Annual

Statistical
Supplement
to the

Social Security
Bulletin, 2006

Social Security Administration
Office of Policy
Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics
SSA Publication No. 13-11700
Released: June 2007

Michael J. Astrue
Commissioner of Social Security

Linda Drazga Maxfield
Assistant Deputy Commissioner for Policy

Andrew G. Biggs
Acting Deputy Commissioner for Policy

Susan Grad
Acting Associate Commissioner
for Research, Evaluation, and Statistics

The Annual Statistical Supplement to the
Social Security Bulletin (ISSN 0037-7910)
is published by the Social Security Administration, 500 E Street, SW, 8th Floor,
Washington, DC 20254. First-class and
small package carrier postage is paid in
Washington, DC, and additional mailing
offices.
The Supplement is prepared in SSA’s
Office of Policy, Office of Research,
Evaluation, and Statistics (ORES). General
questions or comments concerning the
Supplement should be directed to ORES
at the above address, by telephone (410966-9541) or e-mail (supplement@ssa.
gov). For specific questions about the data,
contact the person listed on each page or
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Note: Contents of this publication are
not copyrighted; any item may be reprinted, but citation of the Annual Statistical
Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, 2006 as the source is requested. The
Supplement is also available on the Web
at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/policy.

Social Security Administration
Office of Policy
Supplement Committee
Barbara A. Lingg, Committee Chair
Dena Berglund
Rona Blumenthal
Alfreda M. Brooks
Stella M. Coleman
Gregory K. Diez
Karyn Foley
Fredy M. Galeas
Robert L. Hackendorf
Angela Y. Harper
Cherice H. Jefferies
Hazel Jenkins
Sharon R. Johnson
Arthur L. Kahn
Marian Longley
Linda Martin
Dana Mercer
Judi Papas
Jennie Park
Curtis P. Pauzenga
Clark Pickett
Alberta Presberry
Shirley M. Turpin
H. Diane Wallace
Alex Wasarhelyi
Editing and Production
Laurie Brown
Karen R. Morris
Wanda Sivak
Sherry Snyder
Karyn M. Tucker
Kathryn Spradlin
Office of the Actuary
Sondra A. Hines
Jeffrey L. Kunkel

Centers for Medicare &
Medicaid Services
Catherine A. Curtis
Maria Diacogiannis
Janet Freeze
Earl Dirk Hoffman, Jr.
Barbara Klees
Clare McFarland
Sol Mussey
John Wandishin
Office of the Assistant
Secretary for Planning
and Evaluation
Gordon Fisher
Department of Labor
Employment and
Training Administration
Daniel L. Hays
Employment Standards
Administration
John K. Dominick
Dan Peed
Bennett Stewart
Department of Veterans
Affairs
Veterans Benefits
Administration
Michael Wells
National Academy of
Social Insurance
Virginia Reno
Ishita Sengupta
U.S. Census Bureau
Joseph Dalaker
Bernadette Proctor

Preface
The Supplement is a major resource for data on our nation's social insurance and welfare
programs. The majority of the statistical tables present information about programs administered by the Social Security Administration—the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance program, known collectively as Social Security, and the Supplemental Security
Income program. In addition, data are presented on the major health care programs—
Medicare and Medicaid—and social insurance programs, including workers’ compensation, unemployment insurance, temporary disability insurance, Black Lung benefits, and
veterans’ benefits. (The sections on income maintenance programs—Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, Food Stamps, and the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance
Program—have been discontinued.) The Supplement also includes program summaries
and legislative histories that help users of the data understand these programs. Please
note that additional disability tables and statistics can be found in the SSI Annual Statistical Report and the Annual Statistical Report on the Social Security Disability Insurance
Program.
The Supplement has been published annually since 1940. Decisions affecting the
future of Social Security are facilitated by the availability of relevant data over a long
period. The data provide a base for research, policy analysis, and proposals for changing
the programs. In addition to meeting the Social Security Administration’s information
needs, the Supplement strengthens the agency’s ability to respond to requests for program data from congressional committees, government agencies at all levels, and the
research community.
The Supplement is prepared by Social Security Administration staff from various components throughout the agency and by many individuals from other federal agencies. I
would like to express my thanks to them for their contributions. The inside cover includes a
list of the persons and agencies contributing to this edition.
General comments or questions about this report are welcome and should be directed
to Angela Y. Harper at 410-966-9541 or supplement@ssa.gov. For answers to specific
questions about the data, you will find contact information provided at the bottom of each
table.
This report is available on our Web site at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/policy, as are
the SSI Annual Statistical Report and the Annual Statistical Report on the Social Security
Disability Insurance Program. For additional copies of the Supplement, please e-mail
op.publications@ssa.gov or call 202-358-6274.

Susan Grad
Acting Associate Commissioner
for Research, Evaluation, and Statistics
June 2007

Contents
Highlights and Trends
Social Security (OASDI)
Employment and Earnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Program Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Program Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1
1
2

Supplemental Security Income
Annual Payment Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Program Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Program Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3
3
4

Health Care
Medicare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Medicaid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5
5

Other Social Insurance Programs and Veterans' Benefits
Unemployment Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Workers’ Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Temporary Disability Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Black Lung Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Veterans’ Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6
6
6
6
7

Poverty Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

Program Descriptions and Legislative History
Social Security (Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supplemental Security Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Medicare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Medicaid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Workers’ Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Temporary Disability Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Black Lung Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Veterans’ Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11
22
37
54
61
64
67
69
70

Appendixes
A. Sampling Variability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. OASDI Benefit Award Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C. Poverty Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D. Computing a Retired-Worker Benefit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A.1
B.1
C.1
D.1

Glossary and Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G.1
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I.1

Tables
Section 2. History of Program Provisions
and SSA Administrative Data
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance
Coverage, Financing, and Insured Status
2.A1
2.A2
2.A3
2.A4
2.A5
2.A6
2.A7

Covered employment and self-employment provisions, by year enacted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Noncontributory wage credit provisions, by year enacted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Annual maximum taxable earnings and contribution rates, 1937–2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum annual amount of contributions, 1937–2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tax credits enacted in 1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appropriations from general revenues and interfund borrowing provisions,
by type of transaction and year enacted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insured status (benefit eligibility) provisions, by eligibility concept and year enacted . . . . . . .

2.1
2.3
2.4
2.6
2.8
2.8
2.9

Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
2.A8
2.A9
2.A10
2.A11
2.A11.1
2.A12
2.A13

2.A14
2.A16
2.A17
2.A17.1
2.A18
2.A19

Factors for indexing earnings, 1951–2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indexed earnings for workers with maximum earnings, 1951–2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Average monthly wage and average indexed monthly earnings provisions,
by year enacted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formulas for computing PIA from AIME, cost-of-living adjustments, and minimum PIA
for workers who were first eligible in 1979 or later, by year of first eligibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Computation of PIA based on Windfall Elimination Provision (WEP), by year enacted . . . . . .
Special minimum PIA (formula applies to years of coverage), by year enacted . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formulas enacted in 1977 for computing OASI maximum family benefit from PIA
and cost-of-living adjustments for workers who were first eligible in 1979 or later
by year of first eligibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formulas for computing maximum family benefit and cost-of-living adjustments
for workers first eligible for disability benefits in 1979 or later, by year of enactment . . . . . . . .
Percentage of average monthly wage (AMW) applicable to primary insurance amount (PIA)
based on formula for computing PIA from AMW, and percentage increases in PIA . . . . . . . . .
Minimum primary insurance amount (PIA) and maximum family benefit for workers who
attained age 62, were first eligible for disabled-worker benefits, or died before 1979 . . . . . . .
Full retirement age and maximum reduction of retired-worker benefits, by year of birth . . . . .
Automatic adjustment provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Illustrative benefit growth: Cumulative effect of statutory and automatic increases
in benefits using a 100 dollar base benefit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.11
2.14
2.16
2.17
2.19
2.21

2.23
2.24
2.25
2.28
2.30
2.31
2.33

Benefit Types and Levels
2.A20
2.A21
2.A22
2.A23
2.A24
2.A25
2.A26

Monthly benefits for retired and disabled workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monthly benefits for spouses and children of retired and disabled workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monthly benefits for survivors of deceased workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monthly benefits for transitionally insured workers and their spouses
and surviving spouses, aged 72 before 1969 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monthly benefits for individuals and couples insured for special age-72 (Prouty) benefits . . .
Lump-sum benefits and vocational rehabilitation services, by type of benefit . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monthly benefit amount for selected beneficiary families with first eligibility in 2005,
by average indexed monthly earnings for stipulated yearly wage levels,
effective December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vi ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.35
2.37
2.40
2.44
2.45
2.47

2.48

2.A27
2.A28

Minimum and maximum monthly retired-worker benefits payable to individuals
who retired at age 62, by year they attained age 62, 1957–2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minimum and maximum monthly retired-worker benefits payable to individuals
who retired at age 65, by year they attained age 65, 1940–2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.49
2.51

Effect of Current Earnings and Taxation of Benefits
2.A29
2.A29.1
2.A30
2.A31
2.A32

Earnings (retirement) test for years through 1999, by year enacted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Earnings (retirement) test for 2000–2006, by year enacted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monthly earnings guidelines for substantial gainful activity, 1961–2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Taxation of Social Security benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Taxation of Social Security benefits: Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.53
2.55
2.56
2.57
2.58

History of SSI, Medicare, and Medicaid Provisions
Supplemental Security Income
2.B1

Federal benefit rates, by living arrangement, 1974–2006

............................

2.59

Medicare cost sharing and premium amounts, 1966–2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.60

Federal medical assistance percentage and enhanced federal medical
assistance percentage, by state or other area, 2005–2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.62

Medicare
2.C1

Medicaid
2.C2

SSA Administrative Data
Offices and Staff
2.F1
2.F2
2.F3

Number of SSA offices, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of SSA employees and percentage with selected characteristics by grade,
September 30, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of work years, fiscal years 1995–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.64
2.65
2.65

Claims Workloads
2.F4
2.F5
2.F6

Number of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance claims, fiscal year 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of Disability Insurance claims, fiscal year 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of Supplemental Security Income claims, fiscal year 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.66
2.66
2.66

Service Delivery
2.F7

Accuracy rates and use of 800 telephone number, fiscal years 2001–2005

..............

2.67

Workload of SSA’s Administrative Law Judges (ALJs), fiscal years 2003–2005 . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of hearing receipts, dispositions, and end-of-year pending cases,
fiscal years 2004–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of SSA Appeals Council cases, fiscal years 2003–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.68

Hearings and Appeals
2.F8
2.F9
2.F11

2.68
2.68

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ vii

Section 3. Social Welfare and the Economy
Employment and Earnings
3.B3

Federal minimum wage rates under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 and average
hourly earnings and average weekly hours for production workers in manufacturing,
selected years 1938–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.1

Interprogram Data
3.C3
3.C4
3.C5

3.C6

3.C6.1

3.C7a

3.C7b

3.C8

Contributions to the Social Security and Medicare trust funds, by program and source,
selected years 1965–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3
Average monthly amount of Social Security and selected public assistance programs,
December 1950–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4
Population aged 65 or older receiving Social Security (OASDI) benefits,
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments, or both, by state, December 1940–2005,
selected years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6
Number and percentage of Social Security (OASDI) beneficiaries also receiving federally
administered Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments, by type of OASDI benefit
and SSI eligibility category, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8
Number of persons aged 18–64 receiving Social Security (OASDI) benefits or federally
administered Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments based on disability, by type
of benefit, December 1978–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9
Number of persons aged 15 or older reporting only one race and having Social Security benefits
or Supplemental Security Income in March 2006, by sex, age, and race,
and average annual benefit in 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.10
Number of persons aged 15 or older reporting one or more races and having Social Security benefits
or Supplemental Security Income in March 2006, by sex, age, and race,
and average annual benefit in 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.11
Number of persons aged 15 or older with Social Security (OASDI) benefits or Supplemental
Security Income (SSI) and number and percentage of Hispanic origin in March 2006, by age
and sex, and average annual benefit in 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.12

Poverty
3.E1
3.E2
3.E3
3.E4
3.E6
3.E8

Weighted average poverty thresholds for nonfarm families, by size, 1959–2005 . . . . . . . . . .
Number and percentage of poor persons, by age, at end of selected years 1959–2004 . . . . .
Shares of money income from earnings and other sources for aged
and nonaged families, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Current living arrangements of persons aged 65 or older, by sex and poverty
status, March 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percentage distribution of aged families receiving Social Security benefits, by share
of income from benefits and race, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Poverty guidelines for families of specified size, 1965–2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

viii ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

3.13
3.15
3.16
3.17
3.18
3.19

Sections 4–6. Old-Age, Survivors,
and Disability Insurance
Trust Funds
4.A1
4.A2
4.A3
4.A4
4.A5
4.A6

Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, selected years 1937–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disability Insurance, 1957–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Combined OASI and DI, 1957–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total annual benefits paid, by type of benefit and trust fund, and as a percentage
of personal income, selected years 1937–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total annual benefits paid from OASI trust fund, by type of benefit,
selected years 1937–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total annual benefits paid from DI trust fund, by type of benefit, 1957–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.1
4.3
4.5
4.7
4.9
4.11

Covered Workers
4.B1
4.B2
4.B3
4.B4
4.B5
4.B6
4.B7
4.B8
4.B9
4.B10
4.B11
4.B12
4.B13
4.B14

Number of workers with taxable earnings, amount of earnings, and Social Security numbers
issued, selected years 1937–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number with taxable earnings and amount of earnings, by type of earnings, 1951–2005 . . . .
Number of workers and median annual earnings, by type of earnings and sex,
selected years 1937–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percentage of workers with earnings below annual maximum taxable, by sex,
selected years 1937–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of workers, by sex and age, selected years 1937–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Median earnings of workers, by sex and age, selected years 1937–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of wage and salary workers, by sex and amount of taxable earnings, 1992–2004 . .
Number of self-employed workers, by sex and age, selected years 1951–2004 . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of self-employed workers, by sex and amount of taxable earnings, 1992–2004 . . . .
Number of workers with Social Security (OASDI) taxable earnings, amount taxable,
and contributions, by state or other area and type of earnings, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of workers with Social Security (OASDI) taxable earnings, amount taxable,
and contributions, by type of earnings, selected years 1937–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of workers with Medicare Part A (HI) taxable earnings, amount taxable,
and contributions, by state or other area and type of earnings, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Social Security (OASDI) taxable earnings, by sex and age, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Medicare Part A (HI) taxable earnings, by sex and age, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.12
4.14
4.16
4.18
4.20
4.22
4.24
4.25
4.27
4.28
4.30
4.32
4.34
4.35

Insured Workers
4.C1
4.C2
4.C5
4.C6

Estimated number, by insured status, December 31, 1940–2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Estimated number, insured status, sex, and age, December 31, 1970–2006,
selected years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Estimated size of the population in the Social Security area and percentage fully insured,
by sex and age, 2002–2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Period life table, 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.36
4.38
4.41
4.42

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ ix

Benefits in Current-Payment Status
Summary
5.A1
5.A1.1
5.A1.2
5.A1.3
5.A1.4
5.A1.5
5.A1.6
5.A1.7
5.A1.8
5.A3
5.A4
5.A5
5.A6
5.A7
5.A8

5.A10
5.A14
5.A15
5.A16
5.A17

Number and average monthly benefit, by type of benefit and race, December 2005 . . . . . . .
Number and average monthly benefit for retired workers, by sex, age, and race,
December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and average monthly benefit for disabled workers, by sex, age, and race,
December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and average monthly benefit for spouses, by marital status, basis of entitlement,
age, and race, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and average monthly benefit for children, by type of benefit, age, and race,
December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and average monthly benefit for widowed mothers and fathers, by age, sex,
marital status, and race, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and average monthly benefit for nondisabled widow(er)s, by sex, age,
marital status, and race, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and average monthly benefit for disabled widow(er)s, by age, sex,
marital status, and race, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and average monthly benefit for parents, by age, sex, and race, December 2005 . .
Number and average monthly benefit, with reduction for early retirement, by type of benefit,
sex, age, and race, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and total monthly benefits, by trust fund and type of benefit,
December 1940–2005, selected years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and average age, by type of benefit, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and average monthly benefit, by age, sex, type of benefit, and race,
December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and average monthly benefit for women, by type of benefit, basis of entitlement,
and race, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number, average primary insurance amount, and average monthly benefit for
persons with benefits based on special minimum primary insurance amount,
by type of benefit and sex, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and average monthly benefit for beneficiaries aged 60 or older, by sex,
type of benefit, and age, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and percentage distribution of women aged 62 or older, by basis of entitlement,
type of benefit, and dual entitlement status, December 1960–2005, selected years . . . . . . . .
Number and average monthly benefit for women aged 65 or older, by basis of entitlement,
type of benefit, and dual entitlement status, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and average monthly benefit for adult beneficiaries, by sex, type of benefit,
and age, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and average monthly benefit for disabled beneficiaries, by type of benefit,
December 1957–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.1
5.2
5.5
5.9
5.12
5.15
5.17
5.19
5.20
5.21
5.25
5.27
5.27
5.28

5.29
5.30
5.31
5.31
5.32
5.33

Retired Workers
5.B1

5.B2

5.B3
5.B4
5.B5

Number, average primary insurance amount, and average monthly benefit without
reduction for early retirement and with delayed retirement credit, by age and sex,
December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number, average primary insurance amount, and average monthly benefit without
reduction for early retirement and without delayed retirement credit, by age and sex,
December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and average monthly benefit before and after delayed retirement credit, by age
and sex, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number, percentage, and average monthly benefit, by year of entitlement as retired worker
and sex, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number, average age, and percentage distribution, by sex and age, December 1940–2005,
selected years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

x ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

5.34

5.35
5.36
5.37
5.39

5.B6
5.B7
5.B8
5.B9

Number and percentage distribution with and without reduction for early retirement,
by sex and monthly benefit, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and percentage distribution with and without reduction for early retirement,
by sex and primary insurance amount, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and average monthly benefit with and without reduction for early retirement,
by sex, December 1956–2005, selected years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and percentage distribution, by sex, monthly benefit, and age, December 2005 . . . .

5.41
5.43
5.45
5.46

Retired Workers and Dependents
5.C1
5.C2

Number and percentage distribution, by primary insurance amount and type of benefit,
December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Average monthly benefit, by type of benefit and sex, December 1940–2005,
selected years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.48
5.49

Disabled Workers
5.D1
5.D2
5.D3
5.D4

Number, percentage, and average monthly benefit, by year of entitlement as
disabled worker and sex, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and percentage distribution, by monthly benefit and sex, December 2005 . . . . . . . .
Number and total monthly benefits, by sex, December 1957–2005, selected years . . . . . . . .
Number, average age, and percentage distribution, by sex and age,
December 1957–2005, selected years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.51
5.53
5.54
5.55

Disabled Workers and Dependents
5.E1
5.E2

Number and percentage distribution, by primary insurance amount and
type of benefit, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Average monthly benefit, by type of benefit, sex, and age, December 1957–2005,
selected years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.57
5.58

Dependents and Survivors
5.F1
5.F3
5.F4
5.F6
5.F7
5.F8
5.F9
5.F10
5.F11
5.F12
5.F13

Number of wives and husbands and total monthly benefits, by type of benefit,
December 1950–2005, selected years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percentage distribution of wives with entitlement based on age, by monthly benefit
and age, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of children and total monthly benefits, by type of benefit, December 1940–2005,
selected years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Average monthly benefit for survivors, by type of benefit, December 1940–2005,
selected years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and percentage distribution of survivors, by primary insurance amount
and type of benefit, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of widow(er)s and total monthly benefits, by type of benefit,
December 1950–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number, percentage, and average monthly benefit, by year of entitlement
as nondisabled widow(er), December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number, percentage, and average monthly benefit, by year of entitlement
as disabled widow(er), December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percentage distribution of nondisabled widows, by monthly benefit and age,
December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of widowed and surviving divorced mothers and fathers and total monthly benefits,
by type of benefit, December 1950–2005, selected years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and average monthly benefit for nondisabled widows aged 65 or older, by age,
reduction status, and limitation of benefit, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.59
5.61
5.62
5.63
5.65
5.66
5.67
5.67
5.68
5.69
5.70

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ xi

Retired Workers with Dual Entitlement
5.G1

5.G2
5.G3
5.G4
5.G5

Percentage distribution of persons receiving both a retired-worker and a secondary
benefit without and with reduction for early retirement, by sex and primary insurance amount,
December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number receiving both a retired-worker and a secondary benefit, by sex and
type of secondary benefit, December 1952–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number receiving both a retired-worker and a secondary benefit and average
monthly benefit, by type of secondary benefit, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number receiving both a retired-worker and a secondary benefit, average monthly benefit,
and retired-worker benefit as a percentage of combined benefit, December 2005 . . . . . . . . .
Percentage distribution, by total combined monthly benefit and retired-worker benefit,
December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.71
5.73
5.75
5.75
5.76

Beneficiary Families
5.H1
5.H2
5.H3
5.H4

Number and average monthly family benefit for selected family groups,
December 1945–2005, selected years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number, average primary insurance amount, and average monthly family benefit
for selected family groups, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percentage distribution of retired-worker and disabled-worker families, by monthly benefit
for selected family groups, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percentage distribution of survivor families, by monthly benefit for selected family groups,
December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.77
5.79
5.80
5.82

Geographic Data
5.J1
5.J2
5.J3
5.J4
5.J5
5.J5.1
5.J6
5.J8
5.J9
5.J10
5.J11
5.J14

Estimated total benefits paid, by state or other area and program, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number, by state or other area, program, and type of benefit, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and total monthly benefits for beneficiaries aged 65 or older, by state or other
area and sex, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total monthly benefits, by state or other area, program, and type of benefit,
December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number, by state or other area and age, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number, by state or other area, race, and sex, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percentage distribution of monthly benefit for retired workers, by state or other area and
monthly benefit, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percentage distribution of disabled workers, by state or other area and monthly benefit,
December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percentage distribution of nondisabled widow(er)s, by state or other area and
monthly benefit, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of children, by state or other area and type of benefit, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and total monthly benefits for beneficiaries in foreign countries,
December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number, average monthly benefit, and median monthly benefit, by state or other area and
type of disabled beneficiary, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.84
5.85
5.87
5.89
5.91
5.93
5.95
5.97
5.99
5.101
5.103
5.105

Direct Deposit
5.K1

Number and percentage of beneficiaries and average monthly benefit, by state or other
area and direct deposit status, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.107

With Representative Payee
5.L1

Number of beneficiaries with a representative payee as a percentage of all beneficiaries,
by type of beneficiary and age, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xii ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

5.108

International Agreements
5.M1

Number of beneficiaries and average monthly benefit under U.S. totalization agreements,
by country and type of benefit, December 1983–2005, selected years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.109

Benefits Awarded
Summary
6.A1
6.A2

6.A3
6.A4
6.A5
6.A6

Number, by type of benefit, 1940–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Average primary insurance amount for retired workers and average monthly benefit for
retired and disabled workers, and nondisabled widows, by type of benefit and sex,
selected years 1940–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and average monthly benefit, by type of benefit, sex, age, basis of entitlement,
and race, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and average monthly benefit for retired and disabled workers, by age in month
of award and sex, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and average monthly benefit with reduction for early retirement, by type of benefit,
age in month of award, and sex, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number, percentage distribution, and average monthly benefit for retired and disabled
workers, by state or other area, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.1

6.3
6.5
6.7
6.8
6.9

Retired Workers
6.B1

6.B3
6.B4
6.B5

Number of initial awards to retired workers aged 62–64, average primary insurance
amount, average monthly benefit, and number of months benefits withheld due to earnings,
by sex and age in month of award, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and percentage distribution with and without reduction for early retirement,
by sex and monthly benefit, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and percentage distribution with and without reduction for early retirement,
by sex and primary insurance amount, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number, average age, and percentage distribution, by sex and age,
selected years 1940–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.11
6.12
6.14
6.16

Disabled Workers
6.C1
6.C2
6.C7

Number and percentage distribution, by monthly benefit and sex, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number, average age, and percentage distribution, by sex and age,
selected years 1957–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of applications, awards, ratio of awards to applications, and awards per 1,000
insured workers, selected years, 1960–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.18
6.19
6.21

Dependents and Survivors
6.D1
6.D3
6.D4
6.D5
6.D6
6.D7
6.D8
6.D9

Number of wives and husbands, by type of benefit, selected years 1950–2005 . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and average monthly benefit for wives and husbands, by basis of entitlement,
age in month of award, and sex, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of children, by type of benefit, selected years 1940–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and average monthly benefit for children, by type of benefit and age
in month of award, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of mothers and fathers, by type of benefit, 1950–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and average monthly benefit for widow(er)s, by age in month of award and sex, 2005
Number of widow(er)s, by type of benefit, 1950–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and average amount of lump-sum death payment awards, 1940–2005 . . . . . . . . . . .

