THIRD DIVISION

ENRICO S. EULOGIO, Petitioner, - versus SPOUSES CLEMENTE APELES[1] an LU! APELES, Res"on ents. G.R. No. 1#$%%& Present' (NARES-SANTIAGO, )., C*air"erson, AUSTRIA-MARTINE!, A!CUNA,+ C,ICO-NA!ARIO, an NAC,URA, )). Pro-u./ate ' )anuar0 12, 1223

4- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -4 5ECISION C,ICO-NA!ARIO, ).' Petitioner Enri6o S. Eu.o/io 7Enri6o8 9i.e t*is instant Petition 9or Revie: on Certiorari un er Ru.e &; o9 t*e Revise Ru.es o9 Court assai.in/ t*e 5e6ision[1] ate 12 5e6e-<er 122& o9 t*e Court o9 A""ea.s in CA-G.R. C= No. $#3>> :*i6* reverse t*e 5e6ision[>] ate % O6to<er 1221 o9 t*e Re/iona. Tria. Court 7RTC8 o9 ?ue@on Cit0, Aran6* 11;, in Civi. Case No. ?-33->#%>&. T*e RTC ire6te res"on ents, s"ouses C.e-ente an Lu@ A"e.es 7s"ouses A"e.es8 to e4e6ute a 5ee o9 Sa.e over a "ie6e o9 rea. "ro"ert0 in 9avor o9 Enri6o a9ter t*e .atterBs "a0-ent o9 9u.. 6onsi eration t*ere9or. T*e 9a6tua. an "ro6e ura. ante6e ents o9 t*e "resent 6ase are as 9o..o:s' T*e rea. "ro"ert0 in Cuestion 6onsists o9 a *ouse an .ot situate at No. %$ Ti-o/ Avenue, ?ue@on Cit0 7su<De6t "ro"ert08. T*e .ot *as an area o9 >#2.#2 sCuare -eters, 6overe <0 Trans9er Certi9i6ate o9 Tit.e No. 1;>332 issue <0 t*e Re/istr0 o9 5ee s o9 ?ue@on Cit0 in t*e na-es o9 t*e s"ouses A"e.es.[&] In 13$3, t*e s"ouses A"e.es .ease t*e su<De6t "ro"ert0 to Arturo Eu.o/io 7Arturo8, Enri6oBs 9at*er. U"on ArturoBs eat*, *is son Enri6o su66ee e as .essor o9 t*e su<De6t "ro"ert0. Enri6o use t*e su<De6t "ro"ert0 as *is resi en6e an ".a6e o9 <usiness. Enri6o :as en/a/e in t*e <usiness o9 <u0in/ an se..in/ i-"orte 6ars.[;] On # )anuar0 13%$, t*e s"ouses A"e.es an Enri6o a..e/e .0 entere into a Contra6t o9 Lease[#] :it* O"tion to Pur6*ase invo.vin/ t*e su<De6t "ro"ert0. A66or in/ to t*e sai .ease 6ontra6t, Lu@ A"e.es :as aut*ori@e to enter into t*e sa-e as t*e attorne0-in-9a6t o9 *er *us<an , C.e-ente, "ursuant to a S"e6ia. Po:er o9 Attorne0 e4e6ute <0 t*e .atter in 9avor o9 t*e 9or-er on 1& )anuar0 13$3. T*e 6ontra6t "ur"orte .0 a99or e Enri6o, <e9ore t*e e4"iration o9 t*e t*ree-0ear .ease "erio , t*e o"tion to "ur6*ase t*e su<De6t "ro"ert0 9or a "ri6e not e46ee in/ P1.; Mi..ion. T*e "ertinent "rovisions o9 t*e Contra6t o9 Lease are re"ro u6e <e.o:'

. <e nee e <0 t*e s"ouses A"e.es 9ai. . 6onsi eration as 9i4e or a/ree u"on . an "osite t*at Lu@Bs si/nature t*ereon :as a 9or/er0. arrears 9ro.ease "erio s*a..UN5RE5 T.ot *erein .e-ent "ro6ee in/s. s*ou.ate *erein o9 *is esire to e4er6ise *is o"tion to <u0 or "ur6*ase t*e *ouse an .. TRANSEER an CON=E( t*e *ouse an .[$] In a . or :ritten noti6e to t*e LESSOR on or <e9ore t*e e4"ir0 ate o9 t*e >-0ear . &. <e 9i4e or a/ree u"on <0 t*e LESSOR an t*e LESSEE. t*e 9i4tures an a66essories t*erein. not <e -ore t*an ONE MILLION EI=E .es o99ere as evi en6e Lu@Bs P*i. 9or.aint 9or S"e6i9i6 Per9or-an6e :it* 5a-a/es a/ainst t*e s"ouses A"e.0 an in :ritin/ to Lu@ *is :i. Case No. Enri6o e4er6ise *is o"tion to "ur6*ase t*e su<De6t "ro"ert0 <0 6o--uni6atin/ ver<a. /ive ora.REE 7>8 (EARS 9ro.)anuar0 1#. t*e <aran/a0 issue to Enri6o a Certi9i6ate to Ei. noti6es.. <ut es"ite severa.en6e. t*e LESSOR u"on re6ei"t o9 t*e "ur6*ase "ri6eFtota. t*at t*e -ont*.ease . t*e s"ouses A"e. T*at t*e "ur6*ase "ri6e or tota. ?