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A Masters Guide to Berthing

A Masters Guide to Berthing is the third publication in the Masters Guide Series. The Standard P&I Clubs loss prevention programme ocuses on best practice to avert those claims that are generall! described as avoidable" and #hich o ten result rom cre# error or e$uipment ailure. In its continuing commitment to sa et! at sea and the prevention o accidents" casualties and pollution" the Club issues a variet! o publications on sa et!%related sub&ects" o #hich this is one. 'or more in ormation about these publications please contact either the Managers (ondon Agents or an! Charles Ta!lor o ice listed in this guide. Authors )ric Murdoch BSc" MSc" C.)ng *irector o Sa et! & (oss Prevention Charles Ta!lor & Co. (td" *irect Tel+ ,-- ./0 1/ 2311 2--/ eric.murdoch4ctcplc.com Capt. Chris Clar5e 6B)" Master Mariner Senior (ecturer" Manned Model Shiphandling 'acilit! 7arsash Maritime Centre 8e#ton 9oad 7arsash" Southampton S6:; <=( Tel+ ,-- ./0 ;->< 32?;?; chris.clar5e4solent.ac.u5 *r. Ian 7. *and Bsc" Ph*" '9)ng *irector o @!drod!namics BMT SeaTech (td" Building ;--" @aslar Marine Technolog! Par5 Gosport" Portsmouth" @ants P6;1 1AG Tel+ ,-- ./0 1: <1 ::3/1; ian4bmthaslr.demon.co.u5 Brian Glover BA .@ons0" Barrister *irector o Claims Charles Ta!lor & Co. (td" *irect Tel+ ,-- ./0 1/ 2311 2-;2 )mail+ brian.glover4ctcplc.com

INTRODUCTION
Ship handling is an art rather than a science. @o#ever" a ship handler #ho 5no#s a little o the science #ill be better at his art. Ano#ledge o the science #ill enable eas! identi ication o a ships manoeuvring characteristics and $uic5 evaluation o the s5ills needed or control.

A ship handler needs to understand #hat is happening to his ship and" more importantl!" #hat #ill happen a short time into the uture. This 5no#ledge is essential in a port environment #hen a ship encounters close $uarters situations" narro# channels and the e ects o cross% #inds and currents. The culmination o an! vo!age is the controlled mating o the ship #ith a solid" stationar! berth. Berthing re$uires precise and gentle control i the ormer is not to demolish the latter. Such ine and precise control is demonstrated ever!da! b! ship handlers in ports all over the #orld. Most ships doc5 sa el!" most o the time B a testament to pilots s5ill and abilit!" B but the outcome o a manoeuvre is not al#a!s success ul. Ships can" and do" run aground" demolish &etties" hit the berth and collide #ith other ships at an alarming re$uenc!" giving rise to loss o li e" environmental pollution and propert! damage. The purpose o this guide is to provide some insight into #hat can go #rong and #h!" #h! ships are designed the #a! the! are" #h! the! handle the #a! the! do and ho# to berth them. In the inal chapter" there is advice on pilotage. 6n its o#n" the guide #ill not teach !ou ho# to become a ship handler" but it does provide bac5ground material to help a good ship handler become a better one. Throughout the berthing eCamples" it has been assumed that the ship has a single right%handed propeller and that bul5 carriers and tan5ers have their accommodation a t. )ric Murdoch April 1//-

1. GOLDEN RULES OF BERTHING


There are certain actions that a master should al#a!s ta5e be ore and during berthing. These are listed belo#. Passage pla ! g B Al#a!s passage plan rom berth to berth. Pa! care ul attention to the dangers that are li5el! to be encountered during the pilotage. B Al#a!s ull! brie the pilot" ma5ing sure that he understands the ships speed and manoeuvring characteristics. B Al#a!s as5 the pilot to discuss the passage and berthing plan. As5 $uestions i an!thing is unclear. "or#! g $!th tugs B Consider the use o tug assistance" #here #ind and current or the ships handling characteristics create di icult berthing conditions. B Al#a!s estimate #indage and use this estimate to determine the number o tugs re$uired. B 7hen berthing #ith a bo# thruster" a large ship ma! need a tug to control the ships stern. %a oeu&r! g B Avoid high or#ard speed #hen #or5ing #ith tugs" #hen using a bo# thruster" #hen under%5eel clearance is small" #hen sailing in a narro# channel or #hen close to other ships. B Test astern movement and #ait until the ship moves positivel! astern be ore stopping. B 9emember that a 5ic5 ahead can be used to initiate and maintain a turn #hen speed is lo#. B 9emember that the ships pivot point is or#ard o amidships #hen steaming ahead.

B B B

9emember that a ship #ill #ant to settle #ith the pivot point to the #ind#ard o " and in alignment #ith" the point o in luence o #ind. 9emember that the point o in luence o #ind changes #ith #ind direction and the ships heading. 9emember that at lo# speed" current and #ind have a greater e ect on manoeuvrabilit! and that highsided ships #ill eCperience a pronounced e ect rom lee#a!.

F! all' B 8ever ring D inished #ith engines until ever! mooring line has been made ast. B Al#a!s anticipate #ell ahead and eCpect the uneCpected to occur.

(. DOC) DA%AGE AND P*I CLAI%S


Since ;<<2 the Club has seen the annual cost o doc5 damage claims increase rom E: million to E;1 million. *uring this period" the number o claims handled b! the Club has doubled" #hile the total cost has increased b! almost our times. Almost 2/F o these claims can be put do#n to bad ship handling" errors in ship control" tug error or pilot error. 7e have noticed that ne#er ships are more li5el! to be involved in doc5 damage" #hich ma! be a result o berthing #ithout tug assistance. @o#ever" it appears that the ma&orit! o incidents are caused b! simple mista5es made b! an individual. The case studies that ollo# brie l! report incidents" their causes and ho# the! could have been avoided. Stru+# a a&!gat!o ,ar# The ship #as navigating in a buo!ed channel steering to#ards the air#a! beacon. It #as the third o icers #atch. Gisibilit! #as good" the sea calm. The master #as on the bridge #ith the #atch o icer. The! both stood and #atched as the ship drove into and demolished the air#a! beacon. Cause - operator error The masters instruction to the #atch o icer #as that #hen he" the master" #as on the bridge" he #ould be in charge. As a result" there #as no procedure or handing over bet#een the #atch o icer and the master. In this incident" the third o icer thought the master #ould ma5e the necessar! course change to miss the air#a! beacon and the master thought the third o icer #ould change course. @o#ever" neither made the necessar! course alteration. 8either 5ne# #ho #as in control. The need or ormal procedures to hand over the #atch bet#een the master and #atch o icer is essential. Stru+# the .erth at /01 The ship #as to berth #ithout a pilot but #ith tug assistance. The plan #as to approach the berth head%on" drop the starboard anchor and then turn #ith tug assistance to berth port side to the $ua!. The anchor #as dropped as the ship approached the berth at </H but she continued on and struc5 the berth. Cause - operator error The master sailed directl! to#ards the berth thin5ing he could drop his anchor to reduce the ships approach speed rather than stopping some distance rom the berth and approaching #ith caution at dead slo# speed. The speed o approach #as eCcessive and the ship could not be controlled.

Stru+# a 2o+# The master" pilot" #atch o icer and helmsman #ere on the bridge. The pilot gave the orders and the helmsman applied them. The pilot ordered starboard helm" but the helmsman applied port helm. B! the time this error #as discovered" the ship #as s#inging to#ards rather than a#a! rom the berth. Cause - operator error It #as not the practice to repeat helm orders. The helmsman thought the pilot had ordered port helm" he did not repeat the order and the pilot did not observe the rudder movement. @elm orders should al#a!s be repeated. It is best practice or the ships master or #atch o icer to repeat the helm order rom a pilot to the $uartermaster and or the $uartermaster to repeat the order bac5 be ore the manoeuvre is made. Sh!p spe2 3or$ar2 a 2 stru+# the 2o+# The ship had &ust berthed and a tug #as still attached. The pilot #as on the bridge. 'or#ard spring and headlines #ere made ast" and stern lines #ere being attached. )ngines" though still on bridge control" #ere stopped. It #as unli5el! that engines #ould be used again so the! #ere set to engine control. As this happened" the ship sped or#ard and" although her bo# #as restrained b! the or#ard spring" she struc5 the doc5. Cause - e4u!p,e t 3a!lure The engine #as in operation #ith the propeller pitch set to Iero on the bridge telegraph" but to 23F or#ard pitch on the engine telegraph. 6n trans er to engine control" the pitch reset to 23F ahead. The engine room pitch control had not been s!nchronised #ith the bridge telegraph. Telegraph settings should have been chec5ed during handover. Sh!p spe2 3or$ar2 a 2 stru+# a ,oore2 sh!p The pilot #as on the bridge" mooring lines had been reduced to one headline and one spring. The chie engineer started the ships medium speed engine and the ship sped or#ard" bro5e the t#o remaining mooring lines" crossed the basin and collided #ith a moored ship. Cause - e4u!p,e t 3a!lure This small chemical tan5er #as itted #ith a medium speed diesel engine and a controllable pitch propeller. There #as a ault #ith the propeller control e$uipment and the propeller pitch had been set to D ull ahead. This #as the ail%sa e position. The indicator on the oil distribution boC sho#ed D ull ahead pitch" but the engineer had not chec5ed this be ore starting the engine. @e assumed the pitch #as Iero b! loo5ing at the dial in the engine control room. *eparture chec5s should re$uire sighting the propeller pitch indicator on the oil distribution boC. Har2 la 2! g $!th a 2o+# The t#in%scre# ship #as approaching the doc5 #ith the master operating the engine controls. There #as no pilot on board because the master held a pilotage certi icate. The master #as navigating b! visual re erence to 5no#n #a!points and navigation mar5s. The engine could be controlled rom the #heelhouse and rom both bridge #ingsJ usuall! the master operated the engine rom a bridge #ing. As the ship approached the berth" the master became concerned that the ships speed #as not reducing as eCpected. @e ad&usted the engine controls to give ull stern pitch on both engines #ith ull sha t po#er. The ships speed reduced but it #as still too great or berthing. A hard landing could not be avoided. Cause - e4u!p,e t 3a!lure

