9.

B Workers’ Compensation
Table 9.B1—Coverage, benefits, and costs, selected years 1940–2001
Benefits paid during year (millions of dollars)
Type of insurance
Type of benefits
Cost of program as
State and
Private
Medical and Compensation
Employers’
a percentage of
c
d
d
carriers federal funds
hospitalization
payments
self-insurance
covered payroll a

Benefits as a
percentage of
covered payroll b

Year

Estimated number
of workers covered
per month (millions)

Total

1940
1946
1948
1949

24.6
32.7
36.0
35.3

256
434
534
566

135
270
335
353

73
96
121
132

48
68
78
81

95
140
175
185

161
294
359
381

1.19
0.91
0.96
0.98

0.72
0.54
0.51
0.55

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

36.9
38.7
39.4
40.7
39.8

615
709
785
841
876

381
444
491
524
540

149
170
193
210
225

85
94
101
107
110

200
233
260
280
308

415
476
525
561
568

0.89
0.90
0.94
0.97
0.98

0.54
0.54
0.55
0.55
0.57

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

41.4
43.0
43.3
42.5
44.0

916
1,002
1,062
1,112
1,210

563
618
661
694
753

238
259
271
285
316

115
125
130
132
141

325
350
360
375
410

591
652
702
737
800

0.91
0.92
0.91
0.91
0.89

0.55
0.55
0.56
0.58
0.58

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

44.9
45.0
46.2
47.3
48.8

1,295
1,374
1,489
1,582
1,707

810
851
924
988
1,070

325
347
371
388
412

160
176
194
207
226

435
460
495
525
565

860
914
994
1,057
1,142

0.93
0.95
0.96
0.99
1.00

0.59
0.61
0.62
0.62
0.63

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

50.8
53.7
55.0
56.8
59.0

1,814
2,000
2,189
2,376
2,634

1,124
1,239
1,363
1,482
1,641

445
486
524
556
607

244
275
303
338
386

600
680
750
830
920

1,214
1,320
1,439
1,546
1,714

1.00
1.02
1.07
1.07
1.08

0.61
0.61
0.63
0.62
0.62

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

59.2
59.4
62.3
66.3
68.0

3,031
3,563
4,061
5,103
5,781

1,843
2,005
2,179
2,514
2,971

755
1,098
1,379
1,998
2,086

432
460
504
592
724

1,050
1,130
1,250
1,480
1,760

1,981
2,433
2,811
3,623
4,021

1.11
1.11
1.14
1.17
1.24

0.66
0.67
0.68
0.70
0.75

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

67.2
69.6
72.1
75.6
78.6

6,598
7,584
8,630
9,796
12,027

3,422
3,976
4,629
5,256
6,157

2,324
2,570
2,750
3,043
4,022

852
1,039
1,250
1,497
1,848

2,030
2,380
2,680
2,980
3,520

4,568
5,204
5,950
6,816
8,507

1.32
1.49
1.71
1.86
1.95

0.83
0.87
0.92
0.94
1.01

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

78.8
78.3
77.0
78.0
81.9

13,618
15,054
16,407
17,575
19,685

7,029
7,876
8,647
9,265
10,610

4,330
4,595
4,768
5,061
5,405

2,259
2,583
2,993
3,249
3,671

3,947
4,431
5,058
5,681
6,424

9,671
10,623
11,349
11,894
13,261