-33->#%>&. t*at t*e sai "ur6*ase "ri6e. a-ount o9 -ont*.0 9i4e or a/ree u"on <0 t*e LESSOR an t*e LESSEE. t*e s"ouses A"e. 6onsi eration o9 t*e *ouse an ..ease "erio sti"u.a.0 renta. su66essors an assi/ns.erG o9 Court o9 t*e RTC o9 Mani.es e-an e t*at *e "a0 *is renta.ves. t*e s"ouses A"e.a.228 an .s "ai <0 t*e LESSEE to t*e LESSOR urin/ t*e >-0ear .i""ine Pass"ort :*i6* s*o:e t*at on 1# )anuar0 13%$. e4e6ute t*e a""ro"riate 5ee to SELL.ease "erio .e/e .s "ai t*e LESSEE urin/ t*e >-0ear . *is *eirs.OUSAN5 PESOS 7P1. t*e LESSEE e4er6ise *is o"tion to <u0 it on or <e9ore t*e e4"iration o9 t*e >-0ear . 6on9eren6e.22.ease "erio "rovi e in t*e . on t*e -erits ensue <e9ore t*e RTC.. <ut t*e s"ouses A"e. To <uttress t*eir 6ontention.t*e <aran/a0 9or t*e en9or6e-ent o9 *is ri/*t to "ur6*ase t*e su<De6t "ro"ert0. Enri6o *i-se.. o9 t*e Contra6t o9 Lease :it* O"tion to Pur6*ase vestin/ *i.o:in/ t*e "re-tria. t*e s"ouses A"e.>.es enie t*at Lu@ si/ne t*e Contra6t o9 Lease :it* O"tion to Pur6*ase.. T*at i9 t*e LESSEE s*a.. :it* Lu@ si/nin/ t*e sai Contra6t at Enri6oBs o99i6e in Ti-o/ Avenue.i an <in in/ 9or T.ease "erio s*a. 13%$ an s*a..etter ate 1# )anuar0 133$ to Enri6o. re-ain va. Provi e . as it is *ere<0 a/ree .ess t*e tota."art o9 or <e e u6te 9ro. T*e Contra6t :as notari@e on t*e sa-e a0 as evi en6e <0 t*e Certi9i6ation on t*e Notar0 Pu<.es <e9ore t*e RTC. Eo.es. 6onsi eration as -a0 *erea9ter <e -utua.ot :it*in t*e sai >-0ear . Enri6oBs 6ause o9 a6tion is 9oun e on "ara/ra"* ..in/ness to "a0 t*e a/ree "ur6*ase "ri6e.e to a""ear <e9ore t*e <aran/a0 9or sett.0 renta. "rovi e 9urt*er.0 si/ne t*e sai Contra6t.t*e "ur6*ase "ri6e or tota. o6Gete as Civi.ease 6ontra6t.0 i/nore Enri6oBs -ani9estation. .ease "erio .:it* t*e ri/*t to a6Cuire o:ners*i" o9 t*e su<De6t "ro"ert0 a9ter "a0in/ t*e a/ree a-ount o9 6onsi eration..e A6tion.. t*e ate :*en Lu@ a.)anuar0 1331 to 5e6e-<er 133# an *e va6ate t*e su<De6t "ro"ert0 sin6e it :ou. s*e :as in t*e Unite . to/et*er :it* a..t*e sai ate.iens an en6u-<ran6es.[%] On t*e ot*er *an . <e e99e6tive 6o--en6in/ 9ro.e :itness 9or *is si e. .9 testi9ie as t*e so. T*e LESSOR *ere<0 /ives t*e LESSEE un er t*is Contra6t o9 Lease t*e ri/*t an o"tion to <u0 t*e su<De6t *ouse an . Enri6o institute on 1> Ee<ruar0 1333 a Co-".ot su<De6t o9 t*is Contra6t o9 Lease s*a. .e narrate t*at *e an Lu@ entere into t*e Contra6t o9 Lease :it* O"tion to Pur6*ase on 1# )anuar0 13%$..222. T*at t*is Contra6t s*a.es su""ose . Hit*out *ee in/ t*e e-an o9 t*e s"ouses A"e. T*is "ro-"te Enri6o to seeG re6ourse 9ro.es t*e-se.ot su<De6t o9 t*is Contra6t in 9avor o9 t*e LESSEE.. ?ue@on Cit0. s*a. tria.i6Bs Re"ort issue <0 t*e C. 9ree 9ro. Ae9ore t*e e4"iration o9 t*e t*ree-0ear ..