*uring the vo!age" a ault had developed #ith the control mechanism on the starboard propeller and conse$uentl! the propeller pitch had roIen at 23F ahead. The ships engineers had noticed this but had ailed to in orm the master. *uring doc5ing" the starboard pitch remained at 23F ahead regardless o the pitch set b! the master. The ault on the starboard propeller remained unnoticed even though the propeller pitch indicator gave the correct reading. Be ore berthing" an astern movement should be tested and the response o the engineKpropeller pitch observed. The #atch o icer should routinel! observe engine settings and pitch indicators. Bla+#out 2ur! g p!lotage The ship #as navigating in a narro# part o the Mississippi 9iver. She #as a modern tan5er e$uipped #ith ull automation" bridge control and a controllable pitch propeller. She #as sailing at ull river speed and had the sha t generator engaged. Suddenl!" the ship blac5ed out" veered to starboard and struc5 a moored ship. Cause - e4u!p,e t 3a!lure There had been a split%second interruption to the po#er suppl! or the engine automation. 7hen po#er #as resumed" the computer reset the engine 9PM and propeller pitch to the actor! set de ault values o Iero pitch and 23F po#er. These values di ered rom those that #ere currentl! set on the bridge telegraph. 8obod! could understand #h! propulsion po#er had ailed and the reduction in sha t po#er caused the sha t generator to cut out and the ship to blac5 out. An electrical ault had caused the split%second loss o po#er to the engine management s!stem. @o#ever" the ships cre# did not realise that the e$uipment #ould reset to the de ault settings or #hat those settings #ere. 7here eCtensive automation is used or engine management" it is essential or ever! engineering o icer to 5no# #hat" i an!" de ault settings there are. Poor +o,,u !+at!o s The ship had raised her anchor immediatel! be ore the pilot boarded. She #as under #a! #hen the pilot entered on to the bridge. The master spo5e )nglish to the pilot" but the pilots )nglish #as ver! poor and the master could hardl! understand #hat he #as sa!ing. 8evertheless" the master allo#ed berthing to continue. *uring her irst approach to the berth" the ship hit and san5 a ishing boatJ she struc5 the berth on the second approach. Cause - 3la$e2 pro+e2ures The lac5 o common language bet#een the master and pilot prevented a proper berthing discussion. Tugs that the master believed had been re$uested did not arrive and the master did not properl! understand the pilots orders. As a result" there #as utter con usion. The master should have returned the ship to the anchorage" anchored and #aited until a pilot boarded #ho spo5e a language common to both. Tug release2 to$5l! e T#o pilots" the master and #atch o icer #ere on the bridge as the G(CC approached the berth. 'our tugs #ere assisting" one or#ard" one a t and t#o standing b!. The plan #as to stop the ship about 1// metres rom the berth and to push her alongside. T#o tugs #ould push" #hile the t#o attached tugs #ould gentl! pull to stead! the ships approach. This plan #as ollo#ed" but #hen the ship #as less than 3/ metres rom the berth" the or#ard tug released the to#line and the ships bo# s#ung to starboard and struc5 the berth. Cause - 3la$e2 pro+e2ures The tug should not have released the to#line during #hat #as a critical part o the berthing manoeuvre. Since the line did not brea5" the conclusion must be that the pilot gave an

instruction to release. The pilot #as not repeating in )nglish his orders to the tugsJ as a result" the master did not understand #hat #as happening and #ould not intervene. Stru+# a 2olph! The (PG carrier #as moving to#ards a &ett! that comprised o mooring dolphins. 6ne o the dolphins #as hit and damaged #hen the ships bo# veered to starboard #hile she #as moving astern under ull astern po#er. Cause - 3a!lure to u 2ersta 2 sh!p6s +hara+ter!st!+s The ship #as itted #ith a right%handed propeller" #hich produced a pronounced transverse thrust #hen operating at a light draught and #hen moving astern. As a result" the ships stern #ould move to port. The master and pilot had not realised that transverse thrust #ould be su icientl! strong to cause the ships bo# to s#ing and did not allo# or it. It is important or ship masters and #atch o icers to understand the manoeuvring characteristics o a ship. At a suitable opportunit!" manoeuvring should be practised. It is especiall! important to be amiliar #ith the e ect o transverse thrust. Stru+# a ,oore2 sh!p The ship #as being to#ed stern irst against a lood tide to#ards the turning basin. T#o pilots #ere on the bridge along #ith the master" #atch o icer and helmsman. T#o tugs #ere assisting. The ship had not $uite reached the turning basin #hen the pilot started a ;>/H turn. *uring the turn" the tide pushed the ships stern to#ards the riverban5 and so engines #ere put to ull ahead to prevent contact. @o#ever" the ship sped or#ard and struc5 a moored ship on the opposite ban5 #ith her bo#. Cause - 3a!lure to u 2ersta 2 sh!p6s +hara+ter!st!+s The turn had been begun be ore the ship #as in the turning basin. Conse$uentl!" there #as less room to turn. Tide had been underestimated" and #hen the ships stern became dangerousl! close to the riverban5" the pilot applied eCcessive engine po#er. Although the pilot card had been sighted" there had not been a detailed discussion o the manoeuvre bet#een the master and the pilot. The turning position had not been indicated on the chart and the master #as una#are o the pilots intentions. A ull discussion o the intended manoeuvre bet#een the master and the pilot is essential be ore the pilot is given control. Stru+# a 2olph! In order to berth" it #as necessar! to s#ing the ship through ;>/H and approach at an angle o approCimatel! -3H. @o#ever" on this occasion" the ship came out o the turn to the #est o the &ett!. This #ould result in an approach angle o ;/H rather than -3H. There #as a our 5not current that #ould push the ship to#ards the &ett!. As the ship approached the &ett!" the strong current s#ung her bo# to port and to#ards the berth. Corrective action #as ta5en and additional starboard rudder applied" but the bo# still s#ung to#ards the &ett! and hit a mooring dolphin. Cause - 3a!lure to u 2ersta 2 .erth! g re4u!re,e ts The angle o approach to the &ett! #as too shallo#J contact is li5el! #hen tr!ing to berth at a shallo# angle. A ter completing the turn and inding the ship too ar to the #est o the approach line" the master should have ta5en her bac5 to the turning basin and s#ung her around again. The approach angle should have been agreed bet#een the master and the pilot at the start o the manoeuvre. As it turned out" the pilot attempted to Dmuddle through rather than to start again. The master allo#ed him to continue.

Stru+# a ,oore2 sh!p 6n this ship" it #as usual or the master to put her alongside the berth a ter ta5ing control rom the pilot. The discussion bet#een the master and pilot had been minimal. 6n this occasion" #hen the master too5 control" he sa# that the space on the berth #as small and &ust large enough or his ship. Also" he #ould be berthing against a di icult 5nuc5le. It #as night. The ship had a bo# thruster. A tug #as in attendance. As the ship approached the berth bo# irst" she hit the ship moored ahead. Cause - 3a!lure to u 2ersta 2 .erth! g re4u!re,e ts Inade$uate discussion bet#een the master and pilot resulted in the master having insu icient time to plan the berthing be ore attempting the manoeuvre. It #ould have been better to berth stern irst" using the tug and then the bo# thruster to push the bo# alongside. This #ould have become apparent during a discussion on berthing. Stru+# a r!&er .erth ! h!gh $! 2 The ship had arrived at the loc5 entrance #here she #as met b! t#o tugs" both o #hich #ould be needed to see her into the loc5. 7ind #as gusting orce ;/ and the ship #as ver! eCposed. The cre# #ere unable to attach a line to either tug and the ship #as blo#n on to a mooring dolphin. Cause - 3a!lure to allo$ 3or $! 2 7eather conditions #ere ver! poor and strong #inds #ere ma5ing navigation di icult. @o#ever" tugs had arrived onl! as the ship #as reaching the loc5" #hen in act the! should have been as5ed to attend #hen the ship #as in the open channel.

