9.

B Workers’ Compensation
Table 9.B1—Coverage, benefits, and costs, selected years 1940–2000
Estimated
number of
workers
covered
per month
(millions)

Benefits paid during year (millions of dollars)

Total

Private
carriers c

1940...............................
1946...............................
1948...............................
1949...............................

24.6
32.7
36.0
35.3

256
434
534
566

135
270
335
353

73
96
121
132

1950...............................
1951...............................
1952...............................
1953...............................
1954...............................

36.9
38.7
39.4
40.7
39.8

615
709
785
841
876

381
444
491
524
540

1955...............................
1956...............................
1957...............................
1958...............................
1959...............................

41.4
43.0
43.3
42.5
44.0

916
1,002
1,062
1,112
1,210

1960...............................
1961...............................
1962...............................
1963...............................
1964...............................

44.9
45.0
46.2
47.3
48.8

1965...............................
1966...............................
1967...............................
1968...............................
1969...............................

Type of insurance

Type of benefits

Employers’
State and
federal funds d self-insurance e

Cost of
program as Benefits as a
a percentage percentage
of covered
of covered
payroll a
payroll b

Medical and
hospitalization

Compensation
payments

48
68
78
81

95
140
175
185

161
294
359
381

1.19
0.91
0.96
0.98

0.72
0.54
0.51
0.55

149
170
193
210
225

85
94
101
107
110

200
233
260
280
308

415
476
525
561
568

0.89
0.90
0.94
0.97
0.98

0.54
0.54
0.55
0.55
0.57

563
618
661
694
753

238
259
271
285
316

115
125
130
132
141

325
350
360
375
410

591
652
702
737
800

0.91
0.92
0.91
0.91
0.89

0.55
0.55
0.56
0.58
0.58

1,295
1,374
1,489
1,582
1,707

810
851
924
988
1,070

325
347
371
388
412

160
176
194
207
226

435
460
495
525
565

860
914
994
1,057
1,142

0.93
0.95
0.96
0.99
1.00

0.59
0.61
0.62
0.62
0.63

50.8
53.7
55.0
56.8
59.0

1,814
2,000
2,189
2,376
2,634

1,124
1,239
1,363
1,482
1,641

445
486
524
556
607

244
275
303
338
386

600
680
750
830
920

1,214
1,320
1,439
1,546
1,714

1.00
1.02
1.07
1.07
1.08

0.61
0.61
0.63
0.62
0.62

1970...............................
1971...............................
1972...............................
1973...............................
1974...............................

59.2
59.4
62.3
66.3
68.0

3,031
3,563
4,061
5,103
5,781

1,843
2,005
2,179
2,514
2,971

755
1,098
1,379
1,998
2,086

432
460
504
592
724

1,050
1,130
1,250
1,480
1,760

1,981
2,433
2,811
3,623
4,021

1.11
1.11
1.14
1.17
1.24

0.66
0.67
0.68
0.70
0.75

1975...............................
1976...............................
1977...............................
1978...............................
1979...............................

67.2
69.6
72.1
75.6
78.6

6,598
7,584
8,630
9,796
12,027

3,422
3,976
4,629
5,256
6,157

2,324
2,570
2,750
3,043
4,022

852
1,039
1,250
1,497
1,848

2,030
2,380
2,680
2,980
3,520

4,568
5,204
5,950
6,816
8,507

1.32
1.49
1.71
1.86
1.95

0.83
0.87
0.92
0.94
1.01

1980...............................
1981...............................
1982...............................
1983...............................
1984...............................

78.8
78.3
77.0
78.0
81.9

13,618
15,054
16,407
17,575
19,685

7,029
7,876
8,647
9,265
10,610

4,330
4,595
4,768
5,061
5,405

2,259
2,583
2,993
3,249
3,671

3,947
4,431
5,058
5,681
6,424

9,671
10,623
11,349
11,894
13,261

1.96
1.85
1.75
1.67
1.66

1.07
1.08
1.16
1.17
1.21

1985...............................
1986...............................
1987...............................
1988...............................
1989...............................

84.3
86.0
88.4
91.3
93.7

22,217
24,613
27,318
30,733
34,316

12,341
13,827
15,453
17,512
19,918

5,744
6,248
6,782
7,477
7,965

4,132
4,538
5,082
5,744
6,433

7,498
8,642
9,912
11,518
13,424

14,719
15,971
17,406
19,215
20,892

1.82
1.99
2.07
2.16
2.04

1.30
1.37
1.43
1.49
1.46

1990...............................
1991...............................
1992...............................
1993...............................
1994...............................

