9.

B Workers’ Compensation
Table 9.B1—Coverage, benefits, and costs, selected years 1940–2002

Year

Estimated
number of
workers
covered
per month
(millions)

Benefits paid during year (millions of dollars)

Total

Private
carriers c

1940
1946
1948
1949

24.6
32.7
36.0
35.3

256
434
534
566

135
270
335
353

73
96
121
132

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

36.9
38.7
39.4
40.7
39.8

615
709
785
841
876

381
444
491
524
540

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

41.4
43.0
43.3
42.5
44.0

916
1,002
1,062
1,112
1,210

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

44.9
45.0
46.2
47.3
48.8

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

Medical and
hospitalization

Compensation
payments

Cost of program as a
percentage
of covered
payroll a

48
68
78
81

95
140
175
185

161
294
359
381

1.19
0.91
0.96
0.98

0.72
0.54
0.51
0.55

149
170
193
210
225

85
94
101
107
110

200
233
260
280
308

415
476
525
561
568

0.89
0.90
0.94
0.97
0.98

0.54
0.54
0.55
0.55
0.57

563
618
661
694
753

238
259
271
285
316

115
125
130
132
141

325
350
360
375
410

591
652
702
737
800

0.91
0.92
0.91
0.91
0.89

0.55
0.55
0.56
0.58
0.58

1,295
1,374
1,489
1,582
1,707

810
851
924
988
1,070

325
347
371
388
412

160
176
194
207
226

435
460
495
525
565

860
914
994
1,057
1,142

0.93
0.95
0.96
0.99
1.00

0.59
0.61
0.62
0.62
0.63

50.8
53.7
55.0
56.8
59.0

1,814
2,000
2,189
2,376
2,634

1,124
1,239
1,363
1,482
1,641

445
486
524
556
607

244
275
303
338
386

600
680
750
830
920

1,214
1,320
1,439
1,546
1,714

1.00
1.02
1.07
1.07
1.08

0.61
0.61
0.63
0.62
0.62

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

59.2
59.4
62.3
66.3
68.0

3,031
3,563
4,061
5,103
5,781

1,843
2,005
2,179
2,514
2,971

755
1,098
1,379
1,998
2,086

432
460
504
592
724

1,050
1,130
1,250
1,480
1,760

1,981
2,433
2,811
3,623
4,021

1.11
1.11
1.14
1.17
1.24

0.66
0.67
0.68
0.70
0.75

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

67.2
69.6
72.1
75.6
78.6

6,598
7,584
8,630
9,796
12,027

3,422
3,976
4,629
5,256
6,157

2,324
2,570
2,750
3,043
4,022

852
1,039
1,250
1,497
1,848

2,030
2,380
2,680
2,980
3,520

4,568
5,204
5,950
6,816
8,507

1.32
1.49
1.71
1.86
1.95

0.83
0.87
0.92
0.94
1.01

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

78.8
78.3
77.0
78.0
81.9

13,618
15,054
16,407
17,575
19,685

7,029
7,876
8,647
9,265
10,610

4,330
4,595
4,768
5,061
5,405

2,259
2,583
2,993
3,249
3,671

3,947
4,431
5,058
5,681
6,424

9,671
10,623
11,349
11,894
13,261

1.96
1.85
1.75
1.67
1.66

1.07
1.08
1.16
1.17
1.21

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

84.3
86.0
88.4
91.3
93.7

22,217
24,613
27,318
30,733
34,316

12,341
13,827
15,453
17,512
19,918

5,744
6,248
6,782
7,477
7,965

4,132
4,538
5,082
5,744
6,433

7,498
8,642
9,912
11,518
13,424

14,719
15,971
17,406
19,215
20,892

1.82
1.99
2.07
2.16
2.04

1.30
1.37
1.43
1.49
1.46

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

95.1
93.6
94.6
96.1
109.6

38,238
42,169
44,660
42,925
44,586

22,222
24,515