6.22
6.24
6.25
6.29
6.30
6.32
6.33
6.34

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ xiii

Benefits Withheld
6.E1
6.E4
6.E5

Number and percentage distribution of retired workers with benefits withheld, with and
without reduction for early retirement, by sex and monthly benefit, December 2005 . . . . . . . .
Number of beneficiaries with benefits withheld, by reason for withholding payment
and type of benefit, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of wives, husbands, and children with benefits withheld, by reason for
withholding payment and type of benefit, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.36
6.38
6.39

Benefits Terminated
6.F1
6.F2
6.F3

Number of benefits terminated, by type, 1940–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number, by reason for termination and type of benefit, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of wives, husbands, and children, by reason for termination
and type of benefit, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.40
6.42
6.42

Section 7. Supplemental Security Income
Summary
7.A1

7.A2

7.A3
7.A4
7.A5
7.A8
7.A9

Number of recipients of federally administered payments, total payments,
and average monthly payment, by source of payment, eligibility category, and age,
December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of individuals and couples receiving federally administered payments,
total payments, and average monthly payment, by source of payment and eligibility
category, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of recipients of federally administered payments, by eligibility category, January 1974
and December 1975–2005, selected years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total federally administered payments, by eligibility category, selected years 1974–2005 . . .
Average monthly federally administered payment, by eligibility category,
December 1975–2005, selected years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of federally administered awards, by eligibility category and age, 1974–2005 . . . . . .
Number of recipients of federally administered payments, by eligibility category and age,
December 1974–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.1

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6

State Data
7.B1
7.B2
7.B3
7.B7
7.B8
7.B9

Number of recipients of federally administered payments, December 2005, and total
payments for calendar year 2005, by state or other area and eligibility category . . . . . . . . . . .
Discontinued
Number of recipients of federally administered payments and average monthly payment,
by state or other area, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total federally administered payments, by state or other area, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of blind and disabled recipients of federally administered payments under age 18,
by state or other area, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of federally administered awards, by state or other area, eligibility category,
and age, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xiv ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

7.7

7.8
7.10
7.11
7.12

Benefit Distributions
7.C1
7.C2

Number and percentage distribution of adult individuals and persons under age 18 receiving
federal SSI payments, by monthly payment and eligibility category, December 2005 . . . . . . .
Number and percentage distribution of couples receiving federal SSI payments,
by monthly payment and eligibility category, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.13
7.13

Other Income Sources
7.D1
7.D2

Persons receiving federally administered payments and other income and their average
monthly income, by type of income, eligibility category, and age, December 2005 . . . . . . . . .
Percentage of persons receiving both federally administered payments and Social Security
benefits, average monthly amount of benefits, by state or other area, eligibility category,
and age, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.14

7.15

Recipient Characteristics
7.E2
7.E3
7.E4
7.E5
7.E6

Percentage distribution of federally administered awards, by sex, age, and eligibility
category, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and percentage distribution of recipients of federally administered payments,
by sex, age, and eligibility category, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number and percentage distribution of persons with representative payees receiving
federally administered payments, by eligibility category and age, December 2005 . . . . . . . . .
Number and percentage distribution of persons receiving federally administered payments,
by living arrangement, eligibility category, and age, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of noncitizens receiving federally administered payments as a percentage of SSI
recipients, by eligibility category, December 1982–2005, selected years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.16
7.17
7.18
7.18
7.19

Section 8. Health Care Programs
Medicare
Trust Funds
8.A1
8.A2

Hospital Insurance, calendar years 1966–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supplementary Medical Insurance, calendar years 1966–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8.1
8.3

Enrollment, Utilization, and Reimbursement
8.B1

8.B2

8.B3a

8.B3b

8.B4

Hospital Insurance and/or Supplementary Medical Insurance: Aged persons enrolled,
served, and amount reimbursed, by type of coverage and service,
selected years 1967–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hospital Insurance and/or Supplementary Medical Insurance: Disabled persons enrolled,
served, and amount reimbursed, by type of coverage and service,
selected years 1974–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hospital Insurance and/or Supplementary Medical Insurance: Number of enrollees
aged 65 or older, by census division and state or other area, July 1, 1980–2005,
selected years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hospital Insurance and/or Supplementary Medical Insurance: Number of disabled
enrollees, by census division and state or other area, July 1, 1980–2005,
selected years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hospital Insurance and/or Supplementary Medical Insurance: Number of enrollees
aged 65 or older, by program, age, sex, and race, July 1, 1980–2005, selected years . . . . . .

8.5

8.7

8.9

8.11
8.13

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ xv

8.B5

8.B8a
8.B8b
8.B8.1
8.B9
8.B10
8.B11
8.B12

Hospital Insurance and/or Supplementary Medical Insurance: Number of enrollees
under age 65 who are disabled or have end-stage renal disease, by program, age, sex,
and race, July 1, 1980–2005, selected years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hospital Insurance: Average covered charge per covered day of care in short-stay
hospitals, by census division and state or other area, selected years 1975–2005 . . . . . . . . . .
Hospital Insurance: Average covered charge per covered day of care in skilled nursing
facilities, by census division and state or other area, selected years 1975–2005 . . . . . . . . . .
Hospital Insurance: Short-stay hospital discharges, by state or other area,
selected fiscal years 1990–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supplementary Medical Insurance: Number of reimbursed bills, charges, and amount
reimbursed, by type of beneficiary and type of service, for claims incurred 1997–2005 . . . . .
Supplementary Medical Insurance: Claims received by carriers and assignment
rates, 1969–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supplementary Medical Insurance: Reasonable charge determination for claims assigned
and unassigned for aged and disabled persons, 1971–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supplementary Medical Insurance: State buy-ins, by state or other area,
selected years 1991–2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8.15
8.17
8.19
8.21
8.22
8.24
8.25
8.27

Participating Facilities
8.C1
8.C2
8.C3

Hospital Insurance and/or Supplementary Medical Insurance: Number of facilities
and beds, by type of participating provider, December 1967–2005, selected years . . . . . . . .
Number of participating Medicare hospitals and certified beds, by type of hospital, region,
division, and state; United States and outlying areas, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hospital Insurance and/or Supplementary Medical Insurance: Number of participating
skilled nursing facilities, home health agencies, Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act facilities,
and end-stage renal disease facilities, by census division and state or other area,
December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8.28
8.30

8.32

Medicaid
Recipients
8.E1
8.E2

Unduplicated number of recipients, total vendor payments, and average payment,
by type of medical service, selected fiscal years 1985–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unduplicated number of recipients, total vendor payments, and average payment,
by type of eligibility category, selected fiscal years 1972–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8.34
8.36

State Data
8.H1

Number of recipients, total payments, and average payment, by state, fiscal year 2003 . . . . .

xvi ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

8.38

Section 9. Other Social Insurance Programs,
Veterans’ Benefits, and Public Assistance
Other Social Insurance Programs and Veterans’ Benefits
Unemployment Insurance
9.A2

Summary data on state programs, by state or other area, 2005

.......................

9.1

Coverage, benefits, and costs, selected years 1940–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Benefits, by state and federal program, 2000–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Benefits paid by type of insurer and medical benefits paid, by state and
federal program, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9.3
9.5

Workers’ Compensation
9.B1
9.B2
9.B3

9.7

Temporary Disability Insurance
9.C1

Selected data on state and railroad programs, 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9.9

Black Lung Benefits
9.D1
9.D2

Benefits currently payable to miners, widows, and dependents, December 1970–2004 . . . . .
Benefits currently payable to miners, widows, and dependents, by state or other area,
December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9.10
9.11

Veterans’ Benefits
9.F1

Number of disability compensation or pension payments, by type of payment and
age of beneficiary, selected years, 1940–2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9.12

Public Assistance
The sections on Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, Food Stamps,
and the Low-Income Home Energy Program have been discontinued.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ xvii

Highlights and Trends
Social Security (OASDI)
Employment and Earnings
Program Data
Program Trends

1
1
2

Supplemental Security Income
Annual Payment Adjustments
Program Data
Program Trends

3
3
4

Health Care
Medicare
Medicaid

5
5

Other Social Insurance Programs
and Veterans’ Benefits
Unemployment Insurance
Workers’ Compensation
Temporary Disability Insurance
Black Lung Benefits
Veterans’ Benefits

6
6
6
6
7

Poverty Data

8

Social Security (OASDI)
Employment and Earnings
Workers in OASDI covered employment, 2005
Average earnings, 2005
Earnings required in 2006 for—
1 quarter of coverage
Maximum of 4 quarters of coverage
Earnings test exempt amounts for 2006
Under full retirement age for entire year
For months before reaching full retirement age in 2006
Beginning with month of reaching full retirement age in 2006

159.7 million
$35,337
$970
$3,880
$12,480
$33,240
Test eliminated

Program Data
Cost-of-living adjustment for December 2005
Average monthly benefit, December 2005
Retired workers
Widows and widowers, nondisabled
Disabled workers
Number of beneficiaries, December 2005
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance
Old-Age Insurance
Total
Retired workers
Survivors Insurance
Total
Widows and widowers, nondisabled
Disability Insurance
Total
Disabled workers
Benefit payments, 2005
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
Disability Insurance
Administrative expenses, 2005
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
Amount
As a percentage of total benefits paid
Disability Insurance
Amount
As a percentage of total benefits paid

4.1 percent
$1,002
$967
$938
48.4 million
33.5 million
30.5 million
6.7 million
4.4 million
8.3 million
6.5 million
$520.7 billion
$435.4 billion
$85.4 billion

$3.0 billion
0.7 percent
$2.3 billion
2.7 percent

Program Trends

About 48.4 million persons received Social Security
benefits for December 2005, an increase of 738,500
(1.5 percent) since December 2004. Sixty-nine percent were retired workers and their spouses and children, 14 percent were survivors of deceased
workers, and 17 percent were disabled workers and
their spouses and children.

Seventy-three percent of the 30.5 million retired
workers received reduced benefits because of entitlement prior to full retirement age. Relatively more
women (75 percent) than men (70 percent) received
reduced benefits.

The number of beneficiaries aged 65 or older rose
from 32.7 million in 2000 to 34.0 million in 2005
(4 percent). Beneficiaries aged 85 or older increased
at a greater rate during the 5-year period (11.3 percent) from 4,034,000 in 2000 to 4,490,000 in 2005. In
2005, 42,700 centenarians were receiving Social
Security.

More than 19 million women aged 65 or older
received benefits for December 2005. About 7.7 million (39.2 percent) were entitled solely to a retiredworker benefit, and 5.8 million (29.6 percent) were
dually entitled to a retired-worker benefit and a wife's
or widow's benefit. About 6.1 million (31.2 percent)
were receiving wife's or widow's benefits only.
More than 3 million children under age 18 received
benefits, including 1,331,500 children of deceased
workers, 1,516,300 children of disabled workers, and
281,600 children of retired workers.

2 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

About 7.5 million persons received benefits based on
disability—6,519,000 disabled workers, 768,500 disabled adult children, and 213,000 disabled widows
and widowers. In addition, 153,800 spouses and
1,564,300 minor and student children of disabled
workers received benefits.

Average monthly benefits for December 2005,
including the 4.1 percent cost-of-living adjustment,
were $1,002 for retired workers, $938 for disabled
workers, and $967 for nondisabled widows and widowers. Among retired workers, benefits averaged
$1,130 for men and $867 for women. For disabled
workers, average benefits were $1,050 for men and
$806 for women.

Average monthly family benefits for December 2005
were $1,826 for a widowed mother or father and children; $1,587 for a disabled worker, wife, and children; and $2,017 for a retired worker, wife, and
children.

Total OASDI benefit payments for calendar year
2005 were $520.7 billion. Payments from the OASI
trust fund were $435.4 billion—an increase of
4.9 percent from the $415 billion paid in 2004.

Benefit payments from the DI trust fund, from which
benefits are paid to disabled workers, their spouses,
and children, increased by 9.1 percent from $78.2
billion in 2004 to $85.4 billion in 2005.

OASDI benefit awards in calendar year 2005 totaled
4,672,200, including 2,000,200 to retired workers,
452,700 to their spouses and children and 870,100 to
survivors of insured workers. Benefits were awarded
to 829,700 disabled workers and to 519,500 of their
spouses and children.