7. SHIP FACTORS THAT AFFECT %ANOEU8RING


@andling characteristics #ill var! rom ship t!pe to ship t!pe and rom ship to ship. @andling $ualities are determined b! ship design" #hich in turn depends on the ships intended unction. T!picall!" design ratios" such as a ships length to its beam" determine its #illingness to turn. @o#ever" desirable handling $ualities are achieved onl! #hen there is a balance bet#een directional stabilit! and directional instabilit!. U 2er$ater hull geo,etr' (ength to beam .(KB0" beam to draught .BKT0" bloc5 coe icient" prismatic coe icient .ratios o the ships volume o displacement against the volume o a rectangular bloc5 or a prism0 and location o longitudinal centre o buo!anc!" all give an indication o ho# a ship #ill handle. @igh values o (KB are associated #ith good course directional stabilit!. Container ships are li5el! to have a (KB ratio o approCimatel! >" #hile harbour tugs" #hich need to be able to turn $uic5l! and #here course stabilit! is not re$uired" have a value o 1.3 to :. @igh values o BKT increase lee#a! and the tendenc! or a ship in a beam #ind to Ds5ate across the sea sur ace. A BKT ratio o over - is large. Most merchant ships have a BKT ratio in the range o 1.23 to :.23. A 11%metre ast motor !acht #ill have a BKT ratio o about 3.23. Ships #ith large bloc5 and prismatic coe icients have poor course stabilit! and a readiness to turn. 7hen turning" the! #ill do so easil!. (arge tan5ers have these characteristics.

Ships #ith a large protruding bulbous bo# are li5el! to have their longitudinal centre o buo!anc! ar or#ard. As a result" the ship #ill sho# a tendenc! to turn. The p!&ot po! t A ship rotates about a point situated along its length" called the Dpivot point. 7hen a orce is applied to a ship" #hich has the result o causing the ship to turn .e.g. the rudder0" the ship #ill turn around a vertical aCis #hich is convenientl! re erred to as the pivot point. The position o the pivot point depends on a number o in luences. 7ith head#a!" the pivot point lies bet#een ;K- and ;K: o the ships length rom the bo#" and #ith stern#a!" it lies a corresponding distance rom the stern. In the case o a ship #ithout head#a! through the #ater but turning" its position #ill depend on the magnitude and position o the applied orce.s0" #hether resulting rom the rudder" thrusters" tug" #ind or other in luence. The pivot point traces the path that the ship ollo#s. Lateral ,ot!o Ships move laterall! #hen turning because the pivot point is not located at the ships centre. 7hen moving or#ard and turning to starboard" the ships lateral movement is to port. 7hen moving astern and turning to starboard" lateral movement is to starboard. It is important to understand #here the pivot point lies and ho# lateral movement can cause side#a!s dri t" 5no#ledge #hich is essential #hen manoeuvring close to haIards. Propeller a 2 ru22er The rudder acts as a h!dro oil. B! itsel " it is a passive instrument and relies on #ater passing over it to give it Dli t. 9udders are placed at the stern o a ship or this reason and to ta5e advantage o the or#ard pivot point" #hich enhances the e ect. 7ater lo# is provided b! the ship passing through the #ater and b! the propeller orcing #ater over the rudder in the process o driving the ship. The optimum steerage orce is provided b! #ater lo# generated b! a turning propeller.7ater lo# is vital in maintaining control o the ship. 7hile #ater lo# provided b! the ships motion alone can be e ective" the e ect #ill diminish as speed is reduced. 6bstacles that de lect lo#" such as a stopped propeller in ront o the rudder" particularl! #hen the propeller is large" can reduce rudder e ectiveness. 9educed or disturbed lo# #ill result in a poor response to rudder movements. Conventional rudders are described as DbalancedJ part o the rudder area is or#ard o the pintles to help the rudder turn and to ease the load on the steering motor. This arrangement provides or better h!drod!namic loading. A lap .Bec5er rudder0 can be itted to the rudders trailing edge. The lap #or5s to increase the e ective camber o the rudder and to increase li t. 9udders can be de ined b! #hat is 5no#n as the Drudder area ratio" #hich is a ratio o the sur ace area o the rudder divided b! the ships length and draught. The rudder area ratio gives an indication o the li5el! e ectiveness o a rudder. Merchant ship ratios range rom /./;? to /./:3. The larger the ratio" the greater the e ect the rudder #ill have. Thrust &e+tor! g 2e&!+es Thrust vectoring devices are itted as an alternative to a rudder. The! operate under the principle that a rudder is e ective because it de lects the propeller slipstream" #hich initiates a turn and maintains a state o balance once the turn is established. Conse$uentl!" manoeuvrabilit! is enhanced #hen all the thrust rom a propeller is vectored. AIimuthing ducted thrusters" c!cloidal thrusters and pump &ets all operate b! directing thrust to initiate and to maintain the turn. Podded propulsors are devices #here the prime mover is an electric motor" encased in an under#ater streamlined pod" #hich connects directl! to a propeller. Pods

are itted to the outside o a hull. The! can be aIimuthing or iCed. Propellers attached to them can push or pull. A propulsion pod acts as both propeller and rudder. Bo$ thrusters a 2 the!r use (ateral thrusters can be itted in the bo# or the stern. (ateral thrusters are most e ective #hen a ship has neither head#a! nor stern#a!. The! create a turning e ect b! providing a side orce at their location. Their e ectiveness #ill depend upon the distance bet#een the thruster and ships pivot point. 7hen berthing a ship that has a single bo# thruster" and no stern thruster" it is important not to become too ocused on the bo#" because this can be controlled #ith the thruster. Plan to get the stern alongside as a priorit!. 9emember that pure rotation can onl! be induced b! t#o lateral thrusters" one or#ard and one a t" opposing each other" and that a tug ma! be needed to control the stern o a large ship. Bo# thrusters are used #hen it is re$uired to Dbreast on to or o a berth or to move the ships head rom a &ett!. Modern ships itted #ith a bo# thruster #ill o ten berth #ithout tug assistance. @o#ever" a bo# thruster #ill lose its e ectiveness as a ships speed increases. *epending on the hull and thrust tunnel design" thrust e ectiveness can be lost at bet#een 1 and 3 5nots. The reason or this is the merging o the slipstream rom the thruster #ith the general lo# around a or#ard moving hull. 7hen speed increases above t#o 5nots" local loss o pressure over the hull" do#nstream rom the thruster" creates a turning moment opposite to the moment produced b! the thruster. The thruster ma! become ine ective. Thrust! g $he stoppe2 B 7hen stopped and thrusting" a ships pivot point is li5el! to be a t. I a bo# thruster is put to starboard on a stopped ship" the ship #ill turn to starboard. Thrust! g $!th hea2$a' B The pivot point #ill be or#ard" so thrusting #ill not be ver! e ective" especiall! at high speeds. Thrust! g $!th ster $a' B The pivot point is a t and #hen the bo# thruster is put to starboard" the ships bo# #ill s#ing to starboard. The thruster #ill be e ective" and #ill act as a orm o Drudder. Ru22er respo se The time it ta5es or the rudder to respond to a helm order #ill determine ho# rapidl! a ship gets into a turn. The $uic5er the rudder responds" the sooner the ship #ill begin to turn. S! gle ru22ers a 2 t$! s+re$ sh!ps Manoeuvring characteristics at lo# speeds #ill generall! be poor on t#in scre# ships itted #ith a single centre line rudder. This is because the single centre line rudder ma! have to be moved to large angles be ore an! part o it becomes immersed in the slipstream o one o the propellers. 7hen not immersed" the li t produced b! the rudder at lo# speeds #ill be ver! small" resulting in large turning circles and poor response to helm. Tra s&erse thrust Transverse thrust is the tendenc! or a or#ard or astern running propeller to move the stern to starboard or port. Transverse thrust is caused b! interaction bet#een the hull" propeller and rudder. The e ect o transverse thrust is a slight tendenc! or the bo# to s#ing to port on a ship #ith a right%handed propeller turning ahead. Transverse thrust is more pronounced #hen propellers are moving astern. 7hen moving astern" transverse thrust is caused b! #ater passing through the astern%moving propeller creating high pressure on the starboard $uarter o the hull" #hich produces a orce that pushes the ships stern to port. 9udder angle can in luence the magnitude o this orce. Masters should be a#are o the variable e ect o transverse thrust. As #ater lo# over a ships hull changes" so does transverse thrust. The

di erence is most noticeable in shallo# #ater. 'or eCample" a ship that turns to starboard in deep #ater ma! #ell turn to port in shallo# #ater. Also" the magnitude o the orce #ill change and" b! implication" there #ill be a range o #ater depths or #hich the bias ma! be di icult to predict" something that is especiall! true #hen a ship is stopping in #ater o reducing depth. Transverse thrust is o ten used to help bring the ships stern alongside during berthing. 7hen a propeller is put astern on a ship moving or#ard at speed" the initial e ect o transverse thrust is slight. @o#ever" as the ships or#ard motion decreases" the e ect o transverse thrust increases. It is essential or a master to understand &ust ho# much e ect transverse thrust has on his particular ship. Approa+h spee2 Man! berthing accidents occur because the speed o approach is too high. The master should advise the pilot o the ships stopping distance and general manoeuvring characteristics" giving particular emphasis to speed" corresponding engine revolutions and to the critical range. 7hen close to a doc5" speed should be the minimum necessar! to maintain control. Co trol $h!le slo$! g It can be di icult to reduce speed and maintain control. This is because reduction in propeller speed reduces #ater lo# over the rudder and the rudder becomes less e ective. The normal procedure or stopping is to put engines astern. @o#ever" #hen a propeller rotates astern" #ater lo# over the rudder is bro5en and the ship #ill be less responsive to helm. In addition" there is the disruptive e ect o transverse thrust. 'or this reason" it is essential to plan a stop b! reducing speed in good time. Also" it should be appreciated that putting engines to ull astern during an emergenc! could result in a loss o steerage. )!+# ahea2 The D5ic5 ahead is used #hen a ship is moving or#ard at ver! slo# speed due to minimal #ater lo# over the rudder and the ship is not responding to helm. It is also used to initiate a turn. )ngines are put ahead or a short burst #ith the ob&ective o increasing #ater lo# over the rudder" but #ithout increasing the ships speed. )ngine po#er is reduced be ore the ships longitudinal inertia is overcome and she begins to accelerate. 7hen using the D5ic5 ahead" it should be borne in mind that prolonged and re$uent 5ic5s ahead #ill increase the ships speed. Appl! ull rudder to provide maCimum steering orce. An!thing less than hard over during turning #ill allo# a greater proportion o the po#er to drive the ship ahead. It is important to reduce engine po#er be ore reducing helm.