24,030
21,773
22,306

8,658
9,711
10,987
11,294
10,753

7,358
7,944
9,643
9,857
11,527

15,187
16,832
18,252
17,521
17,194

23,051
25,337
26,408
25,403
27,392

2.13
2.16
2.13
2.17
2.05

1.57
1.65
1.69
1.62
1.51

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

112.4
114.8
118.1
121.5
124.3

43,373
41,837
42,314
43,278
45,263

21,145
20,392
21,645
22,966
24,632

10,996
10,669
10,046
10,109
10,126

11,232
10,775
10,623
10,203
10,504

16,733
16,567
17,306
18,121
19,316

26,640
25,270
25,008
25,157
25,947

1.82
1.66
1.49
1.38
1.34

1.38
1.26
1.18
1.11
1.09

Type of insurance

Type of benefits

State and
Employers’
federal funds d self-insurance d

Benefits as a
percentage
of covered
payroll b

(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 ♦ 9.3

9.B Workers’ Compensation
Table 9.B1—Coverage, benefits, and costs, selected years 1940–2002—Continued

Year

Estimated
number of
workers
covered
per month
(millions)

Benefits paid during year (millions of dollars)

Total

Private
carriers c

2000
2001
2002

127.1
127.0
125.6

47,621
49,772
53,443

26,513
27,274
29,028

Type of insurance
State and
Employers’
federal funds d self-insurance d
10,406
11,058
12,539

Medical and
hospitalization

Compensation
payments

Cost of program as a
percentage
of covered
payroll a

20,710
22,207
24,285

26,911
27,565
29,158

1.33
1.40
1.58

Type of benefits

10,702
11,439
11,876

Benefits as a
percentage
of covered
payroll b
1.06
1.08
1.16

SOURCES: National Academy of Social Insurance estimates based on data received from state agencies, the Department of Labor, A.M. Best Company, and the
National Council on Compensation Insurance.
NOTE: Beginning in 1959, includes Alaska and Hawaii. States periodically update prior-year data, and any such changes are included in the current table.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Total costs to employers who purchase insurance from private carriers and state funds consist of premiums written in the calendar year plus the payments made
under deductible provisions. For self-insured employers, the costs include benefit payments and administrative costs.
Cash and medical benefits paid by self-insurers.
Net cash and medical benefits paid during calendar year by private insurance companies under standard workers’ compensation policies.
Net cash and medical benefits paid by competitive and exclusive state funds and federal benefits including: those paid under the Federal Employees’ Compensation
Act for civilian employees; the portion of the Black Lung benefit program that is financed by employers; and a portion of benefits under the Longshore and Harbor
Workers’ Compensation Act that are not reflected in state data, namely, benefits paid by self-insured employers and by special funds under the LHWCA.

CONTACT: Ishita Sengupta (202) 452-8097.

9.4 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

9.B Workers’ Compensation
Table 9.B2—Benefits, by state and federal program, 1998–2002 (in thousands of dollars)
Program
Total, state and federal

