Monterey, California


C.J. Garrison

May 1977

Approved for public release; distribution unlimited

D 208.14/2:NPS-69GM77051


Rear Admiral Isham Linder Superintendent

Jack R.Borsting Provost

The work reported herein was supported by the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California.

Reproduction of all or part of this report is authorized.

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PROJECT. REPORT NUM9ER 2. The theory is applied to a slender cylindrical hull. 6. and the potential is represented in the inner region by a multipole expansion.SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Data Entered) REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 1. REPORT NUMBER AUTHORf*. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBERfaJ C. DISTRIBUTION ST AT EMEN T (of thla Report) Approved for public release.tered) . GOVT ACCESSION RECIPIENT'S CATALOG NUMBER NPS-69GM77051 4. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED Application of Slender Body Theory in Ship Hydrodynamics at High-Froude Number 7. Garrison • 9. READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING FORM NO. distribution unlimited 17. The theory is developed for hulls of arbitrary cross-section. California 93940 U. PROGRAM ELEMENT. unclassified 15a. 3. (of this report) AGENCY NAME 4 ADDRESS^// different from Controllint Office) 15. California 93940 11. NUMBER OF PAGES 18 SECURITY CLASS. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the abstract entered In Block 20. MONITORING 13. Closed form results are obtained for the yawing force and moment for the cylindrical hull. SCHEDULE DECLASSIFICATION/ DOWNGRADING 16. REPORT DATE May 1977 Naval Postgraduate School Monterey. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. KEY WORDS fConlfnue on reverse tide if necettary and taentlly by block number) Ship Hydrodynamics Slender Body Theory 20.J. and a Green's function method is outlined for solving the inner problem for hulls of arbitrary section. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10.6601 1 I IS OBSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Dats Sr. PERFORMING ORG. If different from Report) 18. DD ) jan 73 1473 EDITION OF NOV 65 S/N 0102-014. TASK AREA 4 WORK UNIT NUMBERS Naval Postgraduate School Monterey. ABSTRACT (Continue) on reverse tide If nece story and Identify by block number) The slender body theory utilizing the method of inner and outer expansions is applied to evaluate the yawing force and moment on a slender ship hull at high-Froude number. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. 8.


It was hoped. The unknowns re- maining in either of the expansion are determined by a matching procedure. ships tend to be "slender" as opposed to "thin" because the beam and draft tend to be of the same order of magnitude and both tend to be small in comparison to the length. However. Slender body theory has enjoyed great success in aerodynamics.h InSrodacU on. (1) . and this is a logical feature to exploit in simplification of the governing equations.1964).. that slender body theory might represent a significantly better alternative to Michell's theory in the area of wave resistance and at the same time yield useful results for the hydrodynamic forces in the transverse direction both in steady and unsteady motion. near the body and the outer expansion is valid in the far-field. Ogilvie (1969). The general method of matched asymptotic expansions is discussed by Van Dyke (1964).1965). Potential flow past a slender body is recognized as a singular perturbation problem and in such cases an inner and outer expansion is developed. i. Michell's classical theory of wave-making resistance published in 1898 considered the ship to be a "thin" body and represented the hull by use a of distribution of "Havelock sources" over a vertical mid-plane.e. Ursell(1968) and Faltinsen(1971) . Newman (1970) has given a review of the application of slender body theory to ship hulls which discusses various kinds of hull motion and wave resistance. Ship hulls are long and slender. The inner expansion is valid in the near-field. and in recent years there has been considerable interest in applications in naval hydrodynamics. therefore. Major advances in the application of slender body theory in ship hydrodynamics have been made largely in the past decade or so principally by Tuck (1963. The method of approach involves the use of matched asymptotic expansions which is a powerful method for dealing with singular perturbation problems. Newman (1964.

q = yields Laplace's equation as the governing differential equation. V 2 <p = <j> xx + <(> yy + <j> zz = (2) The fluid pressure P(x. Boundary-value Problem For Ship Hydrodynamics We assume the fluid to be ideal (inviscid. there is a new generation of high speed ships generally of the catamaran configuration which utilize rather thin or slender hulls and operate at rather high Froude number. incompressible and homogeneous) and the motion to be irrotational.z. While most displacement ships operate in the zero to intermediate Froude number range..V<f>-pgy + C(t) (3) (2) . If (x. a velocity potential <£(x.z. In the following a single slender hull operating a high-Froude number is considered from the view point of slender body theory. 2.y. i.t) is expressed in terms of <f> and the elevation y as p = -p^- JspV<J>.V.y.In the present report the application of the slender body theory to a ship hull in steady motion at high-Froude number is considered.e.t) can be introduced such that the fluid velocity vector is given by q = V<}> (*) The condition of incompressible flow applied to (1). The surface effects ship hulls represent the principal example of this type of hull even though the flow about an SES hull is somewhat more complex than the one considered here because of the pressure difference between the two sides of the hull.z) represents Cartesian coordinates fixed in space with the gravitational force acting in the negative y-direction and t denotes time.y.

