed by law C8
LhaL
(2) are lncluded by Lhe law ln deflnlng a crlme and prescrlblng Lhe
penalLy Lherefor
- are noL Lo be Laken lnLo accounL Lo lncrease Lhe penalLy

II. Lxamp|es:
(1) Wh|ch |n themse|ves const|tute a cr|me.
! 1haL crlme be commlLLed by means of flre" (ArL. 14, par 2.) =
nC1 consldered as aggravaLlng ln arson
! 1haL crlme be commlLLed by means of derallmenL of a
locomoLlve" (ArL. 14, par 12.) = nC1 consldered as aggravaLlng
ln crlme known as uamages and obsLrucLlon Lo means of
coomunlcaLlon" (ArL. 330 - whlch punlshes Lhe acL of damaglng
any rallway resulLlng ln derallmenL of cars)

(2) Wh|ch are |nc|uded by |aw |n def|n|ng a cr|me.
! 1haL crlme was commlLLed ln Lhe dwelllng of offended parLy =
nC1 aggravaLlng ln robbery wlLh force upon Lhlngs (ArL. 299)
! Abuse of confldence ls noL aggravaLlng ln quallfled LhefL
commlLLed wlLh grave abuse of confldence (ArL. 310)
! 1haL crlme was commlLLed by means of polson (ArL. 14, par. 12)
= noL aggravaLlng ln crlme of murder by means of polson (slnce
uslng polson Lo klll vlcLlm lncluded by law ln deflnlng Lhe crlme
of murder ArL. 248, par. 3)
III. When max|mum of the pena|ty sha|| be |mposed.
Max of penalLy shall be lmposed ln Lhe followlng cases:
1. When ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme, advanLage was Laken by
Lhe offender of hls publlc poslLlon,
2. lf Lhe offense was commlLLed by any person who belongs Lo an
organlzed/syndlcaLed crlme group.

IV. What |s an organ|zed]synd|cated cr|me group?
! Means a group of 2 or more persons collaboraLlng
confederaLlng or muLually helplng one anoLher for purposes of
galn ln Lhe commlsslon of any crlme
____________________
AkAGkAn 2:
! 1he same rule applles wlLh respecL Lo aggravaLlng clrcumsLances
whlch are lnherenL ln Lhe crlme.
! Lx. LvldenL premedlLaLlon ls lnherenL ln robbery and LhefL (u.S.
CasLroverde)
____________________
AkAGkAn 3:
I. Aggravat|ng or m|t|gat|ng wh|ch ar|se from:
(1) Moral aLLrlbuLes of offender
(2) lrom hls prlvaLe relaLlons wlLh offended parLy
(3) lrom any oLher personal cause
! Serve Lo aggravaLe or mlLlgaLe llablllLy of: prlnclpals,
accompllces, accessorles ! as Lo whom such clrcumsLances are
aLLendanL.
II. Lxamp|es:
(1) Mora| attr|butes of offender:
! A + 8 kllled C.
! A acLed w/ evldenL premedlLaLlon, 8 w/ passlon and
obfuscaLlon.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

! ClrcumsLances of evldenL premedlLaLlon + passlon &
obfuscaLlon ! arlses from moral aLLrlbuLes of offenders.
! LvldenL premedlLaLlon should only affecL and aggravaLe only
penalLy for A & passlon and obfuscaLlon mlLlgaLes only 8's
llablllLy.

(2) Irom h|s pr|vate re|at|ons w|th the offended party:
! A and C lnfllcLed sllghL physlcal ln[urles on 8.
o A ! son of 8.
o C ! faLher of 8.
! AlLernaLlve clrcumsLance of relaLlonshlp as aggravaLlng wlll only
be agalnsL A (lower degree relaLlve of 8).
! AlLernaLlve clrcumsLance of relaLlonshlp as mlLlgaLlng wlll only
be for C (hlgher degree relaLlve of 8).
! D).& 024.+/ )(4,& %02# #1#+ ." %)#0# E*& $(+&9.0*$67
o 1he rule LhaL ln consplracy Lhe acL of one ls Lhe acL of all
does noL mean LhaL Lhe crlme of one ls Lhe crlme of all

(3) Irom any other persona| cause:
! A and 8 commlLLed a crlme.
o A was 16 l.e. mlnor
o 8 was a recldlvlsL
! Lach wlll carry Lhe correspondlng addlLlonal/mlLlgaLed penalLy
____________________
AkAGkAn 4:
! 1he clrcumsLances whlch conslsL of (1) and (2) shall serve only
Lo aggravaLe or mlLlgaLe Lhe llablllLy of Lhose persons only who
had knCWLLuCL of Lhem A1 1PL 1lML of Lhe execuLlon.

I. Lxamp|es:
(1) Mater|a| execut|on of the cr|me
! A lnduced 8 and C Lo klll u. 8 and C kllled u uslng Lreachery noL
prevlously agreed wlLh A.
! A's llablllLy ls noL aggravaLed by Lreachery.
! 8u1 lf A was presenL or had knowledge of Lhe Lreachery used,
Lhen A ls also llable for murder quallfled by Lreachery.

(2) Means to accomp||sh the cr|me
! A ordered 8 Lo klll C. 8 used polson wlLhouL knowledge of A.
! Cnly 8 wlll suffer Lhe aggravaLlng clrcumsLance.

II. 1here |s no m|t|gat|ng c|rcumstance re|at|ng to the means emp|oyed
|n the execut|on of the cr|me
! lL ls lmposslble Lo concelve of any mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance
whlch can properly be consldered as Lo one of Lhe defendanLs,
buL ls noL equally appllcable Lo Lhe resL, LvLn Lo Lhose who had
no knowledge of Lhe same aL Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme, or Lhelr cooperaLlon Lhereln.

III. D|fference between (1) C|rcumstances re|at|ng to persons
part|c|pat|on |n the same and (2) c|rcumstances cons|st|ng |n the
mater|a| execut|on of the means emp|oyed
ersons arLlclpaLlon MaLerlal LxecuLlon / Means
Lmployed
uo noL affecL all Lhe parLlclpanLs ln
Lhe crlme buL only Lhose Lo whom
Lhey parLlcularly apply.
Pave a dlrecL bearlng upon Lhe
crlmlnal llablllLy of all Lhe
defendanLs who had knowledge
Lhereof aL Lhe Llme of Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme, or of
Lhelr cooperaLlon Lhereln.
Lxamp|e: eop|e v. V|||anueva
! uefendanLs Lhough formlng of Lhe consplracy of kldnapplng,
were noL Lhe ones who acLually kldnapped Lhe vlcLlm.
! 1hus, Lhey are noL bound or affecLed by Lhe aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance of nlghLLlme unLLSS 1PL? knLW abouL lL prlor.
IV. Is |t necessary that there be proof of cooperat|on or part|c|pat|on
w|th regard to the act of crue|ty?
! 1wo vlews:
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

o eople v. vocales ! AlLhough lL may be consldered as
aggravaLlng agalnsL one accused, lL may noL be so
agalnsL anoLher unLLSS Lhere ls proof of consplracy ln
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe maln acL, or Lhere ls proof of
cooperaLlon or parLlclpaLlon on Lhe parL of Lhe laLLer.
o ln accordance wlLh Art|c|e 62(4) ! lf cruelLy ls a means
employed Lo accompllsh Lhe acL, only knowledge ls
requlred for one Lo be llable for lL.
! noLe: Art|c|e 14 sLaLes LhaL cruelLy ls LhaL whlch ls noL necessary
for Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
o lf so, lL cannoL be parL of Lhe maLerlal execuLlon" nor
means employed Lo accompllsh lL".
o 1herefore, eople v. vocales would be rullng.
____________________
AkAGkAn S:
I. nab|tua| De||nquent
! A person who wlLhln a perlod of 10 years from Lhe daLe of hls
(lasL) release or lasL convlcLlon of Lhe crlmes of
1. serlous or or less serlous physlcal ln[urles (Art.263 & 26S)
2. robbery (Art. 193-303)
3. LhefL (Art. 308-311)
4. esLafa (Art. 31S-318)
S. falslflcaLlon (Art. 170-174)
! Pe ls found gullLy of any of sald crlmes a 3
rd
Llme or ofLener.

II. kequ|s|tes
1. 1haL Lhe offender had been convlcLed of any of Lhe above-
menLloned crlmes.
2. 1haL afLer Lhe convlcLlon or afLer servlng hls senLence, he
agalnsL commlLLed, and wlLhln 10 years, from hls release or
prlor convlcLlon, he was agaln convlcLed of any of Lhe sald
crlmes for Lhe second Llme.
3. 1haL afLer hls convlcLlon or afLer servlng senLence, for Lhe
second offense, he agaln commlLLed, and wlLhln 10 years from
hls lasL release or lasL convlcLlon, he was agaln convlcLed of sald
offenses, Lhe Lhlrd Llme or ofLener.

III. Computat|on of the 10-year per|od
NC1L: uefendanL's lasL convlcLlon C8 lasL release should be Lhe sLarLlng
polnL from whlch Lhe 10-year perlod ls Lo be counLed.
! 8aLlonal: lf Lhe sLarLlng polnL ls only Lhe daLe of lasL convlcLlon,
Lhere wlll be a case where Lhe offender cannoL be consldered a
hablLual dellnquenL.

Crlmes CommlLLed uaLe of ConvlcLlon uaLe of 8elease
1hefL !une 1913 !uly 1916
Swlndllng May 1920 CcLober 1922
ALLempLed 8obbery !uly 1928 AugusL 1930
1hefL AugusL 1937 SepLember 1940
Crlme charged CcLober 1946
Lxp|anat|on:
! 1he 10-year perlod should be counLed from Lhe daLe of LAS1
convlcLlon or release from Lhe crlme charged, whlch ls AugusL
1937 (convlcLlon) or SepLember 1940 (release).
o noLe: 8egardless of Lhe gap beLween Lhe flrsL and
second crlmes, Lhe accused wlll be consldered a
hablLual dellnquenL lf beLween Lhe second and Lhlrd
crlmes, Lhere ls a gap or 10 years or below.
! ln Lhe accusaLlon of LhefL, only aLLempLed robbery (convlcLlon:
!uly 1928, release: AugusL 1930) can be Laken lnLo conslderaLlon
for Lhe deLermlnaLlon of hablLual dellnquency slnce lL ls Lhe !"#$
crlme for whlch he was convlcLed for.
o A would noL be a hablLual dellnquenL slnce swlndllng ls
noL one of Lhe crlmes llsLed.

IV. Subsequence cr|me must be comm|tted AI1Lk CCNVIC1ICN of
former cr|me
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

! lf (1) Lhe second crlme was commlLLed before hls flrsL convlcLlon
and (2) Lhe fourLh before hls Lhlrd convlcLlon, and (3) Lhe flfLh
and slxLh were commlLLed on Lhe same day, Lhe slx convlcLlons
(alLhough dlfferenL ln daLes) are equlvalenL Lo only Lhree.
! See p.737 for full lllusLraLlon.

V. "1he cu|pr|t sha|| be sentenced to the pena|ty prov|ded by |aw for
the |ast cr|me of wh|ch he be found gu||ty"
! lf Lhe accused ls Lrled for robbery and prevlously convlcLed of
LhefL and esLafa, robbery ls Lhe lasL crlme and lf found gullLy Lhe
penalLy for robbery shall be lmposed, whlle also be declared a
hablLual dellnquenL.
Add|t|ona| pena|ty for hab|tua| de||nquency
1. upon 3
rd
convlcLlon ! addlLlonal penalLy of prlslon correcLlonal
ln lLs medlum and maxlmum perlods.
2. upon 4
Lh
convlcLlon ! addlLlonal penalLy of prlslon mayor ln lLs
mlnlmum and medlum perlods.
3. upon 3
Lh
convlcLlon ! addlLlonal penalLy of prlslon mayor ln ls
maxlmum perlod Lo recluslon Lemporal ln lLs mlnlmum perlod.
=*%.(+*4F
! lf afLer undergolng punlshmenL for hls prevlous crlmes, he
conLlnuous Lo commlL sald crlmes, he ls deemed Lo have shown
a dangerous propenslLy Lo crlmes. Pence, he ls punlshed wlLh a
severer penalLy for commlLLlng any of Lhose crlmes Lhe Lhlrd
Llme or ofLener.
! urpose of Lhe law: Lo render more effecLlve soclal defense and
Lhe reformaLlon of mulLlrecldlvlsLs.
VI. 1ota| pena|t|es shou|d not exceed 30 years
! 1oLal ! (1) Lhe penalLy for Lhe lasL crlme whlch ls found gullLy
and (2) Lhe addlLlonal penalLy for belng a hablLual dellnquenL.

VII. In the |nformat|on must be a||eged:
1. 1he daLes of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe prevlous crlmes.
2. 1he daLes of Lhe lasL convlcLlon or release
3. 1he daLes of Lhe oLher prevlous convlcLlon or releases.
!""#$% (" 94#* (" /2.4%6 E)#+ *44#/*%.(+& *0# .+&2"".$.#+%
! A plea of gullLy Lo an lnformaLlon whlch falls Lo allege Lhe daLes
of commlsslon of prevlous offenses, of convlcLlons and of
releases ls noL an admlsslon LhaL Lhe offender ls a hablLual
dellnquenL buL only a recldlvlsL (eople v. Masonson).
G*%# (" 0#4#*&# +(% *3&(42%#46 +#$#&&*06
! lf precedlng convlcLlon ls less Lhan 10 years from daLe of
convlcLlon of Lhe offense complalned of (eople v. 1olenLlno).

VIII. See "ku||ngs on nab|tua| De||nquency" (p.739-744)

Ik. nab|tua| De||nquency v. kec|d|v|sm
nab|tua| De||nquency kec|d|v|sm
As Lo crlmes
commlLLed
1he crlmes are
speclfled.
SufflclenL LhaL on daLe
of Lrlal, accused shall
have been prevlously
convlcLed of anoLher
crlme ln Lhe same LlLle.
As Lo perlod of
commlsslon
ConvlcLlon musL be 10
years from each oLher.
no perlod of Llme
necessary
As Lo number of
crlmes commlLLed
ConvlcLlon musL be 3
rd

Llme or ofLener.
1haL subsequenL crlme
ls embraced ln Lhe
same LlLle ls sufflclenL.
As Lo Lhelr effecLs AddlLlonal penalLy
prescrlbed by law ls
lmposed.
lf noL offseL by
mlLlgaLlng, wlll lncrease
penalLy Lo maxlmum
only.
! A convlcL can be a hablLual dellnquenL wlLhouL belng a recldlvlsL
lf no Lwo of Lhe crlmes commlLLed are embraced ln Lhe same
LlLle.
! 1he lmposlLlon of addlLlonal penalLy ls consLlLuLlonal as lL ls
slmply punlshmenL for fuLure crlmes, Lhe penalLy enhanced on
accounL of crlmlnal propenslLles of Lhe accused.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

Art|c|e 63. =24#& "(0 %)# *994.$*%.(+ (" .+,.1.&.34# 9#+*4%.#&7 8 In a||
cases |n wh|ch the |aw prescr|bes a s|ng|e |nd|v|s|b|e pena|ty, |t sha|| be
app||ed by the courts regard|ess of any m|t|gat|ng or aggravat|ng
c|rcumstances that may have attended the comm|ss|on of the deed.

In a|| cases |n wh|ch the |aw prescr|bes a pena|ty composed of two
|nd|v|s|b|e pena|t|es the fo||ow|ng ru|es sha|| be observed |n the
app||cat|on thereof:
1. When |n the comm|ss|on of the deed there |s present on|y one
aggravat|ng c|rcumstance, the greater pena|ty sha|| be app||ed.
2. When there are ne|ther m|t|gat|ng nor aggravat|ng
c|rcumstances |n the comm|ss|on of the deed, the |esser
pena|ty sha|| be app||ed.
3. When the comm|ss|on of the act |s attended by some
m|t|gat|ng c|rcumstance and there |s no aggravat|ng
c|rcumstance, the |esser pena|ty sha|| be app||ed.
4. When both m|t|gat|ng and aggravat|ng c|rcumstances attended
the comm|ss|on of the act, the courts sha|| reasonab|y a||ow
them to offset one another |n cons|derat|on of the|r number
and |mportance, for the purpose of app|y|ng the pena|ty |n
accordance w|th the preced|ng ru|es, accord|ng to the resu|t of
such compensat|on.

CIN1S
I. Cut||ne of the ru|es.
1. When penalLy = 1 lndlvlslble ! applled regardless of any
mlLlgaLlng or aggravaLlng clrcumsLances
2. When penalLy composed of 2 lndlvlslble penalLles ! ff rules:
(a) Cnly 1 aggravaLlng = greaLer penalLy shall be lmposed
(b) no aggravaLlng nor mlLlgaLlng = lesser penalLy lmposed
(c) A mlLlgaLlng and no aggravaLlng = lesser penalLy lmposed
(d) 8oLh mlLlgaLlng and aggravaLlng = courL wlll allow Lhem Lo
offseL one anoLher
II. Art|c|e 63 app||es on|y when the pena|ty prescr|bed by the Code |s
e|ther one |nd|v|s|b|e pena|ty or two |nd|v|s|b|e pena|t|es.
! ArL. 63 does nC1 apply lf penalLy prescrlbed: recluslon Lemporal
ln max perlod Lo deaLh (8ecause even lf lL lncludes 2 lndlvlslble
penalLles = lL has 3 perlods of 81 max -mln, 8 -med, ueaLh -
max) ! ArL. 64 shall apply ln Lhls case

!H*-94# (" &.+/4# *+, .+,.1.&.34# 9#+*4%67
! 8ecluslon erpeLua for:
o kldnapplng and fallure Lo reLurn a mlnor (Art. 270)
o 8ape (Art 266-8)
! ueaLh for:
o kldnapplng and serlous lllegal deLenLlon when purpose
of offender ls Lo exLorL ransom (Art. 267 as amended by
kA 76S9)
o 8ape wlLh homlclde (Art 266-8)

!H*-94# (" %E( .+,.1.&.34# 9#+*4%.#&7
! 8ecluslon perpeLua Lo ueaLh for:
o arrlclde (ArL. 246)
o 8obbery wlLh homlclde (ArL. 294, par. 1)
o kldnapplng and serlous lllegal deLenLlon wlLhouL
lnLenLlon Lo exLorL ransom (ArL. 267)
o 8ape commlLLed wlLh Lhe use of a deadly weapon or by
Lwo or more persons (ArL. 266-8)

III. When the pena|ty |s composed of two |nd|v|s|b|e pena|t|es, the
pena|ty cannot be |owered by one degree, no matter how many
m|t|gat|ng c|rcumstances are present.
! When Lhere are 2 or more mlLlgaLlng and nC aggravaLlng !
courL cannoL proceed by analogy Lo provlslons of subsecLlon 3
ArLlcle 64 (lmposlLlon of one degree lower penalLy)
! uS v. 8elador: Commlsslon of crlme of parrlclde punlshable of
8 Lo ueaLh buL aLLended by Lwo mlLlgaLlng (llllLeracy and lack
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

of lnLenLlon Lo commlL so grave a wrong) and nC aggravaLlng -
courL lmposed one degree lower penalLy (ArL. 64 subsecLlon 3)
PLLu: Wrong penalLy lmposed - lL should be ArL. 63 applled

III. Lxcept|on: I)#+ * 90.1.4#/#, -.%./*%.+/ $.0$2-&%*+$# 2+,#0 <0%.$4#
@J (0 <0%.$4# @B .& 90#&#+%7
! lf clrcumsLance presenL ls a prlvlleged mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance
under ArL. 68 or ArL. 69 - offender may geL a penalLy one or Lwo
degrees lower
! Woman boxed by her husband sLabbed hlm wlLh knlfe ln chesL
! enLlLled Lo penalLy one degree lower from 8 Lo ueaLh = 81
! eople v. Calang: lmposable penalLy for rape: 8. Accused had
prlvlleged mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance of mlnorlLy - lmposable
penalLy = 81 ln medlum perlod (absenL oLher mlLlgaLlng or
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance)

IV. Mora| va|ue, not numer|ca| we|ght of c|rcumstances shou|d preva||.
! 1hls ls as regards par. 4 of Art. 63

V. M|t|gat|ng c|rcumstance |s not necessary to |mpose rec|us|on
perpetua when the cr|me |s pun|shab|e w|th two |nd|v|s|b|e pena|t|es
of rec|us|on perpetua to death.
! 8eason: under Art. 63 when crlme ls penallzed wlLh 2 lndlvlslble
penalLles (8 Lo deaLh) - lesser penalLy should be lmposed even
when Lhere ls no mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance presenL.

Art|c|e 64. =24#& "(0 %)# *994.$*%.(+ (" 9#+*4%.#& E).$) $(+%*.+ %)0##
9#0.(,&7 8 In cases |n wh|ch the pena|t|es prescr|bed by |aw conta|n
three per|ods, whether |t be a s|ng|e d|v|s|b|e ena|ty or composed of
three d|fferent pena|t|es, each one of wh|ch forms a per|od |n
accordance w|th the prov|s|ons of Art|c|es 76 and 77, the courts sha||
observe for the app||cat|on of the pena|ty the fo||ow|ng ru|es,
accord|ng to whether there are or are no m|t|gat|ng or aggravat|ng
c|rcumstances:
1. When there are ne|ther aggravat|ng nor m|t|gat|ng
c|rcumstances, they sha|| |mpose the pena|ty prescr|bed by |aw
|n |ts med|um per|od.
2. When on|y a m|t|gat|ng c|rcumstance |s present |n the
comm|ss|on of the act, they sha|| |mpose the pena|ty |n |ts
m|n|mum per|od.
3. When on|y an aggravat|ng c|rcumstance |s present |n the
comm|ss|on of the act, they sha|| |mpose the pena|ty |n |ts
max|mum per|od.
4. When both m|t|gat|ng and aggravat|ng c|rcumstances are
present, the court sha|| reasonab|y offset those of one c|ass
aga|nst the other accord|ng to the|r re|at|ve we|ght.
S. When there are two or more m|t|gat|ng c|rcumstances and no
aggravat|ng c|rcumstances are present, the court sha|| |mpose
the pena|ty next |ower to that prescr|bed by |aw, |n the per|od
that |t may deem app||cab|e, accord|ng to the number and
nature of such c|rcumstances.
6. Whatever may be the number and nature of the aggravat|ng
c|rcumstances, the courts sha|| not |mpose a greater pena|ty
than that prescr|bed by |aw, |n |ts max|mum per|od.
7. W|th|n the ||m|ts of each per|od, the courts sha|| determ|ne the
extent of the pena|ty accord|ng to the number and nature of
the aggravat|ng and m|t|gat|ng c|rcumstances and the greater
or |esser extent of the ev|| produced by the cr|me.

CIN1S
I. Art|c|e 64 app||es on|y when the pena|ty has three per|ods.
! Art. 64 applles when penalLy prescrlbed by law for offense !
81, M, C, AM, Am, C Lo 81, eLc. = because Lhey're dlvlslble
lnLo 3 perlods (mlnlmum, medlum, maxlmum).
! When law prescrlbes slngle dlvlslble penalLy (ex. 81 for
homlclde) as ln Art. 76 - ls dlsLrlbuLed ln 3 equal parLs - each
parL forms a perlod called mln, med and max.
! lf penalLy made up of 3 dlff penalLles: C Lo 81
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

Lach forms a perlod accordlng Lo ArL. 77
C = mln
M = med
81 = max
M ls lncluded bec. lL's beLween C and 81 ln Scale no. 1 ArL. 71

II. Cut||ne of the ru|es:
1. >( *//0*1*%.+/ *+, +( -.%./*%.+/ - med|um per|od

2. K+46 * -.%./*%.+/ - m|n|mum per|od

3. K+46 *+ *//0*1*%.+/ - max|mum per|od
! eople v. 1ollng: no generlc aggravaLlng nor mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLances were proven = penalLy for murder lmposed ln
medlum perlod or 8. ueaLh penalLy lmposed by Lrlal courL was
noL warranLed.
! L442&%0*%.(+& (" >(&7 M *+, NF A ls convlcLed of homlclde
punlshable by recluslon Lemporal (mln, med, max).
o no mlLlgaLlng nor aggravaLlng ! medlum
o A pleaded gullLy, no aggravaLlng ! mlnlmum
o CommlLLed Lhe crlme ln Lhe dwelllng, no mlLlgaLlng !
maxlmum
o 2 aggravaLlng, no mlLlgaLlng ! sLlll only maxlmum.

4. I)#+ %)#0# *0# *//0*1*%.+/ *+, -.%./*%.+/ 8 offset those of
one c|ass aga|nst the other accord|ng to re|at|ve we|ght.
! noLe: 1he mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances musL be ordlnary noL
prlvlleged. 1he aggravaLlng clrcumsLances musL be generlc or
speclflc and noL quallfylng or lnherenL.
! L442&%0*%.(+ (" >(7 OF A commlLLed homlclde ln nlghLLlme on
purpose. Pe surrendered Lo Lhe mayor of Lhe Lown and pleaded
gullLy.
o Peld:
o Cne mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance (surrender or gullLy plead)
wlll offseL aggravaLlng clrcumsLance of nlghLLlme.
o 8emalnlng mlLlgaLlng wlll resulL ln lmposlLlon of
mlnlmum perlod.

S. DE( (0 -(0# -.%./*%.+/ *+, +( *//0*1*%.+/ 8 pena|ty next
|ower, |n the per|od app||cab|e, accord|ng to the number and
nature of such c|rcumstances.
! enalLy by law: recluslon Lemporal max Lo recluslon perpeLua
! Max of lSL: prlslon mayor max Lo recluslon Lempora med.
! Mln of lSL: prlslo correcLlonal max Lo prlslo mayor med.
! ln deLermlnlng Lhe proper perlod appllcable", Lhe mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance can no longer be consldered slnce lL already
lowered Lhe degree of Lhe penalLy.

6. >( 9#+*4%6 /0#*%#0 %)*+ %)# -*H.-2- 9#0.(, (" %)# 9#+*4%6
90#&$0.3#, 36 4*E &)*44 3# .-9(&#,: +( -*%%#0 )(E -*+6
*//0*1*%.+/ $.0$2-&%*+$#& *0# 90#&#+%7
! 1hus, even lf Lhere are 4 generlc aggravaLlng clrcumsLances, Lhe
maxlmum penalLy for homlclde ls sLlll recluslon Lemporal.

7. D)# $(20% $*+ ,#%#0-.+# %)# #H%#+% (" %)# 9#+*4%6 PE.%).+ %)#
4.-.%& (" #*$) 9#0.(,: *$$(0,.+/ %( %)# +2-3#0Q *+, P+*%20#Q
(" %)# *//0*1*%.+/ *+, -.%./*%.+/ $.0$2-&%*+$#& *+, %)#
/0#*%#0 (0 4#&&#0 P#H%#+% (" %)# #1.4Q 90(,2$#, 36 %)# $0.-#7
! A commlLLed a crlme punlshed by arresLo mayor wlLh Lwo
aggravaLlng and one mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance.
! SLeps:
o Apply 8ule 4" and offseL = 1 aggravaLlng lefL
o 8emalnlng aggravaLlng wlll make Lhe lmposed penalLy
arresLo mayor ln lLs maxlmum perlod (4 monLhs and 1
day Lo 6 monLhs).
! 8ule 7: Lhe courL can lmpose any lengLh from 4 monLhs and 1
day, 3 monLhs or 6 monLhs.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

! "Lxtent of the ev|| produced"
o CourL has Lhe dlscreLlon Lo lmpose Lhe penalLy wlLhln
Lhe llmlLs flxed by law.
o 1aklng lnLo conslderaLlon Lhe amounL of damage caused
on Lhe economlc llfe of a banklng lnsLlLuLlon, lL ls proper
for Lhe courL Lo lmpose Lhe maxlmum of Lhe medlum
degree of Lhe penalLy (eople v. velazco).

III. Cases where m|t|gat|ng and aggravat|ng c|rcumstances are not
cons|dered |n the |mpos|t|on of the pena|ty
1. When Lhe penalLy ls slngle and lndlvlslble (Art. 63)
2. ln felonles Lhrough negllgence such as reckless lmprudence
(Art.36S).
3. enalLy Lo be lmposed upon a Moro or oLher non-ChrlsLlan
lnhablLanL (Sec. 6, Adm|n|strat|ve Code of M|ndanao and Su|u)
4. When Lhe penalLy ls only a flne lmpose by an ordlnance.
3. When Lhe penalLles are prescrlbed by speclal laws.

Art|c|e 6S. =24#& .+ $*&#& .+ E).$) %)# 9#+*4%6 .& +(% $(-9(&#, (" %)0##
9#0.(,&7 8 In cases |n wh|ch the pena|ty prescr|bed by |aw |s not
composed of three per|ods, the courts sha|| app|y the ru|es conta|ned
|n the forego|ng art|c|es, d|v|d|ng |nto three equa| port|ons the t|me
|nc|uded |n the pena|ty prescr|bed, and form|ng one per|od of each of
the three port|ons.

CIN1S
I. Mean|ng of the ru|e.
1. CompuLe and deLermlne flrsL Lhe 3 perlods of Lhe enLlre
penalLy.
2. 1lme lncluded ln penalLy prescrlbed - dlvlded lnLo 3 equal
porLlons afLer subLracLlng mlnlmum (ellmlnaLe 1 day) from
maxlmum of penalLy
3. Mln or mlnlmum perlod should be Lhe mlnlmum of Lhe glven
penalLy (lncludlng 1 day)
4. CuoLlenL added Lo mlnlmum prescrlbed (ellm 1 day) = LoLal
represenLs max of mlnlmum perlod.

II. I||ustrat|on: (See p. 7S6-7S7 for more deta||ed computat|ons)

(1) uuraLlon ls 6 monLhs and 1 day Lo 6 years

(2) SubLracL mlnlmum (dlsregardlng 1 day) from Lhe maxlmum
6 years - 6 monLhs = 3 years and 6 monLhs

(3) ulvlde dlfference by 3
3 years and 6 monLhs .= 1 year and 10 monLhs
3

(4) Mlnlmum added wlLh quoLlenL = mlnlmum perlod
6 monLhs (+) 1 year and 10 monLhs = 2 years and 4 monLhs

(3) Maxlmum of mlnlmum added wlLh quoLlenL = medlum perlod
2 years and 4 monLhs (+) 1 year and 10 monLhs = 4 years and 2 monLhs

(6) Maxlmum of medlum added wlLh quoLlenL = maxlmum perlod
4 years and 2 monLhs (+) 1 year and 10 monLhs = 6 years

llnal:
! Mlnlmum: 6 monLhs and 1 day Lo 2 years and 4 monLhs
! Medlum: 2 years, 4 monLhs and 1 day Lo 4 years and 2 monLhs
! Maxlmum: 4 years, 2 monLhs and 1 day Lo 6 years.

Art|c|e 66. L-9(&.%.(+ (" ".+#&7 - In |mpos|ng f|nes the courts may f|x
any amount w|th|n the ||m|ts estab||shed by |aw, |n f|x|ng the amount
|n each case attent|on sha|| be g|ven, not on|y to the m|t|gat|ng and
aggravat|ng c|rcumstances, but more part|cu|ar|y to the wea|th or
means of the cu|pr|t.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

CIN1S
I. Cut||ne of th|s prov|s|on:
1. 1he courL can flx any amounL of Lhe flne wlLhln Lhe llmlLs
esLabllshed by law.
2. 1he courL musL conslder -
a. 1he mlLlgaLlng and aggravaLlng clrcumsLances, and
b. More parLlcularly, Lhe wealLh or means of Lhe culprlL.

