This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
. From geological point of view, earthquakes provide the evidences of the instability of the earth’s crust and a logical starting point for any examination of the dynamics of the earth. Earthquakes are largely confined to relatively narrow ones in the lithosphere. These ones of high seismic activity are a key to identifying the boundaries of the ma!or lithospheric plates. Earthquakes are associated with large fractures, or faults, in the earth’s crust or upper mantle. "ost earthquakes take place along faults in the upper #$ miles of the earth%s surface when one side rapidly moves relative to the other side of the fault.
The following points should be noted in case of construction is a seismically active region &' Tectonic features #' (istance from the active fault )' "agnitude of the expected earthquake *' +ature of the foundation material $' (ynamic characteristics of the structure to be constructed In case of a building structure are following points are to be taken care of to minimize the effect of earthquake &' ,ood quality construction material as per specification should be used
#' The foundation should not be on loose ground, rather it should be preferably on solid rock
which adds to the stability &&' 4onstruction of chimneys. arches.einforced concrete should be used more commonly than brick works /' .)' (epth of foundation should be uniform *' Foundation outline approximating a square gives more stability $' The walls should be continuous in nature with few doors and windows. cantilevers and other extra pro!ections should be avoided Elastic !ebound Theory: . domes .oof should be flat and of reinforced concrete to add the lateral stiffness 0' 1ll the parts of a building should be well tied so that it moves as a single unit during an earthquake vibration &2' 3eight of the building should be kept uniform . Too many doors and windows and discontinuous walls lower the stability 6) (oors and windows should not be in vertical rows. preferably along the diagonals -' .
the blocks are deformed in the vicinity of the fault. over a time period of many years. 4onsider two plates moving in opposite directions. 1s the rock is strained. 5nstead of slipping taking place along the fault. friction locks them together. 8hen the accumulated strain is great enough to . 7ut because they are pressed together by the weight of the overlying rock. the elastic rebound theory was the first theory to satisfactorily explain earthquakes. "ccording to this theory an earthquake is the result of the elastic rebound of previously stored elastic strain energy in the rocks on either side of the fault# 5n an interseismic period the earth%s plates move relative to each other except at most plate boundaries where they are locked. The deformation builds at the rate of a few cm per year. elastic energy is stored in it. 6reviously it was thought that ruptures of the surface were the result of strong ground shaking rather than the converse suggested by this theory.5n geology.
of the $hat is an earthquake% :nce the frictional bond is broken. The time required to build up elastic energy in the rocks. +ear the focus the waves can have large destructive amplitudes.overcome the frictional strength of the rocks an earthquake occurs. 5n great earthquakes. is suddenly released in the form of intense seismic vibrations which constitute the earthquake. Terminology: . for earthquakes last only a few minutes. the slip. is enormous compared to the time that elapses during the release of stored energy. The seismic waves propagate large distances in all directions away from the fault. it will travel at a high speed. the elastic energy. ad!acent to a fault. The blocks suddenly slip at a certain point. which has been slowly stored over tens or hundreds of years. This point is known as the focus 9or hypocenter' earthquake. or offset of the blocks can be as large as &$ m. :nce rupture is initiated.
Energy released is the most precise way of measuring the si e of an earthquake. &. That’s why Richter magnitude scale is used. the point where an earthquake or other underground explosion originates. #. .&ocus'hypocenter: The location of an earthquake%s hypocenter is the position where the energy stored in the strain in the rock is released Epicenter: The epicenter is the point on the Earth%s surface that is directly above the hypocenter or focus. 7ut it is a long. Two most common methods are. (easurement of Earthquakes: The amount of stored energy can be measured in several ways. "easuring the energy of the released seismic waves. "easuring the distortion of surveyed lines. which is based on the amplitude of seismic waves recorded by seismographs. complicated process to determine the fault dimensions. the slip and other factors needed to compute it.
assigns a single number to quantify the amount of seismic energy released by an earthquake. 5t is a base=&2 logarithmic scale obtained by calculating the logarithm of the combined hori ontal amplitude of the largest displacement from ero on a seismometer output. or more correctly local magnitude "< scale.@ or greater are strong enough to be recorded by any of the seismographs in the world. The largest earthquakes yet recorded show .ichter magnitude scale. 1d!ustments are included to compensate for the variation in the distance between the various seismographs and the epicenter of the earthquake. Events with magnitudes of about *. )etermination of Earthquake (agnitude from a *eismograph !eading: a m = log + B T .!ichter magnitude scale: The .$. 7ecause of the logarithmic basis of the scale. ?eismographs can easily detect earthquakes of magnitude less than &. each whole number increase corresponds to an increase of about )# times the amount of energy released. each whole number increase in magnitude represents a tenfold increase in measured amplitude> in terms of energy.ichter magnitude of about /.
