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Hellenistic civilization

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/wiki/I mage: Emble mimport ant.svg Hellenistic civilization was the sprea"ing o% !reek culture an" coloni'ation over the non-!reek lan"s that were con(uere" b$ )le&an"er the !reat in the *th centur$ + . ,he -ellenistic age marks the uni%ication o% the !reek worl", sharing a common culture base" on that o% .th an" *th centur$ + )thens, along with a %usion o% /ear Eastern cultures.012 ,he perio" is characteri'e" b$ a new wave o% !reek coloni'ation which establishe" !reek cities an" 3ing"oms in )sia an" )%rica.042 ,hose new cities were compose" o% !reek colonists who came %rom "i%%erent parts o% the !reek worl", an" not %rom a speci%ic 5mother cit$5 6metropolis7 as be%ore.042 ,he main cultural centers e&pan"e" %rom mainlan" !reece, to Pergamon, #ho"es, as well as to new !reek colonies such as )ntioch an" )le&an"ria. ,his mi&ture o% !reek-speakers gave birth to a common )ttic-base" "ialect, known as -ellenistic !reek, which came to absorb an" replace all i"ioms o% the !reek language. ,he term Hellenistic was "erive" %rom ! Hlln, the !reeks8 tra"itional sel%-"escribe" ethnic name. It was establishe" b$ the !erman historian Johann !ustav 9ro$sen to re%er to the sprea"ing o% !reek culture an" coloni'ation over the non-!reek lan"s that were con(uere" b$ )le&an"er the !reat in the *th centur$ + .

0hi"e2 1 -istor$ 4 ulture : -ellenistic rulers * /otes . #e%erences ; <ee also

#edit$ History
,he -ellenistic perio" began in :4: + when )le&an"er the !reat8s armies con(uere" the eastern =e"iterranean, Eg$pt, =esopotamia, an" the Iranian plateau, entral )sia, an" parts o% In"ia. >ollowing )le&an"er8s "eath, there

was a ver$ long struggle %or the succession, known as the wars o% the 9ia"ochi 6!reek %or successors7. ,he bitter struggle was more or less settle" in 4?1 + with the establishment o% %our rough territorial states. ,he Ptolemaic "$nast$ in Eg$pt base" at )le&an"ria@

/wiki/Image:=enan"er oin.jpg /wiki/Image:=enan"er oin.jpg /wiki/Image:=enan"er oin.jpg/wiki/Image:=enan"er oin.jpg<ilver "rachma o% the In"o-!reek king =enan"er I 61..-1:A + 7. %bv& !reek legen", BCDEFGHD DHIJKHD LGMCMNKOP 50coin2 o% <aviour 3ing =enan"er5. 'ev& 3harosthi legen": =)-)#)J) ,#),)<) =E/)9#)<) 5<aviour 3ing =enan"er5. )thena a"vancing right, with thun"erbolt an" shiel". ,a&ila mint mark. ,he <eleuci" "$nast$ in <$ria an" =esopotamia base" at )ntioch@ ,he )ntigoni" "$nast$ in =ace"on an" central !reece@ ,he )ttali" "$nast$ in )natolia base" at Pergamum. -is successors hel" on to the territor$ west o% the ,igris %or some time an" controlle" the eastern =e"iterranean until the #oman #epublic took control in the 4n" an" 1st centuries + . =ost o% the east was eventuall$ overrun b$ the Parthians, but -ellenistic culture hel" on in "istant locations, like the !reco-+actrian king"om in +actria, or the In"o-!reek 3ing"om in northern In"ia, or the immerian +osporus. -ellenistic culture remaine" "ominant in the Eastern part o% the #oman Empire until its hristiani'ation an" eventual trans%ormation into the +$'antine Empire. -ellenism ma"e consi"erable inroa"s an" in monarchies governe" b$ kings o% Persian, )rmenian or ,hracian origin, as was the case with )rmenia, +ith$nia an" appa"ocia. ,he political organi'ation o% the -ellenistic states began to %ra$ at the e"ges b$ the 4n" an" 1st centuries + , especiall$ in light o% the growing political an" militar$ might o% the #oman #epublic. ,he en" o% the -ellenistic perio" is generall$ seen as :1 + , when =arc )nton$ was utterl$ "e%eate" b$ Qctavian 6who, at this point, ha" $et to be rename" )ugustus7 at the +attle o% )ctium. )s a result, =arc )nton$8s lover an" Eg$pt8s last ruler, leopatra, 6circa :A + 7 committe" suici"e an" her king"om was anne&e" b$ Qctavian.