Supplemental Security Income
Annual Payment Adjustments
Monthly federal benefit rate, effective January 2006
Individual living in his or her own household
Couple with both members eligible
Cost-of-living adjustment

$603
$904
4.1 percent

Program Data
Total
Benefits paid in 2005
Number of recipients, December 2005
Average benefit, December 2005

$38.1 billion
7.3 million
$439.78

Federally administered payments
Benefits paid in 2005
Number of recipients, December 2005
Average benefit, December 2005

$37.2 billion
7.1 million
$439.09

Federal SSI payments
Benefits paid in 2005
Number of recipients, December 2005
Average benefit, December 2005

$33.1 billion
6.8 million
$406.50

Federally administered state supplementation
Benefits paid in 2005
Number of recipients, December 2005
Average benefit, December 2005

a

$4.2 billion
2.2 million
$156.30

State-administered supplementation
Benefits paid in 2005
Number of recipients, December 2005
Average benefit, December 2005

b

$0.9 billion
0.6 million
$126.53

a. Includes 1.9 million persons receiving federal SSI and state supplementation and 0.3 million persons receiving state supplementation only.
b. Includes 147,669 persons receiving state supplementation only.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 3

Program Trends

In December 2005, 7,113,879 persons received federally administered SSI payments—126,000 more
than the previous year. Of the total, 1,994,511 (28.0
percent) were aged 65 or older; 4,082,870 (57.4 percent) were blind or disabled aged 18–64; and
1,036,498 (14.6 percent) were blind or disabled
under age 18.
The number of blind or disabled aged 18–64 rose by
65,800 (1.6 percent) between December 2004 and
December 2005, and the number under age 18
increased by 43,400 (4.4 percent).

4 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

During 2005, 845,760 persons were awarded federally administered payments, a decrease of 10,440
from the previous year. Of the 2005 awards, 556,280
went to blind or disabled recipients aged 18–64,
176,870 to those blind or disabled under age 18, and
112,610 to recipients aged 65 or older.

Total SSI payments were $37.2 billion in 2005, up
3.2 percent from 2004. Federal SSI payments in
2005 were $33.1 billion (an increase of 3.7 percent
over the previous year). Federally administered state
supplementation totaled $4.2 billion.

Health Care
Medicare
Total benefits paid in calendar year 2005
Hospital Insurance (Part A)
Supplementary Medical Insurance (Part B)
Number of enrollees in July 2005 (one or both of Parts A and B)
Aged
Disabled
Administrative costs, 2005
Hospital Insurance
Amount
As a percentage of total benefits paid
Supplementary Medical Insurance
Amount
As a percentage of total benefits paid

$180.0 billion
$150.3 billion
42.5 million
35.8 million
6.7 million

$2.9 billion
1.6 percent
$3.2 billion
2.1 percent

Medicaid
Medical service expenditures in fiscal year 2003
Number of unduplicated recipients, fiscal year 2003

$233.2 billion
52.0 million

Average 2003 vendor payment per unduplicated recipient
Persons aged 65 or older
Permanently and totally disabled persons
Dependent children under age 21

$13,677
$13,303
$1,462

Average 2003 vendor payment for medical services
Nursing facility services
Inpatient general hospital care
Prescribed drugs
Physicians services

$23,882
$6,047
$1,293
$403

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 5

Other Social Insurance Programs and Veterans’ Benefits
Unemployment Insurance
Total payments, 2005

$31.2 billion

Average—
Weekly benefit amount (regular programs)
Duration of benefits
Weekly insured unemployment

$266.60
15.3 weeks
2.7 million

Covered employment

129.9 million

Workers' Compensation
Benefit payments, 2004
Compensation payments
Medical and hospitalization

$56.0 billion
$29.9 billion
$26.1 billion

Benefits paid by—
Private insurance carriers
State and federal funds
Employers' self-insurance

$28.3 billion
$14.3 billion
$13.3 billion

Covered workers per month

125.9 million

Costs as a percentage of covered payroll

1.76 percent

Temporary Disability Insurance
Average weekly benefit, 2003
California
State fund
Private plans
New York
Private plans

$313
$529
$191

NOTE: Programs in effect in California, Hawaii, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Puerto Rico, and the railroad industry.

Black Lung Benefits
Basic benefit to miner or widow
Maximum family benefit

$562.00
$1,125.00

Part B (claims filed before July 1, 1973)
Number of monthly benefits to miners, widows, and dependents, December 2004
Total benefits paid, calendar year 2004

52,362
$376.4 million

Part C (claims filed July 1, 1973, or later)
Total benefits paid, fiscal year 2004
Disability and survivors benefits
Medical benefits

$293.1 million
$54 million

6 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

Veterans' Benefits
Number of veterans with disability compensation or pension, 2006
Service-connected disability
Non-service-connected disability
Monthly payment in 2007 for—
Service-connected disability
10 percent disability
Total disability
Non-service-connected disability (maximum payment)
Without dependent
With one dependent and in need of aid and attendance

2,726,000
330,000

$115
$2,471
$911
$1,801

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 7

Poverty Data
Weighted average poverty thresholds, 2005
Individual, aged 65 or older
Couple, householder aged 65 or older
Family of four
Percentage of population with income below poverty level, 2004
All ages
Children under the age of 18 living in families
Persons aged 65 or older

8 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

$9,367
$11,815
$19,971
12.7 percent
17.3 percent
9.8 percent

Program Descriptions
and Legislative History

Social Security (Old-Age,
Survivors, and Disability
Insurance)

11

Supplemental Security Income

22

Medicare

37

Medicaid

54

Unemployment Insurance

61

Workers’ Compensation

64

Temporary Disability Insurance 67
Black Lung Benefits

69

Veterans’ Benefits

70

Social Security
(Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance)
The Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance
(OASDI) program provides monthly benefits to qualified
retired and disabled workers and their dependents and to
survivors of insured workers. Eligibility and benefit
amounts are determined by the worker's contributions to
Social Security. There is no means test to qualify for benefits, although there is a limit on income earned from
working that applies to those under the full retirement
age.
At the end of December 2005, 48.4 million people
were receiving benefits at a rate exceeding $44 billion
each month (nearly $521 billion annually). According to
the latest Social Security Trustees Report, these cash
benefits made up 4.2 percent of the nation's gross
domestic product. During the same year, approximately
159 million employees and self-employed workers, along
with employers, contributed $593 billion to the OASDI
trust funds—through which contributions are credited and
benefits are paid.
Social Security benefits are essential to the economic well-being of millions of individuals. Social Security
pays benefits to 89 percent of the U.S. population
aged 65 or older. It is the major source of income (providing 50 percent or more of total income) for 66 percent of
the beneficiaries. It contributes 90 percent or more of
income for one-third of the beneficiaries and is the only
source of income for 21 percent of them.

Contributions and Trust Funds
A person contributes to Social Security through either
payroll taxes or self-employment taxes under the Federal
Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) or the Self-Employed
Contributions Act (SECA). Employers match the
employee contribution, while self-employed workers pay
an amount equal to the combined employer-employee
contributions. (Self-employed workers receive a special
tax deduction to ease the impact of paying the higher
rate.) There is a maximum yearly amount of earnings
subject to OASDI taxes—$94,200 in 2006. There is no
upper limit on taxable earnings for Medicare Hospital
Insurance. Employees whose earnings exceed the maximum taxable amount because they worked for more than
one employer can receive refunds of excess FICA payments when they file their tax returns.
Taxes are allocated to three trust funds: the Old-Age
(retirement) and Survivors Insurance (OASI), the Disability Insurance (DI), and the Medicare Hospital Insurance
(HI) Trust Funds. In addition to the taxes on FICA and

SECA covered earnings, OASI and DI trust fund revenues include interest on trust fund securities, income
from taxation of OASI and DI benefits, certain technical
transfers, and gifts or bequests. By law, the OASI and DI
trust funds may only be disbursed for

monthly benefits for workers and their families,

vocational rehabilitation services for disabled beneficiaries,

administrative costs (currently less than 1 percent of
expenditures), and

the lump-sum death payment to eligible survivors.

Revenue received from FICA and SECA payments is
transferred to the U.S. Treasury. Revenue in excess of
outlays is used to purchase special interest-bearing Treasury bonds. These securities remain assets of the trust
funds until needed to cover Social Security costs.

Structure and Organization
The OASDI program is administered by the Social Security Administration (SSA), which became an independent
agency in 1995. The commissioner of Social Security
serves a 6-year term following appointment by the president and confirmation by the Senate. A bipartisan Social
Security Advisory Board serves to review existing laws
and policies, commission studies, and issue recommendations intended to anticipate changing circumstances.
The president appoints three of the seven board members, and Congress appoints the other four members.
The Social Security Administration’s organization is
centrally managed, with a nationwide network of over
1,500 offices, which includes Field Offices, Regional
Offices, Teleservice (800-Number) Centers, Processing
Centers, Hearings Offices, and State Disability Determination Services. The organizational structure is designed
to provide timely, accurate, and responsive service to the
public. By integrating support services for all programs,
the Agency enhances efficiency, avoids duplication of
effort, and increases opportunities to provide one-stop
service to the public.
The Social Security Administration is headquartered
in Baltimore, Maryland. Major headquarter components
include the National Computer Center that contains
SSA's mainframe computers that drive SSA systems;
much of the executive staff for policy, programs, operations, and systems; as well as field support components.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 11

SSA's field structure is divided into 10 geographic
regions containing more than 1,300 field offices in communities throughout the country. Field offices are the primary setting for personal contact with the public. Office
sizes range from large urban offices with 50 or more
employees to remote resident stations staffed by one or
two individuals. Each region is headed by a regional
commissioner and staffed with specialists to handle
regional administrative tasks and to assist field offices
with operational issues. In addition, there are teleservice
centers servicing all regions. Teleservice centers offer
national toll-free service (1-800-772-1213). Although
physically located within the various regions, each
teleservice center manages the public's Social Security
business from throughout the nation using state-of-theart communications systems.
Eight processing centers process a variety of workloads involving disability, international and earnings operations, ongoing eligibility for Supplemental Security
Income benefits, as well as providing service and support
for the field offices, and answering calls to the toll-free
number. The Hearings Offices and Appeals Council
make decisions on appeals of Social Security determinations in claims for benefits.
Tables 2.F1–2.F11 provide SSA administrative data on
the agency’s national workforce (Tables 2.F1–2.F3),
claims workloads (Tables 2.F4–2.F6), delivery of services (Table 2.F7), and its hearings and appeals operations (Tables 2.F8–2.F11).

Program Changes
Program changes occur through legislation or (in areas
where authority is delegated to the commissioner)
through regulation. Changes are often implemented in
phases and may entail recurring annual changes beyond
the initial enactment date or year of first implementation.
Tables 2.A1–2.A18 and 2.A29–2.A30 show dates of
enactment and list recurring annual changes.

Coverage and Financing
In 2006, about 162 million people will work in employment or self-employment that is covered under the
OASDI program. In recent years, coverage has become
nearly universal for work performed in the United States,
including American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana
Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Approximately 96 percent of the U.S. workforce is covered by
OASDI. Workers excluded from coverage fall into five
major categories:
12 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

1. Civilian federal employees hired before January 1,
1984;
2. Railroad workers (who are covered under the railroad retirement system, which is coordinated with
Social Security);
3. Certain employees of state and local governments
who are covered under their employers' retirement
systems;
4. Domestic workers and farm workers whose earnings
do not meet certain minimum requirements (workers
in industry and commerce are covered regardless of
the amount of earnings); and
5. Persons with very low net earnings from selfemployment, generally under $400 annually.
Table 2.A1 outlines the history of coverage provisions
and Table 2.A2 provides a history of provisions
regarding noncontributory wage credits, mostly for military service.
For most employees, taxes are withheld from wages
beginning with the first dollar earned. The exceptions are
domestic employees, election workers, and agricultural
workers. In 2006, a domestic employee must earn
$1,500 from any single employer in a calendar year
before FICA is withheld. Most election workers must earn
$1,300 in 2006 before FICA is withheld. Most agricultural
workers’ wages are covered if the employer pays more
than $2,500 in total wages in a year or if the individual
worker earns over $150 in a year from a single employer.
Employees, their employers, and the self-employed
pay taxes on earnings in covered employment up to an
annual maximum taxable amount for OASDI. There is no
upper limit on taxable earnings for Medicare Hospital
Insurance (HI). The OASDI maximum taxable amount—
$94,200 in 2006—is updated automatically each year in
relation to increases in the national average annual
wage. The current FICA tax rate applicable to both
employees and employers is 6.2 percent for OASDI
(5.30 percent for OASI and 0.9 percent for DI) and
1.45 percent for HI. Those who are self-employed pay
the combined employee-employer rate of 12.4 percent
for OASDI and 2.9 percent for HI under SECA.
See Table 2.A3 for annual amounts of maximum taxable earnings and contribution rates. Table 2.A4 shows
historical annual maximum amounts of contributions by
employees and self-employed individuals.
Two deduction provisions reduce the SECA and
income tax liability of self-employed persons. The intent
of these provisions is to treat the self-employed in much

the same manner as employees and employers are
treated for purposes of FICA and income taxes. The first
provision allows a deduction from net earnings from selfemployment equal to the amount of net earnings before
the deduction multiplied by one-half the SECA tax rate.
The effect of this deduction is intended to be analogous
to the treatment of the FICA tax paid by the employer,
which is disregarded as remuneration to the employee
for FICA and income tax purposes. The second provision
allows an income tax deduction equal to one-half of the
amount of the SECA tax paid, which is designed to reflect
the income tax deductibility of the employer's share of the
FICA tax.
Table 2.A5 describes income tax credits for 1984–
1989 intended to cushion the impact of increases in
FICA and SECA taxes enacted in 1983. The SECA tax
credits were replaced, effective 1990, by the deduction
provisions described above. Table 2.A6 outlines the
history of provisions regarding appropriations from
general revenues and interfund borrowing.