T*e 9a.0.es to e4e6ute a 5ee o9 Sa. an e4e-".es . t*ere<0 6astin/ ou<t on Enri6oBs 6re i<i.arit0 <et:een Lu@Bs /enuine si/natures in t*e o6u-ents "resente <0 t*e s"ouses A"e.o o9 t*e RTC 5e6ision rea s' H. 718 [T*e s"ouses A"e.i""ines on t*at ate an returne 9ive -ont*s t*erea9ter. as :e.es -aintaine t*at t*e0 i not inten to se.EREEORE. $#3>> /rantin/ t*e a""ea. t*e a""ea.s *e.ease 6ontra6t.ate 6ourt note t*at t*e Notar0 Pu<.0 :it* t*e "rovisions o9 t*e Contra6t o9 Lease :it* O"tion to Pur6*aseJ an u"on "a0-ent o9 tota.ear. Enri6o.2. t*e RTC or ere t*e s"ouses A"e. Aran6* 11. . it :as a. as on t*e "resu-e re/u. Case No.e 9or Lu@ to si/n t*e sai Contra6t on 1# )anuar0 13%$ sin6e s*e :as not in t*e P*i.rea 0 notari@e .ations t*e0 -a e in t*e .ate 6ourt to nu.2. t*eir re-arGa<. T*e s"ouses A"e. T*e RTC 9oun striGin/ si-i.es t*e-se.o6ate at No. 6onsi eration as sti"u. t*e su<De6t "ro"ert0..an an t*e i-"rove-ents e4istin/ t*ereon .atterBs "a0-ent o9 t*e a/ree a-ount o9 6onsi eration.ve t*e issue o9 9or/er0. Enri6o averre t*at Lu@ si/ne t*e Contra6t a9ter s*e arrive in t*e P*i.i""ines on >2 Ma0 13%$..e attention to Enri6oBs in6onsistent e6.es esta<.vin/ t*e e4e6ution o9 t*e . Enri6o 9urt*er re. 7>8 [T*e s"ouses A"e.. in Civi.en/e t*e a verse RTC 5e6ision <e9ore t*e Court o9 A""ea.iGe:ise "resente severa.i90 t*e assai.es ar/ue t*at it :as "*0si6a..0 or ers I <0 "re"on eran6e o9 718 [T*e s"ouses A"e.arit0 o9 t*e 6ontra6t as a notari@e o6u-ent. t*e RTC re.. ?-33->#%>& 9or s"e6i9i6 "er9or-an6e :it* a-a/es is *ere<0 RE=ERSE5 an a ne: is one entere is-issin/ [Enri6oBs] 6o-"..it0.ate t*at a9ter Lu@ si/ne t*e .[12] On % O6to<er 1221.is*e <0 o6u-entar0 evi en6e t*at Lu@ :as not in t*e 6ountr0 at t*e ti-e t*e Contra6t o9 Lease :it* O"tion to Pur6*ase :as e4e6ute . sti"u. t*us' H. o99i6ia.ate in t*e sai CONTRACT 9or [t*e s"ouses A"e.0 i-"ossi<. in re<utta.es] to e4e6ute a 5ee o9 A<so.aint..es] to 6o-".22. o9 t*e s"ouses A"e. t*e RTC <oun t*e "arties to t*e 6.ie on its o:n e4a-ination o9 t*e s"e6i-en si/natures su<-itte to reso.22 an P. T*e Court o9 A""ea.s 6*ose not to a66or t*e is"ute Contra6t 9u.arations as to -ateria.ease 6ontra6t. Sin6e none o9 t*e "arties "resente a *an :ritin/ e4"ert..ease 6ontra6t. t*is Court 9in s [Enri6oBs] 6o-".0 a 9or/er0.0 9or/e si/nature