II. When the m|n|mum |f the f|ne |s not f|xed.
! When Lhe law does noL flx mlnlmum of Lhe flne !
deLermlnaLlon of amounL of flne Lo be lmposed: lefL Lo Lhe
sound dlscreLlon of Lhe courL (provlded lL shall noL exceed
maxlmum auLhorlzed by law) (eople v. CulnLo).

II. I|nes are not d|v|ded |nto three equa| port|ons.
! 1he courLs are noL bound Lo dlvlde Lhe amounL of flne
prescrlbed by law lnLo 3 equal porLlons (as ln case of
lmprlsonmenL lmposed ln relaLlon Lo a dlvlslble penalLy).

III. Wea|th or means of cu|pr|t |s ma|n cons|derat|on |n f|ne.
! WealLh or means of culprlL ls emphaslzed because flxed amounL
of flne for ALL offenders of parLlcular crlme ! resulL Lo
lnequallLy (ex. 100 for rlch versus poor man)
! Lx. Laborer earnlng 208/monLh who has Lo pay 20 versus
Cfflce worker wlLh 800/monLh who has Lo pay 30 - flne for
laborer more severe lf ever
! 1o lmpose same amounL of flne for same offense upon persons
dlfferenLly clrcumsLances ! penalLy of unequal severlLy =
un[usLly dlscrlmlnaLory (people v. Chlng kuan)

IV. 8ut m|t|gat|ng and aggravat|ng c|rcumstances are not ent|re|y
d|sregarded. Iactors other than f|nanc|a| cond|t|on of accused may be
cons|dered by court.
! ArL. 66 says mlLlgaLlng and aggravaLlng clrcumsLances may also
be consldered by courL
! Also oLher facLors such as:
o CravlLy or serlousness of crlme commlLLed
o Pelnousness of lLs perpeLraLlon
o MagnlLude of lLs effecLs on vlcLlm(s) (eople v. Manuel)
R(&.%.(+ *+, &%*+,.+/ (" *$$2&#, $(+&.,#0#, *//0*1*%.+/ .+ /*-34.+/7
! uS v. Salaverla ! erson found gullLy of vlolaLlng Cambllng Law
wlLh hlgh sLandlng ln communlLy = maxlmum penalLy lmposed
! uS v. Mercader ! Accused ln gambllng case was munlclpal
Lreasurer = CourL lmposed flne of 300 and 1 year
lmprlsonmenL (max penalLy provlded by law)

Art|c|e 67. R#+*4%6 %( 3# .-9(&#, E)#+ +(% *44 %)# 0#52.&.%#& ("
#H#-9%.(+ (" %)# "(20%) $.0$2-&%*+$# (" <0%.$4# SM *0# 90#&#+%7 - When
a|| the cond|t|ons requ|red |n the c|rcumstance number 4 of Art|c|e 12
of th|s Code to exempt from cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty are not present, the
pena|ty of *00#&%( -*6(0 |n |ts max|mum per|od to 90.&.(+ $(00#$$.(+*4
|n |ts m|n|mum per|od sha|| be |mposed upon the cu|pr|t, |f he sha||
have been gu||ty of a grave fe|ony, and *00#&%( -*6(0 |n |ts m|n|mum
and med|um per|ods, |f of a |ess grave fe|ony.

CIN1S
I. Art|c|e 67 app||es on|y when a|| the requ|s|tes of the exempt|ng
c|rcumstance of acc|dent are not present.
! ClrcumsLance no. 4 of ArL. 12 ! LxempLlng clrcumsLance of
accldenL.
! lour condlLlons necessary Lo exempL from llablllLy under
SubsecLlon 4 of ArL. 12:
1. AcL causlng Lhe ln[ury be lawful, permlLLed noL only by law
buL also by regulaLlons.
2. erformed wlLh due care.
3. ln[ury be caused by mere accldenL (ex. 8y an unforeseen
evenL)
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

4. 1here be no faulL or lnLenLlon Lo cause Lhe ln[ury.

II. If a|| these cond|t|ons are not present:
! (AcL consldered as) reckless lmprudence lf acL ls execuLed
wlLhouL Laklng precauLlons or measure LhaL mosL common
prudence would requlres
! (AcL consldered as) slmple lmprudence lf lL's a mere lack of
precauLlon where elLher Lhe LhreaLened harm ls noL lmmlnenL
or danger ls noL openly vlslble (! Lhls case wlll fall under ArL.
363, par. 1)
! enalLy provlded ln ArL. 67, same as ln ArL. 363

Art|c|e 68. R#+*4%6 %( 3# .-9(&#, 29(+ * 9#0&(+ 2+,#0 #./)%##+ 6#*0&
(" */#7 8 When the offender |s a m|nor under e|ghteen years and h|s
case |s one com|ng under the prov|s|ons of the paragraph next to the
|ast of Art|c|e 80 of th|s Code, the fo||ow|ng ru|es sha|| be observed:
1. Upon a person under f|fteen but over n|ne years of age, who |s
not exempted from ||ab|||ty by reason of the court hav|ng
dec|ared that he acted w|th d|scernment, a d|scret|onary
pena|ty sha|| be |mposed, but a|ways |ower by two degrees at
|east than that prescr|bed by |aw for the cr|me wh|ch he
comm|tted.
2. Upon a person over f|fteen and under e|ghteen years of age
the pena|ty next |ower than that prescr|bed by |aw sha|| be
|mposed, but a|ways |n the proper per|od.

CIN1S
I. Art|c|e 68 has been part|y repea|ed by kepub||c Act No. 9344.
! ArL. 68 of 8C (penalLy for person under 18 y/o) = parLly
repealed by 8A 9344 ! provldes LhaL:
(1) Chlld 13 yrs. and below = exempL from crlmlnal
responslblllLy
(2) Chlld 13-18 yrs. old = exempL from crlmlnal llablllLy unLLSS
acLed wlLh dlscernmenL
Under Art|c|e 68 Under kA 9344
Cffender over 9 yrs. buL under 13
yrs. acLlng wlLh dlscernmenL = nC1
exempL from crlmlnal llablllLy
(dlscreLlonary penalLy shall be
lmposed - 2 degrees lower Lhan
prescrlbed by law for crlme
commlLLed)
9-13 year olds = exempL from
crlmlnal llablllLy ! no penalLy
lmposed
Cffender over 13 buL under 18 -
penalLy nexL lower Lhan prescrlbed
by law lmposed
13-18 year olds = exempL from
crlmlnal llablllLy unLLSS acLed
wlLh dlscernmenL ! wlll undergo
dlverslon programs under Chap 2
of 8A 9344
! lf courL sees LhaL ob[ecLlve of dlsposlLlon measures lmposed
upon ClCL (chlld ln confllcL wlLh Lhe law) was nC1 fulfllled or
ClCL wlllfully falled Lo comply wlLh condlLlons of hls/her
dlsposlLlon or rehab program ! ClCL wlll be broughL Lo courL
for execuLlon of [udgmenL.
! enalLy lmposed on ClCL - provlded ln par. 2 of Art. 68 (or
penalLy nexL lower Lhan prescrlbed by law)

II. robat|on as an a|ternat|ve to |mpr|sonment
! 1he courL may place a ClCL on probaLlon ln lleu of servlce of a
senLence Laklng lnLo conslderaLlon Lhe besL lnLeresL of Lhe chlld.

Art|c|e 69. R#+*4%6 %( 3# .-9(&#, E)#+ %)# $0.-# $(--.%%#, .& +(%
E)(446 #H$2&*34#7 8 A pena|ty |ower by one or two degrees than that
prescr|bed by |aw sha|| be |mposed |f the deed |s not who||y excusab|e
by reason of the |ack of some of the cond|t|ons requ|red to [ust|fy the
same or to exempt from cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty |n the severa| cases
ment|oned |n Art|c|es 11 and 12, prov|ded that the ma[or|ty of such
cond|t|ons be present. 1he courts sha|| |mpose the pena|ty |n the
per|od wh|ch may be deemed proper, |n v|ew of the number and
nature of the cond|t|ons of exempt|on present or |ack|ng.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

CIN1S
I. Un|awfu| aggress|on |s |nd|spensab|e |n se|f-defense, defense of
re|at|ves and defense of stranger.
! unlawful aggresslon musL be presenL (flrsL clrcumsLance ln self-
defense under subsect|ons 1, 2, 3 of Art.11)
! Lxample. 8 was challenged by A Lo a flghL. 8 aLLacked flrsL wlLh a
knlfe and A reLallaLed by sLabblng 8. ln Lhe sLruggle, 8 kllled A.
Can 8 be glven one or Lwo degrees lower penalLy Lhan
prescrlbed for homlclde?
Lven Lhough condlLlons Lo [usLlfy Lhe deed ls presenL
(8easonableness of means employed and Lack of sufflclenL
provocaLlon) - essenLlal elemenL of unlawful aggresslon was
absenL because Lhere was agreemenL Lo flghL = nC1 enLlLled Lo
reducLlon (uS v. navarro)

II. "In the severa| cases ment|oned |n Art|c|e 11 and 12."
! rlvlleged mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances ln ArL. 69 lnclude:
lncompleLe [usLlfylng and lncompleLe exempLlng clrcumsLances
8u1 ma[orlLy of Lhe condlLlons musL be presenL

III. "rov|ded the ma[or|ty of such cond|t|ons be present."
! eople v. Alvarez: CA refused Lo apply ArL. 69 because only
unlawful aggresslon was presenL on Lhe vlcLlm's parL 8u1 means
employed by accused = noL reasonable and accused provoked
aggresslon
! Pomlclde case where provocaLlon and unlawful aggresslon
came from deceased + means employed by offender = noL
reasonable:
o More Lhan one of Lhe requlslLes of self-defense are
presenL
o When 2 of Lhe essenLlal requlslLes for [usLlflcaLlon are
presenL ! penalLy lower by 2 degrees may be lmposed
(eople v. uorado)
o Cnly unlawful aggresslon ! 1 penalLy lower lmposed
(eople v. Cabellon) 8u1 Lhls declslon ls conLrary Lo Art.
69 LhaL provldes LhaL ma[orlLy of condlLlons musL be
presenL

IV. "A pena|ty |ower by one or two degrees than that prescr|bed by
|aw sha|| be |mposed x x x |n the per|od wh|ch may be deemed proper,
|n v|ew of the number and nature of the cond|t|ons of exempt|on
present or |ack|ng."
! CourL has dlscreLlon Lo lmpose 1 or 2 degrees lower Lhan
prescrlbed by law for offense.
! ln deLermlnlng proper perlod of penalLy LhaL ls 1 or 2 degrees
lower = courL musL conslder number and naLure of condlLlons of
exempLlon or [usLlflcaLlon presenL or lacklng.

V. When the ma[or|ty of the requ|s|tes of se|f-defense and two
m|t|gat|ng w|thout aggravat|ng c|rcumstances are present, the pena|ty
|s three degrees |ower.
! lf accused charged wlLh homlclde (punlshable by 81) proved
unlawful aggresslon on deceased and anoLher requlslLe of self-
defense LuS 2 mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances (surrender and
obfuscaLlon) wlLh nC aggravaLlng = proper penalLy ls AM
medlum (2 mos 1 day Lo 4 mos)

Art|c|e 70. T2$$#&&.1# &#01.$# (" &#+%#+$#&7 - When the cu|pr|t has to
serve two or more pena|t|es, he sha|| serve them s|mu|taneous|y |f the
nature of the pena|t|es w||| so perm|t, otherw|se, the fo||ow|ng ru|es
sha|| be observed:

In the |mpos|t|on of the pena|t|es, the order of the|r respect|ve
sever|ty sha|| be fo||owed so that they may be executed success|ve|y or
as near|y as may be poss|b|e, shou|d a pardon have been granted as to
the pena|ty of pena|t|es f|rst |mposed, or shou|d they have been
served out.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4


Ior the purpose of app|y|ng the prov|s|ons of the next preced|ng
paragraph the respect|ve sever|ty of the pena|t|es sha|| be determ|ned
|n accordance w|th the fo||ow|ng sca|e:
1. Death,
2. =#$42&.(+ 9#09#%2*,
3. =#$42&.(+ %#-9(0*4,
4. R0.&.(+ -*6(0,
S. R0.&.(+ $(00#$$.(+*4,
6. <00#&%( -*6(0,
?7 <00#&%( -#+(0:
8. G#&%.#00(,
9. erpetua| abso|ute d|squa||f|cat|on,
10. 1emporary abso|ute d|squa||f|cat|on,
11. Suspens|on from pub||c off|ce, the r|ght to vote and be voted
for, the r|ght to fo||ow profess|on or ca|||ng, and
12. ub||c censure.

Notw|thstand|ng the prov|s|ons of the ru|e next preced|ng, the
max|mum durat|on of the conv|ct's sentence sha|| not be more than
threefo|d the |ength of t|me correspond|ng to the most severe of the
pena|t|es |mposed upon h|m. No other pena|ty to wh|ch he may be
||ab|e sha|| be |nf||cted after the sum of those |mposed equa|s the sa|d
max|mum per|od.
Such max|mum per|od sha|| |n no case exceed forty years.

In app|y|ng the prov|s|ons of th|s ru|e the durat|on of perpetua|
pena|t|es (9#+* 9#09#%2*) sha|| be computed at th|rty years. ;<&
*-#+,#, 36 U(-7 <$% >(7 MS?7C

CIN1S
I. Cut||ne of the prov|s|ons of th|s Art|c|e:
1. When culprlL has Lo serve 2 or more penalLles ! serve Lhem
slmulLaneously (lf naLure of penalLles permlL)
2. CLherwlse = order of Lhelr respecLlve severlLy shall be followed
3. 8especLlve severlLy of penalLles ls as follows:
a. ueaLh
b. 8ecluslon erpeLua
c. 8ecluslon 1emporal
d. rlslon Mayor
e. rlslon Correcclonal
f. ArresLo Mayor
g. ArresLo menor
h. uesLlerro
l. erpeLual absoluLe dlsquallflcaLlon
[. 1emporary absoluLe dlsquallflcaLlon
k. Suspenslon from publlc offlce, Lhe rlghL Lo voLe and be
voLed for, Lhe rlghL Lo follow professlon or calllng, and
l. ubllc censure.

1he pena|t|es wh|ch can be s|mu|taneous|y served are:
(a) Au
(b) Su
(c) 1Au
(d) 1Su
(e) Suspenslon
(f) uesLlerro
(g) ubllc censure
(h) llne and bond Lo keep Lhe peace
(l) Clvll lnLerdlcLlon, and
([) ConflscaLlon and paymenL of cosLs.
! Above penalLles (excepL desLlerro) can be served slmulLaneously
wlLh lmprlsonmenL
! enalLles conslsLlng ln deprlvaLlon of llberLy - canL be served
slmulLaneously by reason of Lhe naLure of such penalLles

II. 1he order of the respect|ve sever|ty of the pena|t|es sha|| be
fo||owed so that they may be executed success|ve|y.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

! 1lme of Lhe second senLence does noL commence Lo run unLll
Lhe explraLlon of Lhe flrsL (Cordon v. Wolfe).
! lmprlsonmenL musL be served before desLlerro. 1hus, arresLo
menor musL be served before desLlerro (eople v. Mlsa).

III. 1hree-fo|d ku|e
! 1he maxlmum duraLlon of Lhe convlcL's senLence shall noL be
more Lhan Lhree Llmes Lhe lengLh of Llme correspondlng Lo Lhe
mosL severe of Lhe penalLles lmposed upon hlm.
o lf Lhe sum of Lhe penalLles does noL exceed Lhe mosL
severe mulLlplled by 3, Lhree-fold rule doesn'L apply.
! 1he Lhree-fold rule applles even lf by dlfferenL courLs aL
dlfferenL Llmes.
o 1he 8ules of CourL provlde LhaL an lnformaLlon musL noL
charge more Lhan one offense. necessarlly, Lhe varlous
offenses punlshed wlLh dlfferenL penalLles musL be
charged under dlfferenL lnformaLlon whlch may be flled
ln Lhe same courL or ln dlfferenL courLs aL Lhe same Llme
or aL dlfferenL Llmes.
! 1he Lhree-fold rule applles only when Lhe convlcL has Lo serve aL
leasL 4 senLences.

IV. 1he phrase "the most severe of pena|t|es" |nc|udes equa| pena|t|es
! lacL: SenLenced for 6 cases of esLafa. Lach of whlch ls 3 monLhs
and 11 days of arresLo mayor.
! Peld: Accused cannoL be made Lo suffer more Lhan 9 monLhs
and 33 days.

V. Durat|on of the conv|ct's sentence refers to severa| pena|t|es for
d|fferent offenses, not yet served out.
! lf Lhe convlcL already served senLence for one offense prlor Lo
Lhe commlsslon and/or convlcLlon for anoLher offense, Lhe
former wlll noL be consldered ln Lhe Lhree-fold rule.
! no prlsoner shall be requlred Lo remaln ln prlson conLlnuously
for more Lhan 40 years. 1he duraLlon of perpeLual penalLles ls
30 years.
! lf a senLence ls lndeLermlnaLe, Lhe maxlmum Lerm ls Lhe basls.

VI. Subs|d|ary |mpr|sonment forms part of the pena|ty
! 1he resulL from Lhe Lhree-fold rule wlll be Lhe aggregaLe
prlnclpal penalLy whlch Lhe prlnclpal has Lo serve. ln Auul1lCn,
he wlll have Lo pay all lndemnlLles wlLh or wlLhouL subsldlary
lmprlsonmenL 8CvluLu Lhe prlnclpal penalLy does noL
exceed/ls noL hlgher Lhan 6 years.
! 8agLas v. ulrecLor of rlsons
o lacLs: A gullLy of 17 crlmes. MosL severe ls 6 monLhs
and 1 day LuS a flne of 1,000.
" 1hree-fold rule: 18 monLhs and 3 days max.
o Peld: lf Lhe peLlLloner would noL be able Lo pay Lhe
flnem Lhe maxlmum duraLlon of hls lmprlsonmenL shall
be 18 monLhs and 3 days of Lhe prlnclpal penalLy LuS 6
monLhs and 1 day subsldlary lmprlsonmenL.

VII. D|fferent systems of pena|ty
! Mater|a| accumu|at|on system ! no llmlLaLlon, all penalLles for
all vlolaLlons were lmposed even lf Lhey reached beyond Lhe
naLural span of human llfe.
o Art|c|e 70, ar. 1,2,3 follow Lhls.
! Iur|d|ca| accumu|at|on system ! Servlce of several penalLles ls
llmlLed Lo noL more Lhan Lhree-fold Lhe max and wlll noL exceed
40 years.
o Art|c|e 70, ar. 4,S,6 follow Lhls.
! Absorpt|on system ! Cbserved ln Lhe lmposlLlon of Lhe
penalLy ln complex crlmes (Art. 48), conLlnulng crlmes, and
speclflc crlmes llke robbery wlLh homlclde, eLc.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

Art|c|e 71. V0*,2*%#, T$*4#&7 8 In cases |n wh|ch the |aw prescr|bes a
pena|ty |ower or h|gher by one or more degrees than another g|ven
pena|ty, the ru|es prescr|bed |n Art|c|e 61 sha|| be observed |n
graduat|ng such pena|ty.

1he |ower or h|gher pena|ty sha|| be taken from the graduated sca|e |n
wh|ch |s compr|sed of the g|ven pena|ty.

1he courts, |n app|y|ng such |ower or h|gher pena|ty sha|| observe the
fo||ow|ng graduated sca|es:

SCALL NC. 1 (Scale for personal penalLles)
1. Death
2. kec|us|on perpetua
3. kec|us|on tempora|
4. r|s|on mayor
S. r|s|on correcc|ona|
6. Arresto mayor
7. Dest|erro
8. Arresto menor
9. ub||c censure
10. I|ne

SCALL NC. 2 (Scale for penalLles deprlvlng pollLlcal rlghLs)
1. erpetua| abso|ute d|squa||f|cat|on
2. 1emporary abso|ute d|squa||f|cat|on
3. Suspens|on from pub||c off|ce, the r|ght to vote and be voted
for, and the r|ght to fo||ow a profess|on or ca|||ng
4. ub||c censure
S. I|ne

CIN1S
I. Death sha|| no |onger form part of the equat|on |n Art|c|e 71
! ursuanL Lo k.A. No. 9346
o 1hls has Lhe effecL of approprlaLely downgradlng Lhe
proper penalLles aLLachlng Lo accompllces, accessorles,
frusLraLed and aLLempLed felonles Lo Lhe level
conslsLenL wlLh Lhe resL of Lhe penal laws.
! Slnce Lhls law bars Lhe appllcaLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy, such
effecL necessarlly exLends Lo lLs relevance Lo Lhe graduaLed
scale of penalLles under ArLlcle 71.
o 1here can be no harmony beLween kA No. 9346 and Lhe
kC unless Lhe laLer sLaLuLe ls consLrued as havlng
downgraded Lhose penalLles aLLached Lo deaLh by
reason of graduaLed scale under Art|c|e 71.

II. G#&%.#00( ! next |ower |n degree from *00#&%( -*6(0
! 1he scale, whlch places &'#$('))* below "))'#$* +",*), cannoL
be dlsregarded.
! 1helr respecLlve severlLles ls [udged noL by duraLlon buL by Lhe
degree of deprlvaLlon of llberLy
I)( -*6 .-9(&# ,#&%.#00(W
1he meLropollLan and munlclpal Lrlal courLs shall exerclse
excluslve orlglnal [urlsdlcLlon over all offenses punlshable wlLh
lmprlsonmenL noL exceedlng 6 years.
X2&% ,#&%.#00( 3# *994.#, (+46 E)#+ .% .& &9#$.".$*446 .-9(&#, 36 4*EW
no. lL may be lmposed when lL ls Lhe penalLy nexL lower.

III. Art|c|es 2S, 70, 71 compared:
Art|c|e 2S Art|c|e 70 Art|c|e 71
C|ass|f|cat|on of
pena|t|es
classlfles
penalLles lnLo
-)(./(-"! ".&
"//'##*),
classlfles
penalLles
accordlng Lo
#'0')($,1 (lor
Lhe purpose of
Lhe successlve
servlce of
senLences)
provldes for Lhe
#/"!'# whlch
should be
observed ln
graduaLlng
penalLles ln
ArLlcle 61
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

Locat|on of
Dest|erro
2'#$('))* ls
above "))'#$*
+'.*)

2'#$('))* ls
below "))'#$*
+'.*)

2'#$('))* ls
above "))'#$*
+'.*)


Art|c|e 72. R0#"#0#+$# .+ %)# 9*6-#+% (" %)# $.1.4 4.*3.4.%.#&7 8 1he c|v||
||ab|||t|es of a person found gu||ty of 2 or more offenses sha|| be
sat|sf|ed by fo||ow|ng the chrono|og|ca| order of the dates of the f|na|
[udgments rendered aga|nst h|m, beg|nn|ng w|th the f|rst |n order of
t|me.

CIN1S
I. App||cab|||ty
! 1hls arLlcle applles when Lhe offender who ls found gullLy of 2 or
more offenses ls requlred Lo pay clvll llablllLles resulLlng from
Lhe same.

II. Crder of payment of C|v|| L|ab|||t|es
! 1he order ls noL based on Lhe daLes of Lhe commlsslon.
! lL ls based on Lhe daLes of Lhe flnal [udgmenL.

CLASS DISCUSSICN
! ls lL posslble for Lhe paymenL of clvll llablllLles Lo dlffer from how
Lhe crlmlnal llablllLles are served?
! ls clvll llablllLy lmposed/speclfled or consldered as an aLLached
llke accessory penalLles? Cr musL lL be expressly lmposed?

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

1I1LL 1nkLL - LNAL1ILS
CnA1Lk 4: ALICA1ICN CI LNAL1ILS
SLC1ICN 3: kCVISICN CCMMCN 1C 1nL LAS1 1WC kLCLDING
SLC1ICNS

Art|c|e 73. !"#$%&'()*+ )+ "#-."/ (* (0# )&'*$)()*+ *1 .22#$$*"3
'#+.4()#$5 6 Whenever the courts sha|| |mpose a pena|ty wh|ch by
prov|s|on of |aw, carr|es w|th |t other pena|t|es, accord|ng to Art|c|e 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, and 4S of th|s Code, |t must be understood that the
accessory pena|t|es are a|so |mposed upon the conv|ct.

CIN1S
I. Accessory pena|t|es are deemed |mposed
! Means LhaL a [udgmenL need noL make an express
pronouncemenL of Lhe lmposlLlon of accessory penalLles.

II. Subs|d|ary |mpr|sonment, not an accessory pena|ty
! Means LhaL Lhe [udgmenL of convlcLlon musL expressly sLaLe
LhaL subsldlary penalLy would be lmposed.

Art|c|e 74. !#+.4(3 0)-0#" (0.+ "#24%$)*+ '#"'#(%. )+ 2#"(.)+ 2.$#$5 6 In
cases |n wh|ch the |aw prescr|bes a pena|ty h|gher than another g|ven
pena|ty, w|thout spec|f|ca||y des|gnat|ng the name of the former, |f
such h|gher pena|ty shou|d be that of death, the same pena|ty and the
accessory pena|t|es of Art|c|e 40, sha|| be cons|dered as the next h|gher
pena|ty.

CIN1S
I. Death cannot be the pena|ty next h|gher |n degree when not
prov|ded by |aw
! When a glven penalLy has Lo be ralsed and Lhe resulLlng penalLy
ls deaLh, lL cannoL be lmposed.
! 1he glven penalLy and Lhe accessory penalLles of deaLh (ArL. 40)
shall be lmposed.
! ueaLh musL be speclflcally lmposed by law.

II. App||cat|on of th|s art|c|e
! WhaL ls meanL Lo here ls LhaL Lhe [udgmenL should noL provlde
LhaL Lhe convlcL should noL be glven Lhe beneflL of Art|c|e 27
(LhaL he should be pardoned afLer undergolng Lhe penalLy for 30
years) unLll 40 years have elapsed, oLherwlse Lhere would be no
dlfference aL all beLween recluslon perpeLua when lmposed as a
penalLy nexL hlgher ln degree and when lL ls lmposed as Lhe
penalLy flxed by law.

Art|c|e 7S. 7+2"#.$)+- *" "#/%2)+- (0# '#+.4(3 *1 1)+# 83 *+# *" &*"#
/#-"##$5 6 Whenever |t may be necessary to |ncrease or reduce the
pena|ty of f|ne by one or more degrees, |t sha|| be |ncreased or
reduced, respect|ve|y, for each degree, by one-fourth of the max|mum
amount prescr|bed by |aw, w|thout however, chang|ng the m|n|mum.

1he same ru|es sha|| be observed w|th regard to f|nes that do not
cons|st of a f|xed amount, but are made proport|ona|.

CIN1S
I. I|nes are graduated |nto degrees
! lor Lhe accompllces and accessorles
! lor prlnclpals ln frusLraLed and aLLempLed felonles

II. 1o get the |ower degree:
! MAxlMuM prescrlbed by law - reduce by 1/4 for each degree.
! MlnlMuM - remalns Lhe same.
744%$(".()*+
! llne ls from 200 Lo 2,000
! 1o lower by one degree:
o 2,000 / 4 = 300
o 2,000 - 300 = 1,S00

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

III. "W|thout chang|ng the m|n|mum"
! 1he flne musL have a mlnlmum and a maxlmum !"#$% '( )*+
! 1hls arLlcle does nC1 apply when Lhe law does noL flx Lhe
mlnlmum of flne.

IV. When the m|n|mum |s not f|xed by |aw
! When only Lhe maxlmum ls flxed, Lhe deLermlnaLlon of Lhe
mlnlmum ls lefL Lo Lhe sound dlscreLlon of Lhe courLs, wlLhouL
exceedlng Lhe maxlmum auLhorlzed by law.

V. D|st|nct|ons between f|ne w|th a m|n|mum and f|ne w|thout a
m|n|mum.
! ln boLh, Lhe law flxes Lhe maxlmum.
! When Lhe law flxes Lhe mlnlmum, Lhe courL cannoL change LhaL
mlnlmum, when Lhe law does noL sLaLe Lhe mlnlmum, Lhe courL
can lmpose any amounL noL exceedlng Lhe maxlmum.
! When Lhe law flxes boLh mlnlmum and maxlmum, Lhe courL can
lmpose an amounL hlgher Lhan Lhe maxlmum, when only Lhe
maxlmum ls flxed, lL cannoL lmpose an amounL hlgher Lhan Lhe
maxlmum.

VI. As to "f|nes that do not cons|st of a f|xed amount, but are made
proport|ona|"
! 1hls clause speaks of flnes whlch are noL of flxed amounL buL
are made proporLlonal
o Lxample: (Art|c|e 36S, negllgence causlng damage)
Where Lhe flne shall be from an amounL equal Lo Lhe
value of Lhe damage up Lo , -".$/ such value, buL shall
ln no case be less Lhan 23 pesos.
! Art|c|e 210 ! ulrecL 8rlbery
o lacLs: 8rlbe was 2,300.
o Maxlmum: 2,300 x 3 = 6,900
o 6,900 should be Lhe basls for lowerlng Lhe penalLy by
Lwo degrees (penalLy for aLLempLed brlbery).
Art|c|e 76. 9#-.4 '#")*/ *1 /%".()*+ *1 /):)$)84# '#+.4()#$5 6 1he |ega|
per|od of durat|on of d|v|s|b|e pena|t|es sha|| be cons|dered as d|v|ded
|nto three parts, form|ng 3 per|ods, the m|n|mum, the med|um and the
max|mum |n the manner shown |n the fo||ow|ng tab|e.

1ab|e 1. Durat|on of d|v|s|b|e pena|t|es and the t|me |nc|uded |n each
per|od.
ena|t|es Who|e
ena|ty
M|n Med Max
0$1)2/"34
5$.637*)
12 yrs +
1day
Lo 20 yrs
12 yrs +
1day
Lo 14 yrs +
8 mos
14 yrs,
8mos and
1day Lo 17
yrs and 4
mos
17 yrs and 4
mos and 1
day Lo 20
yrs
89: ;<
8=:>'? @"/A?
8,:B? 5$.6?
@"/A?
6 yrs + 1day
Lo 12 yrs
6 yrs + 1day
Lo 8 yrs
8 yrs + 1d
Lo 10 yrs
10 yrs + 1
day Lo 12
yrs
89: ;CD
8=:B2/6$4/"34
8,: @$/-"$773
6 mos +
1day
Lo 6 yrs
6 mos +
1day
Lo 2 yrs + 4
mos.
2 yrs + 4
mos + 1d Lo
4 yrs +
2mos
4 yrs, 2 mos
+ 1d Lo 6
yrs
>77$/-3
<*(37
1 mo. +
1day
Lo 6 mo.
1 Lo 2 mos. 2 mos +
1day
Lo 4 mos.
4 mos +
1day
Lo 6 mos.
>77$/-3
<$437
1 Lo 30 days 1 Lo 10 days 11 Lo 20
days
21 Lo 30
days

CIN1S
I. Art|c|e 76 shows the manner d|v|s|b|e pena|t|es are d|v|ded |nto 3
per|ods
! 8efer Lo arLlcle 63 /267* for Lhe process

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

II. When the pena|ty |s composed of 3 per|ods correspond|ng to
d|fferent d|v|s|b|e pena|t|es
! lL ls clear LhaL Lhe duraLlon of each of Lhe perlods of Lhe dlvlslble
penalLles as flxed ln Lhe Lable ls nC1 conLrolllng when Lhe
penalLy prescrlbed ls composed of 3 perlods correspondlng Lo
dlfferenL dlvlslble penalLles.
! Art|c|e 76 provldes LhaL dlvlslble penalLles shall be consldered
as dlvlded lnLo Lhree parLs, formlng Lhree perlods," wlLhouL
sLaLlng LhaL Lhe Lhree parLs musL be Lhree equal porLlons of Llme
lncluded ln Lhe dlvlslble penalLles, buL Lhe Llme lncluded ln each
of Lhe dlvlslble penalLles menLloned ln Lhe Lable ln LhaL arLlcle,
excepL LhaL of arresLo mayor, ls dlvlded lnLo Lhree equal
porLlons.