9. BERTHING IN "IND
"! 2 a 2 !ts e33e+t 7ind has a signi icant e ect on a ship. It causes heading changes and lee#a!. 'ailure to compensate correctl! or #ind during berthing is a signi icant cause o berthing accidents. The di icult! in allo#ing or #ind arises rom the variable e ect that #ind can have on a ship because o changes in a ships heading and speed. 7ind has special signi icance in the handling o high%sided vessels such as car carriers. The e ect #ill var! #ith the relative #ind direction and the speed o the ship. Although #ind orce and direction can be estimated rom

in ormation obtained rom a variet! o sources" such as #eather orecasts" GTS in ormation" the ships o#n #ind instrumentation and personal observation" local conditions can change rapidl! and #ith little #arning. Control o a ship can be easil! lost during the passage o a s$uall. There is an obvious need to understand ho# #ind #ill a ect !our ship" and ho# this e ect can be di icult to predict. 'or eCample" it might appear logical that the e ect o #ind on a tan5er stopped in the #ater #ould cause the bo# to s#ing to#ards the #ind. @o#ever" eCperience sho#s that a tan5er stopped in the #ater #ill usuall! lie #ith the #ind or#ard o the beam rather than ine on the bo#. It is especiall! di icult to predict the e ect o #ind on a partiall! loaded container ship. The +e tre o3 lateral res!sta +e The orce o the #ind causes the ship to dri t and" b! doing so" h!drod!namic orces act on the under#ater hull to resist the e ect o the #ind. The point o in luence o these under#ater orces is 5no#n as the centre o lateral resistance .C(90 and is the point on the under#ater hull at #hich the #hole h!drod!namic orce can be considered to act. Similarl!" there is a point o in luence o #ind .70 #hich has an important relationship #ith the C(9. 7 is li5el! to alter re$uentl! as it #ill change in relation to the #ind direction and the ships heading. To anticipate the e ect #ind #ill have on a ships heading" 7 must be vie#ed in relation to C(9. Ship handlers pre er to re er to pivot point .P0 rather than C(9 #hen discussing the e ects o #ind on a ship #ith head#a! or stern#a!. @o#ever" a stopped ship does not have a pivot point and or this reason C(9 should al#a!s be used. In the discussion #hich ollo#s" C(9 is used or a stopped ship and P or a ship #ith motion. The po! t o3 ! 3lue +e o3 $! 2 The point o in luence o #ind .70 is that point on the ships above%#ater structure upon #hich the #hole orce o the #ind can be considered an act. Lnli5e a ships centre o gravit!" the point o in luence o #ind moves depending on the pro ile o the ship presented to the #ind. 7hen a ships beam is acing to the #ind" 7 #ill be airl! close to the mid%length point" slightl! a t in the case o ships #ith a t accommodation and slightl! or#ard i the accommodation is or#ard. A ship #ill al#a!s #ant to settle into a position #here the pivot point and point o in luence o #ind in are in alignment. Sh!p stoppe2 - sh!p $!th a++o,,o2at!o .lo+# a3t 6n a stopped ship #ith the #ind on her beam" 7 #ill be close to the ships mid%length. 7hen stopped in the #ater" the C(9 is also at its mid%length. The di erence in location bet#een the t#o points produces a small couple" and the ship #ill turn #ith its head to#ards the #ind. As the ship turns" 7 moves until it is close to the C(9" #hen the couple reduces to Iero. The ship #ill settle on this heading" usuall! #ith the #ind slightl! or#ard o the beam.

Sh!p $!th hea2$a' - sh!p $!th a++o,,o2at!o .lo+# a3t I a ship has head#a!" P is or#ard and the lever bet#een 7 and P is large. The resultant orce #ill cause the ships head to turn to the #ind.

Sh!p $!th ster $a' - sh!p $!th a++o,,o2at!o .lo+# a3t I a ship has stern#a!" P is a t o 7 and the ships stern #ill see5 the #ind. @o#ever" and or the ma&orit! o ships" the compleCit! o the a t%end accommodation structure can cause 7 to move urther a t as the ship turns. )ventuall!" the ship ma! settle #ith the #ind broad on the $uarter rather than the stern.

For+e o3 the $! 2 7ind orce can be estimated b! the ormula+ ' M .G1K;>"///0 C #indage area" #here ' is the #ind orce in tonnes per s$uare metre" G is the #ind speed in mKs metresKsecond0 and #indage area is the area o ship eCposed to the #ind in s$uare metres. )stimate #indage area or a beam #ind b! multipl!ing length b! reeboard and adding the pro ile area o the accommodation housing. 'or a head #ind" multipl! beam b! reeboard and add the area o the bridge ront. And" as an! mariner #ill 5no#" double the igure obtained or ' and order one or more tugs #ith the nearest bollard pull. This calculation gives an estimate o the total orce o #ind on a ships side. It #ill give an indication o the total po#er that tugs #ill need in order to overcome this orce. It should be remembered that a ship #ill al#a!s #ant to settle on a heading #here the ships pivot point is in alignment #ith the position o the #inds point o in luence. 7hen navigating on such a course" a ship #ill sho# good course%5eeping properties. As a result" it is pre erable to berth #ith head to #ind #ith head#a! and to berth #ith stern to #ind #ith stern#a!. In addition" 5no#ledge o the location o 7" compared #ith P" ma5es it possible to predict #hether the ships head or stern #ill Dgo to #ind as a ship is stopped. The ship #ill #ant to settle #ith P in alignment #ith and to #ind#ard o 7. @igh%sided ships ma! su er more rom lee#a! than rom heading change.

Berth! g ! $! 2 A ship is most vulnerable #hen presenting its broadside" the area o greatest #indage" to the #ind. In strong #inds" it ma! be di icult to counteract the e ect #ithout tug assistance or the use o a thruster. I close to a berth" it is essential that mooring lines are set as $uic5l! as possible. Ideall!" plan the manoeuvring so as to present the minimum pro ile to the #ind" i.e. head to #ind" or at least reduce to a minimum the time the #ind is at a broad angle to the ship. Po! ts to re,e,.er: B )nsure that conditions are sa e and suitable or the envisaged manoeuvre. It #ill be cheaper to dela! the ship until the #ind moderates than to deal #ith the a termath o an accident. 7ind orce acting on a ship increases #ith the s$uare o the #ind speed. *oubling the #ind speed gives our times the orce. Gusts o #ind are dangerous. I berthing in high #inds" ta5e evasiveKcorrective action earl!. Attach tugs earl! and be ore the! are needed. Tugs should be o su icient strength not onl! to counteract the e ects o #ind but to get the ship to the re$uired destination. The berthing plan should be devised to minimise the adverse e ect o #ind and to maCimise its assistance. A ship is more vulnerable to #ind at slo# speed. As speed reduces h!drod!namic orces reduce" and the e ect o #ind on heading and lee#a! increases. Ta5e corrective action as soon as it becomes obvious that it is needed. The earlier that action is ta5en" the less that needs to be done. The longer things are le t" the more drastic #ill be the action needed to correct the situation. Aic5s ahead are e ective in controlling a ship in #ind! conditions. Consider an! special circumstances #here #ind ma! a ect ship handling. Trim" reeboard and dec5 cargo can var! the position o 7 and the orce o the #ind on the ship" and change the ships natural tendenc! in #ind. 'or eCample" signi icant trim b! the stern can cause 7 to move ahead o P. In these circumstances the bo# #ill have increased #indage. Conse$uentl!" i the ship is heading into #ind" the bo# ma! sho# a tendenc! to blo# do#n#ind" even i the ship has head#a!. )nclosed bridges can lead to a alse impression o #ind strength" as opposed to open bridge #ings #here the #ind strength #ill be obvious. The #indage area" and hence the orce o the #ind on the ship" #ill var! #ith the heading relative to the #ind. The maCimum orce on the ship is #hen the ship is broadside to the #ind. Good control is eas! to achieve #hen the ships head is to #ind and the ship has head#a!. Control is di icult #hen #ind is ollo#ing and strong turning orces are created. @igh reeboard ships are more di icult to berth. 7hen berthing high reeboard ships such as car carriers" it is essential to pa! eCtra attention in #ind! conditions. Appl! large passing distances #hen it is #ind!. Al#a!s pass an! obstructions #ell up#ind. Gusts and s$ualls can arrive ver! rapidl! and #ith little #arning. 7hen #ind has caused a ship to move rapidl! to lee#ard" it can be di icult to overcome the motion and return to a position o sa et!.