95.1
93.6
94.6
96.1
109.4

38,238
42,169
44,660
42,925
44,586

22,222
24,515
24,030
21,773
22,306

8,658
9,711
10,987
11,294
10,753

7,358
7,944
9,643
9,857
11,527

15,187
16,832
18,252
17,521
17,194

23,051
25,337
26,408
25,403
27,392

2.13
2.16
2.13
2.17
2.05

1.57
1.65
1.69
1.62
1.52

1995...............................
1996...............................
1997...............................
1998...............................
1999...............................
2000...............................

112.8
114.8
117.6
120.8
123.8
126.6

43,373
41,836
41,085
42,213
43,137
45,916

21,145
20,392
20,905
22,591
23,615
25,652

10,996
10,669
10,310
10,381
10,216
10,424

11,232
10,775
9,870
9,241
9,305
9,840

16,733
16,555
15,698
16,305
17,938
20,005

26,640
25,281
25,387
25,907
25,199
25,911

1.83
1.66
1.47
1.37
1.32
1.25

1.39
1.26
1.15
1.09
1.04
1.03

Year

a. Costs include: premiums written by private carriers and state funds; benefits paid plus 11 percent administrative costs for self-insured employers; and benefits paid plus
administrative expenses for federal system for government employees.
b. Excludes programs financed from general revenue—mostly for federal Black Lung benefits.
c. Net cash and medical benefits paid by private insurance companies under standard workers’ compensation policies.
d. Net cash and medical benefits paid by competitive and exclusive state funds and by federal system for government employees; beginning in 1970, also includes cash
benefits paid by federal Black Lung program.
e. Cash and medical benefits paid by self-insurers, plus value of medical benefits paid by employers carrying workers’ compensation policies that exclude standard medical
coverage.
SOURCES: National Academy of Social Insurance estimates based on data received from state agencies, the Department of Labor, A.M. Best Company, and the National
Council on Compensation Insurance.
NOTE: Beginning in 1959, includes Alaska and Hawaii.
CONTACT: Virginia Reno (202) 452-8097.

Social Security Bulletin • Annual Statistical Supplement • 2002

321

9.B Workers’ Compensation
Table 9.B2—Benefits, by state and federal program, 1997–2000 (in thousands of dollars)
State and federal program
total a

1997

1998

1999

2000

........................................

41,084,959

42,212,616

43,137,227

45,915,902

Alabama...................................................................
Alaska ......................................................................
Arizona.....................................................................
Arkansas ..................................................................
California..................................................................

530,230
130,045
427,885
157,128
7,073,544

615,316
128,576
393,907
161,146
7,374,486

596,233
137,630
426,739
165,341
7,856,442

529,189
155,628
481,520
187,825
8,949,070

Colorado ..................................................................
Connecticut ..............................................................
Delaware..................................................................
District of Columbia..................................................
Florida ......................................................................

675,008
731,830
120,719
81,696
2,374,287

709,535
711,130
118,511
75,800
2,207,984

655,446
722,156
96,877
81,757
2,079,830

768,758
667,056
100,247
77,682
2,272,859

Georgia ....................................................................
Hawaii ......................................................................
Idaho........................................................................
Illinois .......................................................................
Indiana .....................................................................

713,955
254,995
138,800
1,576,651
437,797

808,533
233,491
154,762
1,689,846
482,029

813,754
211,138
153,012
1,715,615
520,621

881,848
231,359
167,664
1,812,577
550,394

Iowa .........................................................................
Kansas .....................................................................
Kentucky ..................................................................
Louisiana..................................................................
Maine .......................................................................

273,155
312,698
413,483
419,777
271,307

292,002
318,352
430,958
428,782
246,169

283,253
326,196
460,583
427,851
249,195

328,854
341,505
516,360
455,142
252,283

Maryland ..................................................................
Massachusetts .........................................................
Michigan...................................................................
Minnesota ................................................................
Mississippi................................................................

1,113,399
653,327
1,332,222
738,100
231,340

1,045,372
641,409
1,366,963
732,300
234,700

1,152,005
633,840
1,392,806
744,600
253,532

1,194,629
666,455
1,574,467
798,100
269,215

Missouri....................................................................
Montana ...................................................................
Nebraska..................................................................
Nevada.....................................................................
New Hampshire .......................................................

527,053
157,367
184,673
346,021
155,397

589,366
170,715
181,945
330,092
163,885

591,292
144,856
173,149
372,764
170,347

525,553
150,269
186,217
286,522
168,439

New Jersey ..............................................................
New Mexico .............................................................
New York..................................................................
North Carolina..........................................................
North Dakota............................................................