in t*e Contra6t o9 Lease :it* O"tion to Pur6*ase. etai.s an ur/e t*e a""e. over t*e "ar6e.es] to "a0 [Enri6o] -ora.ar0 a-a/es in t*e res"e6tive a-ounts o9 P122. o9 . s*e tooG it :it* *er 9or notari@ation..222.22 an 6osts o9 t*e suit. retra6te *is "rior e6. t*e 9ore/oin/ "re-ises 6onsi ere .e e6ision. Case No. On 12 5e6e-<er 122&. Court o9 ?ue@on Cit0.s ren ere a 5e6ision in CA-G.States o9 A-eri6a.e in 9avor o9 Enri6o u"on t*e .e is6re"an60 9ro. 9ait* an 6re en6e. T*e Court o9 A""ea.aration t*at t*e sai Contra6t :as si/ne <0 Lu@ on 1# )anuar0 133#. T*e s"ouses A"e.es 6*a. ?-33->#%>& in 9avor o9 Enri6o. In arrivin/ at its assai. ?ue@on Cit0.s invo. t*e a""e. T*e s"ouses A"e. A<sent an0 9in in/ o9 9or/er0. t*e RTC ren ere a 5e6ision in Civi.i6 i not o<serve ut-ost 6are in 6erti90in/ t*e ue e4e6ution o9 t*e Contra6t o9 Lease :it* O"tion to Pur6*ase.EREEORE. Tria.[11] T*e s"ouses A"e. 1221 o9 t*e Re/iona.t*e si/nature a""earin/ in t*e is"ute . Instea . an <0 t*e ti-e t*e o6u-ent :as returne to *i-.ear an uneCuivo6a..[11] .es an overturnin/ t*e Du /-ent o9 t*e RTC.R.aint to <e su<stantiate evi en6e an a66or in/. A66or in/.e in 9avor o9 [Enri6o]. t*e Court o9 A""ea.ease 6ontra6t. o6u-ents <earin/ *er /enuine si/natures to revea. C= No.ves an *er "ur"orte ..ute Sa.e Contra6t o9 Lease :it* O"tion to Pur6*ase sin6e Lu@Bs si/nature t*ereon :as 6. T*e s"ouses A"e.es 6a.[3] A9ter t*e s"ouses A"e.e e6ision ate O6to<er %.es] to "a0 attorne0Bs 9ees o9 P.222.222. %$ Ti-o/ Avenue.

t*e RTC *eavi. issues raise in 6ases 9a. i/norin/ <.es s*ou.o:in/ errors t*ereto' I..e <e9ore it. 9in in/s o9 t*e tria.[1. t*at t*e 9a6tua.ate t*at t*e .. In 9a6t. II. :*en su6* 9in in/s are not an6*ore on t*eir 6re i<i.e &1 o9 t*e Revise Ru.e Du /-ent o9 t*e Court o9 A""ea. NULL AN5 =OI5.ate tri<una.o:ever. 6ourts are to <e a66or e /reat :ei/*t an res"e6t. t*e0 are not a<so.s.0.ie on t*e testi-on0 "ro99ere <0 Enri6o urin/ t*e tria.in/ :it*in its ori/ina. t*e Court o9 A""ea.E 5EEENSE OE EORGER( HAS SUASTANTIALL( AN5 CON=INCINGL( PRO=EN A( COMPETENT E=I5ENCE. 9in in/s o9 t*e RTC in isre/ar o9 t*e . 122. He o not a/ree.es o9 Court..s un er Ru.ate 6ourt.in/ out 9or/er0.. 