B B B B B B

B B

B B

B B B

Allo# plent! o distance rom the berth #hen #ind is onshore. I berthing in an onshore #ind" it is best practice to stop hal a ships length rom the berth and then come alongside in a controlled manner. An uncontrolled landing on a do#n#ind berth can result in damage to both the ship and the berth.

;. EFFECT OF CURRENT
Curre t a 2 !ts e33e+t A eature o an! river berth is the current. It is common or a river berth to lie in the same direction as the prevailing current so that the current can assist #ith berthing. In this case" a berth can be approached bo# into the current in order to give the advantage o relativel! high speed through the #ater #ith a reduced speed over the ground. Conse$uentl!" steerage at lo# ground speed is improved b! the good #ater lo# over the rudder. The ship #ill be easier to stop. Another advantage o berthing into a current is that it can be used to push a ship alongside. Position the ship o the intended berth but at a slight angle to#ards it. Then allo# the current to produce a side#a!s movement o the ship to#ards the berth. Masters should note that currents are usuall! compleC" #ith var!ing rates and directions that can change hourl!. 'or sa e navigation" local 5no#ledge is essential. A ship ma5ing head#a! into a current" but stopped over the ground" #ill have a or#ard pivot point. Berth! g ! a +urre t Berthing #ith a ollo#ing current is di icult" since the ship must develop stern#a! through the #ater in order to be stopped over the ground. In these circumstances" control o a single scre# ship #ill not be eas!. Lse a tug to hold the stern against the current. Care is needed #hen berthing into a current" because too large an angle bet#een the berth and the direction o the current #ill cause the ship to move rapidl! side#a!s. Lnless corrected" contact #ith the berth ma! be unavoidable.

I during berthing the bo#s angle to the berth is over%corrected then the ship could move a#a! rom the berth as the #edge o #ater bet#een ship and berth becomes established. This ma! cause the ships stern to stri5e the berth.

6nce alongside" care must be ta5en to prevent the ship dropping astern be ore bac5 springs and head lines are set. Po! ts to re,e,.er:

B B B

In man! places a counter current lo#s in opposition to the main current close to the ban5. 6nl! local 5no#ledge #ill provide this in ormation. Current can var! #ith depth o #ater and large deep draught ships can eCperience di erent current e ects at di ering parts o the hull. Caution is needed. 7hen close to the berth in a head current" there is a danger that lo# inshore o the ship becomes restricted and the ship is sub&ect to interactive orces .see page 110. These orces can cause the ship to either be suc5ed to#ards or pushed a#a! rom the berth. (ocal 5no#ledge #ill help anticipate this phenomenon.

As speed is reduced" ta5e care that the increased proportion o the ships vector #hich is attributable to current does not set the ship close to obstructions.

Al#a!s ma5e a generous allo#ance or current. Its e ect on the ship increases as the ships speed reduces. A mista5e made during berthing is o ten impossible to correct. 9emember that current predictions are &ust predictions and meteorological conditions ma! result in a greater or lesser rate than orecast. (ocal GTS in ormation #ill normall! advise o an! signi icant anomalies.

<. H=DROD=NA%IC EFFECTS


"ater 2epth 7ater depth has a pro ound e ect on manoeuvring. In a harbour" #ater depth ma! var! rom deep to conditions in #hich there is danger o touching bottom. The behaviour o the ship changes #ith changes in #ater depth. A ships resistance increases as #ater depth reduces. The increase becomes signi icant #hen the #ater depth is less than t#ice the mean draught. The e ect o this increased resistance is a reduction in speed" unless engine revolutions are increased. As #ell as speed" #ater depth a ects manoeuvring" and as depth and under 5eel clearance reduce" turning abilit! deteriorates" virtual mass increases .increase in a ships mass resulting rom #ater being dragged along #ith the ship0 and the e ect o the propeller transverse thrust on !a# alters. As a result" a ship can become di icult" i not impossible" to

control during a stopping manoeuvre as the rudder loses the bene icial e ects o the propeller slipstream" and the bias o %course ma! become more pronounced. The increase in virtual mass is most noticeable #hen a ship is breasting on to a $ua! or &ett!. Girtual mass in s#a! motion is invariabl! large" increasing as under 5eel clearance reduces. Conse$uentl!" an! impact #ith a $ua! #all" &ett! or ender #ill be much more severe i under% 5eel clearance is small. Similarl!" #hen a large ship moored in shallo# #ater is allo#ed to move" the momentum can be considerable. 'ortunatel!" the situation is alleviated b! the considerabl! increased damping o an! movement that is a conse$uence o shallo# #ater and small under%5eel clearance. 7ater depth limits a ships speed. There is a maCimum speed that a conventional displacement ship can achieve in shallo# #ater #hich can be less than the normal service speed. This is called the Dlimiting speed. (imiting speed needs to be considered during passage planning. Ano#ledge o areas #here ships speed is limited b! #ater depth is important because an! increase in engine po#er to overcome the limiting speed #ill greatl! increase #ash. In simple terms" the limiting speed can be calculated rom the ormula+
G lim =-.3 h

#here h is the #ater depth in metres and Glim is speed in 5nots. In shallo# #ater" and because o insu icient engine po#er" a conventional ship ma! be unable to overcome the limiting speed. @o#ever" some po#er ul ships such as ast erries can overcome limiting speed but in doing so produce dangerous #ash. S4uat S$uat is the increase in draught and trim that occurs #hen a ship moves on the sur ace o the sea. At lo# speed" a ship sin5s bodil! and trims b! the head. At high speed" a ship bodil! li ts and trims b! the stern. At especiall! high speed" the ship can plane. @o#ever" s$uat is greatest in shallo# #ater #here the resulting increase in draught and trim can cause grounding. This" o course" provides a urther limit on speed in shallo# #ater" consideration o grounding due to s$uat being especiall! important i the under%5eel clearance is ;/F or less o the draught and the speed is 2/F or more o the limiting speed. In shallo# #ater" s$uat can be estimated b! adding ;/F to the draught or /.: metres or ever! 3 5nots o speed. "ater$a' $!2th I the #ater#a! is restricted in #idth as #ell as depth" this can also have an e ect on per ormance. I the under#ater midship area o the ship is signi icant compared to that o the #ater#a! .over 1/F" sa!0 then this Dbloc5age #ill urther increase resistance" increase s$uat and create a Dbac5 lo# o #ater bet#een the ship and the #ater#a!. This #ill cause silt to go into suspension or deposit on the bed o the channel" and ma! erode the #ater#a!. It ma! also cause ban5 material to be trans erred to the bed o the #ater#a!. A urther e ect ma! also occur. I the ban5s are high relative to the #ater depth" the ship ma! steer a#a! rom the ban5. This Dban5 e ect is due to bac5 lo# bet#een the ban5 and the ship creating a lo#pressure region amidships. This causes the ship to be Dsuc5ed to#ards the ban5" and a pressure #ave bet#een the bo# and the ban5 .the Dbo# cushion0 pushes the bo# a#a! rom the ban5 and the stern is dra#n in.

Ban5 e ect increases #ith increases in speed" bloc5age .i.e. #hen the cross%sectioned area o the ship is large relative to the cross%sectioned area o the ban50 and lo# under%5eel clearance. I speed is too high" ban5 e ect can be severe and sudden" catching the ship handler una#are. It is advisable to slo# do#n and to steer to#ards the ban5. B! so doing" it ma! be possible to stri5e a balance" #ith the ship running parallel to the ban5. Ban5 e ect is also elt on bends in a #ater#a! #hen proCimit! to the outer ban5 ma! Dhelp the bo# round a tight bend. I tera+t!o $!th other sh!ps Nust as ships can interact #ith ban5s" the! can also interact #ith other ships. The same basic ph!sical actors are involved" shallo# #ater" speed and distance o . 7hen one ship comes too close to another at high speed" then one or more things can happen. The ship ma! turn to#ards" or be dra#n to#ards the other ship" or both ships ma! sheer a#a! rom each other" or the ship ma! turn to#ards .across0 the others bo#s. These h!drod!namic e ects are collectivel! 5no#n as Dinteraction. The! can and do lead to collisions or contact. Interaction is accentuated b! shallo# #ater #hen a large h!drod!namic e ect can render a ship almost impossible to control. To minimise their e ect" it is essential that masters anticipate the situation" that speed is reduced be ore the encounter" i practicable" and that the maCimum passing distance is maintained. This is especiall! true #hen overta5ing. Interaction is more o a problem #hen overta5ing than #hen crossing on a reciprocal course" because the orces have more time to Dta5e hold o the other ship. But it should be remembered that both ships are a ected b! the interaction and both should ta5e care to minimise its e ect. 9esearch has sho#n that mariners accept closer passing distances or overta5ing ships than or crossing ships. Approa+h +ha els Approach channels allo# a deep%draught ship to enter an other#ise shallo# port and ma! provide man! o the eCternal actors that a ect manoeuvring. The #idth" depth and alignment o man! approach channels are no# sub&ect to rigorous anal!sis at the design stage so that the! provide the minimum haIard to ships that move along them. The! are designed or single or t#o%#a! tra ic and their #idth" depth and alignment are an optimised compromise bet#een acceptable marine ris5 on the one hand and economic acceptabilit! .#ith regard to dredging costs0 on the other.