III. D|st|nct|on between "per|od" and "degree"
! erlod- 3 equal parLs of a dlvlslble penalLy
! uegree- dlverse penalLles menLloned by name ln Lhe 8C

Art|c|e 77. ;0#+ (0# '#+.4(3 )$ . 2*&'4#< *+# 2*&'*$#/ *1 (0"##
/)$()+2( '#+.4()#$5 6 In cases |n wh|ch the |aw prescr|bes a pena|ty
composed of 3 d|st|nct pena|t|es, each one sha|| form a per|od, the
||ghtest of them sha|| be the m|n|mum, the next the med|um, and the
most severe the max|mum per|od.

Whenever the pena|ty prescr|bed does not have one of the forms
spec|a||y prov|ded for |n th|s Code, the per|ods sha|| be d|str|buted,
app|y|ng by ana|ogy the prescr|bed ru|es

CIN1S
I. Comp|ex pena|ty
! enalLy composed of 3 dlsLlncL penalLles, each formlng a perlod.
! Lxample:
o 8ecluslon Lemporal Lo deaLh (ArL. 114)
" Max- ueaLh
" Med- 0$1)2/"34 ;$76$-2*
" Mln- 0$1)2/"34 5$.637*)

II. App||cat|on by ana|ogy of ru|es
1. Art|c|e 114(3), provldes a penalLy of prlslon mayor Lo deaLh.
a. Max ! deaLh (because lL's lndlvlslble)
b. Medlum ! recluslon perpeLua (because lL's lndlvlslble)
c. Mlnlmum ! prlslon mayor Lo recluslon Lemporal
2. Art|c|e 294(2), provldes penalLy of recluslon Lemporal ln lLs
medlum perlod Lo recluslon perpeLua.
a. Max ! recluslon perpeLua (belng lndlvlslble)
b. Medlum ! recluslon Lemporal ln lLs maxlmum perlod
c. Mlnlmum ! recluslon Lemporal ln lLs medlum perlod.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
1I1LL 1nkLL - LNAL1ILS
CnA1Lk S: LkLCU1ICN AND SLkVICL CI LNAL1ILS
SLC1ICN 1: GLNLkAL kCVISICNS

Art|c|e 78. !"#$ &$' "() & *#$&+,- ./ ,( 0# #1#23,#'4 5 No pena|ty
sha|| be executed except by v|rtue of a f|na| [udgment.

A pena|ty sha|| not be executed |n any other form than that prescr|bed
by |aw, nor w|th any other c|rcumstances or |nc|dents than those
express|y author|zed thereby.

In add|t|on to the prov|s|ons of the |aw, the spec|a| regu|at|ons
prescr|bed for the government of the |nst|tut|ons |n wh|ch the
pena|t|es are to be suffered sha|| be observed w|th regard to the
character of the work to be performed, the t|me of |ts performance,
and other |nc|dents connected therew|th, the re|at|ons of the conv|cts
among themse|ves and other persons, the re||ef wh|ch they may
rece|ve, and the|r d|et.

1he regu|at|ons sha|| make prov|s|on for the separat|on of the sexes |n
d|fferent |nst|tut|ons, or at |east |nto d|fferent departments, and a|so
for the correct|on and reform of the conv|cts.

CIN1S
I. Cn|y pena|ty by f|na| [udgment can be executed.
! 1he [udgmenL musL be flnal before lL can be execuLed, because
Lhe accused may sLlll appeal wlLhln 13 days from lLs
promulgaLlon, buL lf he walves by wrlLlng hls rlghL Lo appeal, Lhe
[udgmenL becomes lmmedlaLely flnal.
! lf Lhe [udgmenL does noL confer subsldlary lmprlsonmenL ln case
of lnsolvency, Lhe accused cannoL be requlred Lo suffer Lhe
same ln case of lnablllLy Lo pay Lhe flne lmposed on hlm.

Art|c|e 79. 63/*#$/.($ (7 ,"# #1#23,.($ &$' /#89.2# (7 ,"# *#$&+,.#/ .$
2&/# (7 .$/&$.,-4 5 When a conv|ct sha|| become |nsane or an |mbec||e
after f|na| sentence has been pronounced, the execut|on of sa|d
sentence sha|| be suspended on|y w|th regard to the persona| pena|ty,
the prov|s|ons of the second paragraph of c|rcumstance number 1 of
art|c|e 12 be|ng observed |n the correspond|ng cases.

If at any t|me the conv|ct sha|| recover h|s reason, h|s sentence sha|| be
executed, un|ess the pena|ty sha|| have prescr|bed |n accordance w|th
the prov|s|ons of th|s Code.

1he respect|ve prov|s|ons of th|s sect|on sha|| a|so be observed |f the
|nsan|ty or |mbec|||ty occurs wh||e the conv|ct |s serv|ng h|s sentence.


CIN1S
I. ku|es regard|ng the execut|on of pena|t|es |n case of |nsan|ty
1. ConvlcL becomes lnsane/lmbeclle afLer flnal [udgmenL !
senLence ls suspended only as regards Lhe personal penalLy
2. lf he recovers hls reason ! senLence shall be execuLed unless lL
has prescrlbed
3. Lven whlle servlng senLence, Lhe convlcL becomes lnsane/an
lmbeclle, Art. 79 shall be observed
4. Clvll or pecunlary llablllLles shall noL be suspended

II. Cn|y execut|on of persona| pena|ty |s suspended |n case of |nsan|ty,
c|v|| ||ab|||ty may be executed even |n case of |nsan|ty of conv|ct.

III. An accused person may become |nsane (w|th effects):
1. AL Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense
o LxempLed from crlmlnal llablllLy (Art. 12.1)
2. AL Lhe Llme of Lrlal
o 1rlal suspended unLll he recovers reason (Art. 12.1)
3. AL Lhe Llme of flnal [udgmenL
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o ersonal penalLy ls suspended.
4. Whlle servlng senLence
o ersonal penalLy ls suspended.

Art|c|e 80. 63/*#$/.($ (7 /#$,#$2# (7 :.$(8 '#+.$;3#$,/. - Whenever a
m|nor of e|ther sex, under s|xteen years of age at the date of the
comm|ss|on of a grave or |ess grave fe|ony, |s accused thereof, the
court, after hear|ng the ev|dence |n the proper proceed|ngs, |nstead of
pronounc|ng [udgment of conv|ct|on, sha|| suspend a|| further
proceed|ngs and sha|| comm|t such m|nor to the custody or care of a
pub||c or pr|vate, benevo|ent or char|tab|e |nst|tut|on, estab||shed
under the |aw for the care, correct|on or educat|on of orphaned,
home|ess, defect|ve, and de||nquent ch||dren, or to the custody or care
of any other respons|b|e person |n any other p|ace sub[ect to v|s|tat|on
and superv|s|on by the D|rector of ub||c We|fare or any of h|s agents
or representat|ves, |f there be any, or otherw|se by the super|ntendent
of pub||c schoo|s or h|s representat|ves, sub[ect to such cond|t|ons as
are prescr|bed here|nbe|ow unt|| such m|nor sha|| have reached h|s
ma[or|ty or for such |ess per|od as the court may deem proper.(As
amended by kepub||c Act No. 47.)

1he court, |n comm|tt|ng sa|d m|nor as prov|ded above, sha|| take |nto
cons|derat|on the re||g|on of such m|nor, h|s parents or next of k|n, |n
order to avo|d h|s comm|tment to any pr|vate |nst|tut|on not under the
contro| and superv|s|on of the re||g|ous sect or denom|nat|on to wh|ch
they be|ong.

1he D|rector of ub||c We|fare or h|s du|y author|zed representat|ves
or agents, the super|ntendent of pub||c schoo|s or h|s representat|ves,
or the person to whose custody or care the m|nor has been
comm|tted, sha|| subm|t to the court every four months and as often
as requ|red |n spec|a| cases, a wr|tten report on the good or bad
conduct of sa|d m|nor and the mora| and |nte||ectua| progress made by
h|m.
1he suspens|on of the proceed|ngs aga|nst a m|nor may be extended
or shortened by the court on the recommendat|on of the D|rector of
ub||c We|fare or h|s author|zed representat|ves or agents, or the
super|ntendent of pub||c schoo|s or h|s representat|ves, accord|ng as
to whether the conduct of such m|nor has been good or not and
whether he has comp||ed w|th the cond|t|ons |mposed upon h|m, or
not. 1he prov|s|ons of the f|rst paragraph of th|s art|c|e sha|| not,
however, be affected by those conta|ned here|n.

If the m|nor has been comm|tted to the custody or care of any of the
|nst|tut|ons ment|oned |n the f|rst paragraph of th|s art|c|e, w|th the
approva| of the D|rector of ub||c We|fare and sub[ect to such
cond|t|ons as th|s off|c|a| |n accordance w|th |aw may deem proper to
|mpose, such m|nor may be a||owed to stay e|sewhere under the care
of a respons|b|e person.

If the m|nor has behaved proper|y and has comp||ed w|th the
cond|t|ons |mposed upon h|m dur|ng h|s conf|nement, |n accordance
w|th the prov|s|ons of th|s art|c|e, he sha|| be returned to the court |n
order that the same may order h|s f|na| re|ease.

In case the m|nor fa||s to behave proper|y or to comp|y w|th the
regu|at|ons of the |nst|tut|on to wh|ch he has been comm|tted or w|th
the cond|t|ons |mposed upon h|m when he was comm|tted to the care
of a respons|b|e person, or |n case he shou|d be found |ncorr|g|b|e or
h|s cont|nued stay |n such |nst|tut|on shou|d be |nadv|sab|e, he sha|| be
returned to the court |n order that the same may render the [udgment
correspond|ng to the cr|me comm|tted by h|m.

1he expenses for the ma|ntenance of a m|nor de||nquent conf|ned |n
the |nst|tut|on to wh|ch he has been comm|tted, sha|| be borne tota||y
or part|a||y by h|s parents or re|at|ves or those persons ||ab|e to
support h|m, |f they are ab|e to do so, |n the d|scret|on of the court:
rov|ded, 1hat |n case h|s parents or re|at|ves or those persons ||ab|e
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
to support h|m have not been ordered to pay sa|d expenses or are
found |nd|gent and cannot pay sa|d expenses, the mun|c|pa||ty |n
wh|ch the offense was comm|tted sha|| pay one-th|rd of sa|d expenses,
the prov|nce to wh|ch the mun|c|pa||ty be|ongs sha|| pay one-th|rd,
and the rema|n|ng one-th|rd sha|| be borne by the Nat|ona|
Government: rov|ded, however, 1hat whenever the Secretary of
I|nance cert|f|es that a mun|c|pa||ty |s not ab|e to pay |ts share |n the
expenses above ment|oned, such share wh|ch |s not pa|d by sa|d
mun|c|pa||ty sha|| be borne by the Nat|ona| Government. Chartered
c|t|es sha|| pay two-th|rds of sa|d expenses, and |n case a chartered c|ty
cannot pay sa|d expenses, the |nterna| revenue a||otments wh|ch may
be due to sa|d c|ty sha|| be w|thhe|d and app||ed |n sett|ement of sa|d
|ndebtedness |n accordance w|th sect|on f|ve hundred and e|ghty-e|ght
of the Adm|n|strat|ve Code. (As amended by Com. Act No. 99)


CIN1S
I. 1he prov|s|ons of Art|c|e 80 have been repea|ed by Chapter 3 of D
603, as amended by the prov|s|ons of kA 9344
! 8A 9344:
o Chlld" = below 18
o Chlld ln ConfllcL wlLh Lhe Law" = alleged/accused
of/ad[udged as havlng commlLLed an offense under
hlllpplne Laws.
! u 603
o ?ouLhful Cffender" = chlld/mlnor/youLh, above 9 buL
below 18, aL Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense.

II. M|n|mum age of Cr|m|na| kespons|b|||ty
! 13 years old and below ! exempL from crlmlnal llablllLy.
! Above 13, below 18 ! exempL from crlmlnal llablllLy buL wlLh
lnLervenLlon program (buL lf acLed wlLh dlscernmenL!dlverslon
program).

III. Intervent|on rogram
! u 603:
! CusLody ! chlld musL be released Lo parenLs, guardlan or
nearesL relaLlve. Absence Lhereof, duly reglsLered
nongovernmenLal or rellglous organlzaLlons, barangay offlclal or
a member of Lhe 8arangay Councll for Lhe roLecLlon of
Chlldren, uSWu.
! ApproprlaLe programs ! CreaLed ln cooperaLlon wlLh Lhe local
soclal and welfare developmenL offlcer.
! lnvolunLary commlLmenL ! lf Lhe chlld ls abandoned, neglecLed
or abused.

IV. D|vers|on rograms for ch||dren above 1S and be|ow 18 who acted
w|th d|scernment (Art. 13.2)
<3,(:&,.2 63/*#$/.($ (7 /#$,#$2# 3$'#8 =< >?@@
! When a chlld under 18 aL Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme ls found gullLy of Lhe offense, Lhe courL wlll deLermlne any
clvll llablllLy, whlch may have resulLed from Lhe offense.
! Powever, lnsLead of pronounclng [udgmenL of convlcLlon, Lhe
courL wlll place Lhe chlld under a suspended senLence, wlLhouL
need of appllcaLlon
! !"#$%&'& LhaL suspenslon of senLence shall be applled even lf
Lhe [uvenlle ls already 18 or more aL Lhe Llme of Lhe
promulgaLlon of Lhe senLence.
63/*#$/.($ (7 /#$,#$2# +&/,/ ($+- 3$,.+ ,"# 2".+' .$ 2($7+.2, ).," ,"# +&)
8#&2"#/ AB -#&8/ (+'
! Max age ! 21 years old.
! lnvolves 8esLoraLlon, 8ehablllLaLlon, 8elnLegraLlon
! WhaL maLLers ls LhaL Lhe offender commlLLed Lhe offense when
he/she was sLlll of Lender age, noL hls/her age durlng convlcLlon.
1hus, a 23-year old man may sLlll be senLenced Lo a dlverslon
program lf he acLed wlLh dlscernmenL when he commlLLed Lhe
crlme when he was 17 years old.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
V. CCUk1 kCCLLDINGS
1. 8a||
o Conslder Lhe prlvlleged mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance of
mlnorlLy (Art. 68).
2. ke|ease on kecogn|zance
o ueLalned chlld:
" 8eleased on recognlzance Lo parenLs
" 8elease of Chlld ln ConfllcL wlLh Law wlLh ball
" 1ransfer of youLh Lo rehab cenLer
3. Detent|on of the Ch||d end|ng 1r|a|
o May be released on 8AlL or 8LCCCnlZAnCL
o lnsLlLuLlonallzaLlon/ueLenLlon ! lasL resorL and wlLh
Lhe shorLesL posslble Llme.
o ?ouLh deLenLlon home lf deLenLlon ls necessary !
absenL, uSWu or local rehablllLaLlon cenLer wlLhln courL
[urlsdlcLlon.
4. D|vers|on Measures
o lf max ls lmprlsonmenL of noL more Lhan 12 years
(regardless of flne lf any) ! courL wlll deLermlne WCn
dlverslon ls approprlaLe even before arralgnmenL.
S. D|scharge of the Ch||d |n Conf||ct w|th the Law
o upon recommendaLlon of soclal worker, Lhe courL shall
dlsmlss Lhe case agalnsL Lhe chlld.
o llnal dlscharge of Lhe chlld ordered lf Lhe ob[ecLlve of
Lhe dlsposlLlon measures have been fulfllled.
o C"#/# ).++ $(, &77#2, ,"# 2.9.+ +.&0.+.,- (7 ,"# 2".+'4
6. keturn of the Ch||d |n Conf||ct w|th the Law to Court
o lf dlsposlLlon measures noL fulfllled or chlld dldn'L wanL
Lo comply, chlld ! reLurned Lo CourL for [udgmenL.
o lf chlld has reached 18, CourL wlll deLermlne
" ulscharge
" LxecuLe senLence
" Suspend senLence for a Llme or unLll chlld Lurns
21.
7. Cred|t |n Serv|ce of Sentence
o lull Llme spenL ln acLual commlLmenL and deLenLlon.
8. robat|on as an A|ternat|ve to Impr|sonment
o AfLer convlcLlon and senLence a chlld ln confllcL wlLh Lhe
law, Lhe courL may place Lhe chlld under probaLlon ln
lleu of servlce of Lhe senLence Laklng lnLo conslderaLlon
Lhe besL lnLeresLs of Lhe chlld.
o robaLlon Law of 1976 ls amended accordlngly.

VI. kLnA8ILI1A1ICN & kLIN1LGkA1ICN
1. Cb[ect|ve of kehab|||tat|on & ke|ntegrat|on
o lnLervenLlon, approaches, sLraLegles Lo lmprove Lhelr
soclal funcLlonlng ! 8elnLegraLlon lnLo famllles,
producLlve members of Lhe communlLy.
2. Court Crder requ|red before rece|v|ng a ch||d |n a
rehab|||tat|on fac|||ty
o ueLalls shall be enLered lnLo a reglsLer
o MusL be complled wlLh sLrlcLly
3. Separate fac|||t|es from adu|ts
o SeparaLed from adulLs unless from same famlly
o Pome envlronmenL slmulaLed for comforL
4. Iema|e ch||dren
o ersonal needs and problems aLLended Lo by female
docLors, offlcers, and soclal workers
S. Care and ma|ntenance of the Ch||d |n Conf||ct w|th the Law
o 6## *&8&D8&*" E
o llow of flnanclal responslblllLy:
o arenLs/people llable for supporL (whole or ln parL)
o lf #1 cannoL pay:
" MunlclpallLy (1/3)
" rovlnce where munlclpallLy ls locaLed (1/3)
" naLlonal CovernmenL (1/3)
o noLe:
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
" lf SecreLary of llnance says Lhe munlclpallLy
can'L pay, Lhe naLlonal CovernmenL shall pay
(2/3)
" CharLered clLles shall pay (2/3) of Lhe expenses.
lf lL cannoL pay, Lhen Lhe lnLernal revenue
alloLmenLs for LhaL clLy shall be suspended and
Lhe money Lo be pald Lo Lhe clLy shall be used
for Lhe clLy's paymenLs for Lhe malnLenance of
Lhe conflnemenL of Lhe Chlld ln ConfllcL wlLh Lhe
Law, pursuanL Lo Sec. 388 of Lhe AC.
6. Conf|nement of conv|cted ch||dren |n agr|cu|tura| camps and
other tra|n|ng fac|||t|es
o ConflnemenL Lo such may be done by Lhe courL ln lleu of
conflnemenL ln a regular penal lnsLlLuLlon
o Such Lo be malnLalned by Lhe 8ureau of CorrecLlons ln
coordlnaLlon wlLh Lhe uSWu
7. kehab|||tat|on of Ch||dren |n Conf||ct w|th the Law
o Chlldren ln confllcL wlLh Lhe law whose senLences are
suspended, my undergo any or a comblnaLlon of
dlsposlLlon measures besL sulLed Lo Lhe rehab and
welfare of Lhe chlld (SC 8ule on !uvenlles ln ConfllcL wlLh
Lhe Law)
o CommunlLy-based rehab ! chlld shall be released Lo
parenLs. Cuardlans, relaLlves, or any oLher responslble
person ln Lhe communlLy. under Lhe supervlslon and
guldance of Lhe local soclal welfare and developmenL
offlcer (and ln coordlnaLlon wlLh Lhe abovemenLloned
people), Lhe chlld ln confllcL wlLh Lhe law shall
parLlclpaLe ln communlLy-based programs
o 8ased on progress, a flnal reporL shall be forwarded Lo
Lhe local soclal welfare and developmenL Lo be assessed
by Lhe courL for flnal dlsposlLlon of Lhe case
8. outh kehab|||tat|on Center
o 24-hour group care wlLh Lralned sLaff.
o llnal reporL Lo be mdade, as well
9. C|v|| ||ab|||ty of outhfu| Cffenders
o AuLomaLlc:
" laLher, lf noL
" MoLher, lf noL
" Cuardlan
o volunLary:
" 8elaLlve
" lamlly frlend
10. L|ab|||ty of parents or guard|an or any person |n the
comm|ss|on of de||nquent acts by the|r ch||dren or wards
o A person wheLher Lhe parenL/guardlan of Lhe chlld or
noL, knowlngly or wlllfully,
" Alds, causes, abeLs, or connlves wlLh Lhe
commlsslon by a chlld of a dellnquency
" uoes any acL produclng, promoLlng, or
conLrlbuLlng Lo a chlld's belng or becomlng a
[uvenlle dellnquenL ! 300 / lmprlsonmenL < 2
years C8 boLh aL courL's dlscreLlon
11. Conf|dent|a||ty of records and proceed|ngs
o rlvlleged and confldenLlal.
o ubllc shall be excluded durlng Lhe proceedlngs.
o 8ecords shall noL be dlsclosed dlrecLly or lndlrecLly Lo
anyone by any of Lhe parLles/parLlclpanLs for any
purpose LxCL1 Lo deLermlne Lhe posslble suspenslon
of Lhe chlld ln confllcL wlLh Lhe law may have pursuanL
Lo Lhe robaLlon Law of 1976.
o ComponenL auLhorlLles shall underLake all measures Lo
proLecL Lhe confldenLlallLy of proceedlngs.
o SeparaLe pollce bloLLer for cases lnvolvlng chlldren ln
confllcL wlLh Lhe law.
o AdopLlon of a sysLem of codlng Lo conceal maLerlal lnfo
leadlng Lo chlld's ldenLlLy.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o A person who has been ln confllcL wlLh Lhe law as a chlld
shall noL be held under any provlslon of law, Lo be gullLy
of per[ury or of concealmenL or mlsrepresenLaLlon by
reason of hls/her fallure Lo acknowledge Lhe case or
reclLe any facL relaLed ln response Lo any lnqulry made
Lo hlm/her for any purpose.
o u 1179 shall noL apply Lo Lhose convlcLed of an offense
punlshable by deaLh or llfe lmprlsonmenL.


!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
1I1LL 1nkLL - LNAL1ILS
CnA1Lk S: LkLCU1ICN AND SLkVICL CI LNAL1ILS
SLC1ICN 2: LkLCU1ICN CI kINCIAL LNAL1ILS

Art|c|e 81. !"#$ &$' "() *"# '#&*" +#$&,*- ./ *( 0# #1#23*#'4 5 1he
death sentence sha|| be executed w|th preference to any other and
sha|| cons|st |n putt|ng the person under sentence to death by
e|ectrocut|on. 1he death sentence sha|| be executed under the
author|ty of the D|rector of r|sons, endeavor|ng so far as poss|b|e to
m|t|gate the suffer|ngs of the persons under sentence dur|ng
e|ectrocut|on as we|| as dur|ng the proceed|ngs pr|or to the execut|on.

If the person under sentence so des|res, he sha|| be anaesthet|zed at
the moment of the execut|on.

As soon as fac|||t|es are prov|ded by the 8ureau of r|sons, the method
of carry|ng out the sentence sha|| be changed to gas po|son|ng.
1he death sentence sha|| be carr|ed out not |ater than one (1) year
after the [udgment has become f|na|. (As amended by Sec. 24,
kepub||c Act No. 76S9.)

CIN1S
I. kA 9346 express|y repea|ed kA 8177, wh|ch prescr|bed death by
|etha| |n[ect|on.
! Accordlng Lo Sec. 1 of 8A 9346, Lhe lmposlLlon of Lhe deaLh
penalLy ls prohlblLed.

II. 8ecause the death pena|ty may not be |mposed anymore, Art|c|es
81-8S have no app||cat|on.
! Art|c|e 81 - When and how Lhe deaLh penalLy ls Lo be execuLed.
! Art|c|e 82 - noLlflcaLlon and execuLlon of Lhe senLence and
asslsLance Lo Lhe culprlL.
! Art|c|e 83 - Suspenslon of Lhe execuLlon of Lhe deaLh senLence.
! Art|c|e 84 - lace of execuLlon and persons who may wlLness
Lhe same.
! Art|c|e 8S - rovlslons relaLlve Lo Lhe corpse of Lhe person
execuLed and lLs burlal.

III. Death sentence sha|| be executed w|th preference to any other
pena|ty.
! ln accordance wlLh Art|c|e 70 provldlng for successlve servlce of
senLences.

IV. Death sentence by |etha| |n[ect|on.
! 1hls ls ln accordance wlLh 8A 8177. rlor Lo Lhe enacLmenL of
sald 8A, Lhe deaLh penalLy was carrled ouL by elecLrocuLlon.

V. When death sentence sha|| be carr|ed out.
! noL earller Lhan 1 year nor laLer Lhan 18 monLhs afLer Lhe
[udgmenL becomes flnal and execuLory, wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo Lhe
resldenL's exerclse of pardon.

Art|c|e 82. 6(*.7.2&*.($ &$' #1#23*.($ (7 *"# /#$*#$2# &$' &//./*&$2# *(
*"# 23,+8.*4 5 1he court sha|| des|gnate a work|ng day for the execut|on,
but not the hour thereof, and such des|gnat|on sha|| not be
commun|cated to the offender before sunr|se of sa|d day, and the
execut|on sha|| not take p|ace unt|| after the exp|rat|on of at |east
e|ght hours fo||ow|ng the not|f|cat|on, but before sunset. Dur|ng the
|nterva| between the not|f|cat|on and the execut|on, the cu|pr|t sha||,
|n so far as poss|b|e, be furn|shed such ass|stance as he may request |n
order to be attended |n h|s |ast moments by pr|ests or m|n|sters of the
re||g|on he professes and to consu|t |awyers, as we|| as |n order to
make a w||| and confer w|th members of h|s fam||y or persons |n
charge of the management of h|s bus|ness, of the adm|n|strat|on of h|s
property, or of the care of h|s descendants.


!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
CIN1S
I. A conv|ct sentenced to death may make a w|||.
! Pe has Lhe rlghL Lo consulL a lawyer and make a wlll for Lhe
dlsposlLlon of hls properLy.
! 1o know lf Lhe convlcL senLenced Lo deaLh ay dlspose of hls
properLy !"#$% '!'(), lL musL flrsL be ascerLalned lf Lhe deaLh
penalLy was noL execuLed by reason of commuLaLlon or pardon
(Art|c|e 40). 1hus, lf Lhe deaLh penalLy ls noL execuLed because
of commuLaLlon or pardon, clvll lnLerdlcLlon as an accessory
penalLy of Art|c|e 40 can be applled, and accordlng Lo Art|c|e 34,
shall deprlve Lhe offender Lo dlspose of hls properLy by any acL
or conveyance !"#$% '!'().

Art|c|e 83. 93/+#$/.($ (7 *"# #1#23*.($ (7 *"# '#&*" /#$*#$2#4 5 1he
death sentence sha|| not be |nf||cted upon a woman wh||e she |s
pregnant or w|th|n one (1) year after de||very, nor upon any person
over seventy years of age. In th|s |ast case, the death sentence sha|| be
commuted to the pena|ty of rec|us|on perpetua w|th the accessory
pena|ty prov|ded |n art|c|e 40.

In a|| cases where the death sentence has become f|na|, the records of
the case sha|| be forwarded |mmed|ate|y by the Supreme Court to the
Cff|ce of the res|dent for poss|b|e exerc|se of the pardon|ng power.
(As amended by Sec. 2S, kepub||c Act No. 76S9.)

CIN1S
I. Death sentence sha|| be suspended when the accused |s
1. Woman, whlle pregnanL
2. Woman, wlLhln one year afLer dellvery (kA No. 76S9)
o 8efore lL was afLer 40 days.
3. erson over 70 years of age
o Suspenslon ls necessary Lo glve Lhe resldenL Llme Lo
acL, because only Lhe resldenL can commuLe Lhe
senLence.
4. ConvlcL *+( ,$-(.$) !")/"$ /0#$% 0!"/1 )$"#$"-$ (0 2$/#+ has
been pronounced (Art|c|e 79).
o 8uL when he recovers hls reason and before Lhe penalLy
has been prescrlbed, he may be puL Lo deaLh.

II. Art|c|e 83 vs. Art|c|e 47
Art|c|e 83 Art|c|e 47
urpose SuSLnSlCn of deaLh
penalLy
When deaLh penalLy ls
nC1 Lo be execuLed
Cases 1. Woman, whlle
pregnanL
2. Woman, wlLhln one
year afLer dellvery
3. erson over 70 y/o
4. ConvlcL *+(
,$-(.$) !")/"$
/0#$% 0!"/1 )$"#$"-$
(0 2$/#+ has been
pronounced (Art|c|e
79)
1. CullLy person ls more
Lhan 70 y/o
2. upon
appeal/auLomaLlc
revlew of Lhe SC, Lhe
ma[orlLy voLe ls noL
obLalned Lo lmpose
deaLh penalLy
3. ConvlcL ls a mlnor
(below 18)*

*1hls may be added ln
vlew of Art|c|e 68

III. k1C (former|y CI) can suspend execut|on of death sentence.
! MusL be done:
o AfLer Lhe [udgmenL has become flnal
o AfLer Lhe daLe has been flxed for execuLlon
o upon peLlLlon on behalf of Lhe prlsoner
o 8ased upon grounds whlch does noL challenge Lhe
valldlLy of Lhe [udgmenL or lnvolve a
revlew/reconslderaLlon of Lhe proceedlngs:
! lnsanlLy or pregnancy of convlcL
! Alleged non-ldenLlLy of Lhe prlsoner wlLh Lhe
person acLually convlcLed and senLenced
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! Alleged lack of a sulLable opporLunlLy Lo be
heard on an appllcaLlon for execuLlve clemency
o PCWLvL8, Lhe courL cannoL granL (lC"permanenL,
lndeflnlLe, condlLlonal) suspenslon of Lhe execuLlon of
senLences ln crlmlnal cases.

IV. kecords to be forwarded to the Cff|ce of the res|dent, when the
death sentence has become f|na|.
! lor Lhe posslble exerclse of Lhe pardonlng power.

Art|c|e 84. :,&2# (7 #1#23*.($ &$' +#8/($/ )"( ;&- ).*$#// *"# /&;#4 5
1he execut|on sha|| take p|ace |n the pen|tent|ary of 8|||b|d |n a space
c|osed to the pub||c v|ew and sha|| be w|tnessed on|y by the pr|ests
ass|st|ng the offender and by h|s |awyers, and by h|s re|at|ves, not
exceed|ng s|x, |f he so request, by the phys|c|an and the necessary
personne| of the pena| estab||shment, and by such persons as the
D|rector of r|sons may author|ze.


! See tab|e


Art|c|e 8S. :8(<./.($ 8#,&*.<# *( *"# 2(8+/# (7 *"# +#8/($ #1#23*#'
&$' .*/ 038.&,4 5 Un|ess c|a|med by h|s fam||y, the corpse of the cu|pr|t
sha||, upon the comp|et|on of the |ega| proceed|ngs subsequent to the
execut|on, be turned over to the |nst|tute of |earn|ng or sc|ent|f|c
research f|rst app|y|ng for |t, for the purpose of study and
|nvest|gat|on, prov|ded that such |nst|tute sha|| take charge of the
decent bur|a| of the rema|ns. Ctherw|se, the D|rector of r|sons sha||
order the bur|a| of the body of the cu|pr|t at government expense,
grant|ng perm|ss|on to be present thereat to the members of the
fam||y of the cu|pr|t and the fr|ends of the |atter. In no case sha|| the
bur|a| of the body of a person sentenced to death be he|d w|th pomp.