6on6. Enri6o is "resent. A"ri.t*ou/* :e *ave in ee *e.EN IT ARUS.untari.. T*e s"ouses A"e.i/e to res"e6t t*e ter-s o9 t*e a/ree-ent.0 entere into an si/ne <0 Lu@ :*o *a it notari@e *erse..ate Duris i6tion. a""ea. A/ain.i<i.it0 an t*eir testi-onies. re..0 "ra0s <e9ore t*is Court to sustain t*e va.t*at t*e 9a6tua. T*e Court o9 A""ea.in/ t*e ver0 o99i6e o9 revie:.AT T.an0 an a.ts t*e Court o9 A""ea.ve 9a6tua.0 i-"airs t*e is6retion o9 t*e a""e.o: *ooG. .E SAI5 CONTRACT OE LEASE HAS A EORGER( AN5 T.] Moreover.E COURT OE APPEALS COMMITTE5 7si68 RE=ERSIALE ERROR H. 6ourt s*ou.. an sinGer t*e 9a6tua.0 6on6.a<.Enri6oBs Motion 9or Re6onsi eration :as enie <0 t*e Court o9 A""ea..s 9or istur<in/ t*e 9a6tua. Enri6oBs insisten6e on t*e in9a.E CONTRACT OE LEASE HIT. an a""e.0. assi/nin/ t*e 9o. 6ourt. 6ourt 9in s no a"". T.. :e are not "ersua e .[1#] Enri6o assi uous.ate -a/istrates an su<De6t to t*eir s6rutin0.atant 6ontra i6tions . <e a66or e /reat :ei/*t an res"e6t on a""ea.E COURT A ?UO IT RULE5 T.EREOE RULE5 T.e/a.ution[1>] ate 1. an not <e a.o:e to rene/e on t*eir 6o--it-ent t*ereun er an 9rustrate t*e san6tit0 o9 6ontra6ts.0 re.usive u"on t*e a""e.i it0 o9 t*e Contra6t o9 Lease :it* O"tion to Pur6*ase. Certain.e to a""e. Enri6o 9au.ute.US.ine. t*e "arties -a0 raise <ot* Cuestions o9 9a6t an For o9 . 6ourt :it*out 6ri"".EN CONTRAR( TO T. Si-". a6ts ne6essar0 to reso.atter *a 9irst*an o""ortunit0 to *ear t*e :itnesses an to o<serve t*eir 6on u6t an e-eanor urin/ t*e "ro6ee in/s. A.E =ALI5IT( OE T.a:. to -aGe in e"en ent eter-ination o9 t*e -erits o9 t*e 6ase a""ea. <ut on t*e assess-ent o9 o6u-ents t*at are avai..s 6annot s:a.AT T.s to revie: t*e 9in in/s o9 9a6t -a e <0 t*e tria. He a/ree :it* t*e Court o9 A""ea.s on t*e 9a6tua.E EIN5INGS OE T.it0 o9 t*e 9in in/s o9 t*e RTC serious.[1&] T*e re. it is i-"erative 9or t*e Court o9 A""ea. Enri6o asserts t*at t*e sai Contra6t :as vo.0 <e9ore t*is Court seeGin/ t*e reversa. OPTION TO PURC. <0 :rit o9 error to t*e Court o9 A""ea. .ASE AN5 IN LIEU T.ian6e o9 a""e.E COURT A ?UO UP.E5 ASI5E T. <e o<.E COURT OE APPEALS COMMITTE5 7si68 RE=ERSIALE ERROR H.ian6e on t*e tria.s t*at in ru... 6ourt is <ase on t*e "ostu.s in a Reso.i6ation. 9in in/s o9 t*e tria. T.ate tri<una.s even *as t*e "o:er to tr0 6ases an 6on u6t *earin/s. re6eive evi en6e an "er9or. a"*oris.E RULING OE T.OL5ING T. 9in in/s o9 t*e tria.usions o9 t*e tria.9. o9 t*e un9avora<..