1998

1999

43,278,222

45,262,686

2000

2001

2002

47,620,968

49,771,700

53,442,645

State programs
Subtotal

40,410,346

42,400,503

44,663,564

46,702,433

50,289,020

Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California

602,088
127,368
432,965
174,303
7,365,820

551,398
130,334
465,554
185,372
7,851,641

529,189
145,917
515,241
197,762
8,967,630

562,773
171,248
465,319
206,836
9,605,478

565,264
187,578
528,491
222,192
11,282,610

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida

810,985
714,822
147,070
90,386
2,538,353

738,526
736,857
133,023
90,232
2,768,044

835,054
667,056
146,090
88,661
2,544,777

586,500
661,471
145,546
92,990
2,669,630

807,001
747,959
168,820
101,836
2,305,828

Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana

889,131
233,225
164,327
1,838,191
481,073

895,690
222,056
168,642
1,952,697
510,992

995,775
231,359
179,370
2,049,223
545,863

1,067,327
252,041
198,507
2,139,026
531,402

1,082,971
267,827
233,069
2,232,015
577,410

320,761
318,976
421,386
442,025
253,946

322,176
326,196
477,867
464,883
265,862

356,807
341,547
479,338
493,653
266,997

395,657
340,343
482,076
501,662
265,082

427,507
405,091
527,088
499,136
292,678

691,285
728,771
1,366,988
737,100
234,873

714,356
733,191
1,392,806
744,500
253,664

729,656
828,159
1,474,058
797,800
269,342

796,186
774,473
1,477,986
904,200
271,163

783,686
807,434
1,512,457
921,000
286,538

814,287
136,975
164,382
331,420
169,663

971,628
145,996
198,276
384,285
190,072

908,819
169,763
211,285
360,917
181,900

1,079,745
172,725
238,300
384,931
215,817

1,226,241
190,850
293,089
352,531
216,900

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

1,164,184
128,290
2,600,961
810,188
68,925

1,239,702
135,903
2,795,769
813,823
69,911

1,298,824
146,374
2,909,115
853,318
74,402

1,362,965
162,810
2,978,224
890,272
76,158

1,470,839
191,189
3,142,392
1,014,136
74,456

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

2,076,545
536,420
430,521
2,418,072
110,185

2,038,742
496,500
384,110
2,467,114
113,218

2,098,528
484,911
412,471
2,402,614
113,599

2,248,375
499,827
455,625
2,440,407
124,326

2,388,184
489,866
447,548
2,531,957
131,230

South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah

467,277
67,088
550,819
1,591,818
188,543

511,735
72,509
586,363
1,874,974
195,774

596,526
66,991
642,201
2,004,504
187,729

622,985
74,950
691,926
2,056,355
211,279

690,451
79,256
679,211
2,275,338
240,179

Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

91,436
658,466
1,286,680
644,294
703,610
73,080

106,389
629,348
1,395,246
687,002
724,360
75,196

112,349
680,911
1,527,657
690,377
768,282
82,875

106,008
671,828
1,637,714
712,495
923,759
97,706

147,790
700,266
1,714,497
829,020
893,933
104,187

Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 ♦ 9.5

9.B Workers’ Compensation
Table 9.B2—Benefits, by state and federal program, 1998–2002 (in thousands of dollars)—Continued
Program

1998

1999

2000
Federal programs

2001

2002

a

Subtotal

2,867,876

2,862,183

2,957,404

3,069,267

3,153,625

Civilian employee
Other

2,009,862
858,014

1,999,915
862,268

2,118,859
838,545

2,223,088
846,179

2,317,325
836,300

SOURCES: National Academy of Social Insurance estimates based on data received from state agencies, the Department of Labor, A.M. Best Company, and the
National Council on Compensation Insurance.
NOTE: States periodically update prior-year data, and any such changes are included in the current table.
a.

Federal benefits include those paid under the Federal Employees’ Compensation Act for civilian employees; the portion of the Black Lung benefit program that is
financed by employers; and a portion of benefits under the Longshore and Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act that are not reflected in state data, namely, benefits
paid by self-insured employers and special funds under the LHWCA.

CONTACT: Ishita Sengupta (202) 452-8097.

9.6 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

9.B Workers’ Compensation
Table 9.B3—Benefits paid by type of insurer and medical benefits paid, by state and federal program, 2002
(in thousands of dollars)
Benefits paid by type of insurer
Program
Total, state and federal

Medical benefits paid

Total

Private
carriers a

State
funds

Selfinsurance b

Total

As a percentage
of total benefits

53,442,645

29,028,239

9,385,022

11,875,759

24,285,334

45.4

State programs
Subtotal

50,289,020

29,028,239

9,385,022

11,875,759

23,554,200

46.8

565,264
187,578
528,491
222,192
11,282,610

290,009
145,324
198,728
145,163
5,947,614

...
...
251,698
...
2,191,962

275,255
42,254
78,065
77,029
3,143,034

327,537
106,578
317,623
138,648
5,645,031

57.9
56.8
c
60.1
c
62.4
50.0

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida

807,001
747,959
168,820
101,836
2,305,828

309,436
543,266
114,348
79,781
1,817,729

332,725
...
...
...
...

164,840
204,693
54,472
22,055
488,099

357,063
310,403
84,217
33,471
1,312,016

d

Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana

1,082,971
267,827
233,069
2,232,015
577,410

769,767
175,029
89,549
1,748,148
488,138

...
11,754
127,837
...
...