CIN1
I. 1he "bur|a| of the body of a person sentenced to death" shou|d not
"be he|d w|th pomp."
! 1hls ls Lo prevenL anyone from maklng a hero ouL of a crlmlnal.

Art|c|e 86. =#2,3/.($ +#8+#*3&> 8#2,3/.($ *#;+(8&,> +8./.($ ;&-(8>
+8./.($ 2(88#22.($&, &$' &88#/*( ;&-(84 5 1he pena|t|es of rec|us|on
perpetua, rec|us|on tempora|, pr|s|on mayor, pr|s|on correcc|ona| and
arresto mayor, sha|| be executed and served |n the p|aces and pena|
estab||shments prov|ded by the Adm|n|strat|ve Code |n force or wh|ch
may be prov|ded by |aw |n the future.


! See tab|e


Art|c|e 87. ?#/*.#88(4 5 Any person sentenced to dest|erro sha|| not be
perm|tted to enter the p|ace or p|aces des|gnated |n the sentence, nor
w|th|n the rad|us there|n spec|f|ed, wh|ch sha|| be not more than 2S0
and not |ess than 2S k||ometers from the p|ace des|gnated.


! See tab|e


Art|c|e 88. @88#/*( ;#$(84 5 1he pena|ty of arresto menor sha|| be
served |n the mun|c|pa| [a||, or |n the house of the defendant h|mse|f
under the surve|||ance of an off|cer of the |aw, when the court so
prov|des |n |ts dec|s|on, tak|ng |nto cons|derat|on the hea|th of the
offender and other reasons, wh|ch may seem sat|sfactory to |t.

! See tab|e

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
1A8LL ICk Ak1ICLLS 84, 86-88

Ak1ICLL LACL]S CI LkLCU1ICN
Ck SLkVICL
WI1NLSSLS C1nLk DL1AILS
84
(ueaLh SenLence)
enlnLenLlary
8llld rlson
rlesLs
Cffender's lawyers
Cffender's relaLlves (noL
exceedlng 6, lf so requesLed)
hyslclan
necessary personnel of Lhe
esLabllshmenL


------
86
(3$-14)!5" 6$%7$#4/, 3$-14)!5"
8$.7(%/1, 6%!)!(" 9/:(%, 6%!)!("
;(%%$--!("/1, <%%$)#( 9/:(%)
laces and penal
esLabllshmenLs provlded by
Lhe AC ln force or Lhose LhaL
may be provlded ln Lhe fuLure

------

------

87
=>$)#!$%%()
no place because sald
convlcLed musL leave Lhe place
lLself

------
Shall noL be permlLLed Lo enLer
Lhe place/s deslgnaLed, nor
w/ln a radlus speclfled
8anlshmenL shall be < 230 km,
buL > 23 km from place
deslgnaLed
88
(<%%$)#( 9$"(%)
Munlclpal [all, or

*** Pouse of Lhe defendanL
hlmself
*** under offlcer's survelllance *** Cnly when Lhe courL so
provldes, sub[ecL Lo Lhe offender's
1. PealLh
2. CLher reasons
saLlsfacLory Lo lL

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
!"!#$ &'() * $+!",-!"', '& -)".",/# #"/0"#"!1
-2/3!$) 45 !'!/# $+!",-!"', '& -)".",/# #"/0"#"!1

/6789:; <=> !"# %&'(')*+ +'*,'+'-. '/ -"-*++. 01-')23'/405> ? -68@8AB:
:8BC8:87D 8E 7F7B::D ;G78AHI8EJ;K5
4> 0D 7J; K;B7J FL 7J; 9FAM897N BE 7F 7J; O;6EFAB: O;AB:78;E BAK BE
7F O;9IA8B6D O;AB:78;EN :8BC8:87D 7J;6;LF6 8E ;G78AHI8EJ;K FA:D
PJ;A 7J; K;B7J FL 7J; FLL;AK;6 F99I6E C;LF6; L8AB: QIKH@;A7>
R> 0D E;6M89; FL 7J; E;A7;A9;S
T> 0D B@A;E7DN PJ89J 9F@O:;7;:D ;G78AHI8EJ;E 7J; O;AB:7D BAK B::
87E ;LL;97ES
U> 0D BCEF:I7; OB6KFAS
V> 0D O6;E968O78FA FL 7J; 968@;S
W> 0D O6;E968O78FA FL 7J; O;AB:7DS
X> 0D 7J; @B668BH; FL 7J; FLL;AK;K PF@BAN BE O6FM8K;K 8A /6789:;
TUU FL 7J8E -FK;>

3'",!Y
"> $G78A978FA FL 968@8AB: :8BC8:87D KF;E AF7 BI7F@B789B::DZA;9;EEB68:D
@;BA 7JB7 98M8: :8BC8:87D 8E B:EF ;G78AHI8EJ;K
! LxLlncLlon of crlmlnal llablllLy ls a ground for moLlon Lo quash.
o 1he order susLalnlng such moLlon ls a bar Lo anoLher
prosecuLlon for Lhe same offense.

""> -BIE;E FL ;G78A978FA FL 968@8AB: :8BC8:87D K8E78AHI8EJ;K L6F@ 9BIE;E FL
QIE78L89B78FA F6 ;G;@O78FA
! Causes of exLlncLlon of crlmlnal llablllLy arlse Al1L8 Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe offense.
! Causes of [usLlflcaLlon or exempLlons from crlmlnal llablllLy arlse
from clrcumsLances exlsLlng elLher 8LlC8L or A1 1PL MCMLn1
of lL's commlsslon.
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
3/)> 45 01 \$/!2 '& !2$ -',]"-!

"> );BEFA5
! Cne of Lhe [urldlcal condlLlons of penalLy ls LhaL lL's personal.

""> -8M8: :8BC8:87D 8E ;G78AHI8EJ;K FA:D PJ;A K;B7J F99I6E C;LF6; L8AB:
QIKH@;A7
! 8eason: clvll llablllLy exlsLs only when Lhe accused ls convlcLed
by flnal [udgmenL.

"""> -68@8AB: BAK 98M8: :8BC8:87D 8E ;G78AHI8EJ;K PJ;A 7J; FLL;AK;6 K8;E
C;LF6; L8AB: QIKH@;A7
! eople v. CasLlllo, CA ! When Lhe accused dled whlle Lhe
[udgmenL of convlcLlon agalnsL hlm was pendlng, hls clvll and
crlmlnal llablllLy was exLlngulshed by hls deaLh.

"]> \;L8A878FA FL ^&8AB: _IKH@;A7`
! As employed ln Lhe 8C, Lhls means [udgmenL beyond recall.
! As long as Lhe [udgmenL has noL become execuLory, lL cannoL be
LruLhfully sald LhaL defendanL ls deflnlLely gullLy of Lhe felony.
! !udgmenL also becomes flnal:
o AfLer Lhe lapse of Lhe 13-day perlod of perfecLlng appeal
o When Lhe senLence ls parLlally or fully served.
o When Lhe defendanL ln wrlLlng, expressly walves ln
walves hls rlghL Lo appeal.

]> $LL;97 FL 7J; K;B7J FL 7J; B99IE;K O;AK8AH BOO;B: FA J8E 968@8AB:
BAK 98M8: :8BC8:87D
! a;A;6B: 6I:;5 ueaLh of Lhe accused pendlng appeal of hls
convlcLlon exLlngulshes hls Lhe crlmlnal llablllLy and Lhe clvll
llablllLy based solely on Lhe offense commlLLed.
! $G9;O78FA5 1he clalm for clvll llablllLy survlves lf Lhe same may
also be predlcaLed on a source of obllgaLlon oLher Lhan dellcL
such as law, conLracLs, quasl-conLracLs and quasl-dellcL.
! $GB@O:;E5
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o Clvll llablllLy for Lhe offense of physlcal ln[urles ls
enLlrely separaLe from Lhe crlmlnal acLlon.
! 8lghL of Lhe offended parLy Lo flle separaLe clvll acLlon noL losL
by prescrlpLlon when accused dles pendlng appeal.
o ln such case, Lhe sLaLuLe of llmlLaLlons on Lhe clvll
llablllLy ls deemed lnLerrupLed durlng Lhe pendency of
Lhe crlmlnal case, conformably wlLh provlslons of /6789:;
44VV of Lhe -8M8: -FK;.

]"> bJ;A 98M8: :8BC8:87D EI6M8M;E
! AcLlon Lo recover damages from Lhe same acL or omlsslon
complalned of musL be flled as a separaLe clvll acLlon.
! lL musL be predlcaLed noL on Lhe crlmlnal llablllLy prevlously
charged, buL on oLher sources of obllgaLlon.
! CLher sources of obllgaLlon:
o lf Lhe same acL or omlsslon complalned of also arlses
from quasl-dellcL or may, by provlslon of law, resulL ln
an ln[ury Lo person or properLy ! clvll acLlon musL be
flled agalnsL Lhe !"!#$%&' &' )*+,-,.%')%&' &/ %0! !.%)%!
of Lhe accused. (Y;9>4N )I:; <XN )I:;E FL -FI67).
o lf Lhe same acL or omlsslon complalned of also arlses
from conLracL ! clvll acLlon musL be flled agalnsL Lhe
!.%)%! of Lhe accused (Y;9>VN )I:; <WN )I:;E FL -FI67).

]""> \;B7J FL 7J; FLL;AK;K OB67D KF;E AF7 ;G78AHI8EJ 968@8AB: :8BC8:87D
! 1he offense commlLLed ln a crlme ls agalnsL Lhe sLaLe.
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
3/)> R5 01 Y$)]"-$ '& Y$,!$,-$

"> $G78AHI8EJ;E 968@8AB: :8BC8:87D CI7 ,'! 98M8: :8BC8:87D
! Crlme ls a debuL lncurred by Lhe offender as a consequence of
hls wrongful acL and Lhe penalLy ls buL Lhe amounL of hls debL
whlch ls exLlngulshed once pald.
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
3/)> T5 01 /.,$Y!1

"> /@A;E7D K;L8A;K
! An acL of Lhe soverelgn power granLlng obllvlon or general
pardon for a pasL offense.
! 8arely exerclsed ln favor of a slngle lndlvldual, and usually ln
behalf of cerLaln classes of persons who are sub[ecL Lo Lrlal buL
have noL been convlcLed.

""> /@A;E7D 9F@O:;7;:D ;G78AHI8EJ;E 7J; O;AB:7D BAK B:: 87E ;LL;97E

"""> /@A;E7D @BD C; H6BA7;K BL7;6 9FAM8978FA
! 1he amnesLy proclamaLlon (ex: roclamaLlon no. 31) ln favor of
Lhe Pukbalahaps ls appllcable Lo Lhose already undergolng
senLence upon Lhe daLe of lLs promulgaLlon.

"]> -8M8: :8BC8:87D AF7 ;G78AHI8EJ;K CD B@A;E7D
! AmnesLy wlpes ouL all Lraces and vesLlges of Lhe crlme, buL does
noL exLlngulsh clvll llablllLy.
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
3/)> U5 01 /0Y'#(!$ 3/)\',

"> 3B6KFA K;L8A;K
! lL ls an acL of grace proceedlng from Lhe power enLrusLed wlLh
Lhe execuLlon of Lhe laws, whlch exempLs Lhe lndlvldual on
whom lL ls besLowed from Lhe punlshmenL Lhe law lnfllcLs for
Lhe crlme he has commlLLed.
! klnds: (1) absoluLe pardon & (2) condlLlonal pardon.
! uellvery ls an lndlspensable requlslLe. unLll accepLed, all LhaL
may have been done ls a maLLer of lnLended favor and may be
cancelled.

""> Y87IB78FAE
! AdulLery case: uS v. Cuarln
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o lacLs: A was charged for adulLery wlLh a marrled
woman. 1he marrled woman was pardoned.
o lssue: ls A also pardoned?
o Peld: no because lL ls wlLhln Lhe dlscreLlon of Lhe Chlef
LxecuLlve on who ls pardoned.
! AdulLery case: eople v. lnfanLe
o lacLs: 1he one glvlng Lhe pardon ls Lhe offended spouse.
o Peld: 8oLh offenders musL be pardoned by Lhe offended
parLy for lL Lo be effecLlve.
! Murder afLer evaslon of senLence: Alvarez v. ulrecLor of rlsons
o lacLs: A was convlcLed of murder. A evaded, and was
consequenLlally convlcLed of evaslon of servlce. A was
pardoned for murder.
o Peld: ardon refers only Lo murder. lL does noL pardon
or remlL Lhe evaslon of servlce of Lhe senLence.

"""> /@A;E7D M> 3B6KFA
/@A;E7D 3B6KFA
8oLh do noL exLlngulsh clvll llablllLy
8lankeL pardon Lo classes or
persons gullLy of pollLlcal offenses.
lncludes any crlme, and exerclsed
lndlvldually by Lhe resldenL
May be exerclsed even before Lrlal
or lnvesLlgaLlon.
Lxerclsed afLer convlcLlon.
Looks backward and abollshes Lhe
offense lLself. lL ls as Lhough Lhe
person dld noL commlL any offense
ln Lhe flrsL place.
Looks forward and rellves offender
from Lhe consequences of Lhe
crlme Lo whlch he ls convlcLed. lL
does noL work Lo resLore rlghLs.
AmnesLy makes an ex-convlcL no
longer a recldlvlsL as lL obllLeraLes
Lhe crlme
ardon does noL alLer Lhe facL LhaL
Lhe accused ls a recldlvlsL as lL only
exLlngulshes Lhe personal effecLs.
ubllc acL ! Lhe courLs should
Lake [udlclal noLlce.
rlvaLe AcL ! MusL be proved by
Lhe person pardoned.


[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
3/)> VcW5 01 3)$Y-)"3!"', '& !2$ -)".$ /,\ 01 3)$Y-)"3!"', '&
!2$ 3$,/#!1

"> \;L8A878FAE5
! rescrlpLlon of crlme ! forfelLure or loss of Lhe rlghL of Lhe
SLaLe Lo 6&"/0%3-0 Lhe offender afLer Lhe lapse of a cerLaln Llme.
! rescrlpLlon of penalLy ! loss or forfelLure of Lhe rlghL of Lhe
CovernmenL Lo 010%3-0 Lhe flnal senLence afLer lapse of Llme.

""> -FAK878FAE A;9;EEB6D5
! 1haL Lhere be flnal [udgmenL
! 1haL Lhe perlod of Llme prescrlbed by law for lLs enforcemenL
has elapsed.
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
3/)> X5 01 !2$ ./))"/a$ '& !2$ '&&$,\$\ b'./,

"> );BEFA5
! Marrlage of Lhe offended woman wlLh Lhe offender afLer rape,
seducLlon, abducLlon, acLs of lasclvlousness (/6789:; TUU) musL
be conLracLed ln good falLh, and noL as a means Lo avold
crlmlnal llablllLy (devold of legal effecLs).

/6789:; =d> 7&0/%&'6-'") "8 %&'(0> ? -68@;E OIA8EJBC:; CD K;B7JN
&0%+3/'") 60&60-3* F6 &0%+3/'") -0(6"&*: EJB:: O6;E968C; 8A 7P;A7D
D;B6E>

-68@;E OIA8EJBC:; CD F7J;6 BLL:8978M; O;AB:78;E EJB:: O6;E968C; 8A L8L7;;A
D;B6E>

!JFE; OIA8EJBC:; CD B 9F66;978FAB: O;AB:7D EJB:: O6;E968C; 8A 7;A D;B6ES
P87J 7J; ;G9;O78FA FL 7JFE; OIA8EJBC:; CD B66;E7F @BDF6N PJ89J EJB::
O6;E968C; 8A L8M; D;B6E>

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
!J; 968@; FL :8C;: F6 F7J;6 E8@8:B6 FLL;AE;E EJB:: O6;E968C; 8A FA; D;B6>

!J; 968@; FL F6B: K;LB@B78FA BAK E:BAK;6 CD K;;K EJB:: O6;E968C; 8A E8G
@FA7JE>

#8HJ7 FLL;AE;E O6;E968C; 8A 7PF @FA7JE>

bJ;A 7J; O;AB:7D L8G;K CD :BP 8E B 9F@OFIAK FA;N 7J; J8HJ;E7 O;AB:7D
EJB:: C; @BK; 7J; CBE8E FL 7J; BOO:89B78FA FL 7J; 6I:;E 9FA7B8A;K 8A 7J;
L86E7N E;9FAK BAK 7J86K OB6BH6BOJE FL 7J8E B6789:;> e/E B@;AK;K CD )/
UWW4N BOO6FM;K _IA; 4=N 4=WWf>

3'",!Y
"> )/ ,F> UWW4 AF BOO:89BC:; 7F 9BE;E B:6;BKD L8:;K 8A 9FI67 O68F6 7F
_IA; 4<N 4=WW
! AmendaLory acL of reduclng prescrlpLlve perlod of llbel from 2
years Lo 1 year.

""> "A 9F@OI78AH 7J; O;68FK FL O6;E968O78FAN 7J; L86E7 KBD 8E 7F C;
;G9:IK;K BAK 7J; :BE7 KBD 8A9:IK;K>
! Lxample: Cffense commlLLed on May 28, 1933. llllng was on
!uly 27, 1933. 1he lnformaLlon ls consldered flled on 60
Lh
day.
o rescrlpLlon counL: uay 1 beglns on May 29, 2933.
! A monLh ls compuLed as a regular 30-day monLh. 1he runnlng
perlod of prescrlpLlon wlll commence Lhe day followlng Lhe day
on whlch Lhe crlme was commlLLed.
! 8uL as regards Lo Lhe monLh of lebruary of a leap year, 28
Lh
and
29
Lh
are consldered separaLe days ln compuLlng prescrlpLlon.

"""> bJ;6; 7J; :BE7 KBD FL O6;E968O78FA LB::E FA B YIAKBD F6 :;HB: JF:8KBD
! 1he lnformaLlon can no longer be flled on Lhe nexL day as Lhe
crlm has already prescrlbed.

"]> 36;E968O78FA FL F6B: K;LB@B78FA BAK E:BAK;6 CD K;;K
! Slmple slander ! 2 monLhs
! Crave slander ! 6 monLhs

]> -68@;E OIA8EJBC:; CD B66;E7F @;AF6 F6 B L8A; AF7 ;G9;;K8AH 3Rdd
O6;E968C; 8A R @FA7JE
! 2 monLhs means 60 days.
! llne of 200 exacL ls sLlll a llghL felony.

]"> 36;E968O78FA FL 968@;E OIA8EJBC:; CD L8A;E
! llnes are classlfled as affllcLlon, correcLlonal or llghL (/6789:; RW).
! Subsldlary penalLy should noL be consldered ln deLermlnlng Lhe
prescrlpLlve perlod of Lhe crlme.

]""> bJ;A 7J; O;AB:7D 8E B 9F@OFIAK FA;N 7J; J8HJ;E7 O;AB:7D 8E 7J;
CBE8E FL 7J; BOO:89B78FA FL 7J; 6I:;E 8A /6789:; =d
! When Lhe flne ls an alLernaLlve penalLy hlgher Lhan Lhe oLher
penalLy whlch ls by lmprlsonmenL - prescrlpLlon of Lhe crlme ls
based on Lhe flne.
o eople v. CrlsosLomo ! penalLy ls arresLo mayor
(correcLlonal) and flne 13,000 (affllcLlve), Lhe
prescrlpLlon ls 13 years.

]"""> 36;E968O78M; O;68FK FL FLL;AE; OIA8EJ;K IAK;6 EO;98B: :BPE BAK
@IA898OB: F6K8ABA9;E e/97 ,F> TXWT amendlng /97 ,F> TTRWf>
1. Cnly a flne or by lmprlsonmenL for noL more Lhan 1 monLh, or
boLh ! 1 year.
2. lmprlsonmenL for more Lhan 1 monLh, buL less Lhan 2 years !
afLer 4 years.
3. lmprlsonmenL for 2 years or more, buL less Lhan 6 years ! afLer
8 years.
4. lmprlsonmenL for 6 years or more ! afLer 12 years.
3. Cffense under lnLernal 8evenue Law ! afLer 3 years.
6. vlolaLlons of munlclpal ordlnances ! afLer 2 monLhs.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
7. vlolaLlons of regulaLlons or condlLlons of cerLlflcaLe of
convenlence by Lhe ubllc Servlce Commlsslon ! afLer 1 monLh.
! /97 ,F TTRW ls noL appllcable where Lhe speclal law provldes for
lLs own prescrlpLlve perlod.
! rescrlpLlon for vlolaLlons penallzed by speclal laws and
ordlnances shall begln Lo run for Lhe day of Lhe commlsslon of
Lhe vlolaLlon of Lhe law. lf noL known aL LhaL Llme, from Lhe
dlscovery Lhereof and Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of [udlclal proceedlngs for
lLs lnvesLlgaLlon and punlshmenL.

"+> bJ;A O6;E968O78M; O;68FK 8E 8A7;66IO7;K>
! When proceedlngs are lnsLlLuLed agalnsL Lhe gullLy person.
! Wlll resume runnlng lf Lhe proceedlngs are dlsmlssed for
reasons no consLlLuLlng [eopardy.

+> \;L;AE; FL O6;E968O78FA @BD C; 6B8E;K KI68AH 7J; 768B: F6 KI68AH 7J;
BOO;B:
! lf Lhe accused falled Lo move Lo quash before pleadlng, he ls
deemed Lo have walved all ob[ecLlons, and Lhus cannoL apply fo
Lhe defense of prescrlpLlon (whlch under /6789:; <= exLlngulshes
crlmlnal llablllLy).
! rescrlpLlon alLhough noL lnvoked durlng Lrlal may be lnvoked
durlng appeal.

+"> !J; B99IE;K 9BAAF7 C; 9FAM897;K FL BA FLL;AE; :;EE;6 7JBA 7JB7
9JB6H;K 8L 7J; :;EE;6 FLL;AE; JBK B:6;BKD O6;E968C;K B7 7J; 78@; 7J;
8ALF6@B78FA PBE L8:;K>

+""> 36;E968O78FA KF;E AF7 K8M;E7 9FI67 FL QI68EK8978FAS 87 8E B H6FIAK LF6
B9gI877B: FL 7J; B99IE;K
! When Lhere ls a plea of prescrlpLlon by Lhe defense and Lhe
same appears from Lhe allegaLlon of Lhe lnformaLlon or ls
esLabllshed Lhe courL musL [urlsdlcLlon holdlng Lhe acLlon Lo
have prescrlbed and acqulL Lhe accused.
/6789:; =4> 9"(63-*-'") "8 6&0/%&'6-'") "8 "880)/0/> ? !J; O;68FK FL
O6;E968O78FA EJB:: 9F@@;A9; 7F 6IA L6F@ 7J; KBD FA PJ89J 7J; 968@; 8E
K8E9FM;6;K CD 7J; FLL;AK;K OB67DN 7J; BI7JF6878;EN F6 7J;86 BH;A7EN BAK
EJB:: C; 8A7;66IO7;K CD 7J; L8:8AH FL 7J; 9F@O:B8A7 F6 8ALF6@B78FAN BAK
EJB:: 9F@@;A9; 7F 6IA BHB8A PJ;A EI9J O6F9;;K8AHE 7;6@8AB7;
P87JFI7 7J; B99IE;K C;8AH 9FAM897;K F6 B9gI877;KN F6 B6; IAQIE78L8BC:D
E7FOO;K LF6 BAD 6;BEFA AF7 8@OI7BC:; 7F J8@>

!J; 7;6@ FL O6;E968O78FA EJB:: AF7 6IA PJ;A 7J; FLL;AK;6 8E BCE;A7
L6F@ 7J; 3J8:8OO8A; /69J8O;:BHF>

3'",!Y
"> 'I7:8A; FL O6FM8E8FAE
1. 1he perlod of prescrlpLlon commences Lo run from Lhe day on
whlch Lhe crlme ls dlscovered by Lhe offended parLy, Lhe
auLhorlLles or Lhelr agenLs.
2. lL ls lnLerrupLed by Lhe flllng of Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon.
3. lL commences Lo run agaln when such proceedlngs LermlnaLe
wlLhouL Lhe accused belng convlcLed or acqulLLed or are
un[usLlflably sLopped for any reason noL lmpuLable Lo hlm.
4. 1he Lerm of prescrlpLlon shall noL run when Lhe offender ls
absenL from Lhe hlllpplnes.

""> &")Y! 3/)/a)/325 b2$, 3)$Y-)"3!"', 0$a",Y !' )(,
7&0/%&'6-'") %"((0)%0/ -" &3) 8&"( 9:;;<==<:> "& ?<=9:@ABC
! 1he conLrary vlew would be dangerous as Lhe successful
concealmenL of an offense durlng Lhe perlod flxed for lLs
prescrlpLlon would be Lhe very means by whlch Lhe offender
may escape punlshmenL.
<- '/ 5'/%"D0&. "8 %&'(0E )"- 5'/%"D0&. "8 -40 "880)50&F
! 1he facL LhaL culprlL ls unknown wlll noL prevenL he perlod of
prescrlpLlon from commenclng Lo run.
! lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhe accused be arresLed.
G40 %&'(0 '/ 5'/%"D0&05 ,.H
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
1. 1he offended parLy
2. 1he auLhorlLles
3. 1helr agenLs
! lacLs: A saw 8 klll C. 1he body of C was never found. A was
nelLher a relaLlve of C, nor an auLhorlLy or agenL.
! lssue: lf a revealed Lhe lnformaLlon 23 years laLer, can 8 be
prosecuLed?
! Peld: ?es. 1he perlod of prescrlpLlon dld noL commence Lo run
unLll A revealed lL Lo Lhe proper auLhorlLles (1-3 above).

"""> 3;68FK FL O6;E968O78FA FL 9FA78AI8AH 968@; A;M;6 6IAE
! rescrlpLlon perlod for conLlnulng crlme cannoL begln Lo run
because Lhere could be no LermlnaLlon of conLlnulLy and Lhe
crlme does noL end.
! Arches v. 8ellaslllo
o lacLs: Accused was charged wlLh vlolaLlon of munlclpal
ordlnance for havlng consLrucLed dlkes wlLhouL
auLhorlzaLlon. 1he dlkes were bullL ln 1939, and Lhe
case flled ln 1947.
o Peld: 1here was nor prescrlpLlon.
! LxcepLlon: lf Lhe lnformaLlon alleged LhaL Lhe conLlnulng crlme
only exlsLed unLll a speclflc Llme (dlkes were an obsLrucLlon unLll
a speclflc daLe only), Lhen Lhe crlme ended on LhaL momenL and
prescrlpLlon can be compuLed.

"]> 3;68FK FL O6;E968O78FA PBE 8A7;66IO7;K PJ;A O6;:8@8AB6D
;GB@8AB78FA PBE @BK; CD @IA898OB: @BDF6 CI7 7J; B99IE;K 9FI:K AF7
C; B66;E7;K C;9BIE; J; PBE 8A J8K8AH>
! 1he proceedlngs ln Lhls case were sLopped for reasons
lmpuLable Lo Lhe accused, LhaL ls, Lhey fled Lo an unknown place
maklng lL dlfflculL Lo arresL Lhem for furLher proceedlngs. 1hus,
Lhe prescrlpLlve perlod does noL resume Lo run.
I'+')2 "8 %"(6+*')- #'-4 -40 6&"/0%3-"&J/ "88'%0 ')-0&&36-/ &3))')2
60&'"5 "8 -40 6&0/%&'6-'") "8 "880)/0 %4*&205F
! lnsLlLuLlon of crlmlnal acLlon shall lnLerrupL Lhe perlod of
prescrlpLlon of Lhe offense charged unless oLherwlse provlded
ln speclal laws.
G40 8'+')2 "8 -40 %"(6+*')- ') -40 (3)'%'6*+ %"3&- 0D0) '8 '- ,0 (0&0+.
8"& -40 63&6"/0/ "8 6&0+'(')*&. 01*(')*-'") "& ')D0/-'2*-'")E
')-0&&36-/ -40 60&'"5 "8 6&0/%&'6-'")
! 1he complalnL or lnformaLlon LhaL wlll lnLerrupL Lhe perlod of
prescrlpLlon musL be Lhe proper lnformaLlon or complaln
correspondlng Lo Lhe offense.
! 1hus Lhe flllng of lnformaLlon conLalnlng elemenLs for Lrespass
Lo dwelllng cannoL be sald Lo lnLerrupL Lhe prescrlpLlon of
anoLher case conLalnlng lnformaLlon concernlng un[usL vexaLlon
(eople v. Abuya).
A880%- "8 8'+')2 *(0)505 %"(6+*') "& ')8"&(*-'") 36") 60&'"5 "8
6&0/%&'6-'")
! lf lL ls merely a correcLlon of a defecL, Lhe daLe of Lhe orlglnal
complalnL or lnformaLlon should be consldered.

]> ^36F9;;K8AHE 7;6@8AB7; P87JFI7 7J; B99IE;K C;8AH 9FAM897;K F6
B9gI877;K`
! As such, Lhe perlod of prescrlpLlon commenced Lo run agaln.
G0&(')*-'") "8 * %&'(')*+ %*/0 %")-0(6+*-05 ') K&-'%+0 LM ")
6&0/%&'6-'") "8 %&'(0/ &080&/ -" * -0&(')*-'") -4*- '/ 8')*+ */ -" *("3)-
-" N0"6*&5. -4*- #"3+5 ,*& * /3,/0O30)%0 6&"/0%3-'")F

]"> ^'6 B6; IAQIE78L8BC:D E7FOO;K LF6 BAD 6;BEFA AF7 8@OI7BC:; 7F J8@`
! lf Lhe proceedlngs are sLopped for a reason lmpuLable Lo Lhe
accused, Lhe perlod of prescrlpLlon does noL commence Lo run
agaln.
! Lxample: When Lhe accused evaded arresL and Lhe case has Lo
be archlved by Lhe courL, Lhe proceedlngs are sLopped because
of Lhe faulL of Lhe accused.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
]""> !;6@ FL O6;E968O78FA KF;E AF7 6IA PJ;A 7J; FLL;AK;6 8E BCE;A7
L6F@ 7J; 3J8:8OO8A;E
! lacLs: A commlLLed llbel and lmmedlaLely flew Lo Pong kong
afLer, where he sLayed for Lhree years.
! Peld: lf A reLurns, he can sLlll be prosecuLed for llbel as lL
prescrlpLlon perlod dld noL begln Lo run.

"+> 36;E968O78FA FL ;:;978FA FLL;AE;E * e4f 8L K8E9FM;6D FL FLL;AE; 8E
8A98K;A7B: 7F QIK898B: O6F9;;K8AHEN O6;E968O78FA C;8AHE PJ;A EI9J
O6F9;;K8AH 7;6@8AB7;ES F7J;6P8E; eRf L6F@ KB7; FL 9F@@8EE8FA>
! 1hus, lf falslflcaLlon commlLLed by lnspecLors ln connecLlon wlLh
counLlng Lhe voLes was known Lo Lhe proLesLanLs and Lhelr
elecLlon waLchers 8LlC8L llLlnC of Lhe elecLlon proLesLs, Lhe
perlod of prescrlpLlon began from Lhe uA1L Cl CCMMlSSlCn of
Lhe offense (eople v. Carlno).