0 se6ures t*e "rivi. -eans "ro<a<i. Su6* 9a6t a..e.ete turna<out an 6.is*e <0 6.ai-.0 6onsi ere to <e s0non0-ous :it* t*e terK/reater :ei/*t o9 t*e evi en6eL or K/reater :ei/*t o9 t*e 6re i<.. or un er.e6tion or o"tion o9 t*e ot*er "art0.es esta<.. [11] In t*e 6ase at <ar. 6ases.is 6ontra i6tor0 state-ents on i-"ortant etai.[11] An o"tion is not o9 itse. t*e s"ouses A"e..an J *e oes not t*en a/ree to se..arations. in/ t*e o"tion. itJ <ut *e oes se.ian6e :it* 6ertain ter-s an 6on itionsJ or :*i6* /ives to t*e o:ner o9 t*e "ro"ert0 t*e ri/*t to se..i6 to attest to t*e 6ontents an trut* o9 :*at are state t*erein.e.e o9 "ro"ert0 <ut a sa.0 a99i4e *er si/nature to t*e sai o6u-ent.it0. T*ere is no is"ute t*at :*at Enri6o sou/*t to en9or6e in Civi.i/ation on t*e "erson *o.e it is true t*at a notari@e o6u-ent 6arries t*e evi entiar0 :ei/*t 6on9erre u"on it :it* res"e6t to its ue e4e6ution.L Pre"on eran6e o9 evi en6e is a "*rase :*i6*.0 i-"aire t*e "ro<ative va.e/e to <u0 at t*e e. an va.9-servin/ e6.ast ana.e u.atter s*a. or in 6o-".t*e 6onsi eration 9or t*e o99er. ?-33->#%>& :as *is "ur"orte ri/*t to a6Cuire o:ners*i" o9 t*e su<De6t "ro"ert0 in t*e e4er6ise o9 *is o"tion to "ur6*ase t*e sa-e un er t*e Contra6t o9 Lease :it* O"tion to Pur6*ase.0 9avors t*e s"ouses A"e. i.atter s*a..0 on.e/e to <u0.it0 an t*e vera6it0 o9 *is 6.ai-s. In 6ontrast.0 :ants to 6o-"e. .e oes not se. Case No.it0 o9 t*e trut*.one over6o-es t*e "resu-"tion o9 re/u.es :ere a<.ue o9 *is testi-on0 an 6ast serious ou<t on *is 6re i<i.ai-e t*at Lu@ si/ne t*e Contra6t in Cuestion on >2 Ma0 13%$ a9ter *er arriva. an *as in its 9avor t*e "resu-"tion o9 re/u.. t*is "resu-"tion.i6 is enDoine not to notari@e a o6u-ent un.0 a""eare <e9ore t*e sai notar0 "u<. is not a<so. It is evi en6e :*i6* is -ore 6onvin6in/ to t*e 6ourt as :ort*ier o9 <e. It is not a sa. Even assu-in/ 9or t*e saGe o9 ar/u-ent t*at :e a/ree :it* Enri6o t*at Lu@ vo. It is si-". On ire6t e4a-ination. in t*e 6ountr0. :it*out assertin/ an0 "roo9 o9 6orro<oratin/ testi-on0 or 6ir6u-stantia. *is . A.rea 0 e4e6ute t*e 5ee o9 Sa. Its istin/uis*in/ 6*ara6teristi6 is t*at it i-"oses no <in in/ o<.0 entere into t*e Contra6t o9 Lease :it* O"tion to Pur6*ase an "ersona. <ut -ere.arit0 sin6e a notar0 "u<. 6re it.ess t*e "ersons :*o si/ne t*e sa-e are t*e ver0 sa-e "ersons :*o e4e6ute an "ersona. Enri6o testi9ie t*at Lu@ si/ne t*e Contra6t o9 Lease :it* O"tion to Pur6*ase on 1# )anuar0 13%$ in *is "resen6e. *ave t*e ri/*t to <u0 t*e 9or-erBs "ro"ert0 at a 9i4e "ri6e :it*in a 6ertain ti-e. so-et*in/. evi en6e to <uttress *is 6. *ave t*e ri/*t to <u0 *is "ro"ert0 at a 9i4e "ri6e :it*in a 6ertain ti-e. t*e s"ouses A"e.i""ines on t*at ate.ute. t*e "art0 *avin/ t*e <ur en o9 "roo9 -ust esta<.9 a -itte t*at Lu@ tooG t*e o6u-ent an *a it notari@e :it*out *is "resen6e. In 6ivi.