Insured Status
Insured status is the minimum number of credits a worker
must earn to become eligible for his or her own Social
Security benefit. Insured status on the insured worker’s
earnings record is also required to establish eligibility to
benefits for the worker’s family members or survivors.
The requirements for insured status differ depending on
the type of benefit involved.
To determine whether a worker has insured status,
Social Security looks at the amount of the worker’s earnings (employment or self-employment) covered under
Social Security and assigns “credits” for those earnings.
These credits are called quarters of coverage. In 2006,
one quarter of coverage (QC) is credited for each $970 in
annual covered earnings, up to a maximum of four QCs
for the year. Earnings of $3,880 or more in 2006 will give
the worker the maximum four QCs for the year regardless of when the money is actually paid during the year.
The amount of earnings required for a QC is adjusted
automatically each year in proportion to increases in the
average wage level.
Fully Insured
Eligibility for most types of benefits requires that the
worker be fully insured. To be fully insured, a worker must
have a number of QCs at least equal to the number of
calendar years elapsing between the year in which the
worker is age 21 (or 1950, if later) and the year in which
he or she reaches age 62, becomes disabled, or dies—
whichever occurs first. To compute “elapsed” years,
Social Security does not count the year in which the

worker attains age 21 (or 1950, if later) or the year in
which the worker attains age 62, becomes disabled, or
dies. If the resulting number of elapsed years is less than
6, the number is raised to 6. All workers need at least
6 QCs to be insured. Workers who reach age 62 in 1991
or later need 40 QCs to be fully insured. Special rules
may apply if the worker had a prior period of disability.
For workers who become disabled or die before age 62,
the number of QCs needed for fully insured status
depends on their age at the time of disability or death.
Currently Insured
Generally, if a worker dies before meeting fully insured
status, benefits can still be paid to certain survivors if the
worker was “currently insured” at the time of death. Survivors benefits are potentially payable to a worker's children and to a widow(er) who takes care of the
deceased’s child who is under age 16 or disabled and
receiving Social Security benefits. To be currently
insured, the worker must have earned 6 QCs in the
13 quarters ending with the quarter of death.
Additional Insured Status Requirements for
Noncitizens
The Social Security Protection Act of 2004 (Public Law
108-203) was signed into law on March 2, 2004.
Section 211 of this law imposed additional requirements
for determining fully and currently insured status. These
additional requirements affect noncitizen workers to
whom Social Security did not assign a Social Security
number (SSN) before January 1, 2004. A noncitizen
worker must meet one of two additional requirements
under section 211 in order for anyone to qualify for an
OASDI benefit based on the earnings record of the noncitizen worker. These benefits include retirement or disability insurance benefits, dependents or survivors
insurance benefits, the lump-sum death payment, and
Medicare based on end-stage renal disease.
For purposes of the above paragraph:
1. The noncitizen worker must have been assigned an
SSN for work purposes at any time on or after
January 1, 2004; or
2. The noncitizen worker must have been admitted to
the United States at any time as a nonimmigrant visitor for business (B-1) or as an alien crewman (D-1 or
D-2).
If a noncitizen worker who was not assigned an SSN
before January 1, 2004, does not meet one of these additional requirements, then he or she cannot be fully or currently insured. No one would qualify for OASDI benefits
based on the noncitizen worker’s earnings. This is true
even if the noncitizen worker appears to have the
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 13

required number of quarters of coverage (QCs) in accordance with the regular insured status provisions.
Disability Insured
To qualify for disability benefits, a nonblind worker must
have recent work activity in addition to being fully
insured. Under the requirement involving recent work, a
nonblind worker who is age 31 or older must have earned
at least 20 QCs during the 40-calendar-quarter period
ending with the quarter in which the disability began. In
general, workers disabled at ages 24 through 30 must
have earned QCs in one-half of the calendar quarters
beginning with the quarter after the quarter in which
age 21 is attained and ending with the calendar quarter in
which the disability began. In this case, the quarters
counted will go back before the quarter in which the
worker turned age 21. Workers under age 24 need
6 QCs in the 12-quarter period ending with the quarter in
which the disability began. Workers who qualify for benefits based on blindness need only be fully insured. Special rules may apply if the worker had a prior period of
disability.
Table 2.A7 summarizes the basic provisions
concerning insured status.

International Social Security agreements have two main
purposes. First, they eliminate dual Social Security coverage, the situation that occurs when a person from one
country works in another country and is required to pay
Social Security taxes to both countries on the same earnings. Each agreement includes rules that assign a
worker's coverage to only one country.
The second goal of the agreement is to help fill gaps
in benefit protection for workers who have divided their
careers between the United States and another country.
Such workers may fail to qualify for Social Security benefits from one or both countries because they have not
worked long enough to meet minimum eligibility requirements. Under an agreement, these workers and their
family members may qualify for a partial U.S. benefit
based on totalized (that is, combined) credits from both
countries. Similarly, workers may qualify for partial benefits from the foreign country on the basis of totalized
credits.
Table 5.M1 shows the number of beneficiaries
receiving totalization payments and their average benefits.

Benefit Computation and
Automatic Adjustment Provisions

International Agreements

PIA Computation
The president is authorized to enter into international
Social Security agreements (also called totalization
agreements) to coordinate the U.S. Old-Age, Survivors,
and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program with comparable programs of other countries. The United States currently has Social Security agreements in effect with
21 countries.
Social Security agreements and supplementary
agreements, by effective dates
Australia
Austria

2002
1991, 1997

Italy
Japan

1978, 1986
2005

Belgium

1984

Korea (South)

2001

Canada

1984, 1997

Luxembourg

1993

Chile

2001

Netherlands

1990, 2003

Finland

1992

Norway

1984, 2003

France

1988

Portugal

1989

Spain

1988

Germany

1979, 1988, 1996

Greece

1994

Sweden

Ireland

1993

Switzerland

1987
1980, 1989

United Kingdom 1985, 1997

14 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

The primary insurance amount (PIA) is the monthly
benefit amount payable to the worker upon initial entitlement at full retirement age or upon entitlement to unreduced disability benefits. (Full retirement age [FRA] is the
age at which unreduced retirement benefits may be
paid.) The PIA is also the base figure from which monthly
benefit amounts are determined for early retirement,
delayed retirement, and for the worker's family members
or survivors. The PIA is derived from the worker's annual
taxable earnings from covered wages and self-employment, averaged over a period that encompasses most of
the worker's adult years. Until the late 1970s, the average monthly wage (AMW) was the earnings measure
generally used. For workers first eligible for benefits after
1978, average indexed monthly earnings (AIME) have
replaced the AMW as the usually applicable earnings
measure. The PIA computation based on AIME currently
involves the following three steps:
1. Indexing of earnings. The worker's annual taxable
earnings after 1950 are updated, or indexed, to
reflect the general earnings level in the indexing
year—the second calendar year before the year in
which the worker is first eligible; that is, first reaches
age 62, becomes disabled, or dies. Earnings in years
after the indexing year are not indexed; they are

counted at their actual value. A worker's earnings for
a given year are indexed by multiplying them by the
following ratio (indexing factor): the average wage in
the national economy for the indexing year, divided
by the corresponding average wage figure for the
year to be indexed.

3. Computing the PIA. The formula used to compute the
PIA from AIME is weighted to provide a higher PIAto-AIME ratio for workers with comparatively low
earnings. The formula applies declining percentage
conversion rates to three AIME brackets. For workers
who reach age 62, become disabled, or die in 2006,
the formula provides a PIA equal to the sum of

Table 2.A8 shows the indexing factors applicable
to the earnings of workers who were first eligible
from 1992 through 2006. Table 2.A9 shows
indexed earnings for workers first eligible from
1999 through 2006 who had maximum taxable
earnings in each year after 1950. For a detailed
description of an AIME computation, see
Appendix D, "Computing a Retired-Worker
Benefit."

90 percent of the first $656 of AIME, plus

2. Determining AIME. The number of years used in the
computation is determined by subtracting the number
of dropout years from the number of elapsed years.
Elapsed years are the full calendar years between
age 21 (or 1950, if later) and the year of first eligibility. Years within an established period of disability
may be excluded from elapsed years. Dropout years
exclude the years of lowest earnings from the computation; there are five dropout years for retirement
and survivor computations and many disability insurance benefit computations. Workers disabled before
age 47 have zero to 4 dropout years (one-fifth the
number of elapsed years). If the resulting number of
computation years is less than 2, the number must
be raised to 2. In no case are fewer than 2 years
used in the computation. The number of computation
years for computing retirement benefits is 35 for
workers who are born after 1928 unless it is lowered
by an established period of disability.
The actual years used in the computation (the computation years) are the years of highest indexed
earnings after 1950, including any years before
age 22 or after age 61 as well as the year of disability
or death. AIME is calculated as the sum of indexed
earnings in the computation period, divided by the
number of months in that period.
Table 2.A10 provides a historical outline of provisions related to AIME and AMW and describes
variations in the number of dropout years. Table
2.A16 describes AMW benefit computations based
on the worker's nonindexed earnings after 1950.
(Very few people currently being awarded
benefits have PIAs computed under the AMW
computation method. The method shown in
Table 2.A16 is more frequently applicable in earnings recomputations for workers who reached
age 62 before 1979.)

32 percent of the next $3,299 of AIME, plus
15 percent of AIME over $3,955.
The PIA is increased by cost-of-living adjustments
(COLAs) beginning with the first year of eligibility.
The COLA for 2006 will be effective for December
2006.
Table 2.A11 shows the PIA formula and first applicable COLA for workers first eligible in 1979 or
later.
The dollar amounts defining the AIME brackets are
referred to as bend points. These bend points (as
described in Table 2.A11) are updated automatically
each year in proportion to increases in the national average wage level. This automatic adjustment ensures that
benefit levels for successive generations of eligible
workers will keep up with rising earnings levels, thereby
assuring consistent rates of earnings replacement from
one generation of beneficiaries to the next.
The PIA formula applicable to a worker depends on
the year of eligibility (or death) rather than on the year
benefits are first received. The year of eligibility for retirement benefits is the year the worker attains age 62. For
workers born in 1941, the 2003 formula is used and the
PIA is increased by COLAs beginning with the one for
December 2003. Subsequent recomputations of the
worker's benefit, including additional earnings not originally considered, delayed retirement credits, or additional
COLA increases, all refer to the basic computation that
originally applied on the basis of the year of eligibility.
The full retirement age for workers born in 1941 is
65 years and 8 months.
Beginning in June 1982, benefits are rounded to the
next lower 10 cents. The final benefit payment is rounded
to the lower whole dollar amount (if not already an even
dollar). Before June 1982, benefits were paid in 10-cent
increments after rounding up to the next dime.
A cost-of-living increase in benefits generally is
established each year if the consumer price index for
urban wage earners and clerical workers (CPI-W), prepared by the Department of Labor, indicates a percentage increase (after rounding) of at least 0.1 percent
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 15

between two specified quarters. The arithmetical mean of
the CPI-W for July, August, and September in the year of
determination is compared with the arithmetical mean of
the CPI-W for the later of (a) July, August, and September in the year in which the last effective cost-of-living
increase was established or (b) the 3 months of the calendar quarter in which the effective month of the last
general benefit increase occurred. The percentage
increase in the CPI-W, rounded to the nearest
0.1 percent, represents the size of the increase in
benefits, effective for December of the year in which the
determination is made.
Under certain conditions, depending on the size of
the combined OASDI trust funds relative to estimated
disbursements, the applicability and size of a
cost-of-living adjustment may be determined under an
alternative method, called the stabilizer provision. In no
case, however, are benefits reduced below the level of
benefits in the year of determination. Historically, this provision has never been triggered.
Table 2.A18 presents a history of provisions relating to
the automatic adjustment of benefits, including a
description of the stabilizer provision. In addition, the
table includes a summary history and description of
provisions relating to the annual automatic adjustment
of (1) the maximum amount of taxable and creditable
earnings, (2) the dollar amount needed to establish a
quarter of coverage, (3) the bend points defining the
AIME brackets in the PIA formula and the PIA brackets
in the maximum family benefit formula, and (4) the
exempt amounts under the earnings (retirement) test.
All of these adjustments are linked to increases in the
level of the national average annual wage, rather than
to increases in the CPI. Table 2.A19 illustrates the
cumulative effect of statutory and automatic increases
in benefits for workers who have been in benefit status
over varying time periods.
Alternative PIA Computation Provisions

Special minimum PIA. Workers with low earnings but
steady attachment to the workforce over most of their
adult years may qualify for monthly benefits based on the
special minimum PIA computation. This computation
does not depend on the worker's average earnings but
on the number of coverage years—years in which the
worker had earnings equal to or above a specified
amount. The level of the special minimum PIA is the
same for workers having the same number of coverage
years, regardless of age or year of first eligibility.