•(n-y)=n +$ n +4> n -<f> = Dt t x x z z y on y=n (5) In addition to (5) a dynamic boundary condition must also be imposed. t)=0. This point is generally taken at the free surface at infinity where all of the values are known. is given by ?7 Dt = T?" o t + V<J>.y. (3) . p denotes the mass The function density of the fluid. the acceleration of gravity! C(t) is at most a function of time.where C(t) may be. and can be determined by evaluation of P+p(j) 4%>V<f> . V(J)+pgy at some reference point. This boundary condition results from simply applying P=0 on the free surface and is given by <j> + JsV<fr«V<J>+gy=C(t) on y=n (6) where C(t) is evaluated with the aid of a known reference point in the fluid. Since this surface is considered to be impermeable the kinematic boundary condition. If the elevation of the free surface is described by y=n(x. in general. which imposes the condition that the relative fluid velocity in a direction normal to the hull must vanish. and g.z.t) the kinematic boundary condition obtained in a fashion similar to (4) results from setting the substantial deriative of the surface n-y=0 to zero.Vs=0 on s=0 (4) On the free surface there are two boundary conditions which must be applied.z. a function of time. The surface of the hull is described by the equation s(x.

and z components are -U cos a. -> « appropriate to Also. 0. The coordinate system is placed at the mean free surface so that the y=0 plane represents the mean free surf ace. and the (4) .In addition to the boundary conditions (4-6) the potential function must satisfy certain radiation conditions at x 2 +y 2 the particular problem under consideration. respectively.y. on the bottom the kinematic boundary condition <f> = on y=-h (7) y is applied if the water depth is finite and denoted by h. and the water depth is taken as infinite. to the x-axis so that the resulting x. Perturbation Procedure For a Slender Body At this juncture let us consider a particular problem: a slender hull is positioned with its long axis coincident with the x-axis and held fixed in space as indicated in Figure 1. The motion will be restricted to steady motion. A uniform stream of Figure 1 Definitions magnitude U makes an angle a with respect. -U sin a. 3.

4> (0.hull is described by s(x. as an initial step we may expect the solue tion to be expandable in a power series in both and a. is of course. e.a)-Ux cos a-Uz sin a (8) where the body potential $ is expressed by O 2 2 $=e^+0L<$> :+O(£ )+0{a.z.e. and the incidence angle. expanding sina and cosa about a=0 in (8) and substi- tuting into (9) gives the total potential as = <f> e<J> j + a(4>"-Uz)-Ux+0(e 2 )-K)(a 2 ) (10) and substituting this form of the potential into (2) shows that V 2^i= v2^ =0 (11) since a and e are independent parameters.e) = where the parameter e = beam or draft-to-length ratio.z.y. Thus. the beam/length ratio.x. Outer Problem The problem which is here defined is recognized to be dependent on two dimensionless parameters. (At least the solution should behave in a regular manner with the exception of the region near the body.) Introducing the body potential.y. Thus. <J>. a. The first term of the Taylor series. ) (9) in the outer region. the total potential may be expressed as $ = <{>C. (5) .0)=<t> . zero because if both e=0 and a=0 the uniform stream is directed parallel to a line of zero thickness and the body potential vanishes.

T\. The first of these is obtained by setting a=0 as 2nf+ 1 g <j>f lx =0 on y=0 (15) and the second by setting e=0. n=en^Wj[+0(e 2 ) + 0(a 2 )40(cie) (12) Substituting (8) e . *L— ly g £ Ixx and =0 (17) *y e ixx (6) . (9) and (12) into (5) and collecting coefficients of like powers of and a gives: $? + Un? = on y=0 (13) and 4>? ly + Un? lx =0 on y=0 (14) The dynamic free surface boundary condition is obtained by use of (6) by evaluating C(t)=^U 2 at <j> x=°° on y=0 and substituting in the form of and n as given in (12) and (8). e and a.In similar fashion. Here again two separate boundary conditions result because of the independence of the two small parameters. 1 g lx = on y=0 (16) Eqs.we may express the free surface elevation in the form of (9). (13) and (14) together with (15) and (16) yield the linear free surface boundary conditions.$.+ -JL.