[13] T*e in6onsisten6ies in Enri6oBs version o9 events *ave serious.e evi en6e. It is a 6on ition o99ere or 6ontra6t <0 :*i6* t*e o:ner sti"u.ti-ate. "re"on eran6e o9 evi en6e inar/ua<. asi e 9ro.0 ero e t*e inte/rit0 o9 *is testi-on0.0 a 6ontra6t <0 :*i6* t*e o:ner o9 t*e "ro"ert0 a/rees :it* anot*er "erson t*at *e s*a. t*e ri/*t or "rivi..e to over6o-e t*e <ur en o9 "roo9 an "rove <0 "re"on erant evi en6e in is"utin/ t*e aut*enti6it0 an ue e4e6ution o9 t*e Contra6t o9 Lease :it* O"tion to Pur6*ase. It -a0 <e re<utte <0 6. .ear an 6onvin6in/ evi en6e t*at Lu@ :as not in t*e P*i.[1$] <ut *e re6ante *is testi-on0 on t*e -atter a9ter t*e s"ouses A"e.0sis. Enri6o -a e a 6o-"..t*ou/* t*ere is no ire6t evi en6e to "rove 9or/er0. in t*e .ates :it* anot*er t*at t*e .9 a "ur6*ase. t*e "rovision on t*e o"tion to "ur6*ase t*e su<De6t "ro"ert0 in6or"orate in sai Contra6t sti.. .[1>] .es to a.s si-".ear an 6onvin6in/ evi en6e to t*e 6ontrar0.es.arit0. *o:ever. re-ains unen9or6ea<. *ave t*e ri/*t to <u0 t*e "ro"ert0 at a 9i4e "ri6e :it*in a 6ertain ti-e.t*at estro0 *is 6re i<i.ue o9 t*e a//re/ate evi en6e on eit*er si e an is usua.e over t*e su<De6t "ro"ert0 in *is 9avor. An o"tion is a 6ontra6t <0 :*i6* t*e o:ner o9 t*e "ro"ert0 a/rees :it* anot*er "erson t*at t*e .e o9 t*e ri/*t to "ur6*ase.[1%] In re<utta.ie9 t*an t*at :*i6* is o99ere in o""osition t*ereto. Pre"on eran6e o9 evi en6e is t*e :ei/*t.untari.e.0 on *is o:n se.. Enri6o see-e to re. H*i.is* *is 6ase <0 a "re"on eran6e o9 evi en6e. or e-an a sa.[12] Enri6o *i-se..

It is a..in/ to t*is a0.ee.0 in9erre 9ro. se.i/ations un er an o"tion 6ontra6t.so so-eti-es 6a. in vie: o9 t*e onerous nature o9 t*e o"tion 6ontra6t. not <e ee-e to <e t*e sa-e 6onsi eration 9or t*e o"tion 6ontra6t sin6e t*e .an -arG 6ase o9 Sout*:estern Su/ar an Mo. T*e se6on "ara/ra"* o9 Arti6.ate to su""ort an o"tion 6ontra6t nee not <e -onetar0.e t*at a uni.ause.. <ut :e *ave 9oun none.ustrates t*at t*e 6onsi eration 6onte-".are t*at 9or an o"tion 6ontra6t to <in t*e "ro-issor.L or Ka "ro-ise to <u0 or to se. . :*i6* -eans t*at t*e o"tion 6an sti.t*e "ur6*ase "ri6e.0 6onsi eration a/ree u"on <0 t*e "arties in t*e sai Contra6t is t*e su""ose "ur6*ase "ri6e 9or t*e su<De6t "ro"ert0 in t*e a-ount not e46ee in/ P1.[1&] In t*e . A "ro-ise to <u0 an e-an a<.0 s"e6i9ie as su6* in t*e o"tion 6ontra6t or 6. :*i6* 6ou. sai 6onsi eration -ust <e 6. an t*eir testi-onies in o"en 6ourt. i9 t*e 6onsi eration is not -onetar0.t*e "ri6e. t*e essentia. "ro-iseL 6an on.e 1&$3.ear..o:ever.e a/ainst t*e "ro-issor. Court o9 A""ea.L T*is is 6.[1..t*e "ri6e..e..rea 0 a66e"te <0 t*e o"tionee.ie . as e9ine in Arti6.9 an Pa6i9i6 Co. T*e 6onsi eration is Kt*e :*0 o9 t*e 6ontra6ts.e an Kuna66e"te o99erL an is san6tione <0 Arti6. 