1.96
1.85
1.75
1.67
1.66

1.07
1.08
1.16
1.17
1.21

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

84.3
86.0
88.4
91.3
93.7

22,217
24,613
27,318
30,733
34,316

12,341
13,827
15,453
17,512
19,918

5,744
6,248
6,782
7,477
7,965

4,132
4,538
5,082
5,744
6,433

7,498
8,642
9,912
11,518
13,424

14,719
15,971
17,406
19,215
20,892

1.82
1.99
2.07
2.16
2.04

1.30
1.37
1.43
1.49
1.46

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

95.1
93.6
94.6
96.1
109.6

38,238
42,169
44,660
42,925
44,586

22,222
24,515
24,030
21,773
22,306

8,658
9,711
10,987
11,294
10,753

7,358
7,944
9,643
9,857
11,527

15,187
16,832
18,252
17,521
17,194

23,051
25,337
26,408
25,403
27,392

2.13
2.16
2.13
2.17
2.05

1.57
1.65
1.69
1.62
1.51

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

112.4
114.8
118.1
121.5
124.3

43,373
41,837
42,313
43,355
45,197

21,145
20,392
21,645
23,069
24,635

10,996
10,669
10,046
10,109
10,126

11,232
10,775
10,623
10,177
10,436

16,733
16,555
17,306
18,122
19,164

26,640
25,282
25,007
25,233
26,033

1.82
1.66
1.48
1.35
1.33

1.38
1.26
1.18
1.12
1.09

2000
2001

124.1
127.0

47,684
49,354

26,618
27,060

10,402
11,004

10,664
11,290

20,647
21,956

27,037
27,398

1.32
1.39

1.06
1.07

a. Total costs to employers who purchase insurance from private carriers and state funds consist of premiums written in the calendar year plus the payments made under
deductible provisions. For self-insured employers, the costs include benefit payments and administrative costs.
b. Cash and medical benefits paid by self-insurers.
c. Net cash and medical benefits paid during calendar year by private insurance companies under standard workers’ compensation policies.
d. Net cash and medical benefits paid by competitive and exclusive state funds and federal benefits including: those paid under the Federal Employees’ Compensation Act for
civilian employees; the portion of the Black Lung benefit program that is financed by employers; and a portion of benefits under the Longshore and Harbor Workers’
Compensation Act that are not reflected in state data, namely, benefits paid by self-insured employers and by special funds under the LHWCA.
SOURCES: National Academy of Social Insurance estimates based on data received from state agencies, the Department of Labor, A.M. Best Company, and the National
Council on Compensation Insurance.
NOTE: Beginning in 1959, includes Alaska and Hawaii.
CONTACT: Virginia Reno (202) 452-8097.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 ♦ 9.3

9.B Workers’ Compensation
Table 9.B2—Benefits, by state and federal program, 1997–2001 (in thousands of dollars)
Program