The solution to the slender body problem is singular in the inner We there- region but the degree of singularness at the outset is unknown. Inner Problem We now consider the inner potential which is valid near the slender body. have in summary for £ $^ 9 <f>f lxx + <|>f lyy + <|>f Izz =0 (22) >j = on y=0 (23) and similarly for a .a -xx yy izz ( *^> d> = 1 on y=0 (25) The boundary condition on the hull is in this case to be replaced by a matching condition. We. The solution is singular in the region of the body so the hull kinematic boundary condition is not applied to the outer solution. <J> a a x . simply <J»j = on y=0 (19) <frj = on y=0 (20) In summary.Eqs. (7) . we have derived a boundary-value problem for the outer potential. considered to be 0(1)) become large. therefore. (17) and (18) represent familiar linear boundary conditions for If we now let the Froude number U 2 /gL (where L is (17) and (18) become the free surface.

U2^ [ + <h ! "fcx YY + *i 1 ZZj +. = (29) Clearly. we find.a)+A 1 (e)$ 1 (x. is allowed to remain finite and is not considered in any limiting process. the beam-length ratio.Y > Z.. if A 1 (e)/A 2 (e) is at least of 0(e) then the three dimen- sional Laplacian degenerates to the two-dimensional form for the leading term in the inner expansion: $ + °YY $ =o (30) °ZZ The inner representation. Here the incidence angle. The body potential is expressed in (26) as an inner perturbation series in e. These gage functions will eventually be determined by use of the principle of least degeneracy also discussed by Van Dyke. Y=y/e Z=z/e (27) (28) and A (e). are called gage functions as defined by Van Dyke (1964).Z. boundary condition on the hull.2„ +®n +^ + L °XX °YY °ZZ ^ ^ -L- Ai(e) A 2 (e) .Y. being valid near the hull must satisfy the . (26) where the Y and Z coordinates are stretched by the parameter e. If the inner representation of the body potential given by (26) is substituted into (2) . If s is expressed in inner variables as (8) ... (8) and the result substituted into the Laplacian. etc. .a) + ..fore begin by writing the body potential as <f> = A (e)<J> (x. a. We shall return to this point later.A T (e)..

e) = then the hull kinematic boundary condition.s(x. if the angle of attack were taken to be zero then the principle of least $ S degeneracy leads one to A (e)=£ 2 and (31) gives. It is noted that in such a case the cross- flow is an order of magnitude larger than the perturbation associated with the thickness distribution of the body and thickness effect is. (8) which is obtained by use of (26) and with (4) > gives i2 ( *o s x * + *oYW ) z e 2 + vfy 2.e) = S(x. and the hull kinematic condition would read S *oY Y *oZ Z + S =UaS Z °n S=0 C32) This boundary condition simply indicates that in any transverse plane perpendicular to the x-axis the body potential must just cancel the cross-flow velocity. OY Y +$ S =US 0Z Z X on S=0 (33) a familiar result in slender body theory. Alternately. Ua. (e) eUaS 7 A (e) o A o Now if a were to be considered to be fixed at 0(1) then the principle of least degeneracy would require that A (e) = o e.Z.Y. lost.y. A third possibility is to take a to be of the same order of magni- (9) . therefore. ' (« Jxy%Wz) = (3i) US.z.

tude as e and retain both of the terms on the right hand side of (32) This gives A (e)=e 2 and and (33).e) = The free surface condition to be applied to the inner solution is obtained by eliminating ri between (5) and (6). SV 9 $og S Z .Y. The boundary condition obtained in this way is =0 on Y=ri/e (36) 4> x (V<J>«Vcf> x )+(f> z (V<J>-V<j> z )+g<J> y Substitution of (26) and (8) into (36) gives ( £ 2 $0x 2 -u) [£ 2 $ ( e ^-U)+s^ 0xx ^o xY +^o xZ ( e* -Ua) 0z on Y=0 C3Z) + (c $oZ -Ua) [e * +* (e2* -U)+ e * « (e* -Ua)+g e «G ^0 ox oY oYZ oZZ oZ Oxz Now.U(S X + f S z ) on S=0 (34) An alternate way of writing (34) is £-<!+M) with x held fixed. The problem number for the first term of the inner expansion for the high-Froude (10) . where N= n /e and n represents distance measured normal to the curve in the Y-Z plane described by the equation S(x. if e-K) with a=fixed.Z. (37) gives *oZZ ° = °n Y= ° (38) or from this we can deduce that $ o =0 on Y=0 (39) is the appropriate boundary condition in the inner region.