923,460
119,893
2,618,320
619,021
76,617

954,696
116,819
2,686,247
765,817
81,403

987,378
117,168
2,782,474
708,144
76,997

1,066,542
136,830
2,828,018
788,369
85,767

Ohio .........................................................................
Oklahoma.................................................................
Oregon .....................................................................
Pennsylvania............................................................
Rhode Island............................................................

2,030,046
547,355
417,222
2,471,021
97,926

2,068,878
520,181
430,521
2,418,072
104,199

2,018,909
464,095
384,110
2,441,255
109,148

2,091,992
417,478
412,710
2,378,591
122,316

South Carolina .........................................................
South Dakota ...........................................................
Tennessee................................................................
Texas........................................................................
Utah .........................................................................

459,377
73,862
432,662
1,377,393
127,492

483,606
72,722
517,846
1,494,410
146,986

511,735
80,331
512,651
1,673,064
180,666

596,526
76,453
588,475
1,949,128
159,280

Vermont....................................................................
Virginia .....................................................................
Washington ..............................................................
West Virginia............................................................
Wisconsin.................................................................
Wyoming ..................................................................

87,488
534,350
1,234,495
616,790
594,463
68,068

95,056
591,068
1,309,371
629,480
621,973
74,469

103,607
579,991
1,418,255
665,403
652,281
71,151

114,393
534,014
1,499,070
741,049
703,299
46,357

Federal programs
Civilian employee .................................................
Black lung b .........................................................

1,900,953
1,102,798

1,955,287
1,035,450

2,008,909
980,642

2,099,613
931,946

United States,

a. Calendar year data, except fiscal year data for federal civilian and other programs and for some states with state funds. Payments represent compensation and medical
benefits and include insurance losses paid by private insurance carriers (compiled from state workers’ compensation agencies and the A.M. Best Company); disbursement
of state funds (compiled from the A.M. Best Company, state workers’ compensation agencies, and U.S. Census Bureau); and self-insurance payments, estimated from
available state data. Includes benefit payments under Longshore and Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act for states in which such payments are made. For data for 1990,
and 1993–1995, see U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999 (119th ed.) Washington, D.C., 1999, Table 630, p. 397.
b. Includes payments by the Social Security Administration and the Department of Labor.
SOURCES: National Academy of Social Insurance estimates based on data received from state agencies, the Department of Labor, A.M. Best Company, and the National
Council on Compensation Insurance.
CONTACT: Virginia Reno (202) 452-8097.

322

Social Security Bulletin • Annual Statistical Supplement • 2002

9.B Workers’ Compensation
Table 9.B3—Type of insurer and medical benefits, by state and federal program, 2000 (in thousands of dollars)
Benefits paid by type of insurer
State and federal program

Total

Private
carriers a

Medical benefits paid

State
funds

Selfinsurance b

Total

As a percentage
of cash benefits

United States, total..............................................

45,915,902

...

...

...

20,005,232

43.6

Alabama.......................................................................
Alaska ..........................................................................
Arizona.........................................................................
Arkansas ......................................................................
California......................................................................

529,189
155,628
481,520
187,825
8,949,070

304,964
124,733
221,036
127,434
5,273,661

...
...
190,147
...
1,146,339

224,225
30,895
70,337
60,391
2,529,070

295,425
94,598
289,456
111,797
4,072,954

d

55.9
60.8
60.5
59.7
45.8

Colorado ......................................................................
Connecticut ..................................................................
Delaware......................................................................
District of Columbia......................................................
Florida ..........................................................................

768,758
667,056
100,247
77,682
2,272,859

315,068
498,584
80,685
60,648
1,729,765

250,606
...
...
...
...

203,084
168,473
19,562
17,035
543,093

354,733
257,414
42,900
25,720
1,228,025

c
c
d
c
c

46.1
38.7
42.9
33.2
54.2

Georgia ........................................................................
Hawaii ..........................................................................
Idaho............................................................................
Illinois ...........................................................................
Indiana .........................................................................

881,848
231,359
167,664
1,812,577
550,394

486,476
153,432
71,266
1,412,631
419,695

...
15,602
84,266
...
...

395,372
62,325
12,132
399,946
130,699

405,876
96,478
94,074
796,963
356,860

c
c
c
c
d

46.0
41.8
56.1
44.0
64.8

Iowa .............................................................................
Kansas .........................................................................
Kentucky ......................................................................
Louisiana......................................................................
Maine ...........................................................................