+> /6789:; =4 @BD BOO:D PJ;A B EO;98B: :BP ePJ8:; O6FM8K8AH B
O6;E968O78M; O;68FKf KF;E AF7 O6;E968C; BAD 6I:; LF6 7J; BOO:89B78FA FL
7JB7 O;68FK>
! lacLs: accused was prosecuLed for vlolaLlon of usury Law.
! Peld: 1he rules of /67>=4 regardlng Lhe commencemenL of Lhe
prescrlpLlve perlod elLher from Lhe day Lhe offense was
commlLLed (lf known) or Lhe day lL was dlscovered can apply.

+"> 36;E968O78FA FL 7J; FLL;AE; FL LB:E; 7;E78@FAD * L6F@ 78@; O68A98OB:
9BE; 8E L8AB::D K;98K;K
! 1he acL of LesLlfylng falsely agalnsL Lhe defendanL does noL
consLlLuLe an acLlonable offense unLll Lhe prlnclpal case ls flnally
declded. And before an acL becomes a punlshable offense, lL
cannoL posslbly be dlscovered as such by Lhe offended parLy,
Lhe auLhorlLles or Lhelr agenLs (eople v. Mane[a).


/6789:; =R> P40) *)5 4"# 60)*+-'0/ 6&0/%&',0> ? !J; O;AB:78;E
8@OFE;K CD L8AB: E;A7;A9; O6;E968C; BE LF::FPE5
4> \;B7J BAK 6;9:IE8FA O;6O;7IBN 8A 7P;A7D D;B6ES
R> '7J;6 BLL:8978M; O;AB:78;EN 8A L8L7;;A D;B6ES
T> -F66;978FAB: O;AB:78;EN 8A 7;A D;B6ES P87J 7J; ;G9;O78FA FL 7J;
O;AB:7D FL B66;E7F @BDF6N PJ89J O6;E968C;E 8A L8M; D;B6ES
U> #8HJ7 O;AB:78;EN 8A FA; D;B6>

3'",!Y
"> !J; O;AB:78;E @IE7 C; 8@OFE;K CD L8AB: E;A7;A9;
! lf Lhe convlcL appealed and LhereafLer fled Lo Lhe mounLalns,
Lhe penalLy lmposed upon hlm would never prescrlbe because
pendlng appeal Lhe senLence ls noL flnal.

""> "A O6;E968O78FA FL 968@;EN 87 8E 7J; O;AB:7D O6;E968C;K CD :BP 7JB7
EJFI:K C; 9FAE8K;6;KS 8A O6;E968O78FA FL O;AB:78;EN 87 8E 7J; O;AB:7D
".3'Y$\ 7JB7 EJFI:K C; 9FAE8K;6;K>
! lacLs: A commlLLed a crlme punlshable by prlslon mayor. 12
years elapsed before lL was dlscovered.
! lssue: Can A sLlll be prosecuLed?
o ?es. 1he prescrlpLlve perlod of an affllcLlve penalLy ls 13
years.
! lacLs: AfLer provlng Lwo mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances wlLhouL
aggravaLlng, Lhe lmposed penalLy was prlslon correcclonal. A
commenced Lo serve Lhe senLence, buL escaped and remalned
aL large for 12 years.
! lssue: lf A ls caughL, can he sLlll be made Lo serve Lhe remalnder
of hls senLence?
o no. 1he prescrlpLlve perlod of a correcLlonal penalLy ls
10 years.

"""> &8A; BE B :8HJ7 O;AB:7D
! Where Lhe lssue ls Lhe prescrlpLlon of a crlme and noL Lhe
prescrlpLlon of Lhe penalLy, /6789:; = should prevall.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
o lacLs: A commlLLed a crlme Lo whlch Lhe penalLy was
200.
o Peld: Lhe prescrlpLlve perlod ls 2 monLhs. AnyLlme
wlLhln LhaL, A can be charged and convlcLed.
! !J; EICE8K8B6D O;AB:7D LF6 AFAOBD@;A7 FL 7J; L8A; 8E
8@@B7;68B:
o lf Lhe flne ls 323.00, Lhe penalLy prescrlbes ln 10 years.
lL belng a correcLlonal penalLy.

/6789:; =T> 9"(63-*-'") "8 -40 6&0/%&'6-'") "8 60)*+-'0/> ? !J; O;68FK
FL O6;E968O78FA FL O;AB:78;E EJB:: 9F@@;A9; 7F 6IA L6F@ 7J; KB7; PJ;A
7J; 9I:O687 EJFI:K ;MBK; 7J; E;6M89; FL J8E E;A7;A9;N BAK 87 EJB:: C;
8A7;66IO7;K 8L 7J; K;L;AKBA7 EJFI:K H8M; J8@E;:L ION C; 9BO7I6;KN
EJFI:K HF 7F EF@; LF6;8HA 9FIA76D P87J PJ89J 7J8E aFM;6A@;A7 JBE AF
;G76BK878FA 76;B7DN F6 EJFI:K 9F@@87 BAF7J;6 968@; C;LF6; 7J;
;GO86B78FA FL 7J; O;68FK FL O6;E968O78FA>

3'",!Y
"> 'I7:8A; FL 7J; O6FM8E8FAE
4> 1he perlod of prescrlpLlon of penalLles commences Lo run from
Lhe daLe when Lhe culprlL ended Lhe servlce of hls senLence
R> lL ls lnLerrupLed lf Lhe convlcL
B> Clves hlmself up
C> 8e capLured
9> Coes Lo a forelgn counLry wlLh whlch we have no
exLradlLlon LreaLy
K> CommlLs anoLher crlme before Lhe explraLlon of Lhe
perlod of prescrlpLlon.
! noLe: 1he perlod of prescrlpLlon of penalLles shall commence Lo
run agaln when Lhe convlcL escapes agaln, afLer havlng been
capLured and reLurned Lo prlson.

""> $:;@;A7E
4> 1haL Lhe penalLy ls lmposed by flnal senLence
R> 1haL Lhe convlcL evaded Lhe servlce of Lhe senLence by escaplng
durlng Lhe Lerm of hls senLence.
T> 1haL Lhe convlcL who escaped from prlson has noL glven hlmself
up or been capLure, or gone Lo a forelgn counLry wlLh whlch we
have no exLradlLlon LreaLy, or commlLLed anoLher crlme.
U> 1haL Lhe penalLy has prescrlbed, because of Lhe lapse of Llme
from Lhe daLe of Lhe evaslon of Lhe servlce of Lhe senLence by
Lhe convlcL.

"""> $MBE8FA FL 7J; E;6M89; FL 7J; E;A7;A9; 8E BA ;EE;A78B: ;:;@;A7 FL
O6;E968O78FA FL O;AB:78;E
! 1he defense of prescrlpLlon of penalLles wlll noL prosper lf one
recelved a condlLlonal pardon because Lhere was no evaslon of
Lhe servlce of Lhe senLence. Lvaslon presupposed escaplng
durlng Lhe servlce of Lhe senLence conslsLlng ln Lhe deprlvaLlon
of llberLy.
o AccepLance of a condlLlonal pardon lnLerrupLs Lhe
prescrlpLlon perlod (lL wlll sLop runnlng).
! erlod of prescrlpLlon LhaL ran durlng Lhe Llme Lhe convlcL
evaded servlce of senLence ls noL forfelLed upon hls capLure.
o 1he prescrlpLlon LhaL ran ln hls favor should be Laklng
lnLo accounL.

"]> ^YJFI:K HF 7F EF@; LF6;8HA 9FIA76D P87J PJ89J 7J8E aFM;6A@;A7
JBE AF ;G76BK878FA 76;B7D`
! lf Lhe convlcL escapes Lo a counLry where Lhe governmenL has
an exLradlLlon LreaLy, buL LhaL same LreaLy does noL cover Lhe
crlme commlLLed, Lhe runnlng of Lhe prescrlpLlve perlod wlll sLlll
be consldered lnLerrupLed.

]> ^YJFI:K 9F@@87 BAF7J;6 968@; C;LF6; 7J; ;GO86B78FA FL 7J; O;68FK
FL O6;E968O78FA`
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! 1hls assumes LhaL Lhe convlcL wlll be arresLed for havlng
commlLLed such crlme. Pe can Lhus be made Lo serve Lhe
remalnder of Lhe senLence whlch he evaded.
! Lvadlng Lhe servlce of Lhe senLence ls noL commlLLlng a crlme
before Lhe explraLlon of Lhe perlod of prescrlpLlon of penalLles.
o 1hls phrase should commlL xxx" refers Lo crlme
commlLLed when Lhe prescrlpLlon perlod has begun Lo
run.
! 70&'"5 "8 6&0/%&'6-'") #'++ %"((0)%0 -" &3) 8&"( -40 5*-0 -40
%")D'%- 0D*50/ 4'/ /0)-0)%0.

]"> );BEFA PJD ;MBE8FA FL E;6M89; FL E;A7;A9; 8E 7Bh;A 8A LBMF6 FL 7J;
9FAM897 8A O6;E968O78FA FL O;AB:78;E
! uurlng LhaL perlod of prescrlpLlon Lhe escaped convlcL llves a llfe
of a hunLed anlmal, hldlng mosLly ln Lhe mounLalns and foresLs
ln consLanL morLal fear of belng caughL. Pls llfe far from belng
happy, comforLable and peaceful ls reduced Lo a mere exlsLence
fllled wlLh fear, dlscomforL, lonellness and mlsery.
! 1he convlcL who evades senLence ls someLlmes sufflclenLly
punlshed by hls volunLary and self-lmposed banlshmenL and aL
Llme, LhaL volunLary exlle ls more grlevous Lhan Lhe senLence he
was Lrylng Lo avold.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
1I1LL ICUk - Lk1INC1ICN CI CkIMINAL LIA8ILI1
CnA1Lk 2: Ak1IAL Lk1INC1ICN CI CkIMINAL LIA8ILI1

Art 94. !"#$%"& ()$%*+$%,* ,- +#%.%*"& &%"/%&%$01 - Cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty |s
ext|ngu|shed part|a||y:
1. 8y cond|t|ona| pardon,
2. 8y commutat|on of the sentence, and
3. Ior good conduct a||owances wh|ch the cu|pr|t may earn wh||e
he |s serv|ng h|s sentence

CIN1S
I. Nature of cond|t|ona| pardon.
! !"#$%&%"#'( *'+$"# $,(%-,+,$ '#$ '..,*&,$ %/ ."#/%$,+,$ '
!"#$%&!$ 0,&1,,# &2, /"-,+,%3# *"1,+ "4 &2, ,5,.6&%-, '#$ &2,
."#-%.& &2'& &2, ,5,.6&%-, 1%(( +,(,'/, &2, ."#-%.& 6*"#
."7*(%'#., 1%&2 &2, ."#$%&%"#8
234"& +,*5%$%,* %.6,3(5 46,* $7( +,*8%+$ %* +,*5%$%,*"& 6"#5,*1
! 9# ."#$%&%"#'( *'+$"#: &2, ."#$%&%"# 6/6'((; %7*"/,$ 6*"# &2,
."#-%.& ! <2, /2'(( #"& '3'%# -%"('&, '#; "4 &2, *,#'( ('1/ "4
&2, =2%(%**%#,/>

II. Commutat|on of sentence.
! !2'#3, "4 &2, $,.%/%"# "4 &2, ."6+& 7'$, 0; &2, !2%,4 ?5,.6&%-,
0; +,$6.%#3 &2, $,3+,, "4 &2, *,#'(&; %#4(%.&,$ 6*"# &2, ."#-%.&
@A 0; $,.+,'/%#3 &2, (,#3&2 "4 &2, %7*+%/"#7,#& "+ &2, '7"6#&
"4 &2, 4%#,8
96(+%-%+ +"3(3 :7(#( +,..4$"$%,* %3 6#,8%5(5 -,# /0 $7( ;,5(1
B8 C2,# &2, ."#-%.& /,#&,#.,$ &" $,'&2 %/ "-,+ DE ;,'+/ "4 '3,
FArt. 83G8
H8 C2,# ,%32& I6/&%.,/ "4 &2, J6*+,7, !"6+& 4'%( &" +,'.2 '
$,.%/%"# 4"+ &2, '44%+7'&%"# "4 &2, $,'&2 *,#'(&;8
! 9# ,%&2,+ .'/,K &2, $,3+,, "4 &2, *,#'(&; %/ +,$6.,$ 4+"7 $,'&2
&" A=8
! 9# ."776&'&%"# "4 /,#&,#.,K !"#()#$ "4 &2, "44,#$,+ %/ #"$
#)!)((&%*8 L2, *60(%. 1,(4'+,K #"& 2%/ ."#/,#&K $,&,+7%#,/ 12'&
/2'(( 0, $"#,8 FM%$$(, -8 =,+"-%.2G

III. Ior good conduct a||owances.
! N(("1'#.,/ 4"+ 3""$ ."#$6.& '+, $,$6.&%"#/ 4+"7 &2, &,+7 "4
/,#&,#., 4"+ 3""$ 0,2'-%"+8 FArt. 97G
! O%44,+,#& 4+"7 &2'& *+"-%$,$ %# Art 29 12%.2 %/ '# )+$%&"%,-#&%*
+,$6.&%"# "4 46(( &%7, "+ 4"6+P4%4&2/ "4 &2, *+,-,#&%-,
%7*+%/"#7,#& 4+"7 &2, &,+7 "4 &2, /,#&,#.,8
! N *+%/"#,+ %/ '(/" ,#&%&(,$ &" ' /*,.%'( &%7, '(("1'#., 4"+ ."*&.$*8
FArt 98) N $,$6.&%"# "4 BQR "4 &2, *,+%"$ "4 2%/ /,#&,#., %/
3+'#&,$ &" ' (";'( *+%/"#,+8 FJ,, Art 1S8G

IV. aro|e shou|d be added as No. 4 |n the enumerat|on of causes of
part|a| ext|nct|on of cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty.
! L2, *'+"(, 3+'#&,$ &" ' ."#-%.& 0; &2, ='+"(, M"'+$ /2"6($ 0,
'$$,$8 N *'+"(, 7'; 0, 3+'#&,$ &" ' *+%/"#,+ '4&,+ /,+-%#3 &2,
7%#%767 *,#'(&; 6#$,+ &2, 9#$,&,+7%#'&, J,#&,#., S'18
<(-%*%$%,* ,- 6"#,&(1
! ='+"(, ."#/%/&/ %# &2, (/(0)#(-"# "4 &2, /,#&,#., "4 ' ."#-%.&
'4&,+ /,+-%#3 &2, 7%#%767 &,+7 "4 &2, %#$,&,+7%#'&, *,#'(&;K
1%&2"6& 3+'#&%#3 ' *'+$"#K *+,/.+%0%#3 &2, &,+7/ 6*"# 12%.2
&2, /,#&,#., /2'(( 0, /6/*,#$,$8
! 94 ."#-%.& 4'%(/ &" "0/,+-, &2, ."#$%&%"#/ "4 &2, *'+"(,K &2, M"'+$
"4 ='+$"#/ '#$ ='+"(, %/ '6&2"+%T,$ &" $%+,.& 2%/ '++,/& '#$
+,&6+# &" .6/&"$; '#$ &2,+,'4&,+ &" .'++; "6& 2%/ /,#&,#.,
1%&2"6& $,$6.&%"# "4 &2, &%7, &2'& 2'/ ,('*/,$ 0,&1,,# &2,
$'&, "4 &2, *'+"(, '#$ &2, /60/,U6,#& '++,/&8
=3 +,*8%+$%,* *(+(33"#0 $, #(8,>( 6"#,&(? @A91
! L2, 7,+, ."77%//%"#K #"& ."#-%.&%"# 0; &2, ."6+&K "4 '#; .+%7,
%/ /644%.%,#& &" 1'++'#& *'+"(,,V/ '++,/& '#$ +,%#.'+.,+'&%"#8
FW6,-'+'G
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
! 9# ' *,&%&%"# 4"+ 1&2)&( !"%0/(K %& 1'/ ."#&,#$,$ &2'& &2,
+,."77%&7,#& "+$,+ 1'/ *+,7'&6+,K 0,.'6/, %& .'7, $"1#
0,4"+, 2%/ ."#-%.&%"#/ "4 &2, /,+%,/ "4 ,/&'4' ."77%&&,$ 0; 2%7
$6+%#3 &2, *,+%"$ "4 &2, *'+"(,8 9& 1'/ 2,($ &2'& %& 1'/ #"1
+'&2,+ '.'$,7%.K ,-,# '//67%#3 &2'& 4%#'( ."#-%.&%"# %/
#,.,//'+; %# "+$,+ &" ."#/&%&6&, ' -%"('&%"# "4 &2, ."#$%&%"# "4
&2, *'+"(,8 FX"+&6#'&" -8 O%+,.&"+G

V. Cond|t|ona| pardon d|st|ngu|shed from paro|e.
B8 !"#$%&%"#'( *'+$"#K 12%.2 7'; 0, 3%-,# '& '#; &%7, '4&,+ 4%#'(
I6$37,#&K %/ 3+'#&,$ 0; &2, !2%,4 ?5,.6&%-, 6#$,+ &2,
*+"-%/%"#/ "4 &2, N$7%#%/&+'&%-, !"$,Y *'+"(,K 12%.2 7'; 0,
3%-,# '4&,+ &2, *+%/"#,+ 2'/ /,+-,$ &2, 7%#%767 *,#'(&;K %/
3+'#&,$ 0; &2, M"'+$ "4 ='+$"#/ '#$ ='+"(, 6#$,+ &2, *+"-%/%"#
"4 &2, 9#$,&,+7%#'&, J,#&,#., S'18
H8 X"+ Z%"('&%"# "4 &2, ."#$%&%"#'( *'+$"#K &2, ."#-%.& 7'; 0,
"+$,+,$ +,'++,/&,$ "+ +,%#.'+.,+'&,$ 0; &2, !2%,4 ?5,.6&%-,K "+
7'; 0, *+"/,.6&,$ 6#$,+ N+&%.(, BR[ "4 &2, !"$, 4"+ -%"('&%"#
"4 &2, &,+7/ "4 &2, *'+"(,K &2, ."#-%.& .'##"& 0, *+"/,.6&,$
6#$,+ N+&%.(, BR[8 \, .'# 0, +,'++,/&,$ '#$ +,%#.'+.,+'&,$ &"
/,+-, &2, 6#/,+-,$ *"+&%"# "4 2%/ "+%3%#'( *,#'(&;8

Art|c|e 9S. B/&%C"$%,* %*+4##(5 /0 " 6(#3,* C#"*$(5 +,*5%$%,*"& 6"#5,*1
D Any person who has been granted cond|t|ona| pardon sha|| |ncur the
ob||gat|on of comp|y|ng str|ct|y w|th the cond|t|ons |mposed there|n,
otherw|se, h|s noncomp||ance w|th any of the cond|t|ons spec|f|ed
sha|| resu|t |n the revocat|on of the pardon and the prov|s|ons of
Art|c|e 1S9 sha|| be app||ed to h|m.

CIN1S
I. Cut||ne of the prov|s|ons:
B8 \, 76/& ."7*(; /&+%.&(; 1%&2 &2, ."#$%&%"#/ %7*"/,$ %# &2,
*'+$"#8
H8 X'%(6+, &" ."7*(; 1%&2 &2, ."#$%&%"#/ /2'(( +,/6(& %# &2,
+,-".'&%"# "4 &2, *'+$"#8 ]#$,+ Sec. 64 (|), k.A.C8K &2, !2%,4
?5,.6&%-, 7'; "+$,+ 2%/ '++,/& '#$ +,%#.'+.,+'&%"#8 F=,"*(, -8
N3('2%G
^8 \, 0,."7,/ (%'0(, 6#$,+ Art|c|e 1S98 L2%/ %/ &2, I6$%.%'( +,7,$;8

II. Cond|t|on of pardon |s ||m|ted to the unserved port|on of the
sentence, un|ess an |ntent|on to extend |t beyond that t|me |s
man|fest.
! O6+'&%"# "4 &2, ."#$%&%"#/ /60/,U6,#&K '##,5,$ &" ' *'+$"# !
(%7%&,$ &" &2, *,+%"$ "4 &2, *+%/"#,+V/ /,#&,#.,K 6#(,// '#
%#&,#&%"# &" ,5&,#$ %& 0,;"#$ &2, &,+7 "4 2%/ /,#&,#., 1'/
7'#%4,/& 4+"7 &2, #'&6+, "4 &2, ."#$%&%"# "+ &2, ('#36'3, %#
12%.2 %& 1'/ %7*"/,$8 F9#4'#&, -8 C'+$,#G

III. I||ustrat|on:
! 94 ' ."#-%.& 1'/ /,#&,#.,$ &" BH ;,'+/ '#$ B $'; "4 AL F&2,
7'5%767 &,+7 "4 &2, %#$,&,+7%#'&, *,#'(&;G '#$ '4&,+ /,+-%#3
R ;,'+/ P 2, 1'/ 3+'#&,$ ' ."#$%&%"#'( *'+$"# P &2, ."#$%&%"#
0,%#3 &2'& 2, /2"6($ #"& ."77%& '#; .+%7, %# &2, 46&6+, P &2'&
."#$%&%"# 76/& 0, ."7*(%,$ 1%&2 0; 2%7 6#&%( &2, ,#$ "4 &2, D
;,'+/ 4+"7 &2, 3+'#& "4 &2, ."#$%&%"#'( *'+$"#K %& 0,%#3 &2,
6#/,+-,$ *"+&%"# "4 2%/ /,#&,#.,8
! 94 2, ."77%&/ ' .+%7, &3$)% &2, ,5*%+'&%"# "4 &2, D ;,'+/K 2, %/
#"& (%'0(, 4"+ -%"('&%"# "4 &2, ."#$%&%"#'( *'+$"#8 L2, ."#$%&%"#
"4 &2, *'+$"# %/ #" ("#3,+ "*,+'&%-, 12,# 2, ."77%&/ ' #,1
"44,#/,8
! M6& %4 2, ."77%&/ ' .+%7, 0,4"+, &2, ,5*%+'&%"# "4 &2, D ;,'+/K
2, %/ (%'0(, 4"+ -%"('&%"# "4 &2, ."#$%&%"#'( *'+$"#8

Art. 96. A--(+$ ,- +,..4$"$%,* ,- 3(*$(*+(1 D 1he commutat|on of the
or|g|na| sentence for another of a d|fferent |ength and nature sha||
have the |ega| effect of subst|tut|ng the |atter |n the p|ace of the
former.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
Art. 97. E&&,:"*+( -,# C,,5 +,*54+$ - 1he good conduct of any
pr|soner |n any pena| |nst|tut|on sha|| ent|t|e h|m to the fo||ow|ng
deduct|on from the per|od of h|s sentence:
1. Dur|ng the f|rst two years of |mpr|sonment, he sha|| be
a||owed a deduct|on of f|ve days for each month of good
behav|or,
2. Dur|ng the th|rd to the f|fth year, |nc|us|ve, of h|s
|mpr|sonment, he sha|| be a||owed a deduct|on of e|ght days
for each month of good behav|or,
3. Dur|ng the fo||ow|ng years unt|| the tenth year, |nc|us|ve, of h|s
|mpr|sonment, he sha|| be a||owed a deduct|on of ten days for
each month of good behav|or, and
4. Dur|ng the e|eventh and success|ve years of h|s |mpr|sonment,
he sha|| be a||owed a deduct|on of f|fteen days for each month
of good behav|or.

CIN1S
I. App||cat|on of the prov|s|ons of Art|c|e 97.
! =,"*(, -8 L'#: A,(,'/, "4 '**,((,, L'# 0; &2, *+"-%#.%'( 1'+$,#K
'4&,+ '# %7*+%/"#7,#& "4 "#(; H ;,'+/K _ 7"#&2/ '#$ HB $';/K
1'/ *+,7'&6+,8
! ]#$,+ paragraph No. 1, Art. 97 "4 &2, A=!K 2, 7'; 0, '(("1,$ '
$,$6.&%"# "4 R $';/ 4"+ ,'.2 7"#&2 "4 3""$ 0,2'-%"+ $6+%#3 2%/
4%+/& H ;,'+/ "4 %7*+%/"#7,#&K 12%.2 1"6($ 0, H` 7"#&2/
76(&%*(%,$ 0; RK "+ BHE $';/Y
! ]#$,+ paragraph No. 2K 2, 7'; 0, '(("1,$ ' $,$6.&%"# "4 _
$';/ ' 7"#&2 4"+ &2, #,5& ^ ;,'+/8
! X"+ &2, 0'('#., "4 _ 7"#&2/K 76(&%*(%,$ 0; _K 1, 2'-, a` $';/Y
/" &2'& &2, &"&'( .+,$%& 4"+ 3""$ 0,2'-%"+ 1"6($ 0, B_` $';/K
,U6%-'(,#& &" a 7"#&2/ '#$ ` $';/8 L2, *+%/"#,+V/ '.&6'(
."#4%#,7,#& "4 H ;,'+/K _ 7"#&2/ '#$ HB $';/K *(6/ 2%/ *"//%0(,
&"&'( .+,$%& "4 a 7"#&2/ '#$ ` $';/K 1"6($ 3%-, &2, +,/6(& "4 ^
;,'+/K H 7"#&2/ '#$ HR $';/8 J%#., &2, 7'5%767 &,+7 "4 2%/
/,#&,#., %/ ` ;,'+/ '#$ H 7"#&2/K '**,((,, L'# 2'/ '# 6#/,+-,$
*"+&%"# "4 BB 7"#&2/ '#$ R $';/8

II. No a||owance for the good conduct wh||e pr|soner |s re|eased under
cond|t|ona| pardon.
! A,'/"# ! &2, 3""$ ."#$6.& &%7, '(("1'#., %/ 3%-,# %#
."#/%$,+'&%"# "4 &2, 3""$ ."#$6.& "0/,+-,$ 0; &2, *+%/"#,+
12%(, /,+-%#3 2%/ /,#&,#.,8 9# &2%/ .'/,K &2, '..6/,$ 1'/
,#I";%#3 (%0,+&; 6#$,+ ' ."#$%&%"#'( *'+$"#8 \, 1'/ #"& /,+-%#3
&2, +,7%&&,$ *,#'(&; %# *+%/"#8 F=,"*(, -8 b'+&%#G
! M; ' ."#/%$,+'&%"# "4 &2, &,+7/ "4 N+&%.(, [a '("#,K '#$ '(/" %#
."#I6#.&%"# 1%&2 "&2,+ *'+&/ "4 &2, A,-%/,$ =,#'( !"$,K &2,
*2+'/, <'#; *+%/"#,+> %# N+&%.(, [D &2,+,"4 %/ &" 0, +,3'+$,$ '/
+,4,++%#3 "#(; &" ' *+%/"#,+ /,+-%#3 /,#&,#.,8 FM'c%#3 -8 O%+,.&"+
"4 =+%/"#/G

Art. 98. 96(+%"& $%.( "&&,:"*+( -,# &,0"&$01 D A deduct|on of one-f|fth
of the per|od of h|s sentence sha|| be granted to any pr|soner who,
hav|ng evaded the serv|ce of h|s sentence under the c|rcumstances
ment|oned |n Art|c|e 1S8 of th|s Code, g|ves h|mse|f up to the
author|t|es w|th|n 48 hours fo||ow|ng the |ssuance of a proc|amat|on
announc|ng the pass|ng away of the ca|am|ty or catastrophe referred
to |n sa|d art|c|e.

CIN1S
I. What |s spec|a| t|me a||owance for |oya|ty of pr|soner?
! 9& %/ ' $,$6.&%"# "4 BQR "4 &2, *,+%"$ "4 &2, /,#&,#., "4 '
*+%/"#,+ 12"K 2'-%#3 ,-'$,$ &2, /,+-%., "4 2%/ /,#&,#., $6+%#3
&2, .'('7%&; "+ .'&'/&+"*2, 7,#&%"#,$ %# N+&%.(, BR_K 3%-,/
2%7/,(4 6* &" &2, '6&2"+%&%,/ 1%&2%# `_ 2"6+/ 4"(("1%#3 &2,
%//6'#., "4 &2, *+".('7'&%"# 0; &2, =+,/%$,#& '##"6#.%#3 &2,
*'//%#3 '1'; "4 &2, .'('7%&; "+ .'&'/&+"*2,8


!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4

!!! (!) " !!!
II. 1he deduct|on of 1]S |s based on the or|g|na| sentence.
! C2%(, &2%/ '+&%.(, 7,#&%"#/ <&2, *,+%"$ "4 2%/ /,#&,#.,K> %&
/2"6($ 0, 6#$,+/&""$ &2'& &2, ."#-%.& %/ &" 0, .+,$%&,$ 4"+
(";'(&; 1%&2 BQR "4 2%/ "+%3%#'( /,#&,#., PP #"& "4 &2, 6#,5*%+,$
*"+&%"# "4 2%/ /,#&,#.,8

III. Art|c|e 1S8 prov|des for |ncreased pena|ty.
! N+& BR_: ' ."#-%.& 12" ,-'$,$ &2, /,+-%., "4 2%/ /,#&,#., 0;
(,'-%#3 &2, *,#'( %#/&%&6&%"# 12,+, 2, 2'$ 0,,# ."#4%#,$K "#
&2, "..'/%"# "4 $%/"+$,+ +,/6(&%#3 4+"7 ' ."#4('3+'&%"#K
,'+&2U6'c,K ,5*("/%"# "+ /%7%('+ .'&'/&+"*2, "+ $6+%#3 ' 76&%#;
%# 12%.2 2, $%$ #"& *'+&%.%*'&,K %/ (%'0(, &" '# %#.+,'/,$ *,#'(&;
FBQR "4 &2, &%7, /&%(( +,7'%#%#3 &" 0, /,+-,$ d #"& &" ,5.,,$ a
7"#&2/GK %4 2, 4'%(/ &" 3%-, 2%7/,(4 6* &" &2, '6&2"+%&%,/ 1%&2%#
`_ 2"6+/ 4"(("1%#3 &2, %//6'#., "4 ' *+".('7'&%"# 0; &2, !2%,4
?5,.6&%-, '##"6#.%#3 &2, *'//%#3 '1'; "4 &2, .'('7%&;8

Art. 99. F7, C#"*$3 $%.( "&&,:"*+(1 D Whenever |awfu||y [ust|f|ed, the
d|rector of r|sons sha|| grant a||owances for good conduct. Such
a||owances once granted sha|| not be revoked.

CIN1S
! N(("1'#., 4"+ 3""$ ."#$6.& %/ #"& '# '6&"7'&%. +%32&8
! 9& 76/& 0, 3+'#&,$ 0; &2, O%+,.&"+ "+ =+%/"#/8
! N(("1'#.,/ 4"+ 3""$ ."#$6.& "#., 3+'#&,$ 0; &2, O%+,.&"+ "4
=+%/"#/ .'##"& 0, +,-"c,$ 0; 2%78

I. 1he author|ty to grant t|me a||owance |s exc|us|ve|y vested |n the
D|rector.
! L2,+, %/ #" I6/&%4%.'&%"# 4"+ &2, *+"-%#.%'( 1'+$,#V/ 6/6+*%#3 &2,
'6&2"+%&; "4 &2, O%+,.&"+ "4 =+%/"#/ %# .+,$%&%#3 &2, *+%/"#,+ 1%&2
3""$ ."#$6.& &%7, '(("1'#.,8 J6.2 '6&2"+%&; %/ ,5.(6/%-,(;
-,/&,$ %# &2, O%+,.&"+8 F=,"*(, -8 L'#G


!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
1I1LL IIVL - CIVIL LIA8ILI1
CnA1Lk 1: LkSCNS CIVILL LIA8LL ICk ILLCNILS

LkSCNS CIVILL LIA8LL ICk ILLCNILS:
As a genera| ru|e, an offense causes two c|asses of |n[ur|es:
1. Soc|a| |n[ury, produced by Lhe dlsLurbance and alarm whlch are
Lhe ouLcome of Lhe offense.
2. ersona| |n[ury, caused Lo Lhe vlcLlm of Lhe crlme who may have
suffered damage, elLher Lo hls person, Lo hls properLy, Lo hls
honor, or Lo her chasLlLy.
! 1he soclal ln[ury ls soughL Lo be repalred Lhrough Lhe lmposlLlon
of Lhe correspondlng penalLy whlle Lhe personal ln[ury, Lhrough
lndemnlLy, whlch ls clvll ln naLure.