in summary.Z)=0 a function which is specified on the hull surface.slender body theory is.n)=ln>/(Z-C) 2 +(Y-n) 2 -ln\/( z -^ 2 + ( Y+rl> < 41 ) (ID . Figure 2 Inner Problem arbitrary shapes by use of a Green's function of the form G(Z. Solution for the Inner Problem The inner problem specified in (40) is essentially a two-dimensional problem as indicated in Figure 2. 3Z ) ° n S= ° (40b) $o =0 on Y=0 (40) (40c) There is no radiation condition specified in . Such problems can be solved for rather $n = $n = o = C(Y. C=0.£.Y. 4. $ +<$> oYY oZZ =o (40a) 3$ S TT/ U( x 3N°" ^ + ^ 7 3N. this condition is replaced by matching with the outer solution.

C.C. The potential $ may be represented by a surface distribution over the hull of these two-dimensional singularities.x)=R-R H (x) (44) where R=r/e denotes the radial coordinate in inner variables and R^ (12) .n) dC (43) This equation can be solved numerically by subdiving C into a finite number (say N) of segments. Cylindrical Hull For the case of a semi-immersed circular cylinder. (43) can then be reduced to a set of N linear equations in N unknown values of F.Z)+^ /F(x.n)dC (42) where C denotes the curve in the Y-Z plane representing the crosssection of the hull and dC denotes an arc length along that curve.The first term in (41) represents a source. The hull boundary condition (40b) then yields the integral equation for the source strength distribution. In particular.?) || (Z.9.ti.Y. a multipole series may be used to represent the solution.Z) as '(x.n. (40a) and (40c) are automatically satisfied.?)G(Z. over each of the segments. Using (41) for G. F(x. Eq. Consider the surface described in cylindrical coordinates by S(R. the potential may be represented by o 2tt I F(x.Y.Y. and the second term represents a negative image with respect to the Z axis.Y.

denotes the radius of the hull in the inner variable (R^ =r /e) and is. takes the form. (40b). a function of x.. n -1 n^l n (51) / we find sin(n9)d9= l-cos(mr) v ' ^-*. ff° = u (\ + | cose > on R=R H W) where the polar coordinate system is related to the cartesian system by Z=R cos 6 (46a) 9 Y=-R sin (46b) The solution for $ satisfying both (40a) and oo (40b) is given by $ = o L n=l t an sin(n8) n R (47) Application of the hull boundary condition (45) now gives oo a n (n+1) R H n=l 2 sin n^-URj! " T U cos9 (48) By use of the results J o TT sin(n6)de=y ~o ) C os 2 (n6)de=7r/2 (49) / sin(n9)sin(m9)=/ (n0 sin (m6 =/ sin ) cos (n6) cos (m6) d9=0 if m^n (50) IT / o ir sin(n9)cos6 d9= -4-. The kinematic boundary condition on the hull. in general.= l-(-l) n n (52) v (13) .

. therefore. represented by the series o "£ it / W \n^-l ) . (55) The inner potential function is. i*&» ^nlj n. disregarding terms of OCe*4 ) and o(e a 2 ).4. ' The dynamic pressure on the hull can be obtained from Bernoulli's equation. and a n= .. That is. 1 !0 U$o " <*o + F $0 >-(r>^o 9 sine+ (7> U 2 sin 2 9 (57) The normal (or yaw) force per unit length along the hull can be determined through integration of the pressure over the immersed surface. -n— sin(n6) (56) n. „ n+1 sin(n9) .. dF = z r/ p Rh cose de l dx ( 58 ^ (14) .6. . 1>3>5 . carrying out the integration. n= 1 3 .(n+1) n = _°L i^H n 9 / i_/ e H cosQ sin(n9)de. (53) or.. n=2.

a «« 2 n=2 where r„ is defined as R^ =r IJ /e and H H Hs s g rH represents the hull radius in outer variables.a F z-a 1 2 oU 2 pU ZL ^^^ r2 I n V^ I— A-(-D 2+^ n(l+(-l)") ^ n=2 \ The dimensionless normal (or yaw) force coefficient based on the stern area.After substitution of (56) into (58 ) and some lengthy manipulations and integrations we get.5. For boat-tailed hulls we get the familiar result F z =0 because The summation in (61) can be somewhat rearranged to read I n=3. for the normal force on the segment dx.7 / The series converges rapidly to approximately 0. becomes f -^V *sPU^tt r -M**^ HS I (^=^- - n( + . Rh s =o.i)n > i ) .128 so f 2 z =0.75a for the cylindrical hull at high Froude number can be compared with the classical value of f =2ct for the same hull operating z (15) . therefore..75a \ (63) The value of f =0. °° 1 2+y^ n=2 / n n l-(-l) _ n(l+(-l) [ \ dx (59) The net normal force is obtained by integration from the bow where Rjj=0 to the stern where Rh=Rit » .