>. BERTHING "ITHOUT TUGS


7hen berthing #ithout tugs" it is essential that the e ects o lateral motion are ull! understood. 7hen a ship moving or#ard turns b! use o engines and rudder alone" the e ect o centri ugal orce is to push the ship laterall! a#a! rom the direction o the turn. 7hen turning b! use o bo# thrusters alone" the thruster simpl! pushes the bo# to port or starboard. There is no centri ugal orce or lateral motion. Port5s!2e .erth! g The ollo#ing se$uence assumes a iCed pitch right%handed single scre# ship #ithout tug assistance. Approach the berth at an angle" because astern thrust #ill be used to stop the ship and s#ing the bo# to starboard and the stern to port. This #ill parallel the ship to the berth.

6nce stopped" the ship can be manoeuvred into the inal position using astern po#er" #hich gives transverse thrust and 5ic5s ahead #ith appropriate rudder as re$uired. The actual se$uence #ill depend on the available berthing space. 8ormal port%side berthing #ith head#a! B lateral motion to port

I stern#a! is developed and transverse thrust causes stern to s#ing to port" lateral motion #ill be to starboard and a#a! rom the berth. This ma! be use ul i a ne# approach is re$uired. I stern#a! develops B lateral motion is to starboard

7hat can go #rong+ B Approa+h spee2 too h!gh 5 Ship can hit the berth #ith her bo# be ore stopping" or a large astern movement used to stop the ship" and the resulting transverse thrust" can cause the stern to hit the berth. )!+#s ahea2 go $ro g 5 I a sharp 5ic5 ahead is made close to the berth then eCcessive or#ard motion can result and the ships bo# can stri5e the berth. Lateral ,ot!o !g ore2 5 7hen approaching port%side to the berth" the ships lateral motion is to port. Insu icient a#areness o lateral motion can cause a ship to land heavil! against the berth. Stopp! g too 3ar 3ro, the .erth 5 The ship settles o the berth #ith her bo# moving a#a! rom the berth" a situation that is di icult to remed!. The action o appl!ing port rudder and a 5ic5 ahead and initiating a s#ing to port" in order to bring the bo# to#ards the berth" is li5el! to cause lateral motion o the ship" #hich #ill drive her a#a! rom the berth. (ateral motion is al#a!s at right angles to the direction o motion and a#a! rom the direction o turn. This apparentl! logical action ma! actuall! ma5e the situation #orse.

B B

I berthing against a 5nuc5le" it is important to land lat against the straight part o the $ua!" not on the 5nuc5le. Star.oar25s!2e .erth! g The ollo#ing se$uence assumes a single scre# ship #ith a iCed pitch right%handed propeller. The ideal approach should be to balance or#ard speed against the astern po#er needed to stop. The greater the or#ard speed" the greater the astern po#er re$uired to stop the ship and" conse$uentl!" the greater the e ect o transverse thrust" #hich #ill bring the bo# close to the berth and thro# the stern o .

Aim to approach the berth #ith the ship parallel. The e ect o transverse thrust #ill s#ing the bo# to#ards the berth.

To stop the ship" it #ill be necessar! to put the engine astern. Transverse thrust #ill probabl! push the stern to port and bo# to starboard. To correct the e ect o the transverse thrust" initiate a port s#ing o the bo# be ore appl!ing astern po#er. 7hat can go #rong+ B B Approa+h spee2 too h!gh 5 The need to use a large astern movement could cause the bo# to s#ing to#ards the berth and stri5e the berth. Sh!p stops +lose to the .erth $!th her .o$ to$ar2s the .erth 5 'or#ard engine movement could cause the bo# to stri5e the berth i too much po#er is used. Transverse thrust generated b! an astern movement can cause the bo# to s#ing to#ards the berth and stri5e the berth. Sh!p stops so,e 2!sta +e 3ro, the .erth .ut parallel to !t 5 A 5ic5 ahead #ith ull starboard rudder could result in the bo# stri5ing the berth at almost </O. The situation can be made more di icult because the stern is driven a#a! rom the berth.

Berth! g .et$ee t$o other sh!ps It is normal to berth a ship bet#een t#o other ships #ith little more than the shipPs length o clear space. Procedures or berthing bet#een t#o ships #ill depend upon local conditions. @o#ever" the teCtboo5 approach is to stop the ship in the re$uired ore and a t position" but clear o the other t#o ships" and then #or5 it alongside using thrusters. Alternativel!" the bo# or stern could be put alongside the berth irst. Although this chapter concerns berthing #ithout tugs" larger ships that are not itted #ith a bo# thrusters #ill re$uire tug assistance or this manoeuvre. Po! ts to re,e,.er: B Curre t has a greater e33e+t at slo$ spee2 % As speed is reduced approaching the berth" the current eCerts a proportionall! greater in luence #hich ma! cause the ship to start to drop astern #ith the danger o contacting the ship astern.

Other 3or+es +a +ause a sh!p to ,o&e % The ship can pic5 up head#a! or stern#a! #hen #or5ing alongside" either through the e ects o #ind" current" or as!mmetrical lead o ore and a t springs.

The sh!p6s propeller ,a' ot ha&e ?ero p!t+h % 9esidual pitch on a controllable pitch propeller ship can cause head#a! or stern#a!. This is potentiall! problematic #hen berthing in a con ined space. Use o3 .o$ thrusters ,a' ot al$a's help % In some ships and depending on thrust tunnel design" the bo# thruster can impart head#a!.

@. BERTHING "ITH TUGS


Tugs are usuall! emplo!ed according to the practice o the port a ter ta5ing into account the capabilities o the available tug t!pes. To#age has a number o potential haIards" and tug masters #ill give priorit! to the sa et! o their o#n tugs in dangerous situations. There are several points to remember" not onl! #ith regard to sa et!" but also to ensure that tugs are used in the most e ective manner. Berthing #ith tugs o ers greater leCibilit! to the ship handler. 'actors to ta5e into account #hen determining the number o tugs to be emplo!ed+ B practice in the port or the particular siIe o ship and the designated berth B under%5eel clearance B anticipated strength and direction o #ind and its li5el! e ect on berthing B #indage area o the ship B stopping po#er and handling characteristics o the ship. In general" tugs have di icult! operating at high speed. Interactive orces bet#een the ship and the tug can become ver! large" particularl! at the ends o the ship. @igh speed increases the possibilit! o capsiIing a conventional tug. The e ectiveness o a tug is proportional to the distance bet#een its point o contact and the ships pivot point. 'or instance" #hen the ship has head#a! #ith t#o tugs attached" one or#ard and one a t" the a t tug #ill have more e ect than the or#ard one because the distance rom the a ter tug connection to the ships pivot point is greater. I both tugs are appl!ing the same po#er" the result #ill be a s#ing o the ship in avour o the a t tug. Po! ts to re,e,.er: B B B B B 7hen a tug attached b! a line leading or#ard applies a turning orce there #ill also be an increase in the ships speed. Anticipate an! changes in tug positioning on the ship and allo# su icient time or the tugs to reposition and be read! to assist. Be a#are o an! space or other limitations that ma! give the tug master di icult! in carr!ing out the ships re$uirements. Tugs are most e ective #hen a ship is navigating at slo# speed. 'or berthing purposes" the! should not be attached to a ship navigating at a speed o ive 5nots or more. It is important or masters to discuss #ith a pilot the position #here a tug #ill attach be ore the tugs arrive. A tug acting #ith a long lever rom the ships pivot point #ill be more e ective than a tug #ith a short lever. The e ectiveness o a tug #ill depend upon the position #here it is attached.

B B B

Propeller #ash rom tugs operating close to a ship" and pulling" could initiall! cause a ships bo# or stern to move a#a! rom the direction in #hich the tug is pulling. Conventional tugs connected b! a line can eCert an un#anted orce on a small ship" #hich ma! re$uire corrective action. Masters should understand the di erent per ormance characteristics o tugs and that conventional tugs are li5el! to be less manoeuvrable than #ater tractor tugs. Ships masters can decide on the number o tugs emplo!ed but have no in luence on the tug t!pe.

Port5s!2e .erth! g A bo# thruster can be used to position the bo# #ith a degree o precision" ho#ever bo# thrust #ill not help to control the stern. Transverse thrust can be used to bring the stern o small ships alongside. @o#ever" on a larger ship that is not itted #ith a stern thruster" a tug can be secured a t to control the stern #hile bo# thrust is used to control the bo#. The simplest procedure is to stop the ship o the berth and then #or5 her alongside" using bo# thrust and a tug to provide lateral po#er. Star.oar25s!2e .erth! g A bo# thruster enables the bo# to be positioned #ith a degree o precision. @o#ever #ithout tug assistance" the di icult! o getting the stern alongside remains. Conse$uentl!" positioning the stern remains a priorit!. The use o bo# thrust alone to bring the bo# alongside" be ore the stern" is li5el! to cause the stern to move a#a! rom the berth. This situation is di icult to remed!. *epending on the circumstances" the ship can be stopped ahead o the re$uired position and then moved astern to#ards the berth using bo# thrust. 6nce the ship is in position" berthing can be completed using bo# thrust until the bo# is alongside. 7hen a tug is secured a t" control o the stern is greatl! improved.