#edit$ "ulture
,he cit$ o% Pergamum became a major centre o% book pro"uction, possessing a librar$ o% some 4AA,AAA volumes, secon" onl$ to the Ribrar$ o% )le&an"ria.012 )thens retaine" its position as the most prestigious seat o% higher e"ucation, especiall$ in the "omains o% philosoph$ an" rhetoric, with consi"erable libraries in her possession.012 ,he islan" o% #ho"es boaste" a %amous %inishing school %or politics an" "iplomac$. >amous alumni o% )thens an" #ho"es were the #omans icero an" =ark )nton$ respectivel$.012 )le&an"ria was arguabl$ the secon" most important centre o% !reek learning, boasting a !reat Ribrar$ with SAA,AAA volumes an" a <mall Ribrar$ with *4,?AA.012 )ntioch as well was %oun"e" as a metropolis an" centre o% !reek learning which retaine" its status into the hristian era.012

#edit$ Hellenistic rulers

(')*(+ )le&an"er III the !reat T Philip III )rrhi"aeus T )le&an"er IU )egus , (-T.)% )ntigonus I =onophthalmus T 9emetrius I Poliorcetes T )ntigonus II !onatas T 9emetrius II )etolicus T

-.+, /0123425 )ntigonus III 9oson T Philip U T Perseus 6"7 8().+, Ptolem$ I <oter T Ptolem$ II Phila"elphus T Ptolem$ 3eraunos T Ptolem$ III Euergetes T Ptolem$ IU /9tolemies Philopator T Ptolem$ U Epiphanes T Ptolem$ UI Philometor T Ptolem$ UII /eos Philopator T Ptolem$ UIII 7 Ph$scon T Ptolem$ IV Rath$ros T Ptolem$ V )le&an"er T +erenice III T Ptolem$ VI )le&an"er T Ptolem$ /01:301 VII T leopatra U T +erenice IU T Ptolem$ VIII T Ptolem$ VIU T leopatra UII Philopator T aesarion 6"7 <eleucus I /icator T )ntiochus I T )ntiochus II T <eleucus II T <eleucus III T )ntiochus III the !reat T ,*8*;". <eleucus IU Philopator T )ntiochus IU Epiphanes T )ntiochus U Eupator T 9emetrius I <oter T )le&an"er +, +alas T 9emetrius II /icator T )ntiochus UI 9ion$sus T 9io"otus ,r$phon T )ntiochus UII <i"etes T /01:320 )le&an"er II Wabinas T )ntiochus UIII !r$pus T )ntiochus IV $'icenus T <eleucus UI Epiphanes T 6"7 )ntiochus V Eusebes T )ntiochus VI Epiphanes T 9emetrius III Eucaerus T Philip I Phila"elphus T )ntiochus VII 9ion$sus T <eleucus UII Philometor T )ntiochus VIII )siaticus T Philip II Philoromaeus 8<,.=( "H.+, R$simachus /0123>54 6"7 (-T.9( T'.+, assan"er T Philip IU T )le&an"er U T )ntipater II T <osthenes /01>3>?? 6"7 (TT(8. +, Philetaerus T Eumenes I T )ttalus I T Eumenes II T )ttalus II T )ttalus III T Eumenes III />5>34>@ 6"7 )'*"%3 6("T'. Euth$"emus I T Euth$"emus II T )ntimachus I T Pantaleon T )gathocles T 9emetrius II T Eucrati"es I T (-, Plato T Eucrati"es II T -eliocles I />A134A1 6"7 .-+%3 9emetrius I T )pollo"otus I T 9emetrius II T )ntimachus II T =enan"er I T Woilos I T )gathokleia T R$sias T )'**B, <trato I T )ntialci"as T -eliokles II T Pol$&enios T 9emetrius III T Philo&enus T 9iome"es T )m$ntas T /451 6"3 Epan"er T ,heophilos T Peukolaos T ,hraso T /icias T =enan"er II T )rtemi"oros T -ermaeus T )rchebios T 41 (+7 ,elephos T )pollo"otus II T -ippostratos T 9ion$sios T Woilos II T )pollophanes T <trato II

#edit$ -otes
1. 4. X a b c d e f #o$ =. =acReo", The Library Of Alexandria: Centre Of Learning In The Ancient X a b Ylrich Wilcken, !riechische !eschichte im "ahmen der Alterumsgeschichte. orld

#edit$ 'eferences
,arn, William Woo"thorpe@ !. ,. !ri%%ith 61Z;:7. Hellenistic Ci#ilisation, :r" e". rev., levelan": Worl" Publishing o.. )ustin, = = 61Z?17. The Hellenistic orld from Alexander to the "oman Con$uest: A %election of Ancient %ources in Translation. ambri"ge: ambri"ge Yniversit$ Press.