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

42,420,642

43,463,251

45,315,531

47,806,003

49,354,474

39,532,961
530,230
128,043
449,791
170,465
7,073,544

40,487,217
602,088
127,368
432,965
170,891
7,365,820

42,335,025
551,398
130,334
465,554
173,054
7,851,641

44,726,705
529,189
145,917
515,241
194,470
8,967,630

46,285,207
562,773
171,248
392,861
201,136
9,604,446

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida

820,169
731,830
143,424
88,449
2,442,989

810,985
714,822
147,070
90,386
2,538,353

738,527
736,857
133,023
90,232
2,768,045

835,054
667,056
146,090
88,661
2,544,777

581,266
661,471
144,588
92,463
2,639,132

Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana

861,394
254,915
153,209
1,764,455
445,840

889,131
233,225
164,327
1,838,191
481,073

895,690
222,056
168,642
1,952,698
510,992

995,775
231,359
179,370
2,049,223
545,863

1,067,327
252,041
197,151
2,115,569
528,005

286,029
313,511
451,246
439,594
282,152

303,873
318,976
421,386
442,025
253,946

309,458
326,196
477,867
464,883
265,862

352,188
341,547
479,338
493,653
266,997

395,981
340,343
524,566
501,662
263,852

717,093
746,851
1,332,222
738,600
231,413

691,285
728,771
1,366,988
737,100
234,873

714,356
733,191
1,392,806
744,500
253,664

729,656
828,159
1,474,058
797,800
269,342

787,442
763,795
1,477,986
908,100
271,163

979,857
142,957
216,949
324,204
173,562

979,596
136,975
164,382
331,419
169,663

1,021,046
145,996
198,276
384,283
190,073

1,084,687
169,763
211,285
360,915
181,900

1,108,464
172,725
237,045
380,756
214,755

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

1,079,724
135,684
2,619,771
687,291
68,312

1,096,758
128,290
2,600,961
810,188
68,929

1,152,102
135,903
2,795,769
813,823
69,912

1,198,172
146,374
2,909,115
853,318
74,406

1,198,095
162,022
2,978,224
867,965
79,633

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

2,035,906
578,371
417,222
2,492,347
113,382

2,076,545
536,420
430,521
2,418,072
109,471

2,038,742
496,500
384,110
2,467,114
110,952

2,098,528
484,911
412,471
2,402,614
109,433

2,249,200
497,008
455,625
2,440,407
114,599

South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah

459,377
69,649
473,498
1,476,585
170,321

467,277
67,088
550,819
1,591,818
188,543

511,735
72,509
586,363
1,874,975
195,774

596,526
66,991
642,201
2,004,504
187,729

532,374
74,950
682,927
2,043,451
209,192

Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia a
Wisconsin
Wyoming

86,097
562,402
1,217,522
614,061
670,070
70,382

91,436
658,466
1,286,680
644,294
703,610
73,080

106,389
629,348
1,395,246
687,002
724,360
75,196

112,349
680,911
1,527,657
690,377
768,282
82,875

105,017
664,632
1,637,714
712,495
921,857
97,706

3,079,298
2,118,859

3,069,267
2,223,088

Total, state and federal

State programs
Subtotal
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California

Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

Federal programs b
Subtotal
Civilian employee

2,887,681
1,900,779

2,976,034
2,009,862

2,980,506
1,999,915

a. Preliminary estimates under review by the state.
b. Federal benefits include those paid under the Federal Employees’ Compensation Act for civilian employees; the portion of the Black Lung benefit program that is financed
by employers; and a portion of benefits under the Longshore and Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act that are not reflected in state data, namely, benefits paid by selfinsured employers and special funds under the LHWCA.
SOURCES: National Academy of Social Insurance estimates based on data received from state agencies, the Department of Labor, A.M. Best Company, and the National
Council on Compensation Insurance.
CONTACT: Virginia Reno (202) 452-8097.

9.4 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

9.B Workers’ Compensation
Table 9.B3—Benefits paid by type of insurer and medical benefits paid, by state and federal program, 2001
(in thousands of dollars)

Program
Total, state and federal

Total

Benefits paid by type of insurer
State
Private
funds
carriers a

49,354,474

...

...

46,285,207
562,773
171,248
392,861
201,136
9,604,446

27,060,245
304,347
133,209
171,438
138,650
5,309,044

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida

581,266
661,471
144,588
92,463
2,639,132

Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana

Selfinsurance b

Medical benefits paid
As a percentage
Total
of total benefits

...

21,955,890

44.5

7,934,591
...
...
141,660
...
1,471,260

11,290,374
258,425
38,038
79,762
62,485
2,824,142

21,175,714
329,138
95,602
241,217
123,095
4,467,765

45.8
58.5
55.8
61.4
61.2
46.5

303,608
473,669
97,935
75,842
1,887,602

116,312
...
...
...
...

161,346
187,803
46,654
16,622
751,530

260,999
276,495
67,470
33,076
1,496,388

1,067,327
252,041
197,151
2,115,569
528,005

753,118
164,739
90,255
1,617,229
446,371

...
12,688
96,256
...
...

314,209
74,614
10,640
498,340
81,634

515,519
103,304
110,799
949,890
343,830

c

395,981
340,343
524,566
501,662
263,852

324,016
240,567
338,591
248,848
108,726

...
...
34,799
108,171
68,126

71,965
99,776
151,176
144,643
87,000

182,943
194,336
288,952
265,379
115,433

c
c

Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi

787,442
763,795
1,477,986
908,100
271,163

391,391
650,701
809,463
613,300
169,687

211,926
...
...
91,600
...