Art. 100 !"#"$ $"&'"$"() *+ & ,-./*0 12"$() *+ +-$*0)3 4 Lvery person
cr|m|na||y ||ab|e for a fe|ony |s a|so c|v|||y ||ab|e.

CIN1S
I. C|v|| ||ab|||ty ar|s|ng from offenses.
! Lvery person who, conLrary Lo law, wlllfully or negllgenLly
causes damage Lo anoLher, shall lndemnlfy Lhe laLLer for Lhe
same. (Art. 20, NCC)
! Clvll obllgaLlons arlslng from Lhe crlmlnal offenses shall be
governed by Lhe penal laws. (Art. 1161, NCC)
! 1he clvll llablllLy arlslng from negllgence under Lhe 8C ls
enLlrely separaLe and dlsLlncL from Lhe responslblllLy for faulL or
negllgence called a quasl-dellcL. (Art. 2176 NCC) 8uL Lhe parLy
clalmlng paymenL for Lhe damage done cannoL recover Lwlce for
Lhe same acL or omlsslon of Lhe defendanL. (Art 2177, NCC)
! 1hus, lf A was convlcLed of serlous physlcal ln[urles Lhrough
negllgence under Lhe 8C, and 8, Lhe ln[ured parLy, was
lndemnlfled ln Lhe crlmlnal case for Lhe damages caused Lo hlm,
Lhe laLLer cannoL recover damages ln a separaLe clvll acLlon for
Lhe same acL or omlsslon of A.
! Clvll llablllLy under Lhe 8C lncludes:
(1) resLlLuLlon
(2) reparaLlon of Lhe damage caused
(3) lndemnlflcaLlon for consequenLlal damages. (Art 104)

II. 8as|s of c|v|| ||ab|||ty.
! underlylng Lhe legal prlnclple LhaL a person who ls crlmlnally
llable ls also clvllly llable ls Lhe vlew LhaL from Lhe sLandpolnL of
lLs effecLs, a crlme has dual characLers:
(1) As an offense agalnsL Lhe sLaLe because of Lhe dlsLurbance of
Lhe soclal order
(2) as an offense agalnsL Lhe prlvaLe person ln[ured by Lhe crlme
unless lL lnvolves Lhe crlme of Lreason, rebelllon, esplonage,
conLempL ad oLhers whereln no clvll llablllLy arlses on Lhe parL
of Lhe offender elLher because Lhere are no damages Lo be
compensaLed or Lhere ls no prlvaLe person ln[ured by Lhe crlme.
! ln Lhe ulLlmaLe analysls, whaL glves rlse Lo Lhe clvll llablllLy ls
really Lhe obllgaLlon of everyone Lo repalr or Lo make whole Lhe
damage caused Lo anoLher by reason of hls acL or omlsslon,
wheLher done lnLenLlonally or negllgenLly and wheLher or noL
punlshable by law. (Cccena v. lcamlna)

III. Damages that may be recovered |n cr|m|na| cases.
! Crlmes agalnsL properLy ! damages based on Lhe prlce of Lhe
Lhlng and lLs speclal senLlmenLal value Lo Lhe ln[ured parLy may
be recovered, lf Lhe Lhlng lLself cannoL be resLored. (Art. 106
kC)
! Crlmes agalnsL persons (llke Lhe crlme of physlcal ln[urles) !
Lhe ln[ured parLy ls enLlLled Lo be pald for whaLever he spenL for
Lhe LreaLmenL of hls wounds, docLor's fees, and for medlclne, as
well as Lhe salary or wages unearned by hlm because of hls
lnablllLy Lo work due Lo hls ln[urles.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
! uamages may also be recovered for loss or lmpalrmenL of
earnlng capaclLy ln cases of Lemporary or permanenL personal
ln[ury. (Art. 220S, NCC)
! Moral damages may be recovered ln a crlmlnal offense resulLlng
ln physlcal ln[urles, ln Lhe crlmes of seducLlon, abducLlon, rape,
or oLher lasclvlous acLs, adulLery or concublnage, lllegal or
arblLrary deLenLlon or arresL, lllegal search, llbel, slander or any
oLher form of defamaLlon, and ln mallclous prosecuLlon. (Art
2219, NCC)
! Lxemplary damages as a parL of Lhe clvll llablllLy may be
lmposed when Lhe crlme was commlLLed wlLh one or more
aggravaLlng clrcumsLances. (Art. 2230, NCC)
! uamages for deaLh caused by a crlme have been ralsed Lo hp
73,000.00. (eople v. Lucero) ln addlLlon:
1. 1he defendanL shall be llable for Lhe loss of Lhe earnlng
capaclLy of Lhe deceased, unless Lhe deceased, on
accounL of permanenL physlcal dlsablllLy noL caused by
defendanL, has no earnlng capaclLy,
2. Pe shall be llable Lo glve supporL lf Lhe deceased was
obllged Lo glve supporL under Art|c|e 291 of Lhe nCC Lo
one noL an helr of Lhe deceased,
3. Pe shall pay moral damages for menLal angulsh Lo Lhe
spouse, leglLlmaLe and llleglLlmaLe descendanLs and
ascendanLs. (Art 2206, NCC)

IV. 8ut |f there |s no damage caused by the comm|ss|on of the cr|me,
the offender |s not c|v|||y ||ab|e.
! 1hus, lf felony commlLLed could noL or dld noL cause any
damage Lo anoLher = offender ls noL clvllly llable even lf he ls
crlmlnally llable for Lhe felony commlLLed.
! Lxample: A slapped Lhe face of Lhe mayor who was Lhen ln Lhe
performance of hls duLy. under Art 148, Lhe crlme commlLLed ls
dlrecL assaulL. As Lhe slapplng dld noL cause any ln[ury Lo Lhe
mayor, A ls noL clvllly llable.

V. A person cr|m|na||y ||ab|e for a fe|ony |s a|so c|v|||y ||ab|e.
Lvery person crlmlnally llable ls also clvllly llable. Clvll llablllLy
arlslng from crlmes (ex dellcLo) shall be governed by Lhe penal
laws, sub[ecL Lo Lhe provlslons of ArLlcles 29 Lo 33, 2176, 2177,
and 2202, 2204, 2206, 2216, 2230, 2233, and 2234 (regulaLlng
damages) of Lhe Clvll Code and Lo Lhe provlslons of 8ule 111,
8evlsed 8ules of Crlmlnal rocedure.

VI. S|nce a person cr|m|na||y ||ab|e |s a|so c|v|||y ||ab|e, does h|s
acqu|tta| |n a cr|m|na| case mean ext|nct|on of h|s c|v|| ||ab|||ty?
! 1he 8C ls sllenL on Lhls polnL. 8uL Lhe 8evlsed 8ules of Crlmlnal
rocedure provlde:
o 1he exLlncLlon of Lhe penal acLlon does noL carry wlLh
lL exLlncLlon of Lhe clvll. Powever, Lhe clvll acLlon based
on dellcL shall be deemed exLlngulshed lf Lhere ls a
flndlng ln a flnal [udgmenL ln Lhe crlmlnal acLlon LhaL Lhe
acL or omlsslon from whlch Lhe clvll llablllLy cay arlse dld
noL exlsL." (Sec 2 par 4 rule lll, revlsed rules of crlmlnal
procedure)
! 1hus, Lhe dlsmlssal of Lhe lnformaLlon or Lhe crlmlnal acLlon
does noL affecL Lhe rlghL of Lhe offended parLy Lo lnsLlLuLe or
conLlnue Lhe clvll acLlon already lnsLlLuLed arlslng from Lhe
offense, because such dlsmlssal or exLlncLlon of Lhe penal acLlon
does noL carry wlLh lL Lhe exLlncLlon of Lhe clvll one. (eople v.
velez) ln Lhls case, Lhere was a pendlng separaLe clvll acLlon,
arlslng ouL of Lhe same offense, flled by Lhe offended parLy
agalnsL Lhe same defendanL.
! 1hough Lhe deaLh of an accused-appellanL durlng Lhe pendency
of an appeal exLlngulshed hls crlmlnal llablllLy, hls clvll llablllLy
survlves. LxLlncLlon of crlmlnal llablllLy does noL necessarlly
mean LhaL Lhe clvll llablllLy ls also exLlngulshed. Cnly Lhe
crlmlnal llablllLy, lncludlng Lhe flne, whlch ls pecunlary, buL noL
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
clvll, of Lhe accused ls exLlngulshed by hls deaLh, buL Lhe clvll
llablllLy remalns. (eLralba v. Sandlganbayan)
!"#"$ $"&'"$"() 5&) -6"/(7 &$(8*218 (8- &992/-: "/ 0*( 8-$: 9."5"0&$$)
$"&'$-7 "0 (8- +*$$*;"01 9&/-/<
1. AcqulLLal on reasonable doubL. - When Lhe accused ln a crlmlnal
prosecuLlon ls acqulLLed on Lhe ground LhaL hls gullL has noL
been roved beyond reasonable doubL, a clvll acLlon for damages
for Lhe same acL or omlsslon may be lnsLlLuLed. (ArL 29, Clvll
Code)
=;&.: "0 >2:15-0( *+ &9?2"((&$3
o 1he courL may acqulL an accused on reasonable doubL
and sLlll order paymenL of clvll damages already proved
ln Lhe same case wlLhouL need for a separaLe clvll
acLlon. 1he reason ls Lhe accused has been accorded
due process. 1o requlre a separaLe clvll acLlon would
mean needless clogglng of courL dockeLs and
unnecessary dupllcaLlon of llLlgaLlon wlLh all lLs
aLLendanL loss of Llme, efforL, and money on Lhe parL of
all concerned. (Maxlmo v. Cerochl, !r.)

2. AcqulLLal from a cause of non-lmpuLablllLy -1he exempLlon from
crlmlnal llablllLy ln favor of an lmbeclle or lnsane person, and a
person under 13 years of age, or one over 13 buL under 18 years
of age, who has acLed wlLhouL dlscernmenL, and Lhose acLlng
under Lhe compulslon of an lrreslsLlble force or under Lhe
lmpulse of an unconLrollable fear of an equal or greaLer ln[ury,
does noL lnclude exempLlon from clvll llablllLy. (Art. 101, kC)

3. AcqulLLal ln Lhe crlmlnal acLlon for negllgence does noL preclude
Lhe offended parLy from flllng a clvll acLlon Lo recover damages,
based on Lhe new Lheory LhaL Lhe acL ls a quasl-dellcL. (Art 2177,
C|v|| Code)

4. When Lhere ls only clvll llablllLy. -When Lhe courL flnds and so
sLaLes ln lLs [udgmenL LhaL Lhere ls only clvll responslblllLy, and
noL crlmlnal responslblllLy, and LhaL Lhls flndlng ls Lhe cause of
acqulLLal. (ue Cuzman v. Alva)



VII. kCSLCU1ICN CI CIVIL AC1ICN AkISING IkCM CkIML
@.*#"/"*0/ *+ A-#"/-: A2$-/ *+ !."5"0&$ @.*9-:2.- BA2$- CCCD *0 (8-
,.*/-92("*0 *+ 9"#"$ &9("*0 &."/"01 +.*5 *++-0/-/<
! E0/("(2("*0 *+ 9."5"0&$ &0: 9"#"$ &9("*0/ - When a crlmlnal acLlon
ls lnsLlLuLed, Lhe clvll acLlon for Lhe recovery of clvll llablllLy
arlslng from Lhe offense charged shall be deemed lnsLlLuLed
wlLh Lhe crlmlnal acLlon unless Lhe offended parLy walves Lhe
clvll acLlon, reserves Lhe rlghL Lo lnsLlLuLe lL separaLely, or
lnsLlLuLes Lhe clvll acLlon prlor Lo Lhe crlmlnal acLlon.
o 1he crlmlnal acLlon for vlolaLlon of 8.. 8|g 22 shall be
deemed Lo lnclude Lhe correspondlng clvll acLlon. no
reservaLlon Lo flle such clvll acLlon shall be allowed.
! F8-0 9"#"$ &9("*0 5&) ,.*9--: "0:-,-0:-0($)3 - ln Lhe cases
provlded for ln Art|c|es 32, 33, 34, and 2176 of the C|v|| Code of
Lhe hlllpplnes, Lhe lndependenL clvll acLlon may be broughL by
Lhe offended parLy. lL shall proceed lndependenLly of Lhe
crlmlnal acLlon and shall requlre only a preponderance of
evldence. ln no case, however, may Lhe offended parLy recover
damages Lwlce for Lhe same acL or omlsslon charged ln Lhe
crlmlnal acLlon. (Sec. 3)
! F8-0 /-,&.&(- 9"#"$ &9("*0 "/ /2/,-0:-:. -
a) AfLer Lhe crlmlnal acLlon has been commenced, Lhe separaLe
clvll acLlon arlslng Lherefrom cannoL be lnsLlLuLed unLll flnal
[udgmenL has been rendered ln Lhe crlmlnal acLlon,
b) lf Lhe crlmlnal acLlon ls flled afLer sald clvll acLlon has already
been lnsLlLuLed, Lhe laLLer shall be suspended ln whaLever sLage
lL may be found before [udgmenL on Lhe merlLs. 1he suspenslon
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
shall lasL unLll flnal [udgmenL ls rendered ln Lhe crlmlnal acLlon.
neverLheless, before [udgmenL on Lhe merlLs ls rendered ln Lhe
clvll acLlon, Lhe same may, upon moLlon of Lhe offended parLy,
be consolldaLed wlLh Lhe crlmlnal acLlon ln Lhe courL Lrylng Lhe
crlmlnal acLlon. ln case of consolldaLlon, Lhe evldence already
adduced ln Lhe clvll acLlon shall be deemed auLomaLlcally
reproduced ln Lhe crlmlnal acLlon wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo Lhe rlghL
of Lhe prosecuLlon Lo cross-examlne Lhe wlLnesses presenLed by
Lhe offended parLy ln Lhe crlmlnal case and of Lhe parLles Lo
presenL addlLlonal evldence. 1he consolldaLed crlmlnal and clvll
acLlons shall be Lrled and declded [olnLly. (Sec. 2)
! G2:15-0( "0 9"#"$ &9("*0 0*( & '&.3 -A flnal [udgmenL rendered
ln a clvll acLlon absolvlng Lhe defendanL from clvll llablllLy ls noL
bar Lo a crlmlnal acLlon agalnsL Lhe defendanL for Lhe same acL
or omlsslon sub[ecL of Lhe clvll acLlon (Sec. 3)
! H2/,-0/"*0 ') .-&/*0 *. ,.->2:"9"&$ ?2-/("*03 - A peLlLlon for
suspenslon of Lhe crlmlnal acLlon based upon Lhe pendency of a
pre[udlclal quesLlon ln a clvll acLlon may be flled ln Lhe offlce of
Lhe prosecuLor or Lhe courL conducLlng Lhe prellmlnary
lnvesLlgaLlon. When Lhe crlmlnal acLlon has been flled ln courL
for Lrlal, Lhe peLlLlon Lo suspend shall be flled ln Lhe same
crlmlnal acLlon aL any Llme before Lhe prosecuLlon resLs. (Sec. 6)

VIII. Lxcept|on to the ru|e that ext|nct|on of the cr|m|na| act|on does
not ext|ngu|sh c|v|| act|on.
! 1he clvll acLlon reserved by Lhe complalnanL durlng Lhe
prosecuLlon of Lhe crlmlnal acLlon wlll be allowed afLer
LermlnaLlon of Lhe crlmlnal proceedlngs, only when he as Lhe
rlghL LhereLo, LhaL ls Lo say, when Lhe [udgmenL rendered ls one
of convlcLlon, or, ln case Lhe accused ls acqulLLed, Lhe
complalnanL ls based on some oLher facL was charged wlLh Lhe
crlme of esLafa Lhru falslflcaLlon of commerclal documenLs. 1he
courL acqulLLed hlm from Lhe charge on Lhe ground LhaL money
had been recelved or reLalned by hlm pursuanL Lo an
arrangemenL beLween Lhe laLLer and Lhe offended parLy, and
LhaL Lhe llablllLy of Lhe defendanL for Lhe reLurn of Lhe amounL
so recelved arlses from a clvll conLracL, noL from a crlmlnal acL,
and may noL be enforced ln Lhe crlmlnal case. (eople v.
Mlranda)
! Slnce Lhe courL acqulLLed Lhe accused on Lhe ground LhaL Lhe
money had been recelved or reLalned by appellanL pursuanL Lo
an arrangemenL beLween Lhe laLLer and Lhe offended parLy, ln
order Lo conceal Lhe LransacLlon from Lhe oLher offended parLy,
lL was lmproper and unwarranLed Lo lmpose a clvll llablllLy ln Lhe
same crlmlnal acLlon. 1he llablllLy of Lhe defendanL for Lhe
reLurn of Lhe amounL so recelved arlses from a clvll conLracL,
noL from a crlmlnal acL, and may noL be enforced ln Lhe crlmlnal
case buL ln a separaLe clvll acLlon. (eople v. Mlranda)
! eople v. Lagman: ComplalnanL appealed, Lhrough her prlvaLe
prosecuLor, from Lhe declslon of Lhe lower courL, acqulLLlng Lhe
accused on Lhe ground of reasonable doubL, Lhe CourL of
Appeals
Peld: "WlLh respecL Lo Lhe award of damages ln favor of Lhe
complalnanL, Lhe rule ls LhaL ln a crlmlnal case, Lhe accused ls
clvllly llable only lf he ls found gullLy. 8uL noL lf he ls declared
lnnocenL. ln Lhe case before us, Lhe accused was acqulLLed of
Lhe crlme charged. 1herefore, Lhe award of damages ln favor of
Lhe complalnanL should be seL aslde."
o 8ullng ls erroneous for Lwo reasons:
o (1) under ArLlcle 29 of Lhe nCC, when Lhe accused ln a
crlmlnal prosecuLlon ls acqulLLed on Lhe ground LhaL hls
gullL was noL proved beyond reasonable doubL, a clvll
acLlon for damages for Lhe same acL or omlsslon may be
lnsLlLuLed.
o (2) Accordlng Lo SecLlon 2(b), 8ule 111 of Lhe 8ules of
CourL, exLlncLlon of Lhe penal acLlon does noL carry wlLh
lL exLlncLlon of Lhe Clvll, and ln LhaL case Lhe lower courL
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
dld noL make any declaraLlon LhaL Lhe facL from whlch
Lhe clvll may arlse dld noL exlsL

Ik. Commencement of cr|m|na| act|on not a cond|t|on precedent to the
f|||ng and prosecut|on of c|v|| act|on ar|s|ng from cr|me.
! 1he 8evlsed 8ules of Crlmlnal rocedure permlL Lhe lnsLlLuLlon
of a clvll acLlon Lo demand clvll responslblllLy arlslng from crlme
before Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of Lhe crlmlnal prosecuLlon.
! A conLrary docLrlne would render Lhe rlghL of Lhe ln[ured parLy
Lo lndemnlLy a myLh, and [usLlce a farce, for Lhe gullLy parLy
would be able Lo dlspose of hls properLy. (Alba v. Acuna)
I2( (8- 9"#"$ &9("*0 &."/"01 +.*5 9."5- 9&00*( '- "0/("(2(-: *.
,.*/-92(-: "0 (8- +*$$*;"01 9&/-/<
1. AfLer Lhe crlmlnal acLlon has been commenced, Lhe separaLe
clvll acLlon arlslng Lherefrom cannoL be lnsLlLuLed unLll flnal
[udgmenL has been enLered ln Lhe crlmlnal acLlon (Sec. 2 8ule
111 8evlsed 8ules of Crlmlnal rocedure)
2. lf Lhe crlmlnal acLlon ls flled afLer Lhe sald clvll acLlon has
already been lnsLlLuLed, Lhe laLLer shall be suspended ln
whaLever sLage lL may be found before [udgmenL on Lhe merlLs.
1he suspenslon shall lasL unLll flnal [udgmenL ls rendered ln Lhe
crlmlnal acLlon. (Sec. 2 ku|e 111 kev|sed ku|es of Cr|m|na|
rocedure)
! 1he rule whlch requlres Lhe suspenslon of Lhe clvll case afLer Lhe
crlmlnal acLlon has been commenced, refers Lo Lhe
commencemenL of Lhe crlmlnal acLlon ln courL and noL Lo Lhe
mere flllng of a complalnL wlLh Lhe prosecuLlng offlcer. (Coqula
eL al v. Cheong)
G2:15-0( "0 (8- 9"#"$ 9&/- &$.-&:) ,.*52$1&(-: 9&00*( '- /2/,-0:-:
') (8- +"$"01 *+ 9."5"0&$ &9("*03
! 1he provlslons of Sect|on 2 of ku|e 111, ku|es of Court, LhaL
"afLer a crlmlnal acLlon has been commenced, no clvll acLlon
arlslng from Lhe same offense can be prosecuLed, and Lhe same
shall be suspended, ln whaLever sLage lL may be found, unLll
flnal [udgmenL ln Lhe crlmlnal proceedlng has been rendered"
does noL conLemplaLe Lhe suspenslon of a [udgmenL already
promulgaLed ln a clvll acLlon by Lhe flllng of a crlmlnal complalnL
wlLh Lhe prosecuLlon aLLorney charglng Lhe wlnnlng parLy wlLh
havlng lnLroduced false documenLary evldence. (1anda v.
Aldaya)

Sect|on 2 of ku|e 111 app||es on|y (1) when the c|a|mant |n the c|v||
act|on |s the offended party |n the cr|m|na| act|on and (2) both cases
ar|se from the same offense.
! SecLlon 2 of 8ule 111, 8ules of CourL (now 8evlsed 8ules of
Crlmlnal rocedure), requlrlng Lhe suspenslon of Lhe clvll acLlon
ln vlew of Lhe commencemenL of Lhe crlmlnal acLlon applles
only when Lhe clalmanL ln Lhe clvll acLlon ls Lhe same offended
parLy ln Lhe crlmlnal acLlon and boLh cases arlse from Lhe same
offense or LransacLlon. (8elleza v. PunLlngLon)
! 1hus, lf ln Lhe clvll case, Lhe plalnLlff ls Lhe accused ln Lhe
crlmlnal case and Lhe defendanL ln LhaL clvll case ls Lhe offended
parLy ln Lhe crlmlnal case, Lhe counLerclalm coverlng noL only
Lhe sum of 24,000.00 advanced Lo Lhe plalnLlff Lo purchase [uLe
bags buL also Lhe sum of 171,000.00 as damages whlch Lhe
defendanL clalms Lo have susLalned, and Lhe lnformaLlon ln Lhe
crlmlnal case belng merely conflned Lo Lhe former sum (24k)
Lhe clalmanL (plalnLlff) ls noL Lhe offended parLy ln Lhe crlmlnal
case and boLh cases do noL arlse from Lhe same LransacLlon.
(8elleza v. PlnLlngLon)
! 1he rule LhaL a clvll acLlon shall be suspended unLll flnal
[udgmenL ls rendered ln crlmlnal case, applles when Lhe clvll
acLlon arlses from Lhe offense charged ln Lhe crlmlnal case.
(AlerLa, eL al. v. Medoza)

Sect|on 2(a) of ku|e 111 app||es on|y to c|v|| ||ab|||ty ar|s|ng from cr|me.
! 1hus, when Lhe cause of acLlon ln Lhe clvll case ls based on culpa
conLracLual and noL on Lhe clvll llablllLy arlslng from Lhe offense
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
lnvolved ln Lhe crlmlnal case, Sec 2(a) of 8ule 111 8ules of CourL
does noL apply and Lhe Lrlal courL erred ln suspendlng Lhe
hearlng of Lhe clvll case unLll Lhe flnal deLermlnaLlon of Lhe
crlmlnal case. SecLlon 2(a) of 8ule 111 conLemplaLes a case
where Lhe offended parLy deslres Lo press hls rlghL Lo demand
lndemnlLy from Lhe accused ln Lhe crlmlnal case whlch he may
asserL elLher ln Lhe same crlmlnal case or ln a separaLe clvll
acLlon. (arker v. anllllo)
! Culpa conLracLual ls Lhe basls of a clvll acLlon agalnsL a
LransporLaLlon company, for lnsLance, for lLs fallure Lo carry
safely lLs passenger Lo hls desLlnaLlon. 1he obllgaLlon Lo pay for
damages arlses from conLracL, and noL from crlme.
=$$-1&("*0/ *+ :&5&1-/ "0 "0+*.5&("*0 0*( 0-9-//&.)3
! 1he courL may senLence Lhe accused Lo pay Lhe offended parLy,
moral and maLerlal damages, even lf Lhere ls no speclflc
allegaLlon of such damages ln Lhe lnformaLlon, provlded Lhe
offended parLy has noL expressly walved such llablllLy or
reserved hls rlghL Lo have clvll damages deLermlned ln a
separaLe clvll acLlon. (eople v. vlgo)
! under ArLlcle 100 of Lhls Code, when an lnformaLlon or
complalnL ls flled, even wlLhouL any allegaLlon of damages and
Lhe lnLenLlon Lo prove and clalm Lhem, lL ls Lo be undersLood
LhaL Lhe offender ls llable for Lhem. (eople v. Celorlco)
!"#"$ $"&'"$"() *+ (8- &992/-: -6(-0:/ "0 +&#*. *+ ,-./*0/ 0*( 5-0("*0-:
"0 (8- "0+*.5&("*03
! ln crlmlnal cases where Lhe lnLervenLlon of Lhe aggrleved parLles
ls llmlLed Lo belng wlLnesses for Lhe prosecuLlon, Lhe clvll
llablllLy of Lhe accused should noL exLend only ln favor of Lhe
person or persons menLloned ln Lhe lnformaLlon. unless Lhe
record shows LhaL an omlLLed parLy has walved Lhe clvll llablllLy
or has reserved Lhe rlghL Lo flle a separaLe clvll acLlon Lo recover
Lhe same, such parLy's rlghL Lo Lhe clvll llablllLy arlslng from Lhe
offense ls lmplledly lncluded ln Lhe crlmlnal acLlon. (eople v.
uespavellador)

k. Attachment |n cr|m|na| cases.
! When Lhe clvll acLlon ls properly lnsLlLuLed ln Lhe crlmlnal acLlon
as provlded ln 8ule 111 Lhe offended parLy may have Lhe
properLy of Lhe accused aLLached as securlLy for Lhe saLlsfacLlon
of any [udgmenL LhaL may be recovered from Lhe accused ln Lhe
followlng cases:
(a) When Lhe accused ls abouL Lo abscond from Lhe hlllpplnes,
(b) When Lhe crlmlnal acLlon ls based on a clalm for money or
properLy embezzled or fraudulenLly mlsapplled or converLed Lo
Lhe use of Lhe accused who ls a publlc offlcer, offlcer of a
corporaLlon, aLLorney, facLor, broker, agenL, or clerk, ln Lhe
course of hls employmenL as such, or by any oLher person ln a
flduclary capaclLy, or for a wlllful vlolaLlon of duLy,
(c) When Lhe accused has concealed, removed, or dlsposed of hls
personal properLy, or ls abouL Lo do so,
(d) When Lhe accused resldes ouLslde Lhe hlllpplnes.
F."( *+ &((&985-0(7 -(93 5&) '- "//2-: "0 9."5"0&$ 9&/-/3
! WlLhln Lhe crlmlnal acLlon, wlLh whlch Lhe clvll acLlon ls
lmplledly lnsLlLuLed, Lhe offended parLy may obLaln Lhe
prellmlnary wrlL of aLLachmenL. 1he courL ln whlch Lhe clvll
acLlon ls pendlng ls, afLer Lhe flllng of Lhe lnformaLlon ln Lhe
crlmlnal case, noL lpso facLo deprlved of Lhe power Lo lssue
prellmlnary and auxlllary wrlLs, such as prellmlnary ln[uncLlon,
aLLachmenL, appolnLmenL of recelver, flxlng amounLs of bonds,
and oLher processes, of slmllar naLure, whlch do noL go lnLo Lhe
merlLs of Lhe case. (8amcar, lnc. v. ue Leon)
! AvallablllLy of provlslonal remedles - 1he provlslonal remedles ln
clvll acLlons lnsofar as Lhey are appllcable may be avalled of ln
connecLlon wlLh clvll acLlon deemed lnsLlLuLed wlLh Lhe crlmlnal
acLlon.
J.*5 (8- >2:15-0( *+ 9*0#"9("*0 "0 9."5"0&$ 9&/-7 (;* &,,-&$/ 5&) '-
(&K-03
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
! Lvery crlmlnal case lnvolves Lwo acLlons: one crlmlnal and
anoLher clvll. lrom a [udgmenL of convlcLlon, Lwo appeals may,
accordlngly, be Laken. 1he accused may seek a revlew of sald
[udgmenL as regards boLh acLlons. Slmllarly, Lhe complalnanL
may appeal wlLh respecL only Lo Lhe clvll acLlon. 1he rlghL of
elLher Lo appeal or noL Lo appeal ls noL dependenL upon Lhe
oLher. (eople v. Coloma)
A-5-:) *+ *++-0:-: ,&.() ;8-.- +"/9&$ &/K/ +*. :"/5"//&$3
! lf Lhe crlmlnal acLlon ls dlsmlssed by Lhe courL on moLlon of Lhe
flscal upon Lhe ground of lnsufflclency of evldence, Lhe offended
parLy has no rlghL Lo appeal, hls remedy belng a separaLe clvll
acLlon afLer proper reservaLlon ls made Lherefor. (eople v.
Llpana)
! 1he reason for Lhe rule ls LhaL Lhe conLlnuaLlon of Lhe offended
parLy's lnLervenLlon ln a crlmlnal acLlon depends upon Lhe
conLlnuaLlon of such acLlon by Lhe provlnclal flscal. Cnce Lhe
crlmlnal acLlon ls dlsmlssed by Lhe Lrlal courL on peLlLlon of Lhe
provlnclal flscal, Lhe offended parLy's rlghL Lo lnLervene ceases,
and he cannoL appeal from Lhe order of dlsmlssal, oLherwlse, lL
"would be LanLamounL Lo glvlng sald offended parLy Lhe
dlrecLlon and conLrol of Lhe crlmlnal proceedlng." (eople v.
Llpana)
! 8uL Lhe offended parLy may rlghLly lnLervene by lnLerposlng an
appeal from Lhe order dlsmlsslng Lhe acLlon upon a quesLlon of
law. (eople v. Maceda)
A"18( (* &,,-&$ &/ (* 9"#"$ $"&'"$"()3
! When Lhe courL found Lhe accused gullLy of crlmlnal negllgence,
buL falled Lo enLer [udgmenL of clvll llablllLy, Lhe prlvaLe
prosecuLor has a rlghL Lo appeal for purposes of Lhe clvll llablllLy
of Lhe accused. 1he appellaLe courL may remand Lhe case Lo Lhe
Lrlal courL for Lhe laLLer Lo lnclude ln lLs [udgmenL, Lhe clvll
llablllLy of Lhe accused. (eople v. ursua)
L++-0:-: ,&.() 8&/ ."18( (* '- 8-&.: :2."01 (8- &,,-&$3
! When a [udgmenL convlcLlng Lhe accused ls appealed, Lhe
offended parLy has Lhe rlghL Lo be heard durlng appeal. lf Lhe
SollclLor Ceneral asks for Lhe reversal of Lhe appealed [udgmenL
and Lhe acqulLLal of Lhe accused, Lhe offended parLy has also
Lhe rlghL Lo be heard. (eople v. vlllegas)