9or an0 ire6t evi en6e or evi en6e a. Eor an o"tion 6ontra6t to <e va.0 e4a-ine t*e Contra6t o9 Lease :it* O"tion to Pur6*ase. a. 1&$3.0 i6tate t*at 9or t*e o"tion 6ontra6t to <e va.. is on.i an en9or6ea<. even i9 a66e"te ..ue.L T*is e9inition i.0 <in in/ i9 su""orte <0 a 6onsi eration.. It 6an t*ere9ore <e :it* ra:n not:it*stan in/ t*e a66e"tan6e -a e o9 it <0 a""e. to <e va.. reason :*i6* -oves t*e 6ontra6tin/ "arties to enter into t*e 6ontra6t.atera. "ro-ise to <u0 or to se. even i9 a66e"te . 6onsist o9 ot*er t*in/s or un ertaGin/s. "ro-ise to <u0 or to se.L as use in sai arti6.0 *ave a <in in/ e99e6t i9 su""orte <0 a 6onsi eration. an o"tion 6ontra6t 6annot <e en9or6e J t*at *o.t*e "ri6e. <e :it* ra:n.i . it -ust <e su""orte <0 a 6onsi eration se"arate an istin6t 9ro. [1#] He *ave "ainstaGin/. <0 t*e ver0 nature o9 an o"tion 6ontra6t.atera. .a: an Duris"ru en6e e4".0 An a66e"te uni. t*ere -ust <e a se"arate an istin6t 6onsi eration t*at su""orts it.ear.. .e 1&$3 o9 t*e ne: Civi. t*e sa-e is an onerous 6ontra6t 9or :*i6* t*e 6onsi eration -ust <e so-et*in/ o9 va. . 6as* nee not <e e46*an/e 9or t*e o"tion.o:ever.asses Co-"an0 v... In Ai<.. At.e.ere it is not is"ute t*at t*e o"tion is :it*out 6onsi eration.atera.i6it.. t*ese -ust <e t*in/s or un ertaGin/s o9 va.iun e to "rove t*e e4isten6e o9 6onsi eration 9or t*e o"tion 6ontra6t.[1$] :e stresse t*at an o"tion 6ontra6t nee s to <e su""orte <0 a se"arate 6onsi eration. "ro-ise is a. A6tua.t*ou/* its Gin -a0 var0.anti6 Gu. as t*e ". In ot*er :or s. a eter-inate t*in/ 9or a "ri6e 6ertain is re6i"ro6a.e Aa"tist C*ur6* v. Kan a66e"te uni. as :e.ue..e 1&$3 "rovi es 9or t*e e9inition an 6onseCuent ri/*ts an o<. T*e on. T*e 6onsi eration nee not <e -onetar0 <ut 6ou. s true even i9 t*e uni.. Co e' Art.t*e 6onte4t o9 sai arti6. 7E-"*asis su"". a eter-inate t*in/ 9or a "ri6e 6ertain is <in in/ u"on t*e "ro-issor i9 t*e "ro-ise is su""orte <0 a 6onsi eration istin6t 9ro. Hit*out 6onsi eration t*at is se"arate an istin6t 9ro. i9 t*e sa-e is not su""orte <0 an0 6onsi eration. Co e Kan o"tion to se.ea in/s su<-itte <0 t*e "arties.s. Eurt*er-ore.ion..e 1&$3 o9 t*e Civi. Mi.] :e e6.atera.i -ust <e Ksu""orte <0 a 6onsi eration istin6t 9ro. :*en a 6onsi eration 9or an o"tion 6ontra6t is not -onetar0.8 T*e o6trine reCuirin/ t*e "a0-ent o9 6onsi eration in an o"tion 6ontra6t enun6iate in Sout*:estern Su/ar is resonate in su<seCuent 6ases an re-ains 6ontro. it -ust <e su""orte <0 6onsi eration' T*ere is no Cuestion t*at un er Arti6.

T*e a<sen6e o9 -onetar0 or an0 -ateria.R. A"ri. t*e instant Petition is 5ENIE5.es 9or t*e o"tion 6ontra6t. in vie: o9 t*e 9ore/oin/. it is in u<ita<. MINITA =. 122. $#3>> are *ere<0 AEEIRME5. No 6osts. SO OR5ERE5. 6onsi eration Gee"s t*is Court 9ro.In t*e "resent 6ase. H. T*e 5e6ision ate 12 5e6e-<er 122& an Reso. C.ICO-NA!ARIO Asso6iate )usti6e .e t*at no 6onsi eration :as /iven <0 Enri6o to t*e s"ouses A"e.EREEORE.ution ate 1. C= No.s in CA-G. o9 t*e Court o9 A""ea.en9or6in/ t*e ri/*ts o9 t*e "arties un er sai o"tion 6ontra6t.

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