so that the hull length is L=a+b.-/ xdF y / / b < 64) z x=-a where a and b denote the distance from the origin to the stern and bow. using (59) with gives *r f where My 2 PU V ' n=2. 8$ /8Y=0 on Y=0. right at the free surface there can be no pres- sure difference across the hull. The low Froude number (actually low to moderate) boundary condition makes the free surface act like a rigid wall and a pressure difference across the hull can exist at the Y=0 level.with the low-speed free surface boundary condition.75(l- 4-^) » (66) (16) . respectively. (64) Thus.. o It is reasonable to expect a somewhat smaller value for f z for the high-Froude number case because the high -Froude number free surface boundary condition makes the Y=0 plane act like a zero pressure surface and. /' A s =area of the stern section below the mean waterline V=hull displacement L=hull length When the series is evaluated we get my -o. The moment about the Y-axis is given by dM . therefore.3).

5.and for boat-tailed (or closed) bodies the moment coefficient becomes my =0. This value may be contrasted with the low Froude number result of 2. Conclusions Slender body theory has been applied to a slender ship hull opera- ting at high-Froude number.0a which is often referred to as Munk's moment. closed- form results were obtained for the yaw force and moment. For the case of a semi-circular hull. (17) . These values are less than half the values of the equivalent coefficients associated with the rigid-wall free surface boundary condition. 75a.

and Tuck. (1970) "Applications of Slender-Body Theory in Ship Hydrodynamics". Tuck.E. 229 p. .E.D. Ph. . Norway (1964) (U. Tuck.l. E. pp 15-23. No. Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Dept. Van Dyke. (1963)"Steady Motion of a Slender Ship". No. (1965) David Taylor Model Basin Report. Tuck. 013. (1964)"A Systematic Asumptotic Expansion Procedure for Slender Ships". and Tuck. D. 4 (414-427) J.REFERENCES Faltinsen. Department No. Ursell. . Newman. (1964) /'Perturbation Methods in Fluid Mechanics" (Academic Press.O. University of Michigan. 2127 Newman. The University of Michigan (Also: A Rational Strip Theory of Ship Motions: Part II. pp 45-52. Bergen. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. E. N.0. Applications.O.T. Research ."0n Head Seas Travelling along a Horizontal Cylinder".( 1964) "Current Progress in the Slender-Body Theory for Ship Motion.8 No. Journal of Ship Research .18 pp 602-608. Government Printing Office. S. J. O. thesis.M.) pp 129-162.N. Ann Arbor. 0. Washington. J. J.) . . (1971) "Wave Forces on a Restrained Ship in Head-Sea Waves".2.. Vol. M. ( 1969)"A Rational Strip Theory of Ship Motions". Newman.C. (1964). 2.F. Annual Reviews of Fluid Mechanics. Department of Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering The University of Michigan.) (18) .8. . Vol.p.E." Procurement Proceedings Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics. . (1964) "A Slender-body Theory for Ship Oscillation in Waves". No. "On Line Distributions of Kelvin Sources" Journal of Ship Vol. Math.N. Michigan. J. University of Cambridge.F. (Doctoral Thesis. . 0. 113. Inst. (i968). Vol.) Newman.N. Ogilvie. Vol. New York and London.

Virginia 22314 2 Library Naval Postgraduate School Monterey. Lee 1 DTNSRDC Bethesda. Md 20084 Dr. California 93940 Allen Ford SES Division (Code 163) DTNSRDC Bethesda. 20084 Dr. 10 1 . Department of Mechanical Engineering Naval Postgraduate School Monterey. ASED 1 Arnold Anderson SESPO DTNSRDC Bethesda. 1 . California 93940 Chairman. Md. 1 CM.Distribution List Defense Documentation Center Cameron Station Alexandria. for Skipshydrodynamikk N-7034 Trondheim-NTH NORWAY Dr. Md. California 93940 Office of Research Administration Naval Postgraduate School Monterey. 20084 Odd Faltinsen University of Trondheim Norges Tekniske Hogskole Inst. 20084 Nan King SESPO DTNSRDC Bethesda. Md. Fuhs Department of Mechanical Engineering Naval Postgraduate School Monterey. California 93940 2 1 1 Professor Allen E.


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