16 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

Increases in the special minimum PIA are linked to
cost-of-living adjustments.
See Table 2.A12 for additional information on the
special minimum PIA.

Windfall Elimination Provision (WEP). The WEP
affects workers who receive Social Security benefits
based on their own work and are also entitled to a pension based on noncovered work after 1956. First eligibility for the noncovered pension and for Social Security
benefits must be after December 31, 1985, for WEP to
apply. WEP reduces the Social Security PIA upon which
OASDI benefits are based and affects all benefits paid on
that record except those for survivors. The WEP reduction ceases when entitlement to the pension payment
ends, the wage earner dies, or the wage earner earns a
total of 30 years of substantial Social Security earnings.
The WEP reduction amount is limited to no more than
one-half the amount of the noncovered pension.
A WEP PIA is generally based on 40 percent of the
first bend point instead of 90 percent used for the regular
AIME PIA. The maximum amount of the reduction is half
the amount of the first bend point for the applicable eligibility year. The maximum reduction for WEP for the 2006
eligibility year is $328. SSA’s retirement planner at
http://www.socialsecurity.gov/retire2/index.htm has a
benefit calculator that includes WEP calculations.
Example: A retired worker with a noncovered
pension of $2,000 a month and fewer than
21 years of covered employment attains age 62
in 2006.
Regular PIA, based on AIME of $800.
$656 × .90 = $590.40
$144 × .32 = $46.08
PIA = $636.40
WEP PIA, based on AIME of $800.
$656 × .40 = $262.40
$144 × .32 = $46.08
PIA = $308.40
If a worker has more than 20 years of substantial
covered earnings, the WEP PIA begins to increase. With
the 21st year of substantial covered earnings, the first
bend point percentage is increased by 5 percentage
points. This rate of increase applies for each additional
year of substantial covered earnings, through the 30th
year of substantial earnings at which point WEP no
longer applies. After 23 years of substantial coverage, for
example, the first bend point percentage would be
55 percent. Thirty years of substantial earnings would

yield a first bend point percentage of 90 percent (the nonWEP percentage of the first bend point).
Examples of pensions subject to WEP are U.S. Civil
Service Retirement System annuities, retirement benefits
based on foreign earnings, and state and local government pensions based on noncovered earnings.
Table 2.A11.1 provides more detail about the WEP
computation and contains the amounts of substantial
earnings for years after 1990. Substantial earnings for
earlier years are listed in Table 2.A12.

Family maximum provisions. Monthly benefits payable
to the worker and family members or to the worker's survivors are subject to a maximum family benefit amount.
The family maximum level for retired-worker families or
survivor families usually ranges from 150 percent to
188 percent of the worker's PIA. The maximum benefit
for disabled-worker families is the smaller of
(1) 85 percent of AIME (or 100 percent of the PIA, if
larger) or (2) 150 percent of the PIA.
Like the formula for determining the PIA, the maximum family benefit formula applicable to a worker
depends on the year of first eligibility (that is, the year of
attainment of age 62, onset of disability, or death). Once
the worker's maximum family benefit amount for the year
of first eligibility is determined, it is updated in line with
the COLAs.
For information on family maximum provisions, as
described here, see Table 2.A13 (comparison of family
maximums to the PIAs on which they are based) and
Table 2.A14 (disability family maximums). Table 2.A17
shows the maximum family benefit amounts applicable
in cases of first eligibility before 1979.

Benefit Types and Levels
Retired and Disabled Workers
The full retirement age (FRA) is the earliest age at which
an unreduced retirement benefit is payable (sometimes
referred to as the normal retirement age). The age for full
retirement benefits is scheduled to rise gradually from
age 65 to age 67; the first incremental increase affected
workers who reached age 62 in 2000. For workers who
reach age 62 in 2005 through 2016, FRA is age 66.
Reduced retirement benefits are available as early as
age 62. The monthly rate of reduction from the full retirement benefit (that is, the PIA) is 5/9 of 1 percent a month
for the first 36 months immediately preceding FRA. The
reduction rate is 5/12 of 1 percent a month for any addi-

tional months. The maximum overall reduction for early
retirement will rise from 20 percent to 30 percent for
those workers who reach age 62 in 2022, when age 67
becomes the full retirement age. For workers who reach
age 62 in 2005 through 2016, the maximum reduction is
25 percent.
Table 2.A17.1 shows the FRA and maximum reduction
of retired-worker benefits by year of birth.
If a disabled worker receives a reduced retirement
benefit for months before disability entitlement, the disability benefit is reduced by the number of months for
which he or she received the reduced benefit.
For insured workers who postpone their retirement
beyond FRA, benefits are increased for each month of
nonpayment beyond that FRA up to age 70. This
increase is called a delayed retirement credit and is
potentially available for any or all months following attainment of FRA (maximum of 60 months for workers who
attained age 65 before 2003). The total credit possible
per year for delayed retirement credits is 8 percent for
workers who reach age 62 in 2005 or later.
Table 2.A20 shows a history of benefit increases due
to delayed retirement.
Spouses and Children of Workers
Spouses receive 50 percent of the worker's PIA (regardless of the worker's actual benefit amount), if the spouse
has attained FRA at entitlement to spousal benefits. The
spouse of a retired or disabled worker can elect monthly
benefits as early as age 62. These benefits are reduced
at the rate of 25/36 of 1 percent a month for the first
36 months immediately preceding FRA and 5/12 of
1 percent for each additional month. The maximum overall reduction for early retirement will rise from 25 percent
to 35 percent by 2022, when age 67 becomes the FRA
for spouses attaining age 62 in that year.
Children of retired or disabled workers are also eligible to receive monthly benefits. The term child refers to
an unmarried child under age 18, a child aged 18 to 19
attending elementary or secondary school full time, or an
adult child aged 18 or older who was disabled before
age 22. In addition, young spouses (that is, those under
age 62) who care for a worker's entitled child may also be
eligible. For purposes of defining young spouses'
benefits, the term child refers to an entitled child under
age 16 or to a child of the worker aged 16 or older and
disabled before age 22. Children of retired or disabled
workers can receive up to 50 percent of the worker's PIA,
as can young spouses. (The benefit of a young spouse is
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 17

not reduced for age.) Monthly benefits payable to the
spouse and children of a retired or disabled worker are
limited to a family maximum amount, as discussed
earlier.
Benefits are payable to unmarried divorced spouses
of retirement age who were married at least 10 years to
the worker. A divorced spouse benefit is excluded from
family maximum provisions. Divorced spouses aged 62
or older and divorced for 2 or more years (after marriage
of 10 or more years) may be independently entitled on
the record of the ex-spouse who is not yet entitled to benefits, if the ex-spouse could be entitled to retirement benefits if he or she applied.

ent aged 62 or older is eligible for monthly benefits equal
to 82.5 percent of the worker's PIA. When two dependent
parents qualify for benefits, the monthly benefit for each
is equal to 75 percent of the deceased worker's PIA.
Monthly benefits payable to survivors are reduced to conform to the family maximum payable on the deceased
worker's account. Benefits for a surviving divorced
spouse, however, do not affect the maximum benefit to
the family.
See Table 2.A20 for more information on the increases
in the full (or normal) retirement age for workers.
Table 2.A21 describes age-related reductions for
dependent beneficiaries, as does Table 2.A22 for
widow(er)s. Additionally, Tables 2.A23 and 2.A24
show the history of legislation relating to special
monthly benefits payable to certain persons born
before January 2, 1900. Table 2.A25 summarizes the
history of certain OASDI benefits other than monthly
benefit payments. Table 2.A26 presents illustrative
monthly benefit amounts for selected beneficiary families, based on hypothetical earnings histories representing five different earnings levels. Table 2.A27
shows minimum and maximum monthly benefits payable to retired workers retiring at age 62 in various
years beginning with 1957 (the first full year benefits
became available at age 62). Table 2.A28 shows minimum and maximum monthly benefits payable to retired
workers retiring at age 65 in various years beginning
with 1940.

Survivors Benefits
Widows and widowers of fully insured workers are eligible for unreduced benefits at FRA. As with retired workers and spouses, widow(er)s' FRA will gradually increase
to age 67, but on a different schedule. Widows and widowers can elect reduced monthly benefits at age 60 or, if
disabled, as early as age 50. Surviving divorced spouses
can also receive benefits if married to the worker for at
least 10 years and not remarried before age 60 (age 50 if
disabled).
For survivors whose full benefit retirement age is 65,
the monthly rate of reduction for the first 60 months
immediately preceding FRA is 19/40 of 1 percent of the
worker's PIA, with a maximum reduction of 28.5 percent
at age 60. For survivors whose full retirement age is after
65, the amount of reduction for each month prior to FRA
is adjusted accordingly to ensure that the maximum
reduction at age 60 remains 28.5 percent of the worker's
PIA.
Benefits for widows and widowers are increased if
the deceased worker delayed receiving retirement benefits beyond the FRA. In these cases, the survivor benefits
include any delayed retirement credits the deceased
worker earned. Conversely, if the worker had elected
early retirement, widow(er)s' benefits are limited for
widow(er)s first entitled to survivors benefits at age 62 or
later. For these beneficiaries, the benefit is the higher of
82.5 percent of the worker's PIA or the amount the
worker would be receiving if still alive. Disabled
widow(er)s aged 50 to 60 receive the rate of reduction
set for widow(er)s aged 60 (71.5 percent of PIA) regardless of their age at the time of entitlement.
Children of deceased workers and mother and father
beneficiaries under FRA are eligible to receive monthly
benefits up to 75 percent of the worker's PIA if the worker
dies either fully or currently insured. Mother and father
beneficiaries must be caring for the worker's entitled child
who is either under age 16 or disabled. A dependent par18 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

Provisions for Railroad Retirement Board
Beneficiaries
The OASDI tables do not include a number of persons
receiving Railroad Retirement benefits who would be eligible for Social Security benefits had they applied. The
reason they have not applied is that receipt of a Social
Security benefit would reduce their Railroad Retirement
benefit by a like amount.
The Railroad Retirement Act of 1974, effective
January 1, 1975, provided that the regular annuity for
employees with 10 or more years of railroad service who
retired after December 31, 1974, would consist of two
components.

Tier 1. A basic Social Security equivalent component
to what would be paid under the Social Security Act
on the basis of the employee's combined railroad
and nonrailroad service, reduced by the amount of
any monthly benefit under OASDI actually paid on
the basis of nonrailroad work; and

Tier 2. A "private pension" component payable over
and above the Social Security equivalent, calculated

on the basis of the number of years of railroad
service.
Public Law 107-90 (the 2001 amendments to the
Railroad Retirement Act of 1974) effective January 1,
2002, revised the railroad service work requirement. The
railroad service work requirement is 10 or more years of
railroad service or, effective January 1, 2002, at least
5 years of railroad service after December 31, 1995. The
two components are unchanged.