184,125
113,095
668,523
203,200
101,477

311,194
269,793
482,602
432,300
148,208

39.5
35.3
32.7
47.6
54.7

Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

1,108,464
172,725
237,045
380,756
214,755

859,909
71,065
173,097
235,531
167,420

72,305
70,858
...
...
...

176,251
30,802
63,948
145,226
47,335

452,771
90,882
120,251
148,169
121,981

40.8
52.6
50.7
38.9
56.8

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

1,198,095
162,022
2,978,224
867,965
79,633

1,082,604
96,854
1,440,904
678,689
404

...
16,660
797,109
...
79,229

115,492
48,508
740,211
189,276
...

577,487
91,688
913,244
388,848
44,125

State programs
Subtotal
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California

Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine

c
c

c
d
c

c
c
c

c

c

44.9
41.8
46.7
35.8
56.7
48.3
41.0
56.2
44.9
65.1
46.2
57.1
55.1
52.9
43.7

d 48.2

c

56.6
30.7
44.8
55.4

(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 ♦ 9.5

9.B Workers’ Compensation
Table 9.B3—Benefits paid by type of insurer and medical benefits paid, by state and federal program, 2001
(in thousands of dollars)—Continued

Program

Total

Benefits paid by type of insurer
Private
State
carriers a
funds

Selfinsurance b

Medical benefits paid
As a percentage
Total
of total benefits

State programs (cont.)
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

2,249,200
497,008
455,625
2,440,407
114,599

34,210
286,686
223,980
1,724,421
47,644

1,762,619
118,987
191,825
146,715
50,457

452,371
91,334
39,820
569,271
16,498

999,803
237,073
216,747
953,435
26,737

South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah

532,374
74,950
682,927
2,043,451
209,192

367,262
69,399
525,158
1,611,537
78,161

39,444
...
...
245,144
92,935

125,668
5,551
157,769
186,770
38,095

140,893
41,635
353,073
1,232,201
139,322

Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

105,017
664,632
1,637,714
712,495
921,857
97,706

87,606
517,285
27,538
...
787,518
3,017

...
...
1,187,235
615,581
...
94,689

17,412
147,347
422,941
96,916
134,339
...

47,363
374,852
563,451
192,387
535,599
65,967

...
...

780,176
623,057

c

c
c
c
c
c

c

44.5
47.7
47.6
39.1
23.3
26.5
55.6
51.7
60.3
66.6
45.1
56.4
34.4
27.0
58.1
67.5

Federal programs e
Subtotal
Civilian employee

3,069,267
2,223,088

...
...

...
...

25.4
28.0

a. States with exclusive funds (Nevada, North Dakota, Ohio, Washington, West Virginia, and Wyoming) also have small amounts of benefits paid by private carriers. This
results from two sources: companies with group policies that overlap states and the fact that some companies include excess workers’ compensation coverage in their
reports of workers’ compensation benefits to A.M. Best Company.
b. Self-insurance includes individual self-insurers and group self-insurance.
c. Medical percentages based on data provided by the National Council on Compensation Insurance.
d. Medical percentage based on the weighted average of states where medical data were available.
e. Federal benefits include those paid under the Federal Employees’ Compensation Act for civilian employees; the portion of the Black Lung benefit program that is financed
by employers; and a portion of benefits under the Longshore and Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act that are not reflected in state data, namely, benefits paid by selfinsured employers and special funds under the LHWCA.
SOURCES: National Academy of Social Insurance estimates based on data received from state agencies, the Department of Labor, A.M. Best Company, and the National
Council on Compensation Insurance.
NOTE: . . . = not applicable.
CONTACT: Virginia Reno (202) 452-8097.

9.6 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003