!"#"$ $"&'"$"() 5&) '- &::-: ;"(8"0 (8- CMN:&) ,-."*:7 -#-0 "+ (8-
9*0#"9( 8&/ /(&.(-: /-.#"01 /-0(-09-3
! 8efore Lhe explraLlon of Lhe 13-day perlod for appeallng, Lhe
Lrlal courL can amend Lhe [udgmenL of convlcLlon by addlng a
provlslon for Lhe clvll llablllLy of Lhe accused, and Lhls
noLwlLhsLandlng LhaL Lhe [udgmenL became flnal because Lhe
accused had commenced Lhe servlce of hls senLence. (eople v.
8odrlguez)
! 1hls rullng applles even Lhough an appeal from Lhe [udgmenL of
convlcLlon has already been perfecLed. (eople v. Co ko 1ong)
! 8uL afLer Lhe 13-day perlod for appeallng, Lhe Lrlal courL cannoL
amend lLs declslon by addlng LhereLo Lhe clvll llablllLy. (Sese v.
MonLesa)

kII. An |ndependent c|v|| act|on may be brought by the |n[ured party
dur|ng the pendency of the cr|m|na| case, prov|ded the r|ght |s
reserved.
! ln cases provlded ln Art|c|es 31-34 and 2176 of Lhe Clvll Code,
Lhe lndependenL clvll acLlon may be broughL by Lhe offended
parLy. lL shall proceed lndependenLly of Lhe crlmlnal acLlon, and
shall requlre only a preponderance of evldence. ln no case,
however, may Lhe offended parLy recover damages Lwlce for
Lhe same acL or omlsslon charged ln Lhe crlmlnal acLlon. (Sec. 3,
8ule 111, 8evlsed 8ules of Crlmlnal rocedure)
A-/-.#&("*0 *+ (8- ."18( (* "0/("(2(- /-,&.&(- 9"#"$ &9("*0 0-9-//&.) "0
(8- +*$$*;"01 9&/-/<
1. ln any of Lhe cases referred Lo ln ArLlcle 32, Clvll Code.
2. ln cases of defamaLlon, fraud, and physlcal ln[urles.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
! 1he words "defamaLlon", "fraud" and "physlcal ln[urles" are
used ln Lhelr ordlnary sense. 1he Lerm "physlcal ln[urles" means
bodlly ln[ury, noL Lhe crlme of physlcal ln[urles. lL lncludes
aLLempLed homlclde, frusLraLed homlclde, or even deaLh.
(Carandang v. Pon. vlcenLe SanLlago)
! LsLafa ls lncluded ln Lhe Lerm "fraud".
! Where fraud ls Lhe basls for boLh clvll and Lhe crlmlnal acLlons,
Lhey are accordlng Lo law, Lo proceed lndependenLly. ln Lhe
same way LhaL Lhe clvll sulL can be Lrled, Lhe crlmlnal
prosecuLlon has Lo run lLs course. (8o[as v. eople)

3. When Lhe clvll acLlon ls agalnsL a member of a clLy or munlclpal
pollce force for refuslng or falllng Lo render ald or proLecLlon Lo
any person ln case of danger Lo llfe or properLy. Such peace
offlcer shall be prlmarlly llable for damages, and Lhe clLy or
munlclpallLy shall be subsldlarlly responslble Lherefor. (Art. 34,
C|v|| Code)

4. ln an acLlon for damages arlslng from faulL or negllgence, Lhere
belng no pre-exlsLlng conLracLual relaLlon beLween Lhe parLles
(quasl-dellcL). (Art. 2176, CC)
! 8esponslblllLy for such faulL or negllgence ls enLlrely separaLe
and dlsLlncL from Lhe clvll llablllLy arlslng from negllgence under
Lhe enal Code. 8uL Lhe plalnLlff cannoL recover damages Lwlce
for same acL or omlsslon of Lhe defendanL. (Art. 2177, CC)
! 1he purpose of Lhe reservaLlon ls Lo prevenL Lhe maLLer from
becomlng res ad[udlcaLa. (hlllpplne 8allway Co. v. !alandonl)

O++-9( *+ .-/-.#&("*0 *+ ."18( (* "0(-.#-0- "0 ,.*/-92("*0 *+ 9."5"0&$
9&/-3
! Cnce Lhe offended parLy has reserved hls rlghL Lo lnsLlLuLe a
separaLe clvll acLlon Lo recover lndemnlLy, he Lhereby loses hls
rlghL Lo lnLervene ln Lhe prosecuLlon of Lhe crlmlnal case.
ConsequenLly, appellanL no longer had any rlghL Lo move for Lhe
reconslderaLlon of, much less Lo appeal from Lhe declslon ln Lhe
crlmlnal case, lnsofar as lL declded Lhe quesLlon of clvll
lndemnlLy, for appellanL no longer had any sLandlng ln Lhe case.
(1acLaquln v. allleo)
! Art|c|e 33 of Lhe CC has modlfled Lhe provlslons of 8ule 107,
8ules of CourL. under sald arLlcle, a clvll acLlon Lo recover
damages for physlcal ln[urles, dlsLlncL and separaLe from Lhe
crlmlnal acLlon and of whlch lL shall proceed lndependenLly,
may be broughL by Lhe ln[ured parLy, hence, Lhe rlghL Lo flle sald
complalnL for damages need noL even be reserved. (Alvarez v.
Manalaysay)
E+ (8- *++-0:-: ,&.() "0 (8- 9."5"0&$ 9&/- "/ .-,.-/-0(-: ') & ,."#&(-
,.*/-92(*.7 8- 9&00*( +"$- &0 "0:-,-0:-0( 9"#"$ &9("*03
lf Lhe offended parLy elecLed Lo clalm Lhe clvll llablllLy ln Lhe
crlmlnal case by lnLervenlng Lhereln Lhrough a prlvaLe
prosecuLor and Lhe courL dld noL award any clvll llablllLy
because Lhe offended parLy dld noL presenL evldence, he cannoL
LhereafLer flle an lndependenL clvll acLlon for sald clvll llablllLy.
Lhe maLLer ls already res [udlcaLa ln Lhe crlmlnal case. (8oa v. ue
la Cruz)
F8-0 (8- &992/-: ,$-&:-: 12"$() :2."01 (8- &..&"105-0(7 /* (8&( (8-
*++-0:-: ,&.() 9*2$: 0*( 8&#- -6,.-//$) .-0*209-: 8"/ ."18( (* +"$- (8-
9"#"$ &9("*0 *. .-/-.#-: (8- /&5-7 9&0 (8- $&((-. /2'/-?2-0($) +"$- & 9"#"$
&9("*0 +*. "0:-50"() +*. ,8)/"9&$ &0: 5*.&$ :&5&1-/ 9&2/-: ') (8-
&992/-:P
1he mere appearance of a prlvaLe prosecuLor ln Lhe crlmlnal
case does noL necessarlly consLlLuLe such lnLervenLlon on Lhe
parL of Lhe aggrleved parLy as could only lmporL an lnLenLlon Lo
press clalm for damages ln sald crlmlnal case and a walver of Lhe
rlghL Lo flle a separaLe clvll acLlon for damages, where Lhe
accused had pleaded gullLy upon arralgnmenL and was
lmmedlaLely senLenced, Lhere belng no chance for Lhe
aggrleved parLy Lo presenL evldence ln supporL of Lhe clalm for
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
damages and Lo enLer a reservaLlon ln Lhe record Lo flle a
separaLe clvll acLlon. (8eyes v. Semplo-uly)

kIII. When the f|na| [udgment |n a cr|m|na| case does not state "that
the fact from wh|ch the c|v|| m|ght ar|se d|d not ex|st," ext|nct|on of
the pena| act|on does not carry w|th |t ext|nct|on of the c|v||.
! 1he exLlncLlon of Lhe penal acLlon does noL carry wlLh lL
exLlncLlon of Lhe clvll acLlon. Powever, Lhe clvll acLlon based on
dellcL shall be deemed exLlngulshed lf Lhere ls a flndlng ln a flnal
[udgmenL ln Lhe crlmlnal acLlon LhaL Lhe acL or omlsslon from
whlch Lhe clvll llablllLy may arlse dld noL exlsL.
! When Lhe accused ln a crlmlnal case for esLafa (kC Art.31S)
was acqulLLed because Lhere was no converslon or
mlsapproprlaLlon, an elemenL of Lhe crlme, Lhen buL Lhe
evldence shows LhaL she really recelved Lhe [ewelry, Lhen Lhe
clvll acLlon ls noL exLlngulshed. (Laperal v. Alvla)
! 8uL lf ln a crlmlnal case for arson, Lhe courL sLaLes ln lLs
[udgmenL of acqulLLal LhaL "Lhe accused cannoL ln any manner
be held responslble for Lhe flre," such declaraLlon flLs well lnLo
Lhe excepLlon of Lhe rule and acLually exoneraLes Lhe accused
from clvll llablllLy. (1an v. SLandard vacuum Cll Co.)
! 1he quesLlon ls wheLher appellanLs may sLlll recover damages
from rlela, conslderlng LhaL he has been expllclLly acqulLLed by
Lhe Lrlal courL, upon Lhe ground LhaL "he has noL been remlss ln
hls cauLlon nor ln hls presence of mlnd Lrylng Lo avold" sald
"freak accldenL."
Peld: ursuanL Lo Lhe 8ules of CourL: "LxLlncLlon of Lhe penal
acLlon does noL carry wlLh lL exLlncLlon of Lhe clvll, unless Lhe
exLlncLlon proceeds from a declaraLlon ln a flnal [udgmenL LhaL
Lhe facL from whlch Lhe clvll mlghL arlse dld noL exlsL." ln Lhe
case aL bar, Lhe declslon appealed from has noL only acqulLLed
rlela, buL also, declared LhaL Lhe colllslon, whlch resulLed ln Lhe
desLrucLlon of appellanLs' car, had noL been due Lo any
negllgence on hls parL. Slnce appellanLs' clvll acLlon ls
predlcaLed upon rlela's alleged negllgence, whlch does noL
exlsL, accordlng Lo sald flnal [udgmenL, lL follows necessarlly LhaL
hls acqulLLal ln Lhe crlmlnal acLlon carrles wlLh lL Lhe exLlncLlon
of Lhe clvll responslblllLy arlslng Lherefrom. (laraon v. rlela)


kIV. re[ud|c|a| uest|on
! 1hls ls anoLher excepLlon Lo Lhe rule LhaL Lhe crlmlnal acLlon
shall be declded flrsL and LhaL Lhe clvll acLlon should be
suspended.
! re[udlclal quesLlons musL be declded before any crlmlnal
prosecuLlon may be lnsLlLuLed or may proceed. (Art. 36 new CC)
! eLlLlon for Lhe suspenslon of Lhe crlmlnal acLlon based upon
Lhe pendency of a pre[udlclal quesLlon ln a clvll acLlon, may be
flled ln Lhe offlce of Lhe prosecuLor or Lhe courL conducLlng Lhe
prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon. When Lhe crlmlnal acLlon has been
flled ln courL for Lrlal, Lhe peLlLlon Lo suspend shall be flled ln
Lhe same crlmlnal acLlon aL any Llme before Lhe prosecuLlon
resLs.
! lor Lhe prlnclple on pre[udlclal quesLlon Lo apply, lL ls essenLlal
LhaL Lhere be Lwo cases lnvolved, lnvarlably a clvll case and a
crlmlnal case. lf Lhe Lwo cases are boLh clvll or lf Lhey are boLh
crlmlnal, Lhe prlnclple flnds no appllcaLlon. (Malvar v. Cruz)
@.->2:"9"&$ ?2-/("*0 :-+"0-:3
! A pre[udlclal quesLlon ls one whlch arlses ln a case, Lhe
resoluLlon of whlch ls a loglcal anLecedenL of Lhe lssue lnvolved
ln sald case, and Lhe cognlzance of whlch perLalns Lo anoLher
Lrlbunal. (!lmenez v. Averla)
! lL ls based on a facL dlsLlncL and separaLe from Lhe crlme buL so
lnLlmaLely connecLed wlLh lL LhaL lL deLermlnes Lhe gullL or
lnnocence of Lhe accused.
O$-5-0(/ *+ ,.->2:"9"&$ ?2-/("*03
! 1he Lwo essenLlal elemenLs of a pre[udlclal quesLlon are:
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
a. 1he clvll acLlon lnvolves an lssue slmllar or lnLlmaLely
relaLed Lo Lhe lssue ralsed ln Lhe crlmlnal acLlon, and
b. 1he resoluLlon of such lssue deLermlnes wheLher or noL
Lhe crlmlnal acLlon may proceed. (Sec. 3 8ule 111 8ules
of CourL)

1. 1he pre[udlclal quesLlon musL be deLermlnaLlve of Lhe case
before Lhe courL,
2. !urlsdlcLlon Lo Lry sald quesLlon musL be lodged ln anoLher
Lrlbunal. (eople v. Aragon)

Q-02- *+ (8- &9("*0/3
! Spanlsh [urlsprudence, from whlch Lhe prlnclple of pre[udlclal
quesLlon has been Laken, requlres LhaL Lhe essenLlal elemenL
deLermlnaLlve of Lhe crlmlnal acLlon musL be cognlzable by
anoLher courL. 1hls requlremenL of a dlfferenL courL ls
demanded ln Spanlsh [urlsprudence because Spanlsh courLs are
dlvlded accordlng Lo Lhelr [urlsdlcLlons, some courLs belng
excluslvely of clvll [urlsdlcLlon, oLhers of crlmlnal [urlsdlcLlon. ln
Lhe hlllpplnes where our courLs are vesLed wlLh boLh clvll and
crlmlnal [urlsdlcLlon, Lhe prlnclple of pre[udlclal quesLlon ls Lo be
applled even lf Lhere ls only one courL before whlch Lhe clvll
acLlon and Lhe crlmlnal acLlon are Lo be llLlgaLed. 8uL ln Lhls
case, Lhe courL, when exerclslng lLs [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe clvll
acLlon for Lhe annulmenL of marrlage, for example, ls
consldered as a courL dlsLlncL and dlfferenL from lLself when
Lrylng Lhe crlmlnal acLlon for blgamy. (Merced v. ulez)

O6&5,$-/ *+ ,.->2:"9"&$ ?2-/("*0<
(1) 1here was a pendlng appeal before Lhe Supreme CourL whereln Lhe
prlnclpal quesLlon lnvolved was Lhe genulneness of a cerLaln documenL.
AfLer Lhe presenLaLlon of Lhe appellanL's brlef, appellee presenLed a
moLlon alleglng LhaL sald documenL was false. 1he Supreme CourL
resolved LhaL when Lhe appeal was Lo be deLermlned on Lhe merlLs, Lhe
sald moLlon would be declded. AL LhaL sLage of Lhe case, appellee flled
wlLh Lhe ClLy llscal a complalnL for falslflcaLlon based on Lhe same
documenL. Was lL proper for Lhe flscal Lo proceed wlLh Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon
of Lhe crlmlnal complalnL for falslflcaLlon?
Peld: no. 1he llscal musL walL unLll Lhe case before Lhe Supreme CourL
ls declded flrsL, because lf Lhe Supreme CourL should declde LhaL Lhe
documenL ls genulne and has noL been subsLlLuLed, such flndlng would
be conLrary Lo Lhe sLand Laken by Lhe llscal. (ue Leon v. Mabanag)

(2) 1he pendency of a peLlLlon for [udlclal declaraLlon of nulllLy of Lhe
flrsL marrlage ls noL a pre[udlclal quesLlon ln an acLlon for blgamy. 1he
subsequenL [udlclal declaraLlon of Lhe nulllLy of Lhe flrsL marrlage ls
lmmaLerlal because prlor Lo Lhe declaraLlon of nulllLy, Lhe crlme had
already been consummaLed. (Mercado v. 1an)
- A case for annulmenL of marrlage ls a pre[udlclal quesLlon Lo a blgamy
case lf lL ls proved LhaL Lhe accused's consenL Lo such marrlage was
obLalned by means of duress, vlolence and lnLlmldaLlon ln order Lo
esLabllsh LhaL hls acL ln Lhe subsequenL marrlage was an lnvolunLary one
and as such Lhe same cannoL be Lhe basls for convlcLlon. (uonaLo v.
Luna)

F8-0 9"#"$ &9("*0 0*( & ,.->2:"9"&$ ?2-/("*03 4
! lf lL ls Lhe second wlfe who flled Lhe clvll acLlon agalnsL Lhe
accused charged wlLh blgamy, alleglng Lha LLhe accused by
means of force and LhreaLs forced her Lo marry hlm, Lhe
accused cannoL properly clalm LhaL Lhe clvll acLlon ls a
pre[udlclal quesLlon, beacuse even lf Lhe allegaLlon ln Lhe clvll
case ls Lrue, Lhe facL remalns LhaL Leh accused conLraceLd Lhe
second marrlage volunLarlly. lf Lhe second wlfe were Lhe one
accused of blgamy, she could perhaps ralse force or lnLlmldaLlon
as a defense ln Lhe charge of blgamy, because on her parL Lhere
was no consenL Lo Lhe marrlage, buL noL Lhe parLy, who used
Lhe force or lnLlmldaLlon. 1he laLLer may noL use hls own
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
malfeasance Lo defeaL Lhe acLlon based on hls crlmlnal acL.
(eople v. Aragon)

(3) A clvll case was flled for unpald wages clalmed by a number of
laborers. ln LhaL case, Lhe obllgaLlon of defendanLs Lo pay wages was ln
lssue. 1here was Lhen a crlmlnal acLlon pendlng agalnsL one of Lhe
defendanLs ln Lhe clvll case for proLracLed delay ln Lhe paymenL of
wages as penallzed by Com.AcL.no.303. 1he defendanLs asked for Lhe
suspenslon of Lhe clvll acLlon unLll Lhe crlmlnal case be flnally dlsposed
of. MusL Lhe courL order Lhe suspenslon of Lhe Lrlal of Lhe clvll acLlon?
no. 1he obllgaLlon Lo pay wages ls a pre[udlclal quesLlon, for Lhere can
be no exLended delay ln Lhe paymenL of such obllgaLlons unless Lhe
obllgaLlon be flrsL proved. (Alerla v. Mendoza)

!*5,&.- (8- &'*#- 9&/- ;"(8 (8- +*$$*;"01 9&/-3
! A and 8 were accused of vlolaLlon for Lhe CopyrlghL Law. LaLer,
A and 8 broughL an acLlon for cancellaLlon of Lhe copyrlghLs a
pre[udlclal quesLlon whlch musL be declded flrsL? no. unLll
cancelled, Lhe copyrlghLs are presumed Lo have been duly
granLed and lssued. (Ccampo v. 1anclnco)
! ln Lhe case of Alerla v. Mendoza, Lhe rullng ls conslsLenL wlLh
Lhe presumpLlon of lnnocence on Lhe parL of Lhe accused. ln Lhe
case of Ccampo v. 1anclnco, Lhe rullng ls based on Lhe
presumpLlon of regularlLy ln Lhe granLlng and lssuance of Lhe
copyrlghLs.

F8-0 (8- ?2-/("*0 "/ 0*( :-(-.5"0&("#- *+ (8- 12"$( *. "00*9-09- *+ (8-
,&.("-/ 98&.1-: ;"(8 -/(&+&7 "( "/ 0*( & ,.->2:"9"&$ ?2-/("*03
! 1he alleged pre[udlclal quesLlon ls noL deLermlnaLlve of Lhe gullL
or lnnocence of Lhe parLles charged wlLh esLafa. Lven lf Lhe
execuLlon of Lhe recelpL ln Lhe clvll case was vlLlaLed by fraud,
duress or lnLlmldaLlon, Lhe gullL of Lhe accused could sLlll be
esLabllshed by oLher evldence by showlng LhaL Lhey acLually
recelved from Lhe complalnanL Lhe sum of 20,000.00 wlLh
whlch Lo buy a flshlng boaL and LhaL lnsLead of dolng so, Lhey
mlsapproprlaLed Lhe money and refused Lo reLurn lL Lo hlm
upon demand. A clalm Lo Lhls effecL ls a maLLer of defense Lo be
lnLerposed by Lhe parLy charged ln Lhe crlmlnal proceedlng.
(!lmenez v. Averla)


F8-0 (* ,$-&: ,.->2:"9"&$ ?2-/("*03
! A peLlLlon for suspenslon of Lhe crlmlnal acLlon based upon Lhe
pendency of a pre[udlclal quesLlon ln a clvll acLlon may be flled
ln Lhe offlce of Lhe prosecuLor or Lhe courL conducLlng Lhe
prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon. When Lhe crlmlnal acLlon has been
flled ln courL for Lrlal, Lhe peLlLlon Lo suspend shall be flled ln
Lhe same crlmlnal acLlon aL any Llme before Lhe prosecuLlon
resLs. (Sec. 6 ku|e 111 kev|sed ku|es of Cr|m|na| rocedure)

kVI. An acqu|tta| |n a cr|m|na| case |s not ev|dence of |nnocence |n
subsequent c|v|| act|on based upon the a||eged cr|m|na| act.
! ln a clvll case, Lhe SollclLor Ceneral moved for Lhe cancellaLlon
of Lhe cerLlflcaLe of naLurallzaLlon lssued ln favor of Lhe
peLlLloner, upon Lhe ground LhaL lL was secured lllegally and
fraudulenLly. Among Lhe acLs of mlsrepresenLaLlon and
mlsconducL lmpuLed Lo Lhe peLlLloner was Lhe alleged
malLreaLmenL by hlm of Mrs. !olsL. lL appeared LhaL Lhe
Munlclpal CourL whlch Lrled Lhe malLreaLmenL case acqulLLed
Lhe defendanL (peLlLloner). 1he courL Lrylng Lhe clvll case dld noL
Lake lnLo accounL Lhe evldence lnLroduced ln LhaL clvll case ln
supporL of Lhe charge of malLreaLmenL.
! Peld: 1he Lrlal courL erred ln noL Laklng lnLo accounL Lhe
evldence lnLroduced ln Lhe clvll case ln supporL of Lhe charges of
malLreaLmenL. 1he Supreme CourL sLaLed LhaL Lhe greaL welghL
of auLhorlLy supporLs Lhe rule LhaL a [udgmenL of acqulLLal ls noL
effecLlve under Lhe docLrlne of res [udlcaLa ln laLer clvll acLlon
lnvolvlng Lhe same sub[ecL-maLLer. An acqulLLal ln a crlmlnal
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
prosecuLlon does noL consLlLuLe a bar Lo a subsequenL clvll
acLlon based upon Lhe alleged crlmlnal acL. (8epubllc v. Asaad)
! 8uL where Lhe sLaLe ls parLy Lo Lhe clvll acLlon, Lhe lssues
deLermlned by Lhe convlcLlon of Lhe defendanL are concluded ln
Lhe clvll acLlon.

Art|c|e 101. A2$-/ .-1&.:"01 9"#"$ $"&'"$"() "0 9-.(&"0 9&/-/3 4 1he
exempt|on from cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty estab||shed |n subd|v|s|ons 1, 2, 3, 4,
S and 6 of art|c|e 12 and |n subd|v|s|on 4 of art|c|e 11 of th|s Code does
not |nc|ude exempt|on from c|v|| ||ab|||ty, wh|ch sha|| be enforced
sub[ect to the fo||ow|ng ru|es:
I|rst. In cases of subd|v|s|ons 1, 2, and 3 of art|c|e 12, the c|v|| ||ab|||ty
for acts comm|tted by an |mbec||e or |nsane person, and by a person
under n|ne years of age, or by one over n|ne but under f|fteen years of
age, who has acted w|thout d|scernment, sha|| devo|ve upon those
hav|ng such person under the|r |ega| author|ty or contro|, un|ess |t
appears that there was no fau|t or neg||gence on the|r pArt|c|e
Shou|d there be no person hav|ng such |nsane, |mbec||e or m|nor
under h|s author|ty, |ega| guard|ansh|p, or contro| or |f such person be
|nso|vent, sa|d |nsane, |mbec||e, or m|nor sha|| respond w|th the|r own
property, except|ng property exempt from execut|on, |n accordance
w|th the c|v|| |aw.

Second. In cases fa|||ng w|th|n subd|v|s|on 4 of art|c|e 11, the persons
for whose benef|t the harm has been prevented sha|| be c|v|||y ||ab|e |n
proport|on to the benef|t wh|ch they may have rece|ved.
1he courts sha|| determ|ne, |n sound d|scret|on, the proport|onate
amount for wh|ch each one sha|| be ||ab|e.
When the respect|ve shares cannot be equ|tab|y determ|ned, even
approx|mate|y, or when the ||ab|||ty a|so attaches to the Government,
or to the ma[or|ty of the |nhab|tants of the town, and, |n a|| events,
whenever damage has been caused w|th the consent of the author|t|es
or the|r agents, |ndemn|f|cat|on sha|| be made |n the manner
prescr|bed by spec|a| or regu|at|ons.

1h|rd. In cases cases fa|||ng w|th|n subd|v|s|ons S and 6 of Art|c|e 12,
the persons us|ng v|o|ence or caus|ng fear sha|| be pr|mar||y ||ab|e and
secondar||y, or, |f there be no such persons, those do|ng the act sha||
be ||ab|e, sav|ng a|ways to the |atter that part of the|r property exempt
from execut|on.

CIN1S
I. Lxempt|on from cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty does not |nc|ude exempt|on from
c|v|| ||ab|||ty.
! LxcepLlons:
1. no clvll llablllLy ln par. 4 of Art|c|e 12 whlch provldes for
ln[ury caused by mere accldenL.
2. 1here ls no clvll llablllLy ln par 7 of Art|c|e 12 whlch provldes
for fallure Lo perform an acL requlred by law when
prevenLed by some lawful or lnsuperable cause.

II. Who are c|v|||y ||ab|e for the acts of an |nsane or m|nor, exempt
from cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty?
! 1he clvll llablllLy for acLs commlLLed by an lmbeclle or lnsane or
mlnor exempL from crlmlnal llablllLy shall devolve upon Lhe
persons havlng legal auLhorlLy or conLrol over Lhem, lf Lhe laLLer
are aL faulL or negllgenL (prlmarlly llable).
! lf Lhere ls no faulL or negllgence on Lhelr parL, or even lf aL faulL
or negllgenL buL lnsolvenL, or should Lhere be no person havlng
such auLhorlLy or conLrol, Lhe lnsane, lmbeclle, or such mlnor
shall respond wlLh Lhelr own properLy noL exempL from
execuLlon.

III. ersons c|v|||y ||ab|e for acts comm|tted by youthfu| offenders.
! Art|c|e 201 of the Ch||d and outh We|fare Code provldes LhaL
Lhe clvll llablllLy for acLs commlLLed by a youLhful offender shall
devolve upon Lhe offender's faLher and, ln case of hls deaLh or
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
lncapaclLy, upon Lhe moLher or ln case of her deaLh or
lncapaclLy, upon Lhe guardlan.
! 1he flnal dlscharge of a chlld ln confllcL wlLh Lhe law does noL
obllLeraLe hls clvll llablllLy.
IV. Duty of the court |n try|ng an |nsane
! Lven Lhough Lhe courLs exempL Lhe lnsane from crlmlnal
llablllLy, Lhey musL flx Lhe clvll llablllLy Lo be pald Lo Lhe vlcLlm.

V. Who are c|v|||y ||ab|e for acts comm|tted by persons act|ng under
|rres|st|b|e force or uncontro||ab|e fear?
! 1he persons uslng vlolence or causlng fear are prlmarlly llable.
lf Lhere be no such persons, Lhose dolng Lhe acL shall be llable
secondarlly.

VI. 1here |s no c|v|| ||ab|||ty |n [ust|fy|ng c|rcumstances except |n ar. 4
of Art|c|e 11.
! 1here ls clvll llablllLy by Lhe person beneflLed by Lhe acL whlch
causes damage Lo anoLher.

Art|c|e 102. H2'/":"&.) 9"#"$ $"&'"$"() *+ "00K--,-./7 (&#-.0K--,-./ &0:
,.*,."-(*./ *+ -/(&'$"/85-0(/3 N In defau|t of the persons cr|m|na||y
||ab|e, |nnkeepers, tavernkeepers, and any other persons or
corporat|ons sha|| be c|v|||y ||ab|e for cr|mes comm|tted |n the|r
estab||shments, |n a|| cases where a v|o|at|on of mun|c|pa| ord|nances
or some genera| or spec|a| po||ce regu|at|on sha|| have been
comm|tted by them or the|r emp|oyees.

Innkeepers are a|so subs|d|ar||y ||ab|e for the rest|tut|on of goods
taken by robbery or theft w|th|n the|r houses from guests |odg|ng
there|n, or for the payment of the va|ue thereof, prov|ded that such
guests sha|| have not|f|ed |n advance the |nnkeeper h|mse|f, or the
person represent|ng h|m, of the depos|t of such goods w|th|n the |nn,
and sha|| furthermore have fo||owed the d|rect|ons wh|ch such
|nnkeeper or h|s representat|ve may have g|ven them w|th respect to
the care of and v|g||ance over such goods. No ||ab|||ty sha|| attach |n
case of robbery w|th v|o|ence aga|nst or |nt|m|dat|on of persons un|ess
comm|tted by the |nnkeeper's emp|oyees.

CIN1S
I. L|ements under aragraph 1: (Subs|d|ary C|v|| L|ab|||ty)
1. 1haL Lhe lnnkeeper, Lavernkeeper or proprleLor of
esLabllshmenL or hls employee commlLLed a vlolaLlon for
munlclpal ordlnance or some general or speclal pollce
regulaLlon.
2. 1haL a crlme ls commlLLed ln such lnn, Lavern or esLabllshmenL.
3. 1haL Lhe person crlmlnally llable ls lnsolvenL.
! resence of all Lhe elemenLs wlll render Lhe lnnkeeper,
Lavernkeeper or proprleLor of Lhe esLabllshmenL subsldlarlly
llable.

II. L|ements under aragraph 2:
1. 1he guesLs noLlfled ln advance Lhe lnnkeeper or Lhe person
represenLlng hlm of Lhe deposlL of Lhelr goods wlLhln Lhe lnn or
house.
2. 1he guesLs followed Lhe dlrecLlons of Lhe lnnkeeper or hls
represenLaLlve wlLh respecL Lo Lhe care of and vlgllance over
such goods.
3. Such goods of Lhe guesLs lodglng Lhereln were Laken by robbery
wlLh force upon Lhlngs or LhefL commlLLed wlLhln Lhe lnn or
house.
! lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhe effecLs of Lhe guesL be acLually
dellvered Lo lnnkeeper. lL ls enough LhaL Lhey were wlLhln Lhe
lnn (!" $%& '()*%& +, -(. /0"1).




!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
Art|c|e 103. H2'/":"&.) 9"#"$ $"&'"$"() *+ *(8-. ,-./*0/3 4 1he subs|d|ary
||ab|||ty estab||shed |n the next preced|ng art|c|e sha|| a|so app|y to
emp|oyers, teachers, persons, and cor[porat|ons engaged |n any k|nd
of |ndustry for fe|on|es comm|tted by the|r servants, pup||s, workmen,
apprent|ces, or emp|oyees |n the d|scharge of the|r dut|es.