313,205
81,044
15,683
483,867
89,272

516,577
105,927
132,150
991,015
377,212

c

427,507
405,091
527,088
499,136
292,678

348,434
298,992
334,460
224,795
116,675

...
...
47,857
130,484
88,952

79,073
106,099
144,771
143,857
87,051

216,319
219,559
281,526
263,045
118,734

c

Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi

783,686
807,434
1,512,457
921,000
286,538

400,192
689,435
846,823
612,600
168,832

192,546
...
...
98,100
...

190,948
117,999
665,634
210,300
117,706

307,744
259,149
523,260
437,500
163,484

c

Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

1,226,241
190,850
293,089
352,531
216,900

870,112
72,764
214,438
230,553
180,057

82,685
83,070
...
...
...

273,443
35,016
78,650
121,977
36,843

592,878
102,013
167,354
129,199
120,596

48.3
53.5
57.1
36.6
c
55.6

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

1,470,839
191,189
3,142,392
1,014,136
74,456

1,356,231
102,508
1,580,743
774,596
206

...
33,461
780,636
...
74,250

114,608
55,221
781,013
239,540
...

759,157
107,908
968,462
435,064
41,106

d

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

2,388,184
489,866
447,548
2,531,957
131,230
690,451
79,256
679,211
2,275,338
240,179
147,790
700,266
1,714,497
829,020
893,933
104,187

37,652
262,579
213,144
1,798,988
50,076
463,888
72,726
526,603
1,762,267
85,334
122,330
555,898
28,768
...
756,599
5,913

1,878,255
108,982
192,157
160,795
65,054
51,004
...
...
258,460
121,747
...
...
1,225,007
697,271
...
98,274

472,277
118,305
42,247
572,174
16,100
175,560
6,530
152,608
254,612
33,098
25,459
144,367
460,722
131,749
137,334
...

1,106,570
225,828
227,156
1,005,602
30,143
204,652
44,020
348,435
1,412,985
159,959
77,885
378,844
589,267
245,450
461,394
66,487

Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California

Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine

44.2
41.5
49.9
32.9
c
56.9
c

47.7
39.6
c 56.7
c 44.4
c 65.3
50.6
54.2
53.4
c
52.7
40.6
c

39.3
32.1
34.6
47.5
c 57.1

51.6
56.4
30.8
c 42.9
55.2

46.3
46.1
50.8
39.7
23.0
29.6
55.5
c
51.3
c
62.1
c
66.6
c
52.7
c
54.1
34.4
29.6
d
51.6
63.8
c

(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 ♦ 9.7

9.B Workers’ Compensation
Table 9.B3—Benefits paid by type of insurer and medical benefits paid, by state and federal program, 2002
(in thousands of dollars)—Continued
Benefits paid by type of insurer
Program

Total

Private
carriers a

Medical benefits paid

State
funds

Selfinsurance b

Total

As a percentage
of total benefits

Federal programs e
Subtotal

3,153,625

...

...

...

731,134

23.2

Civilian employee
Other

2,317,325
836,300

...
...

...
...

...
...

665,378
65,756

28.7
7.9

SOURCES: National Academy of Social Insurance estimates based on data received from state agencies, the Department of Labor, A.M. Best Company, and the
National Council on Compensation Insurance.
NOTE: . . . = not applicable.
a.

b.
c.
d.
e.

States with exclusive funds (Nevada, North Dakota, Ohio, Washington, West Virginia, and Wyoming) also have small amounts of benefits paid by private carriers. This
results from two sources: companies with group policies that overlap states and the fact that some companies include excess workers’ compensation coverage in
their reports of workers’ compensation benefits to A.M. Best Company.
Self-insurance includes individual self-insurers and group self-insurance.
Medical percentages based on data provided by the National Council on Compensation Insurance.
Medical percentage based on the weighted average of states where medical data were available.
Federal benefits include those paid under the Federal Employees’ Compensation Act for civilian employees; the portion of the Black Lung benefit program that is
financed by employers; and a portion of benefits under the Longshore and Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act that are not reflected in state data, namely, benefits
paid by self-insured employers and special funds under the LHWCA.

CONTACT: Ishita Sengupta (202) 452-8097.

9.8 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004