Effect of Current Earnings on Benefits
Annual Earnings Test
Individuals may receive Social Security retirement,
dependent, or survivor benefits and work at the same
time. However, under the law, those benefits could be
reduced if earnings exceed certain amounts.
Under the annual earnings test provisions of the
Social Security Act, beneficiaries who are younger than
full retirement age and have earnings in excess of certain
exempt amounts may have all or part of their benefits
withheld. The annual earnings test exempt amount for
nondisabled beneficiaries is pegged to increases in the
average wage. Different rules on earnings apply to beneficiaries who receive disability benefits that are described
in a subsequent section.
For beneficiaries who are younger than FRA
throughout the year:

The earnings test exempt amount is $12,480 in 2006.

Benefits are withheld at the rate of $1 for each $2 of
earnings above the exempt amount.

For beneficiaries who attain FRA in 2006, the annual
earnings test is significantly higher.

This earnings test exempt amount is $33,240 in
2006. Only earnings before the month of attainment
of FRA are counted for purposes of this portion of the
annual earnings test.

Benefits are withheld at the rate of $1 for every $3 of
earnings above the exempt amount.

Individuals have the option to receive benefits under
a monthly earnings test if it is to their advantage to do so.
This option is usually exercised in the first year of entitlement, because the monthly test permits payment for
some months even if the annual earnings limit is greatly
exceeded. Under the monthly test, beneficiaries receive
a full monthly benefit for months in which they do not
earn more than an amount equal to 1/12 the annual earnings test. The monthly earnings test is applied to the self-

employed on the basis of the number of hours worked
instead of monthly earnings. Generally, beneficiaries are
eligible for the monthly earnings test in only one year.
A foreign work test applies to work outside the United
States in employment or self-employment that is not subject to U.S. Social Security taxes. Benefits are withheld
for each month a beneficiary younger than FRA works
more than 45 hours.
The earnings test no longer applies beginning with
the month a beneficiary attains FRA. Elimination of the
earnings test at FRA is effective for taxable years ending
after December 31, 1999 (Public Law 106-182). At FRA
no benefits are withheld for earnings, regardless of the
amount of earnings.
Tables 2.A29 and 2.A29.1 provide historical detail on
the retirement test.
Automatic Adjustments for Additional Earnings
When a worker has earnings after filing for Social Security benefits, the additional earnings are credited to the
worker’s record. The reduction factor and the computation of the PIA could be affected by the additional earnings. These adjustments occur automatically; the worker
does not need to request the action.

Adjusted Reduction Factor. The reduction factor is
based on all months of entitlement prior to FRA. If a full
month or partial month of benefits is withheld because of
the earnings test, the reduction factor is automatically
adjusted at FRA. For widows and widowers, the automatic adjustments are effective at age 62 and at FRA.
This adjustment of the reduction factor results in a higher
ongoing monthly benefit. For example, if retirement benefits are claimed 36 months before FRA, a 36-month
reduction factor is applied to the PIA. If the earnings test
results in no payment of benefits for 6 of those months,
the reduction factor is automatically adjusted at FRA, the
ongoing reduction factor is changed to 30 months, and
benefits are increased retroactively to the month of FRA.
Recomputation. Additional earnings also have the
potential to increase the PIA. A recomputation is automatically considered each year when earnings of the
insured worker are credited to the record. A recomputation of the PIA is processed if the earnings result in an
increase to the PIA of at least $1.00. The increase is retroactive to January of the year following the year of new
earnings. An example to illustrate both automatic adjustments is an insured worker born March 29, 1941, who
files for retirement benefits in January 2006, 10 months
before FRA, but who continues to work and earns
$42,000 in 2006; $38,000 of it is earned before FRA. The
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 19

PIA is $1,346.60 and the monthly benefit (10-month
reduction factor) is $1,271. Because earnings exceed the
exempt amount of $33,240, the full benefit is withheld for
one month and a partial benefit is paid in the second
month. At the end of the year the earnings record is automatically reviewed and the reduction factor is adjusted
from 10 months to 8 months for the 2 months that a full
benefit was not paid. The amount of the monthly benefit
is increased to $1,286 effective with November 2006, the
month of FRA. In addition, the PIA computation is
reviewed; if using the $42,000 that was earned in 2006
increases the PIA by at least a dollar, the PIA is
increased in January 2007.
Earnings and Disability Benefits
Beneficiaries entitled on the basis of their own disability—disabled workers, disabled adult children, and disabled widow(er)s—are not subject to the annual earnings
test. Substantial earnings by disabled beneficiaries, however, may indicate that they are able to do work that constitutes substantial gainful activity (SGA) and therefore
no longer meet the requirements for disability benefits.
Although other factors are considered, numerical earnings thresholds are used to evaluate SGA. Disabled beneficiaries must report all earnings to SSA for timely
evaluation of SGA.
In 2001 the Social Security Administration changed
from a periodic adjustment of the earnings amount for a
nonblind disabled individual to be considered engaging in
SGA. Effective January 1, 2001, SGA amounts are automatically adjusted annually on the basis of increases in
the national average wage index. The SGA amount for
nonblind individuals in calendar year 2006 is $860 per
month.
A different definition of SGA applies to blind individuals receiving Social Security disability benefits. Increases
in the SGA amount for blind individuals have been
pegged to increases in the national average wage index
since 1978. The SGA level for blind individuals in calendar year 2006 is $1,450 per month.
A 9-month trial work period allows beneficiaries who
are still disabled to test their ability to work. During that
period, beneficiaries may earn any amount and still
receive full benefits. After the individual completes 9 trial
work months, the SGA level is used to determine whether
earnings are substantial.
Table 2.A30 provides related historical data on disability program earnings guidelines, including reference to
recent changes in thresholds for determining SGA.

20 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

Government Pension Offset
A pension from a federal, state, or local government
based on work that was not covered by Social Security
could reduce the amount of Social Security spouse’s or
widow’s or widower’s benefits. Social Security benefits
are reduced (offset) by two-thirds of the government pension if the pension is based on noncovered work by the
spouse, widow, or widower. For example, for a monthly
civil service pension of $600, two-thirds of that, or $400,
would offset a Social Security spousal benefit. An individual eligible for a Social Security spousal benefit of $500
would receive $100 per month from Social Security
($500 – $400 = $100). The intent of the Government
Pension Offset provision is to ensure that, when determining the amount of spousal benefits, government
employees who do not pay Social Security taxes are
treated in a manner similar to those who work in the private sector and pay Social Security taxes. The law
requires that Social Security spousal benefits be offset
dollar for dollar by the amount of a spouse’s own Social
Security retirement benefit. For example, if a woman
worked and earned her own $600 monthly Social Security retired-worker benefit but was also eligible for a $500
wife’s benefit on her husband’s Social Security record,
the wife’s benefit would not be paid because her own
Social Security benefit offset it.
Exceptions to the Government Pension Offset could
apply if some of the work on which the pension is based
was in covered employment. Specific rules apply
depending on the employer and on the dates of employment. There are also exemptions for those who were eligible for the government pension before December 1982
or before July 1983, if specific criteria are met.

Taxation of Benefits
Up to 85 percent of Social Security benefits may be subject to federal income tax depending on the beneficiary’s
income, marital status, and filing status. The definition of
income for this provision is as follows: adjusted gross
income (before Social Security or Railroad Retirement
benefits are considered), plus tax-exempt interest
income, with further modification of adjusted gross
income in some cases involving certain tax provisions of
limited applicability among the beneficiary population,
plus half the Social Security and Tier 1 Railroad Retirement benefits.
For married beneficiaries filing jointly with adjusted
gross income (as defined above) that is $32,000 a year
or less, no Social Security benefits are subject to taxation. If their adjusted gross income exceeds $32,000 but
is $44,000 or less, up to 50 percent of the Social Security
benefit is subject to income tax. If their income exceeds

$44,000, up to 85 percent of the Social Security benefit is
subject to income tax. For married beneficiaries filing
separately who lived together any time during the tax
year, there is no minimum threshold. Up to 85 percent of
the Social Security benefit is subject to income tax.
For individuals in all other filing categories (single,
head of household, qualifying widow(er), and married filing separately but who lived apart from their spouse for
the entire year), the income threshold is $25,000. Generally, up to 50 percent of benefits are taxable for income
between $25,001 and $34,000, and up to 85 percent of
benefits are taxable for income exceeding $34,000.

Like all matters dealing with tax liability, taxation of
Social Security benefits falls under the jurisdiction of the
Internal Revenue Service.
Table 2.A31 shows the history of provisions related to
taxation of Social Security benefits. Table 2.A32 offers
examples to illustrate when benefits are taxable and
the amount subject to taxation.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 21

Supplemental Security Income
Program Overview
The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program provides income support to persons aged 65 or older, blind
or disabled adults, and blind or disabled children. Eligibility requirements and federal payment standards are
nationally uniform. The 2006 federal SSI benefit rate for
an individual living in his or her own household and with
no other countable income is $603 monthly; for a couple
(with both husband and wife eligible), the SSI benefit rate
is $904 monthly.
Payments under SSI began in January 1974. It
replaced the former federal-state adult assistance programs in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
Under SSI each eligible person is provided a monthly
cash payment based on a statutory federal benefit rate.
Since 1975, these rates have been increased by the
same percentage, as the cost-of-living increases in
OASDI benefits. If an individual or couple is living in
another person's household and is receiving both food
and shelter from the person in whose household they are
living, the federal benefit rate is reduced by one-third.
This is done instead of determining the actual dollar
value of the in-kind support and maintenance.

A person whose income consists of $500 in gross
monthly earnings would receive $395.50 in federal SSI
payments
(($500 - $85) / 2) = $207.50 countable earnings
FBR $603 - $207.50 = $395.50 federal SSI
Individuals generally are not eligible for SSI if they
have resources in excess of $2,000 (or $3,000 for a couple). Certain resources are excluded, most commonly a
home, an automobile, and household goods and personal effects. States have the option to supplement the
federal SSI payment for all or selected categories of persons, regardless of previous state program eligibility.

CONTACT: Judi Papas (410) 965-2816.

SSI: History Of Provisions
Basic Eligibility Requirements
1972 (Public Law 92-603, enacted October 30). An individual may qualify for payments on the basis of age,
blindness, or disability.

Aged: Any person aged 65 or older.
For institutionalized persons, the eligibility requirements and payment standards depend on the type of
institution. With some exceptions, inmates of public institutions are ineligible for SSI. For persons institutionalized
for a complete calendar month, a maximum federal SSI
payment of $30 per month applies where (1) the institution receives a substantial part of the cost of the person's
care from the Medicaid program, or (2) the institution
receives payments from private health insurance on
behalf of a recipient under age 18. Other eligible persons
in institutions may receive up to the full federal benefit
rate.
The federal payment is based on the individual's
countable income. The first $20 monthly in OASDI benefits or other earned or unearned income is not counted.
Also excluded is $65 monthly of earnings plus one-half of
any earnings above $65. For example, a person living in
his or her own household, whose sole income is a $200
monthly OASDI benefit, would receive $423 in federal
SSI payments
$603 - ($200 - $20) = ($603 - $180) = $423.

22 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

Blind: Any person with 20/200 or less vision in the
better eye with the use of correcting lenses, or with
tunnel vision of 20 degrees or less. An individual
transferred from a state Aid to the Blind (AB) program is eligible if he/she received such state aid in
December 1973 and continues to meet the
October 1972 state definition of blindness.
Disabled: Any person unable to engage in any substantial gainful activity by reason of any medically
determinable physical or mental impairment
expected to result in death or that has lasted or can
be expected to last for a continuous period of at least
12 months. For a child under age 18, eligibility is
based on disability of severity comparable with that
of an adult. An individual transferred from a state Aid
to the Permanently and Totally Disabled (APTD) program to SSI is also eligible if he/she received such
state aid in December 1973 and continues to meet
the October 1972 state definition of disability.
1973 (Public Law 93-233, enacted December 31). Only
persons who had received APTD before July 1973
and were on the rolls in December 1973 may receive
SSI on the basis of the state definition of disability;
those who became eligible for state aid from July to
December 1973 must meet the federal definition of
disability.