CIN1S
I. L|ements
1. 1he employer, Leacher, person or corporaLlon ls engaged ln any
klnd of lndusLry.
2. Any of Lhelr servanLs, puplls, workmen, apprenLlces or
employees commlLs a felony whlle ln Lhe dlscharge of Lhelr
duLles.
3. 1he sald employee ls lnsolvenL and has noL saLlsfled hls clvll
llablllLy.

II. LLLMLN1S:
IIkS1 LLLMLN1: Lmp|oyee must be engaged |n |ndustry.
! lndusLry" ls any deparLmenL or branch of arL, occupaLlon or
buslness, especlally, one whlch employs so much labor and
caplLal and ls a dlsLlncL branch of Lrade. Pence, a person who
owns a Lruck and uses lL ln Lhe LransporLaLlon of hls own
producLs ls engaged ln lndusLry.
! PosplLal noL engaged ln lndusLry, nurses noL servanLs.
! rlvaLe persons wlLhouL buslness or lndusLry, noL subsldlarlly
llable.
! Subsldlary llablllLy of employers, eLc., for felonles commlLLed
by Lhelr employees"
o CommlLLed" = lmplles a convlcLlon.
! no defense of dlllgence of a good faLher of Lhe famlly.
SLCCND LLLMLN1: 1he fe|ony must be comm|tted by the servant or
emp|oyee of the defendant |n the c|v|| case.
! ueclslon convlcLlng an employee ls blndlng upon Lhe employer
wlLh respecL Lo Lhe clvll llablllLy and lLs amounL.
o rovlslons of Art|c|e 102 & 103 are deemed wrlLLen lnLo
Lhe [udgmenLs Lo whlch Lhey are appllcable.
o no need for an express pronouncemenL.
! Whlle ln Lhe dlscharge of hls duLles"
o 1he subsldlary llablllLy does noL arlse from any and all
offenses LhaL Lhe employee may commlL, buL llmlLed Lo
Lhose whlch he shall be found gullLy of ln Lhe dlscharge
of hls duLles.

III. Lnforcement of c|v|| ||ab|||ty |s upon mot|on for subs|d|ary wr|t of
execut|on.
! 1he subsldlary llablllLy may be enforced only upon moLlon for
subsldlary wrlL of execuLlon agalnsL Lhe employer and upon
proof LhaL Lhe employee ls lnsolvenL.
! no subsldlary llablllLy of defendanL-employer under ArLlcle 103
lf hls employee has noL been prevlously crlmlnally convlcLed.
! 1he subsldlary llablllLy of Lhe employer ls noL deLermlned ln Lhe
crlmlnal case agalnsL Lhe employee.
o 8eservaLlon Lo brlng acLlon by Lhe ln[ured parLy agalnsL
Lhe employer ls noL necessary.

IV. Lmp|oyer has the r|ght to take part |n the defense of h|s emp|oyee.
! lL ls hls concern LhaL hls lnLeresLed ls proLecLed by Laklng vlrLual
parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe defense of hls employee. 1he fallure of hls
employee ls also Lhe employer's fallure.

V. Cert|f|ed copy of dec|s|on suff|c|ent to prove offense comm|tted by
servant or emp|oyee.
! !udgmenL of convlcLlon of servanL or employee ln Lhe absence
of any colluslon beLween Lhe defendanL and Lhe offended parLy
blnds Lhe persons subsldlary llable. 1he plalnLlff can rely solely
on Lhe [udgmenL of Lhe convlcLlon.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
VI. 1nIkD LLLMLN1: Lmp|oyer |s subs|d|ar||y ||ab|e for the fu|| amount
aga|nst emp|oyee.
! 8uL Lhls ls wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo Lhe rlghL of acLlon agalnsL Lhe
employee for conLrlbuLlon.

VII. ersons c|v|||y ||ab|e |n the absence of those cr|m|na||y ||ab|e, the
c|v|| respons|b|||ty be|ng a necessary part of the cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty.
! lnnkeeper, Lavernkeeper and any oLher person or corporaLlon
who commlLLed vlolaLlon of munlclpal ordlnance or some
general or speclal pollce regulaLlon, and Lhe person who
commlLLed a crlme ln hls esLabllshmenL cannoL be found or ls
lnsolvenL.
! lnnkeeper, for robbery wlLh force upon Lhlngs or LhefL of goods
of guesLs lodglng Lhereln, provlded Lhe guesLs noLlfled Lhe
lnnkeeper ln advance of Lhe deposlL of Lhelr goods wlLhln Lhe
lnn, and provlded furLher LhaL such guesLs followed Lhe
dlrecLlons of Lhe lnnkeeper wlLh respecL Lo Lhe care of and
vlgllance over such goods.
! 1he employer who ls engaged ln any klnd of lndusLry, for Lhe
crlme commlLLed by hls employee whlle ln Lhe dlscharge of hls
duLles.
! 1hose havlng an lmbeclle or lnsane person or mlnor exempL
from crlmlnal llablllLy under Lhelr legal auLhorlLy or conLrol, lf
Lhey are aL faulL or negllgenL, for acLs commlLLed by Lhe
lmbeclle, lnsane or mlnor.
! ersons who acLed under Lhe compulslon of lrreslsLlble force or
under Lhe lmpulse of unconLrollable fear are clvllly llable of Lhe
person who used vlolence or who caused Lhe fear ls lnsolvenL or
cannoL be found.

VIII. Cther notes
! Art|c|es 103 |s app||cab|e to v|o|at|ons of the kev|sed Motor
Veh|c|e Law
! Art|c|es 102 and 103 of the kC no repea|ed by Art|c|e 2177 of
the new C|v|| Code (p.931).




!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
1I1LL IIVL - CIVIL LIA8ILI1
CnA1Lk 1: LkSCNS CIVILL LIA8LL ICk ILLCNILS

Art|c|e 104. !"#$ &' &()*+,-, &( )&.&* *&#/&*&$01 2 1he c|v|| ||ab|||ty
estab||shed |n Art|c|es 100, 101, 102, and 103 of th|s Code |nc|udes:
1. kest|tut|on,
2. keparat|on of damage caused,
3. Indemn|f|cat|on for consequent|a| damages.

CIN1S
I. C|v|| ||ab|||ty |n cr|m|na| cases
! 1here are crlmes where Lhere ls no clvll llablllLy. 1here are
crlmes where only one or none aL all of Lhese clvll obllgaLlons ls
posslble.
! Lxample: 1hefL or robbery ! when properLy ls recovered only
reparaLlon, lf lL was damaged, wlll be allowed.
o 8esLlLuLlon ! reLurn of properLy
o 8eparaLlon ! pay Lhe value of properLy sLolen (lf lL canL
be recovered), paymenL of hosplLal bllls of Lhe offended
o lndemnlflcaLlon for consequenLlal damages ! loss of
salary or earnlng.

II. When property taken away |s not recovered, the court must order
the accused to restore |t to |ts owner or, as an a|ternat|ve, to pay
|ts [ust va|ue.

III. C|v|| ||ab|||t|es d|st|ngu|shed from pecun|ary ||ab|||t|es.
! Art|c|e 104, provldlng for Lhree forms of clvll llablllLles, and
Art|c|e 38, provldlng for Lhe order of paymenL of pecunlary
llablllLles, may be dlsLlngulshed as follows:
o 8oLh lnclude (a) Lhe reparaLlon of Lhe damage caused, and
(b) lndemnlflcaLlon for consequenLlal damages,
o Whlle clvll llablllLles lnclude resLlLuLlon, pecunlary llablllLles
do noL lnclude resLlLuLlon, because Lhe laLLer refer Lo
llablllLles Lo be pald ouL of Lhe properLy of Lhe offender. ln
resLlLuLlon, Lhere ls noLhlng Lo pay ln Lerms of money, as Lhe
properLy unlawfully Laken ls reLurned, and,
o ecunlary llablllLles lnclude (a) flne, and (b) Lhe cosLs of Lhe
proceedlngs. Clvll llablllLles do noL lnclude Lhem.

Art|c|e 10S1 3-'$&$+$&4( 2 546 7#,-1 - 1he rest|tut|on of the th|ng
|tse|f must be made whenever poss|b|e, w|th a||owance for any
deter|orat|on, or d|m|nut|on of va|ue as determ|ned by the court.
1he th|ng |tse|f sha|| be restored, even though |t be found |n the
possess|on of a th|rd person who has acqu|red |t by |awfu| means,
sav|ng to the |atter h|s act|on aga|nst the proper person, who may
be ||ab|e to h|m.

1h|s prov|s|on |s not app||cab|e |n cases |n wh|ch the th|ng has
been acqu|red by the th|rd person |n the manner and under the
requ|rements wh|ch, by |aw, bar an act|on for |ts recovery.

CIN1S
I. 1he rest|tut|on of the th|ng |tse|f must be made whenever
poss|b|e.
! 1he convlcL cannoL, by way of resLlLuLlon, glve Lo Lhe offended
parLy a slmllar Lhlng of Lhe same amounL, klnd or specles of
quallLy. 1he very Lhlng Laken musL be reLurned.

II. W|th a||owance for any deter|orat|on or d|m|nut|on of va|ue.
! 1he CourL wlll assess Lhe amounL of Lhe deLerloraLlon and, l
addlLlon Lo Lhe reLurn of Lhe properLy, Lhe culprlL wlll be
ordered Lo pay such amounL represenLlng Lhe deLerloraLlon.

III. 1he th|ng |tse|f sha|| be restored, even though |t be found |n the
possess|on of a th|rd person who has acqu|red |t by |awfu| means.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
! Genera| ru|e: 1he owner of Lhe properLy lllegally Laken by Lhe
offender can recover lL from whomsoever ls ln possesslon
Lhereof.
! Under the C|v|| Code, the person who has |ost any persona|
property or has been un|awfu||y depr|ved thereof cannot
obta|n |ts return w|thout re|mburs|ng the pr|ce pa|d therefore,
on|y when the possessor thereof acqu|red |t |n (1) good fa|th
and at a (2) pub||c sa|e.
! kest|tut|on cannot be ordered before f|na| [udgment.
IV. When the th|rd person acqu|red the th|ng "|n the manner and
under the requ|rements wh|ch, by |aw, bar an act|on for |ts
recovery.
! 8esLlLuLlon shall noL be ordered by Lhe courL when Lhe Lhlng has
been acqulred by Lhe Lhlrd person ln Lhe manner and under Lhe
clrcumsLances, whlch, by law, bar an acLlon for lLs recovery.

V. When the ||ab|||ty to return a th|ng ar|ses from contract, not from
a cr|m|na| act, the court cannot order |ts return |n the cr|m|na|
case.
! 1hls ls applled ln cases where Lhe llablllLy arose from a clvll
conLracL such as loans.

VI. kest|tut|on may be ordered, even |f accused |s acqu|tted, prov|ded
the offense |s proved and |t |s shown that the th|ng be|ongs to
somebody e|se.
! As a rule, lf Lhe accused ls acqulLLed, Lhe courL should noL order
Lhe reLurn of Lhe properLy Lo lLs alleged owner. 8uL lf lL ls shown
LhaL Lhe rlng belonged Lo, and was ln Lhe possesslon of,
somebody else, and LhaL lL was sLolen from hlm, buL Lhe ldenLlLy
of Lhe Lhlef was noL esLabllshed by Lhe prosecuLlon, and Lhe
accused pawned lL ln Lhe pawnshop from whlch lL was
recovered, Lhe courL should order lLs reLurn Lo Lhe owner. ln
Lhls case, Lhe offense was proved buL noL Lhe ldenLlLy of Lhe
offender (eople v. Ale[ano).
! kest|tut|on |s ||m|ted to cr|mes aga|nst property
o When a crlme ls noL agalnsL properLy, no resLlLuLlon or
reparaLlon can be done.

VII. Sa|ary of acqu|tted accused may not be ordered pa|d |n cr|m|na|
cases.
! lL devolves upon Lhe head of Lhe deparLmenL concerned, and ls
dlscreLlonary wlLh hlm.
VIII. 1he Court has author|ty to order the re|nstatement of the
accused acqu|tted of a cr|me pun|shab|e by the pena|ty of
perpetua| or temporary d|squa||f|cat|on.

Art|c|e 106. 3-8#9#$&4( 2 546 7#,-1 2 1he court sha|| determ|ne
the amount of damage, tak|ng |nto cons|derat|on the pr|ce of the
th|ng, whenever poss|b|e, and |ts spec|a| sent|menta| va|ue to the
|n[ured party, and reparat|on sha|| be made accord|ng|y.

CIN1S
I. keparat|on w||| be ordered by the court |f rest|tut|on |s not poss|b|e
! When Lhe sLolen properLy cannoL be reLurned because lL was
sold by Lhe Lhlef Lo an unknown person, he wlll be requlred by
Lhe courL, lf found gullLy, Lo pay Lhe !"#$!% '()"* of Lhe Lhlng +
lLs +*,#)-*,#!% .!%$* Lo lLs owner.
! lf Lhere ls no evldence as Lo Lhe value of Lhe Lhlng unrecovered,
reparaLlon cannoL be made (eople v. ualena, CA, C8 nos.
11387-8 and 11388-8, CcLober 23, 1934).

II. keparat|on |nc|udes
! 8epalr of maLerlal damage caused by Lhe robbers ln breaklng
doors, wardrobes, ln addlLlon Lo Lhe value of Lhe Lhlng Laken,
may be assessed and lncluded as parL of Lhe reparaLlon Lo be
pald by Lhe robbers.
! ln a rape case, reparaLlon lncludes Lhe value of Lhe woman's
Lorn garmenLs.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!

III. C|v|| damages are ||m|ted to those caused by and f|ow|ng from the
comm|ss|on of the cr|me
! 1hus, Lhe $,'!)/ 0)(* of Lhe blcycle arose under Lhe "1,#(!"# 12
0)(* and dld noL resulL from Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme. 1he
amounL correspondlng Lo Lhe unpald hlre ls recoverable ln a clvll
acLlon (uS v. ulonlslo, 33 hll. 141, 143).

IV. ayment by the |nsurance company does not re||eve the offender
of h|s ob||gat|on to repa|r the damage caused
! 1haL paymenL by Lhe lnsurance company was noL made on
behalf of Lhe accused, buL was made pursuanL Lo lLs conLracL
wlLh Lhe owner of Lhe car, buL Lhe lnsurance company ls
subsLlLuLed Lo Lhe rlghL of Lhe offended parLy as regards Lhe
damages (eople v. 8eyes, CA 30 C.C. 663).

Art|c|e 107. :(,-7(&;&)#$&4( - !"#$ &' &()*+,-, 2 Indemn|f|cat|on of
consequent|a| damages sha|| |nc|ude (1) not on|y those caused the
|n[ured party, but a|so (2) those suffered by h|s fam||y or by a th|rd
person by reason of the cr|me.

CIN1S
I. Indemn|ty v. keparat|on
! lndemnlLy - refers generally Lo crlmes agalnsL persons.
! 8eparaLlon - refers Lo crlmes agalnsL properLy.
<=#78*-' 4; &(,-7(&$0
! ln physlcal ln[urles, Lhe ln[ured parLy ls enLlLled Lo be pald for
whaLever he spenL for Lhe
o 1reaLmenL of hls wounds
o uocLor's fees, and for medlclne
o Salary or wages unearned by hlm because of hls lnablllLy
Lo work due Lo Lhe ln[urles
! noLe: lndemnlLy for medlcal servlces sLlll unpald may be
recovered.

II. Contr|butory neg||gence on the part of the offended party reduces
the c|v|| ||ab|||ty of the offender

III. When c|v|| |ndemn|ty may be |ncreased on appea|
! lL may be lncreased only lf lL wlll noL requlre an aggravaLlon of
Lhe declslon ln Lhe crlmlnal case on whlch lL ls based.

IV. Damages recoverab|e |n case of death
1. 73,000 ! ln recenL cases
2. Loss of Lhe earnlng capaclLy of Lhe deceased
3. SupporL ln favor of a person Lo whom Lhe deceased was obllged
Lo glve
4. Moral damages for menLal angulsh ln favor of spouse,
descendanLs and ascendanLs of Lhe deceased
S. Lxemplary damages ln cerLaln cases

V. Damages |n cr|mes and quas|-de||cts
! Art 2202, C|v|| Code - ln crlmes and quasl-dellcLs, Lhe defendanL
shall be llable for all damages, whlch are Lhe naLural and
probable consequences of Lhe acLs or omlsslons complalned of.
! Art 2204, C|v|| Code - damages may be respecLlvely lncreased
or lessened accordlng Lo Lhe aggravaLlng or mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLances.
! Art 2206, C|v|| Code - 1he amounL of damages for deaLh caused
by a crlme or quasl dellcL shall be aL leasL 30,000 pesos. ln
addlLlon
o uefendanL shall be llable for Lhe loss of Lhe earnlng
capaclLy of Lhe deceased and Lhe lndemnlLy shall be
pald Lo Lhe helrs of Lhe laLLer.
o lf Lhe deceased was obllged Lo glve supporL accordlng Lo
Lhe provlslons of ArLlcle 291, Lhe receplenL may demand
supporL from Lhe person causlng Lhe deaLh.
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
o 1he spouse, leglLlmaLe and llleglLlmaLe descendanLs and
ascendanLs of Lhe deceased may demand moral
damages.

VI. Lffect of kA 9346 on c|v|| |ndemn|ty of he|nous cr|mes
! lL should be undersLood LhaL Lhe debarrlng of Lhe deaLh penalLy
by kA 9346 /)/ ,1# "1((*+'1,/),3%4 /*"%!++)24 Lhose crlmes
prevlously caLalogued as helnous".
>&.&* &(,-7(&$0 ;49 7+9,-9 #(, "47&)&,-
! Clvll lndemnlLy of 73,000 hp and 30,000 hp are awarded
!$#1-!#)"!%%4 wlLhouL need of allegaLlon and proof.
>&.&* &(,-7(&$0 ;49 )9&7-' ?+#*&;&-, /0 )&9)+7'$#()-' 6"-9- $"- ,-#$"
8-(#*$0 7#0 /- &784'-,
! Award of 73,000 hp clvll lndemnlLy ls ,1# /*'*,/*,# on acLual
lmposlLlon on Lhe deaLh penalLy buL on Lhe facL LhaL quallfylng
clrcumsLances warranLlng Lhe lmposlLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy
aLLended Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense.
>&.&* :(,-7(&$0 ;49 9#8-
! Cuallfled 8ape ! shall noL be less Lhan 73,000 hp
! Slmple 8ape !Shall noL be less Lhan 30,000 hp
>&.&* &(,-7(&$0 ;49 9#8- 6&$" "47&)&,-
! SeL aL 100,000 hp
@#7#A-' 9-)4.-9#/*- ;49 9#8- 6&$" "47&)&,-
! 100,000 as clvll lndemnlLy
! 73,000 as moral damage
! 23,000 as LemperaLe damages
! 100,000 as exemplary damages
>&.&* *&#/&*&$0 ;49 9#8- /0 '-=+#* #''#+*$
! Clvll lndemnlLy ls separaLe and dlsLlncL from Lhe award of moral
damages whlch ls auLomaLlcally granLed ln rape cases.
! Moral damages are addlLlonally awarded wlLhouL need of
furLher pleadlng or proof.
B"- #74+($ 4; ,#7#A-' ;49 ,-#$" )#+'-, /0 # )9&7- &' &()9-#'-, ;947
$&7- $4 $&7- /0 $"- C>
VII. Indemn|ty for |ost earn|ngs
! CompuLed as follows:
neL earnlng capaclLy = Llfe expecLancy x (Cross annual lncome
- Llvlng expenses)
! Llfe expecLancy ls compuLed as:
2/3 x (80 - age of Lhe deceased aL Lhe Llme of deaLh)

@4)+7-($#90 -.&,-()- '"4+*, /- 89-'-($-, $4 '+/'$#($&#$- # )*#&7 ;49
*4'' 4; -#9(&(A )#8#)&$0
! LxcepLlon ! damages may be awarded desplLe Lhe absence of
documenLary evldence lf Lhere ls LesLlmony LhaL Lhe vlcLlm was
(1) self-employed earnlng less Lhan Lhe mlnlmum wage or (2)
employed as a dally-wage worker earnlng less Lhan Lhe
mlnlmum wage under currenL labor laws.
>478+$#$&4( 4; #6#9, ;49 *4'' 4; -#9(&(A )#8#)&$0 &' /#'-, 4( $"- *&;-
-=8-)$#()0 4; $"- ,-)-#'-,
! noL Lhe llfe expecLancy of Lhe helrs or beneflclarles.
>478-('#$&4( ;49 *4'' 4; -#9(&(A )#8#)&$0D (4$ 9-?+&9-, $"#$ $"- .&)$&7
&' A#&(;+**0 -78*40-,
! Awarded noL for loss of earnlngs buL for loss of capaclLy Lo earn.

VIII. 1emperate Damages
! Art|c|e 2224 C|v|| Code - 1emperaLe or moderaLe damages may
be recovered when Lhe courL flns LhaL some pecunlary loss was
suffered buL lLs amounL cannoL be proved wlLh cerLalnLy.
! 1emperaLe damages may be awarded ln Lhe followlng cases:
o lf lncome ls noL sufflclenLly proved
o lf Lhe courL flnds LhaL some pecunlary loss has been
suffered buL lLs amounL cannoL be proven wlLh cerLalnLy
o ln lleu of acLual damages (where acLual damanges
proved amounL Lo be less Lhan 23,000, LemperaLe
damages ln Lhe amounL of 23,000 shall be awarded)
" 1o rule oLherwlse would be anomalous and
unfalr because Lhe vlcLlm's helrs who Lrled buL
!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
succeeded ln provlng acLual damages below
23,000 would be ln a worse slLuaLlon Lhan
Lhose who mlghL have presenLed no recelpLs aL
all buL who would now be enLlLled Lo 23,000.

Ik. Mora| damages
! May be recovered ln Lhe followlng and analogous cases
o A crlmlnal offense resulLlng ln physlcal ln[urles
o SeducLlon, abducLlon, rape or acLs of lasclvlousness
o AdulLery or concublnage
o lllegal or arblLrary deLenLlon or arresL
o lllegal search
o Llbel, slander or any oLher form of defamaLlon
o Mallclous prosecuLlon
! noLe: parenLs of Lhe seduced, abducLed, raped or abused may
also recover moral damages.
! ln crlmes of rape, moral damages may addlLlonally be awarded
Lo Lhe vlcLlm, wlLhouL need for pleadlng or proof of Lhe basls
Lhereof.
! Clalm for moral damages does noL deLermlne courL [urlsdlcLlon.

k. Lxemp|ary damages
! Are lmposed, by way of example or correcLlon for Lhe publlc
good, ln addlLlon Lo Lhe moral, LemperaLe, llquldaLed or
compensaLory damages. (Art|c|e 2229, C|v|| Code)
! Also called correcLlve, punlLlve, or vlndlcLlve damages.
<=-78*#90 ,#7#A-' 7#0 /- A&.-( 6"-( 4(- 49 749- #AA9#.#$&(A
)&9)+7'$#()-' #9- 89-'-($
! Such damages are separaLe and dlsLlncL form flnes and s shall be
pald Lo Lhe offended parLy.
<=-78*#90 ,#7#A-' )#((4$ /- 9-)4.-9-, #' # 7#$$-9 4; 9&A"$
! 1he courL wlll declde wheLher or noL Lhey should be ad[udlcaLed
! Whlle Lhe amounL of exemplary damages need noL be proved,
Lhe plalnLlff musL show LhaL he ls enLlLled Lo moral, LemperaLe
or compensaLory damages before Lhe courL may conslder Lhe
quesLlon of wheLher or noL exemplary damages should be
awarded.
<=-78*#90 ,#7#A-' &()9-#'-, $4 EFDFFF G"8
<=-78*#90 ,#7#A-' 7#0 /- #6#9,-, 6"-9- $"- )&9)+7'$#()-' 4; $"-
)#'- '"46 $"- "&A"*0 9-89-"-('&/*- 49 4+$9#A-4+' )4(,+)$ 4; $"-
4;;-(,-9
! 1hls ls because exemplary damages are correcLlve ln naLure
@&'$&()$&4( /-$6--( )&.&* &(,-7(&$0 #(, 749#* ,#7#A-'
! Clvll lndemnlLy ls lLself equlvalenL Lo acLual or compensaLory
damages ln clvll law
! 1he clvll llablllLy provlded by Lhe 8C, LhaL ls resLlLuLlon,
reparaLlon and lndemnlflcaLlon, all corresponds Lo acLual or
compensaLory damages ln Lhe Clvll Code, slnce Lhe oLher
damages provlded Lhereln are moral, nomlnal, LemperaLe or
moderaLe, llquldaLed and exemplary or correcLlve damages,
whlch have alLogeLher dlfferenL concepLs and fundamenLals.
H49#* #(, -=-78*#90 ,#7#A-' ,4 (4$ 9-?+&9- 8944; 4; 8-)+(&#90 *4''
! 1he assessmenL of such damages ls lefL Lo Lhe courL dlscreLlon.

kI. Actua| damages must be proved
! LxcepL as provlded by law or by sLlpulaLlon, one ls enLlLled Lo an
adequaLe compensaLlon for such pecunlary loss suffered by hlm
as he has /$%4 '(1.*/5
! Such compensaLlon ls referred Lo as acLual or compensaLory
damages.
! lndemnlLy cannoL be assessed on speculaLlon or guesswork.
! 8ecovery of aLLorney's fees ln Lhe are recoverable ln Lhe
concepL of acLual or compensaLory damage.

kII. Interest may be added to the damages awarded
! lnLeresL aL Lhe raLe of 6 may llkewlse be added


!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
kII. C|v|| ||ab|||ty not part of the pun|shment
As Lhe llablllLy ls noL parL of Lhe punlshmenL for Lhe crlme, Lhe
acLlon of Lhe SC ln afflrmlng Lhe [udgmenL as LoL eh gullL and
punlshmenL of Lhe accused and of reverslng lL as Lo Lhe quesLlon
of damages, wlLh lnsLrucLlons Lo Lry Lhe clvll branch of Lhe case
does noL consLlLuLe double [eopardy.

Art|c|e 108. I/*&A#$&4( $4 7#J- 9-'$49#$&4(D 9-8#9#$&4( ;49 ,#7#A-'D
49 &(,-7(&;&)#$&4( ;49 )4('-?+-($&#* ,#7#A-' #(, #)$&4(' $4 ,-7#(,
$"- '#7-K L84( 6"47 &$ ,-.4*.-' 2 1he ob||gat|on to make restorat|on
or reparat|on for damages and |ndemn|f|cat|on for consequent|a|
damages devo|ves upon the he|rs of the person ||ab|e.

1he act|on to demand restorat|on, reparat|on and |ndemn|f|cat|on
||kew|se descends to the he|rs of the person |n[ured.

CIN1S
I. 1he he|rs of the person ||ab|e has no ob||gat|on |f
restorat|on]|ndemn|f|cat|on |s not poss|b|e and the deceased |eft no
property
! lllusLraLlon:
o lf A sLole a rlng whlch he laLer sold Lo a sLrange and
afLer A's convlcLlon, A dled buL he lefL no properLy, A's
helrs cannoL be made Lo repalr Lhe damages.
o 8uL lf he lefL properLy, Lhe helrs may be requlred.

II. C|v|| ||ab|||ty |s poss|b|e on|y when the offender d|es after f|na|
[udgment
! lf Lhe offender before ls deaLh was condemned by flnal
[udgmenL Lo pay clvll llablllLy, Lhe offended parLy may make
effecLlve hls clalm by flllng a copy of Lhe [udgmenL of convlcLlon
agalnsL Lhe deceased wlLh Lhe courL Laklng cognlzance of Lhe
LesLaLe or lnLersLaLe proceedlngs.
! lf deaLh of Lhe offender Look place before any [udgmenL, Lhe
acLlon for resLlLuLlon musL be dlsmlssed.

III. Indemn|ty not poss|b|e |n acqu|tta|
! 1he case havlng been dlsmlssed by Lhe courL, no [udgmenL for
lndemnlLy was proper ln Lhe crlmlnal proceedlng

IV. k|ght of he|rs of the deceased
! 1he helrs of Lhe deceased have a rlghL Lo enforce Lhe clvll
responslblllLy of Lhe accused ln Lhelr favor ln a clvll acLlon

Art|c|e 109. C"#9- 4; -#)" 8-9'4( )&.&**0 *&#/*-. - If there are 2 or more
persons c|v|||y ||ab|e for a fe|ony, the courts sha|| determ|ne the
amount for wh|ch each must respond.

CIN1S
I. Apport|onment of c|v|| ||ab|||ty
! Clvll llablllLy ls apporLloned accordlng Lo Lhe degree of Lhe
offenders' llablllLy, respecLlve responslblllLles and acLual
parLlclpaLlon.
! 1he person wlLh greaLer parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme should have a greaLer share ln Lhe clvll llablllLy Lhan Lhose
who played a mlnor role ln Lhe crlme or Lhose who had no
parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe crlme buL merely proflLed from lLs effecLs.

Art|c|e 110. C-.-9#* #(, '+/'&,&#90 *&#/&*&$0 4; 89&()&8#*'D #))478*&)-'
#(, #))-''49&-' 4; # ;-*4(0K G9-;-9-()- &( 8#07-($.
Notw|thstand|ng the prov|s|ons of the next preced|ng art|c|e, the
pr|nc|pa|s, accomp||ces, and accessor|es, each w|th|n the|r respect|ve
c|ass, sha|| be ||ab|e severa||y (|n so||dum) among themse|ves for the|r
quotas, and subs|d|ar|es for those of the other persons ||ab|e.

!"#$#%&' )&* + ,--./ 0#12&%%# 3&''4%-4
!!! (!) " !!!
1he subs|d|ary ||ab|||ty sha|| be enforced, f|rst aga|nst the property of
the pr|nc|pa|s, next, aga|nst that of the accomp||ces, and, |ast|y,
aga|nst that of the accessor|es.

Whenever the ||ab|||ty |n so||dum or the subs|d|ary ||ab|||ty has been
enforced, the person by whom payment has been made sha|| have a
r|ght of act|on aga|nst the others for the amount of the|r respect|ve
shares.

CIN1S
I. C|v|| and subs|d|ary ||ab|||t|es of pr|nc|pa|s
! When Lhere are prlnclpals and accessorles ln Lhe commlsslon of
Lhe crlme, Lhe prlnclpals are +1%)/!()%4 %)!6%* of Lhelr quoLa and
+$6+)/)!()%4 llable for represenLlng Lhe quoLa of Lhelr
accessorles.

II. C|v|| and subs|d|ary ||ab|||t|es of accomp||ces
! 1he accompllces are 71),#%4 !,/ +*.*(!%%4 llable for Lhe porLlon
ad[udged agalnsL Lhem and are +$6+)/)!()%4 llable for Lhe porLlon
of Lhelr prlnclpal ln case of Lhe laLLer's lnsolvency

Art|c|e 111. I/*&A#$&4( $4 7#J- 9-'$&$+$&4( &( )-9$#&( )#'-'. Any
person who has part|c|pated gratu|tous|y |n the proceeds of a fe|ony
sha|| be bound to make rest|tut|on |n an amount equ|va|ent to the
extent of such part|c|pat|on.

CIN1S
I. Not cr|m|na||y ||ab|e
! erson who parLlclpaLed graLulLously= no crlmlnal llablllLy.

II. Must not be an accessory
! lf Lhe person knew LhaL Lhe properLy came fr