/. BERTHING "ITH ANCHORS


Anchors are an e ective berthing aid. Anchors can be used or berthing #ithout tug assistance on ships #ithout bo# thrusters and" in an emergenc!" to stop an! ship. Dre2g! g a +hors A dredging anchor #ill hold the bo# stead! #hile allo#ing a ship to move or#ard or a t. A bo# anchor can be dredged rom a ship going or#ard or astern. The advantages o dredging an anchor #hen moving or#ard are principall! that the ships pivot point moves to the position o the ha#se pipe and" to overcome the anchors drag" propulsive po#er is used giving good steering at lo# speed. 7hen going or#ard" corrective action #ill be needed to prevent the bo# rom s#inging to port or starboard. The intention is or the anchor to drag and not to dig in. I the anchor does dig in" it could cause the ship to stop and necessitate brea5ing the anchor out again. *igging in can also damage the ship" anchor or #indlass. It is there ore important to use as little cable as possible" t!picall! a length o cable that is bet#een one and a hal and t#o times the depth o the #ater. (ocal 5no#ledge regarding the nature and condition o the seabed is important to avoid dredging in an area #here the bottom is oul.

E,erge +' a +hor! g In an emergenc!" anchors can be ver! e ective in stopping a ship" provided the anchor is lo#ered to the seabed and the cable progressivel! paid out. Initiall!" the anchor should be allo#ed to dredge and graduall! build up its holding po#er until its bra5ing e ect begins to reduce the ships speed. Care should be ta5en #hen tr!ing to stop an! ship in this #a!" especiall! a large ship" as the anchor and its e$uipment ma! Dcarr! a#a! causing damage or in&ur!" i the anchor should snag.

10. TUGS AND PILOTS - LEGAL ISSUES


It is evident rom the other chapters o this Guide dealing #ith the technical aspects o ship berthing that the e ective use o pilotage and to#age services is crucial in avoiding accidents. It is there ore important to re lect brie l! on the legal responsibilities o pilots" those engaged in to#age services" and the ships that the! assist. P!lotage The relationship bet#een the master and the pilot is raught #ith potential di iculties and con lict. The pilot directs the navigation o the ship" but the master still retains overall command and control. The reedom that the master gives to the pilot varies rom master to master but also depends upon the circumstances in #hich the pilotage ta5es place. The master o a large oreign%going ship entering a di icult channel #ill tend to adopt a more passive attitude to the pilot than a coastal master #ho 5no#s the area intimatel!. The #a! in #hich the la# interprets this relationship" and the rights and responsibilities o each to the other and to third parties" obviousl! di ers rom countr! to countr! and the ollo#ing is there ore o ered as a general overvie#. In man! legal s!stems" the customar! rules and statutor! enactments provide a con used and sometimes contradictor! picture" #hich tends to the conclusion that a master" #hen considering ho# to operate #ith a pilot" should be guided more b! common sense and sel %preservation than b! precise legal principles. The pilot o#es a pro essional dut! o care to those #hom he serves" #hich assumes a 5no#ledge and a#areness o local conditions. The pilot is there ore generall! liable to the shipo#ner" and to third parties" or a ailure to eCercise such care. In practice" ho#ever" such a responsibilit! is largel! illusor! since the pilot" as an individual" has e# assets #ith #hich to satis ! an! a#ard o damages. Also the eCtent o his liabilit! is o ten restricted at la# or limited in amount" although he ma! also be sub&ect to criminal sanctions under an! relevant legislation as a result o his actions. 7here there is in&ur! or damage to the propert! o a third part! caused b! the pilots negligence" the third part! #ill naturall! loo5 to the shipo#ner or compensation. There ma! be a possibilit! o a recourse action against the harbour authorit!" port commission or canal compan! that emplo!s the negligent pilot. I " ho#ever" the relevant bod! merel! acts as a licensing authorit!" it #ill not be liable or pilot error. Pilot associations are also generall! immune rom liabilit! or the actions o their members. Given the lac5 o accountabilit! o the pilot" it is tempting to ignore an! detailed legal anal!sis o the relationship bet#een the master and the pilot. This #ould be a mista5e since the principles #hich have been articulated in various legal &urisdictions provide a #ell considered vie# on the #a! in #hich the relationship should operate most e ectivel!. In terms o engagement" the master is onl! legall! bound to emplo! a pilot in an area o compulsor! pilotage. @o#ever" the master ma! be ound liable or not emplo!ing a pilot

#here it can be sho#n that such ailure caused or contributed to an accident. 7hilst the pilot ma! assume control o the navigation o the ship" this does not relieve the master o his command o the ship. The master there ore retains both the right and the responsibilit! to intervene in the actions o the pilot" although it has been stressed on man! occasions that the master is onl! &usti ied in intervening" #hen the pilot is in charge" in ver! rare instancesJ or eCample" #here he perceives the threat o an imminent danger to the ship or #hen the pilot is obviousl! incapacitated in some #a!. There is there ore a divided authorit!" #ith both the master and the pilot continuing to have active roles that ma! potentiall! con lict. The pilot is responsible or" and should be le t in charge o " navigation in terms o speed" course" stopping and reversing" but the ships master is responsible or all other matters such as maintaining a proper loo5out. And the pilot is entitled to eCpect a #ell%regulated and sea#orth! ship" that provides him #ith proper assistance and in ormation. To$age To#age has been de ined as Da service rendered b! one vessel to aid the propulsion or to eCpedite the movement o another vessel. To#age can ta5e place in man! di erent circumstances and can be part o a salvage or #rec5 removal operation ollo#ing a casualt!. It can also occur #hen a ship is in distress in order to avoid a casualt! occurring. In the vast ma&orit! o cases" ho#ever" to#age is a routine operation" particularl! #ithin the con ines o a port. This is re erred to as customar! to#age. An agent o the ship" or the charterer" usuall! re$uests the services o a tug or port to#age. 6nce engaged" ho#ever" the tug ma! ta5e its orders rom an! pilot on board the to#ed ship and there ore the presence o tugs adds to the compleCities o the relationship bet#een the master and pilot re erred to above. The pilot should be ull! a#are o each tugs po#er and handling characteristics but the responsibilit! or engaging tug assistance" #here re$uired" rests #ith the ships master" and the ships master ma! be ound negligent in not engaging a tug to assist #here the circumstances #arrant it and an accident occurs. )ver! shipo#ner should leave the $uestion o tug assistance to the discretion o the master #ho must ma5e a &udgment based on the prevailing circumstances. The rights and responsibilities o the tug and the to#ed ship" #ith regards to each other and in relation to third parties" are generall! dealt #ith in the applicable to#age contract. In most cases" the contract #ill be based on industr! standard terms that la! do#n clearl! the division o responsibilit! bet#een the t#o entities. Speci ic port user agreements eCist" but standard orm contracts" such as the LA Standard To#age Conditions" the 8etherlands To#age Conditions or the Scandinavian Conditions" are used in most cases. These all avour the tug" although in the LSA" the Supreme Court has held that an! clauses in a to#age contract purporting to relieve the tugo#ner o liabilit! or negligence are invalid as being against public polic!. In Napan" the tugo#ner must eCercise due diligence to ma5e the tug sea#orth! at the time she leaves the port and is liable or an! damage to the to# caused b! an! ailure to do so. Generall!" in the absence o clear #ording to the contrar!" a court #ill appl! as an implied term o the to#age contract that the tug o#ner #arrants to eCercise due diligence to ma5e the tug sea#orth! at the commencement o the to#age.

