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LAB REPORT

APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS EME 2146


TRIMESTER 1 (2013/2014)

AT 2: Cooling Tower Name ID Date of Experiment Vicknendran Vickneswaram 1091102189 23/07/2013

OBJECTIVE: To familiarize us with the operation of a cooling tower PROCEDURE: 1) The cooling tower is started by switching on the power, the pump, the fan and lastly the heater. 2) The water-flow-rate (W1) is set to 50L/hr and the heater (H1) is set to 960W while the fan-speed is set to constant. 3) The data that was recorded based on W1 and H1 combination setting are: a) T1, the water temperature at the tower outlet b) T3 , the water temperature at the heater outlet c) T5 , the water temperature at the tower inlet d) T7 , the water temperature at the tank e) T2 , the wet-bulb temperature of air at the column top f) T4 , the dry-bulb temperature of air at the column top g) T6 , the wet-bulb temperature of air at the column bottom h) T8 , the dry-bulb temperature of air at the column bottom i) Amp and Volt readings of the heater j) Air speed 4) Step 2 and 3 was repeated for several different combinations. There are: a) H1W2 e) H2W3 b) H1W3 f) H3W1 c) H2W1 g) H3W2 d) H2W2 h) H3W3

H1 = 2A, H2 = 4A, H3 = 6A; W1 = 50L/hr, W2 = 100L/hr 5) After the experiment is finished, the cooling tower is turned off step by step by turning off the heater, the fan, the pump and lastly the power. Note that sequences of the steps given must be followed in order to avoid overheating.

RESULTS: V (V) I (A) T1 (C) T2 (C) T3 (C) W1H1 234 2 23.9 25.0 41.2 W1H2 233 4 24 25.7 38.5 W1H3 233 6 24.1 26.3 40.0 W2H1 233 2 24.3 27.3 40.0 W2H2 233 4 24.9 27.4 33.7 W2H3 233 6 25.1 26.9 36.0

T4 (C) T5 (C) T6 (C) T7 (C) T8 (C) Velocity (m/s)

25.7 40.9 26.8 25.2 26.3 0.73

26.5 37.9 26.9 24.8 26.3 1.17

27.1 39.4 27.0 24.5 26.5 2.46

28.6 40.1 27.1 24.2 26.6 2.74

28.3 31.8 27.1 24.1 26.6 2.14

27.9 35.5 27.2 24.1 26.7 2.36

DISCUSSION: 1. The conservation of mass : [Total mass entering the CV during t] [Total mass leaving the CV during t] = [Net change in mass within the CV during t]

The mass flow rate of vapour:

v1 + f = v2

v1 is the vapor-flow-rate at the outlet v2 is vapor-flow-rate at the inlet f is the evaporation losses

The mass flow rate of dry:

a1 = a2 = a

a1 is the dry air-flow-rate at the inlet a2 is the dry air-flow-rate at the outlet a is the net dry air-flow rate.

f = (w2-w1) a
w1= w2=
; w1 = w2 = humidity ratio. The mass of the water lost due to the evaporation can be considered negligible, which also supported by the constant water level of the reserve tank as there is no water evaporation. However, error might still be encountered while conducting the experiment, which is contributed by the condensation of water before air, leaves the cooling tower.

2. Based on energy conservation theory, the energy that enters the system must be equal to the energy that exits the system. According to the First Law of Thermodynamic, a balanced energy equation is:

w1 (hg1 hf2) = cp (T2 T1) + w2 hfg2


w1 the relative humidity of the air-vapour mixture that enter the tower w2 is the relative humidity of the air-vapour mixture that exit the tower (T2 T1) is the temperature different of the water entering and exiting the cooling tower cp is the specific heat of water and h is the changes of enthalpies The heat energy that lost during the cooling process is calculable with the equation above.

w1 (hg1 hf2) - w2 hfg2 = Qout


The heater enables electrical energy to be converted into heat energy;

P = VI= Qin
P is power supplied to the heater I is current V is voltage supplied to the heater 3. a) Heat transferred between the water droplets and the air:

Q=

b) Heat transferred from the heater:

H=

3. a) Heat transferred between the water droplets and the air: Q = water (h1-h5) = water CP,water (T1-T5) i)
1 = 50L/hr = 1.389 x 10-5 m3/s = 0.01389kg/s CP,water = 4.184 kJ/kg.K 1) H1 = 2A Q1 = (0.01389kg/s) (4.184kJ/kg.K) (296.9K 313.9K) = 0.988kW 2) H2 = 4A Q2 = (0.0138m9kg/s) (4.184kJ/kg.K) (297.0K 310.9K) = 0.8078kW 3) H3 = 6A Q3 = (0.01389kg/s) (4.184kJ/kg.K) (297.1K 312.4K) = 0.8892W 2 = 100L/hr = 2.778 x 10-5 m3/s = 0.02778kg/s CP,water = 4.184 kJ/kg.K 1) H1 = 2A Q1 = (0.02778kg/s) (4.184kJ/kg.K) (297.3K 313.1K) = 1.8365kW 2) H2 = 4A Q2 = (0.02778kg/s) (4.184kJ/kg.K) (297.9K 304.8K) = 0.8020kW 3) H3 = 1920W Q3 = (0.02778kg/s) (4.184kJ/kg.K) (298.1K 308.5K) = 1.2088kW

ii)

b) Heat transferred from the heater:

H=
i)

1 = 50L/hr = 1.389 x 10-5 m3/s = 0.01389kg/s CP,water = 4.184 kJ/kg.K 4) H1 = 2A Q1 = (0.01389kg/s) (4.184kJ/kg.K) (314.2K 298.2K) = 0.9299kW 5) H2 = 4A Q2 = (0.01389kg/s) (4.184kJ/kg.K) (311.5K 297.8K) = 0.7962kW 6) H3 = 6A Q3 = (0.01389kg/s) (4.184kJ/kg.K) (313.0K 297.5K) = 0.9008kW

ii)

2 = 100L/hr = 2.778 x 10-5 m3/s = 0.02778kg/s CP,water = 4.184 kJ/kg.K 4) H1 = 2A Q1 = (0.02778kg/s) (4.184kJ/kg.K) (313.0K 297.2K) = 1.8365kW 5) H2 = 4A Q2 = (0.02778kg/s) (4.184kJ/kg.K) (306.7K 297.1K) = 1.1158W 6) H3 = 6A Q3 = (0.02778kg/s) (4.184kJ/kg.K) (309.0K 297.1K) = 1.3832kW

c) i) In general, for 1 = 0.01389kg/s Set 1 2 3 ii) Heat transfer between the droplets and the air (kW) 0.9880 0.8078 0.8892 Heat transfer from the heater (kW) 0.9299 0.7692 0.9008

In general, for 2 = 0.02778kg/s Set 1 2 3 Heat transfer between the droplets and the air (kW) 1.8365 0.8020 1.2088 Heat transfer from the heater (kW) 1.8365 1.1158 1.3832

Graph heat transfer between the droplets and the air vs heater transfer from the heater
1.6

Heat transfer between the droplets and the air

1.4

1.2

0.8 1

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 0.9299 0.7692 Heater transfer from the heater 0.9008

Graph heat transfer between the droplets and the air vs heater transfer from the heater
2 Heat transfer between the droplets and the air

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1 2

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 1.8365 1.1158 Heater transfer from the heater 1.3832

Conclusion: The operation of cooling tower is related with the mass conservation theory and the first law of thermodynamics from this experiment.

Reference Y.A. Cengal and M.A. Boles, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 6th Edition, McGraw-Hill 2006 http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/water-thermal-properties-d_162.html

V (V) I (A) T1 (C) T2 (C) T3 (C) T4 (C) T5 (C) T6 (C) T7 (C) T8 (C) Velocity (m/s)

W1H1 234 2 23.9 25.0 28.2 24.5 28.2 26.2 24.6 25.8 3.02

W1H2 233 3 24.1 25.2 29.7 24.6 29.4 26.4 24.4 26.0 2.54

W1H3 233 4 24.3 25.4 31.0 24.9 30.6 26.3 24.3 26.1 2.45

W2H1 233 2 24.5 25.5 27.5 24.8 27.6 26.7 24.6 26.2 3.71

W2H2 233 3 24.7 25.7 28.1 25.0 28.3 26.7 24.6 26.3 3.00

W2H3 233 4 25.0 25.9 29.4 25.4 29.5 26.6 24.3 26.2 2.81