geologists can map the interior of the Earth. . m A magnitude 1 A maximum trace motion a A maximum ground motion 9microns A &2=@m' A 1Bmagnification of seismograph 7 A correction factor that allows for the weakening of seismic waves with increasing distance from the earthquake 9found from table using distance' T A duration of one oscillation Cor’ period of seismic wave 9sec' *eismograph: ?eismographs are used by seismologists to measure and record the si e and force of seismic waves. Earthquake magnitude. and measure and locate earthquakes and other ground motions. effects and statistics: The following describes the typical effects of earthquakes of various magnitudes near the epicenter.8here. 7y studying seismic waves.
and geological conditions 9certain terrains can amplify seismic signals'. &. the depth of the earthquake%s focus beneath the epicenter.ody $aves: 7ody waves travel through the interior of the Earth. ?urface wave +# . 7ody 8ave #.This table should be taken with extreme caution. 7ody waves transmit the first=arriving tremors of an earthquake. There are two kinds of body waves. as well as many later arrivals. Primary (P-waves) and Secondary (S-waves). since intensity and thus ground effects depend not only on the magnitude. . but also on the distance to the epicenter. Types of *eismic $aves: There are mainly two types of seismic waves.
a# !ayleigh waves: . There are two types of surface waves. as fluids 9liquids and gases' do not support shear stresses. Their speed is about @2E of that of 6 waves in a given material. ? waves can travel only through solids. are surface waves that travel as ripples similar to those on the surface of water. and are several times larger in amplitude than 6 waves for earthquake sources. also called ground roll.ayleigh waves. b# * waves: ? waves are transverse or shear waves.waves: 6 waves are longitudinal or compressional waves. They travel more slowly than body waves. ? waves are sometimes called Dsecondary wavesD. . 6 waves are sometimes called Dprimary wavesD. roughly -2E of the velocity of ? waves. 5n solids these waves generally travel slightly less than twice as fast as ? waves and can travel through any type of material.a# . . They are slower than body waves.# *urface $aves: ?urface waves are analogous to water waves and travel !ust under the Earth%s surface. and have been asserted to be visible during an earthquake in an open space like a parking lot where the cars move up and down with the waves. long duration. they can be the most destructive type of seismic wave. and large amplitude. 7ecause of their low frequency. Rayleigh waves and Long waves. due to their lesser amplitudes. 8hen generated by an earthquake they are less destructive than the ? waves and surface waves that follow them. which mean that the ground is displaced perpendicularly to the direction of propagation. which mean that the ground is alternately compressed and dilated in the direction of propagation.
Long Waves: <ong waves are surface waves that cause hori ontal shearing of the ground. about 02E of the ? wave velocity. They usually travel slightly faster than .ayleigh waves.b. .
centered on station 1. one can only say the earthquake lies on a circle of radius G1.time interval there is associated a definite distance to the epicenter# This is indicated in the travel time chart for 6 and ? waves in the following figure. Fnowing the distance. G79A$@22 km'. and G49A/@22 km' intersect uniquely at the point H. . with radii G19A&$22 km'. The lightning flash may be likened to the P waves of earthquake and the thunder to the S waves. the interval between the arrival of 6 and ? waves increases with the distance traveled by the waves. one also knows the distances from two additional stations 7 and 4. the epicenter./ow to 0ocate the Epicenter% The principal is quite similar to deducing the distance to a lightning bolt from the time interval between the flash and the sound. say G1 of an earthquake from a given station. the three circles centered on the ) stations. and for each * . (ue to certain difference in wave velocity. 5f however.
/ow to )etermine the !ichter (agnitude% .
connect on the nomogram.$=*.2J).ichter I).To determine .$=@.ichter magnitude off the center scale./ *.ichter magnitude at varying distances from the epicenter. 91' the maximum amplitude recorded by a standard seismometer and 97' the distance of seismometer from the epicenter of the earthquake 9or difference in arrival times of 6 and ? waves' by a straight line.&=*.2 -.2 ).& .ailroads and pipelines break Total devastation Equivalent . buildings move 3eavy damage to buildings.2 *. walls crack 6eople fall over.&=-.) -.$ @.& L/.* $. and read the .* ).ather ?trong ?trong Kery ?trong (estructive .@=-. (ercalli *cale and Equivalent !ichter *cale: "ercalli scale 5 55 555 5K K K5 K55 K555 5G G G5 G55 +ame 5nstrumental Feeble ?light "oderate .0=$. ground cracks "ost buildings destroyed.uinous (isastrous Kery disastrous 4atastrophic Effect +ot felt Felt by people resting <ike heavy truck passing 8indows rattle 8akes sleeping people Trees sway. landslides .* *.*=/.$J*.&=@. buildings crack 4himneys fall.2 @.
or precast concrete. and newspaper clippings. relies on a methodology of sub!ective comparisons> its information sources consist of observations. . while being directly oriented to building effects. expressed in a . • 7esides the sub!ectivity of the "" scale. and does not refer to many modern methods of construction such as glass curtain walls. postcard damage reports. The listing of construction materials emphasi es masonry.)isadvantages of the (( *cale: • The "" scale. hung ceilings. another problem is that of its age.oman numeral scale.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.