328,854
341,505
516,360
455,142
252,283

266,927
246,390
322,211
243,807
110,266

...
...
21,605
105,925
52,426

61,927
95,114
172,544
105,410
89,591

161,891
183,575
275,514
226,548
104,371

c
d
c
c
c

49.3
54.1
53.7
49.9
42.9

Maryland ......................................................................
Massachusetts .............................................................
Michigan.......................................................................
Minnesota ....................................................................
Mississippi....................................................................

1,194,629
666,455
1,574,467
798,100
269,215

921,002
577,209
909,278
529,600
177,951

163,510
...
...
88,100
...

110,117
89,246
665,189
180,400
91,264

511,901
218,897
540,692
369,500
150,926

c
c
d
c
c

42.9
42.9
39.2
46.3
56.0

Missouri........................................................................
Montana .......................................................................
Nebraska......................................................................
Nevada.........................................................................
New Hampshire ...........................................................

525,553
150,269
186,217
286,522
168,439

437,763
61,442
136,438
230,610
131,710

50,127
64,230
...
...
...

37,663
24,598
49,779
55,912
36,729

255,076
79,343
101,468
131,469
90,357

c
c
c
c
c

48.2
52.4
55.0
46.7
53.8

New Jersey ..................................................................
New Mexico .................................................................
New York......................................................................
North Carolina..............................................................
North Dakota................................................................

1,066,542
136,830
2,828,018
788,369
85,767

978,232
78,829
1,346,945
589,435
483

...
11,570
839,136
...
85,284

88,310
46,431
641,937
198,934
...

457,069
78,879
925,576
349,149
45,583

d
c
d
d

42.9
57.8
29.9
44.4
42.9

Ohio .............................................................................
Oklahoma.....................................................................
Oregon .........................................................................
Pennsylvania................................................................
Rhode Island................................................................

2,091,992
417,478
412,710
2,378,591
122,316

21,680
257,945
222,142
1,660,173
58,223

1,630,436
100,753
158,660
154,560
53,151

439,876
58,781
31,909
563,857
10,943

868,891
191,852
201,518
903,314
37,623

d
c
c
d
c

41.5
46.0
48.9
38.1
30.8

South Carolina .............................................................
South Dakota ...............................................................
Tennessee....................................................................
Texas............................................................................
Utah .............................................................................

596,526
76,453
588,475
1,949,128
159,280

429,146
63,363
459,169
1,582,644
72,347

44,651
...
...
204,035
69,392

122,730
13,090
129,306
162,449
17,541

267,016
46,694
300,684
1,165,390
106,337

c
c
c
d
c

44.9
61.2
51.2
59.8
66.8

Vermont........................................................................
Virginia .........................................................................
Washington ..................................................................
West Virginia................................................................
Wisconsin.....................................................................
Wyoming ......................................................................

114,393
534,014
1,499,070
741,049
703,299
46,357

87,737
482,455
19,262
2,679
655,442
933

...
...
1,147,139
615,581
...
45,424

26,656
51,559
332,669
122,788
47,857
...

54,671
279,594
525,987
219,052
414,678
19,887

c
c
d
d
d
d

47.9
52.4
35.2
29.6
59.0
42.9

Total other than federal programs ................................

42,884,343

25,651,943

7,392,656

9,839,744

19,384,246

45.2

Federal programs.........................................................
Civilian employee .....................................................
Black Lung ...............................................................

3,031,559
2,099,613
931,946

...
...
...

...
...
...

...
...
...

620,986
548,596
72,390

20.5
26.1
7.8

c

a. States with exclusive funds (Nevada, North Dakota, Ohio, Washington, West Virginia, and Wyoming) also have small amounts of benefits paid by private carriers. This
results from two sources: companies with group policies that overlap states and the fact that some companies include excess workers’ compensation coverage in their
reports of workers’ compensation benefits to A.M. Best Company.
b. Self-insurance includes individual self-insurers and group self-insurance.
c. In 2000, the medical benefits estimation method changed. Medical estimates were based on data provided by the National Council on Compensation Insurance.
d. For these states, the data used for the imputation procedure were unavailable, so the percentage of medical benefits was estimated to be the weighted average of the
percentages in the states reporting such a percentage.
SOURCES: National Academy of Social Insurance estimates based on data received from state agencies, the Department of Labor, A.M. Best Company, and the National
Council on Compensation Insurance.
NOTE: . . . = not applicable.
CONTACT: Virginia Reno (202) 452-8097.

Social Security Bulletin • Annual Statistical Supplement • 2002

323