11. %ASTERAPILOT RELATIONSHIP


It is a given act that invariabl! pilotage is compulsor! and the ma&orit! o accidents during

berthing occur #ith a pilot on the bridge. 8o berthing guide #ould be complete #ithout re erence to the masterKpilot relationship. 7ith 5ind permission o the International Chamber o Shipping" Intertan5o and 6CIM' #e have reprinted the ollo#ing teCt rom their guide DInternational Best Practices or Maritime Pilotage. I ter at!o al Best Pra+t!+es 3or %ar!t!,e P!lotage These recommendations are or the guidance o masters" their supporting personnel and pilots in la!ing do#n the minimum standards to be eCpected o the pilotage service given on board ships in pilotage #aters #orld#ide and aims to clari ! the roles o the master and the pilot and the #or5ing relationship bet#een them. Such guidance is designed to supplement eCisting regulations and standard re erences on pilotage #hich include" but are not limited to" those listed in Section ;/. ;./ Principles or the sa e conduct o pilotage ;.; ) icient pilotage is chie l! dependent upon the e ectiveness o the communications and in ormation eCchanges bet#een the pilot" the master and other bridge personnel and upon the mutual understanding each has or the unctions and duties o the others. Ships personnel" shore based ship management and the relevant port and pilotage authorities should utilise the proven concept o QBridge Team ManagementR. )stablishment o e ective co%ordination bet#een the pilot" master and other ships personnel" ta5ing due account o the ships s!stems and the e$uipment available to the pilot is a prere$uisite or the sa e conduct o the ship through pilotage #aters. ;.1 The presence o a pilot on the ship does not relieve the master or o icer in charge o the navigational #atch rom their duties and obligations or the sa e conduct o the ship. 1./ Provision o in ormation or berth to berth passage planning 1.; Ships should provide the relevant port or pilotage authorit! #ith basic in ormation regarding their arrival intentions and ship characteristics" such as draught and dimensions" as re$uired b! the port or other statutor! obligations. This should be completed #ell in advance o the planned arrival and in accordance #ith local re$uirements. 1.1 In ac5no#ledging receipt o this in ormation" the appropriate port or pilotage authorit! should pass relevant in ormation bac5 to the ship .either directl! or via agents0 as soon as it becomes available. Such in ormation should include as a minimum+ the pilot boarding pointJ reporting and communications proceduresJ and su icient details o the prospective berth" anchorage and routeing in ormation to enable the master to prepare a provisional passage plan to the berth prior to his arrival. @o#ever" masters should recognise that not all o this in ormation ma! be available in su icient detail to complete the passage plan until the pilot has boarded the ship. :./ Master pilot in ormation eCchange :.; The pilot and the master should eCchange in ormation regarding the pilots intentions" the ships characteristics and operational parameters as soon as possible a ter the pilot has boarded the ship.

The ICS MasterKPilot )Cchange 'orms .AnneCes A; and A1 o the ICS Bridge Procedures Guide0 or the compan! e$uivalent ormat" should be completed b! both the master and pilot to help ensure read! availabilit! o the in ormation and that nothing is omitted in error. :.1 The eCchange o in ormation regarding pilotage and the passage plan should include clari ication o + B roles and responsibilities o the master" pilot and other members o the bridge management teamJ B navigational intentionsJ B local conditions including navigational or tra ic constraintsJ B tidal and current in ormationJ B berthing plan and mooring boat useJ B proposed use o tugsJ B eCpected #eather conditions. A ter ta5ing this in ormation into account and comparing the pilots suggested plan #ith that initiall! developed on board" the pilot and master should agree an overall inal plan earl! in the passage be ore the ship is committed. The master should not commit his ship to the passage until satis ied #ith the plan. All parties should be a#are that elements o the plan ma! change. :.: Contingenc! plans should also be made #hich should be ollo#ed in the event o a mal unction or a shipboard emergenc!" identi !ing possible abort points and sa e grounding areas. These should be discussed and agreed bet#een pilot and master. -./ *uties and 9esponsibilities -.; The pilot" master and bridge personnel share a responsibilit! or good communications and mutual understanding o the others role or the sa e conduct o the vessel in pilotage #aters. The! should also clari ! their respective roles and responsibilities so that the pilot can be easil! and success ull! integrated into the normal bridge management team. -.1 The pilots primar! dut! is to provide accurate in ormation to ensure the sa e navigation o the ship. In practice" the pilot #ill o ten con the ship on the masters behal . -.: The master retains the ultimate responsibilit! or the sa et! o his ship. @e and his bridge personnel have a dut! to support the pilot and to monitor his actions. This should include $uer!ing an! actions or omissions b! the pilot .or an! other member o the bridge management team0 i inconsistent #ith the passage plan or i the sa et! o the ship is in an! doubt. 3./ Preparation or pilotage 3.;The pilot should+ B ensure he is ade$uatel! rested prior to an act o pilotage" in good ph!sical and mental itness and not under the in luence o drugs or alcoholJ B prepare in ormation or incorporation into the ships passage plan b! 5eeping up to date #ith navigational" h!drographic and meteorological in ormation as #ell as tra ic movements #ithin the pilotage areaJ B establish communication #ith the ship to ma5e arrangements or boarding.

3.1 In supporting the pilot" the master and bridge personnel should+ B ensure the! are ade$uatel! rested prior to an act o pilotage" in good ph!sical and mental itness and not under the in luence o drugs or alcoholJ B dra# upon the preliminar! in ormation supplied b! the relevant port or pilotage authorit! along #ith published data .e.g. charts" tide tables" light lists" sailing directions and radio lists0 in order to develop a provisional passage plan prior to the ships arrivalJ B prepare suitable e$uipment and provide su icient personnel or embar5ing the pilot in a sa e and eCpedient mannerJ B establish communications #ith the pilot station to con irm boarding details. ?./ Pilot boarding ?.; The boarding position or pilots should be located" #here practicable" at a great enough distance rom the port so as to allo# su icient time or a comprehensive ace%to% ace eCchange o in ormation and agreement o the inal pilotage passage plan. The position chosen should allo# su icient sea%room to ensure that the ships sa et! is not put in danger" be ore" during or directl! a ter such discussionsJ neither should it impede the passage o other ships. ?.1 The pilot should+ B ta5e all necessar! personal sa et! precautions" including using or #earing the appropriate personal protective e$uipment and ensuring items are properl! maintainedJ B Chec5 that boarding e$uipment appears properl! rigged and mannedJ B (iaise #ith the master so that the ship is positioned and manoeuvred to permit sa e boarding. ?.: In supporting the pilot" the master and ships personnel should+ B ensure that the means o pilot embar5ation and disembar5ation are properl! positioned" rigged" maintained and manned in accordance #ith IM6 recommendations and" #here applicable" other port re$uirementsJ B the master should liaise #ith the pilot stationKtrans er cra t so that the ship is positioned and manoeuvred to ensure sa e boarding. 2./ Conduct o passage in pilotage #aters 2.; It is essential that a ace%to% ace masterKpilot eCchange .MPS0 described in section :.; results in clear and e ective communication and the #illingness o the pilot" master and bridge personnel to #or5 together as part o a bridge management team. )nglish languageJ or a mutuall! agreed common languageJ or the IM6 Standard Marine Communication Phrases should be used" and all members o the team share a responsibilit! to highlight an! perceived errors or omissions b! other team members" or clari ication. 2.1 The master and bridge personnel should+ B #ithin the bridge management team" interact #ith the pilot providing con irmation o his directions and eed bac5 #hen the! have been complied #ithJ B monitor at all times the ships speed and position as #ell as d!namic actors a ecting the ship .e.g. #eather conditions" manoeuvring responses and densit! o tra ic0J B con irm on the chart at appropriate intervals the ships position and the positions o navigational aids" alerting the pilot to an! perceived inconsistencies.

2.: The pilot should+ B ensure that the master is able to participate in an! discussions #hen one pilot relin$uishes his dut! to another pilotJ B report to the relevant authorit! an! irregularit! #ithin the passage" including de iciencies concerning the operation" manning" or e$uipment o the ship. >./ Berthing and unberthing >.; The necessit! o co%operation and a close #or5ing relationship bet#een the master and pilot during berthing and unberthing operations is eCtremel! important to the sa et! o the ship. In particular" both the pilot and the master should discuss and agree #hich one o them #ill be responsible or operating 5e! e$uipment and controls .such as main engine" helm and thrusters0. >.1 The pilot should+ B co%ordinate the e orts o all parties engaged in the berthing or unberthing operation .e.g. tug cre#s" linesmen" ships cre#0. @is intentions and actions should be eCplained immediatel! to the bridge management team" in the previousl! agreed appropriate language. >.: In supporting the pilot" the master and bridge personnel should+ B ensure that the pilots directions are conve!ed to the ships cre# and are correctl! implementedJ B ensure that the ships cre# provide the bridge management team #ith relevant eedbac5 in ormationJ B advise the pilot once his directions have been complied #ith" #here an omission has occurred or i a potential problem eCists <./ 6ther matters <.; The pilot should+ B assist interested parties such as port authorities" national authorities and lag administrations in reporting and investigating incidents involving vessels #hilst under pilotage" sub&ect to the la#s and regulations o the relevant authoritiesJ B in observing the recommendations #ithin this document pilots should meet or eCceed the re$uirements set do#n in IM6 Assembl! 9esolution A.->3.SII0 and its anneCesJ B should report to the appropriate authorit! an!thing observed #hich ma! a ect sa et! o navigation or pollution prevention" including an! incident that ma! have occurred to the piloted shipJ B re use pilotage #hen the ship to be piloted is believed to pose a danger to the sa et! o navigation or to the environment. An! such re usal" together #ith the reason" should immediatel! be reported to the appropriate authorit! or urther action. <.1 The master" having the ultimate responsibilit! or the sa e navigation o the ship has a responsibilit! to re$uest replacement o the pilot" should he deem it necessar!. ;/./ Standard 9e erences

B B B B B

IM6 9esolution A.->3.SII0" AnneCes I and II and subse$uent amendments Q9ecommendations on Training" Tuali ications and 6perational Procedures or Maritime Pilots other than *eep Sea PilotsR IM6 9esolution A.><:.1;0 QGuidelines or Go!age PlanningR IM6 9esolution A.>><.1;0 QPilot Trans er ArrangementsR S6(AS Chapter G" 9egulation 1: QPilot Trans er ArrangementsR ICS Bridge Procedures Guide