1980 (Public Law 96-265, enacted June 9). A disabled
recipient who loses federal SSI eligibility because of
earnings at the substantial gainful activity level may
continue to receive a special benefit under
section 1619 and retain eligibility for Medicaid under
Title XIX of the Social Security Act. This special benefit status may continue as long as the recipient has
the disabling impairment and meets all nondisability
SSI eligibility criteria. States have the option of supplementing this special benefit.
This provision of the law was in effect from
January 1, 1981, through December 31, 1983.
Beginning in January 1984, under a 1-year demonstration project, this provision was continued for persons already eligible for either regular SSI payments
or special monthly benefits.
1984 (Public Law 98-460, enacted October 9). The special benefit and Medicaid provisions of the 1980 legislation were extended through June 30, 1987
(retroactive to January 1, 1984).
1986 (Public Law 99-643, enacted November 10). The
special benefit and Medicaid provisions of the 1980
amendments are made permanent. The provisions
were amended effective July 1, 1987, with significant
modifications to simplify administration and to allow
free movement between regular SSI disability payments and either the special cash benefit or Medicaid
eligibility under section 1619. The distinction
between a disabled person eligible for regular SSI
payments and one eligible for 1619(a) is that the latter has several months with gross earnings above
the SGA level. Previously, section 1619(a) status
required completion of a trial work period and the
determination that the work was SGA.
1996 (Public Law 104-193, enacted August 22). For individuals under age 18, the “comparable severity”
standard is eliminated and replaced with a requirement that a child be considered disabled if he/she
has a medically determinable impairment that results
in “marked and severe functional limitations,” and
meets the existing statutory duration requirement.
The law also eliminates references to “maladaptive
behaviors” in the Listing of Impairments for children,
and discontinues the use of individualized functional
assessments for children.
SSI eligibility is prohibited for an individual in any
month during which such an individual is a fugitive
felon, fleeing prosecution, or violating state or federal
conditions of probation or parole. In addition, SSI eligibility is prohibited for 10 years for those convicted
of fraudulently claiming residence to obtain benefits
simultaneously in two or more states.1

2006 (Public Law 109-171, enacted February 8).
Requires the Commissioner to conduct reviews of a
specific percentage of SSI initial disability and blindness cases involving individuals aged 18 or older
that are allowed by State Disability Determination
Service agencies (DDS). The provision is phased in
as follows—for fiscal year 2006, the Commissioner is
required to review 20 percent of DDS allowances; in
fiscal year 2007, the requirement is 40 percent; and,
for fiscal years 2008 and thereafter, 50 percent of all
DDS allowances are required to be reviewed. These
reviews are to be made before the allowance decision is implemented.
Other Eligibility Provisions

Citizenship and Residence
1972 (Public Law 92-603, enacted October 30). The individual must reside within one of the 50 states or the
District of Columbia and be a citizen or an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence or permanently residing in the United States under color of
law. Persons living outside the United States for an
entire calendar month lose their eligibility for such a
month.
1976 (Public Law 94-241, enacted March 24). Eligibility
for SSI is extended to residents of the Northern Mariana Islands, effective January 9, 1978.
1980 (Public Law 96-265, enacted June 9). The income
and resources of the immigration sponsors of aliens
applying for SSI are considered in determining eligibility for and the amount of payment. After allowances for the needs of the sponsor and his/her
family, the remainder is deemed available for the
support of the alien applicant for a 3-year period after
admission to the United States for permanent residence. This provision does not apply to those who
become blind or disabled after admission, to refugees, or to persons granted political asylum. (See
section “Deeming of Income and Resources” for subsequent changes to sponsor-to-alien deeming provisions.)
1989 (Public Law 101-239, enacted December 19). SSI
eligibility is continued for a disabled or blind child
who was receiving SSI benefits while living in the
United States and is now living with a parent who is a
member of the U.S. Armed Forces assigned to permanent duty ashore outside the United States, but
not where the parent is stationed in Puerto Rico or
the territories and possessions of the United States.
1.

This last provision was repealed in 1999 by Public Law 106-169
and replaced with a provision providing for nonpayment of benefits
for up to 24 months for knowingly making false or misleading
statements regarding material facts.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 23

1993 (Public Law 103-66, enacted August 10). Above
provision made applicable where the parent is a
member of the U.S. Armed Forces and stationed in
Puerto Rico or the territories and possessions of the
United States.
1996 (Public Law 104-193, enacted August 22). Prohibits
SSI eligibility for anyone who is not a U.S. citizen or
national unless they are in a “qualified alien” category
and meet one of certain exceptions such as lawful
permanent residents who earn or can be credited
with 40 qualifying quarters of earnings, certain refugee type categories eligible for up to 5 years of timelimited eligibility, or active duty U.S. military or veterans and their spouses and children. Extends eligibility for aliens receiving SSI as of August 22, 1996,
(the enactment date of the law) for 1 year after the
enactment date for those aliens found ineligible
under the new standards.
(Public Law 104-208, enacted September 30).
Amends Public Law 104-193 to add to the list of
“qualified aliens” certain noncitizens (and their children) who have been battered or subjected to
extreme cruelty by a spouse or parent or a member
of the spouse’s or parent’s family living in the same
household.
1997 (Public Law 105-18, enacted June 12). Extends eligibility for aliens receiving SSI as of August 22, 1996,
until September 30, 1997, for those found ineligible
under the new alien standards of Public
Law 104-193.
(Public Law 105-33, enacted August 5). Further
amends Public Law 104-193 to add Cuban and Haitian entrants, and the child of a parent who has been
battered or subjected to extreme cruelty, to the list of
qualified aliens. Provides that Cuban and Haitian
entrants and Amerasian immigrants qualify for timelimited eligibility, and increases the time limit from 5
to 7 years for all time-limited categories. Additional
exceptions are added for qualified aliens: (1) lawfully
residing in the United States and receiving SSI benefits on August 22, 1996; and (2) lawfully residing in
the United States on August 22, 1996, and meeting
the definition of blind or disabled in the Social Security Act.
Certain noncitizen American Indians are excepted
from the alien nonpayment provisions of Public
Law 104-193.
Extends eligibility for “nonqualified aliens” receiving
SSI as of August 22, 1996, until September 30,
1998.
1998 (Public Law 105-306, enacted October 28). Permanently extends eligibility of all remaining
“nonqualified aliens” who were receiving SSI bene24 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

fits when Public Law 104-193 was enacted on
August 22, 1996.
2000 (Public Law 106-386, enacted October 28). Noncitizens, regardless of their immigration status, may be
eligible for SSI to the same extent as refugees, if they
are determined to be victims of “severe forms of trafficking in persons.”
2004 (Public Law 108-203, enacted March 2). Extends
SSI eligibility to blind or disabled children who are
U.S. citizens living with a parent assigned to permanent U.S. military duty outside of the United States
and who were not receiving SSI benefits when living
in the United States. Previously, only blind or disabled children who received an SSI benefit for the
month before the parent reported for permanent duty
abroad were eligible. Effective April 2004 for applications filed after enactment.

Other Benefits
1980 (Public Law 96-272, enacted June 17). SSI applicants and recipients are not required as a condition
of eligibility to elect to receive Veterans Administration pensions under the Veterans and Survivors’
Pension Improvement Act of 1978 if the state of residence lacks a medically needy program under
Title XIX.

Drug Addiction and Alcoholism (DA&A)
1972 (Public Law 92-603, enacted October 30). Any disabled individual who has been medically determined
to be an alcoholic or drug addict must accept appropriate treatment, if available, in an approved facility
and demonstrate compliance with conditions and
requirements for treatment.
SSI payments are required to be made through a
representative payee—another person or public or
private agency designated by SSA to manage the
recipient’s benefit on his/her behalf.
1994 (Public Law 103-296, enacted August 15). Any individual who is receiving SSI based on a disability
where drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing
factor material to the finding of disability must comply
with the DA&A treatment requirements. The individual must accept appropriate treatment when it is
available and comply with the conditions and terms
of treatment. Instances of noncompliance with the
requirements result in progressively longer payment
suspensions. Before payments can resume, the individual must demonstrate compliance for specific periods; 2 months, 3 months, and 6 months,
respectively, for the first, second, third, and subsequent instances of noncompliance. An individual who
is not in compliance with the DA&A treatment
requirements for 12 consecutive months shall not be

eligible for payments; however, this does not prevent
such individuals from reapplying and again becoming
eligible for payments.
SSI disability payments based on DA&A are also limited to a total of 36 benefit months (beginning
March 1995) regardless of whether appropriate treatment is available. Months for which benefits are not
due and received do not count towards the 36-month
limit.
Payments based on DA&A must be made to a representative payee. Preference is required to be given
to community based nonprofit social service agencies and federal, state, or local government agencies
in representative payee selection. These agencies
when serving as payees for individuals receiving payments based on DA&A may retain the lesser of
10 percent of the monthly benefit or $50 (adjusted
annually after 1995 by the consumer price index
[CPI]) as compensation for their services.
Establishment of one or more referral and monitoring
agencies for each state is required.
1996 (Public Law 104-121, enacted March 29). An individual is not considered disabled if DA&A is a contributing factor material to a finding of disability.
Applies DA&A representative payee requirements
enacted under Public Law 103-296 to disabled SSI
recipients who have a DA&A condition and are incapable of managing their benefits. In addition, these
recipients shall be referred to the appropriate state
agency administering the state plan for substance
abuse treatment.

Institutionalization
1972 (Public Law 92-603, enacted October 30). An individual who is an inmate of a public institution is ineligible for SSI payments unless the institution is a
facility approved for Medicaid payments and is
receiving such payments on behalf of the person.
Under regulations, the Medicaid payment must represent more than 50 percent of the cost of services
provided by the facility to the individual.
1976 (Public Law 94-566, enacted October 20). An
inmate of a publicly operated community residence
serving no more than 16 persons may, if otherwise
eligible, receive SSI.
1983 (Public Law 98-21, enacted April 20). Payments
may be made to persons who are residents of public
emergency shelters for the homeless for a period of
up to 3 months in any 12-month period.
1986 (Public Law 99-643, enacted November 10). Effective July 1, 1987, disabled or blind recipients who
were receiving special SSI payments or had special

SSI recipient status under section 1619 in the month
preceding the first full month of institutionalization,
may receive payments based on the full federal benefit rate for the initial 2 full months of institutionalization, if they reside in certain public medical,
psychiatric, or Medicaid facilities or in private Medicaid facilities.
1987 (Public Law 100-203, enacted December 22).
Effective January 1, 1988, payments may be made to
persons who are residents of public emergency shelters for the homeless, for up to 6 months in a
9-month period.
Effective July 1, 1988, continued payment of SSI
benefits for up to 3 months is permitted, at the rate
that was applicable in the month prior to the first full
month of institutionalization, for individuals whose
expected institutional stay on admission is not likely
to exceed 3 months, as certified by a physician, and
for whom the receipt of benefits is necessary to maintain living arrangements to which they may return.
1996 (Public Law 104-193, enacted August 22). Effective
December 1996, institutionalized children under
age 18 whose private health insurance is making
payments to the institution may receive no more than
$30 per month in federal SSI.

Vocational Rehabilitation and Treatment
1972 (Public Law 92-603, enacted October 30). Blind or
disabled individuals receiving federal SSI benefits
who are under age 65 must be referred to the state
agency providing services under the Vocational
Rehabilitation Act and must accept the services
offered. States are reimbursed for the cost of services.
1976 (Public Law 94-566, enacted October 20). Blind or
disabled children under age 16 must be referred to
the state agency administering crippled children’s
services or to another agency designated by the
state. States are reimbursed for the cost of services.
Of funds provided for these services, at least
90 percent must be used for children under age 6 or
for those who have never attended public schools.
1980 (Public Law 96-265, enacted June 9). Disabled SSI
recipients who medically recover while enrolled in
approved vocational rehabilitation programs of state
VR agencies may continue to receive benefits during
their participation in such programs if the Commissioner of Social Security determines that continuation
in the program will increase the probability that they
leave the rolls permanently.
1981 (Public Law 97-35, enacted August 13). Funding no
longer provided under Title XVI for medical, social,
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 25

developmental, and rehabilitative services to disabled or blind children.

Reimbursement for the cost of rehabilitation services
will only be made if the services result in the recipient’s return to work for a continuous period of
9 months. The work must be at the substantial gainful activity earnings level.
1984 (Public Law 98-460, enacted October 9). Authorizes the reimbursement of states for the cost of VR
services provided to individuals who (1) continue to
receive benefits after medical recovery because they
are participating in a state VR program or (2) refuse,
without good cause, to continue in or cooperate with
the VR program in which they had been participating.
1987 (Public Law 100-203, enacted December 22).
Extends the provision for continuation of payments to
disabled SSI recipients who have medically recovered while enrolled in an approved vocational rehabilitation program to include blind SSI recipients.
1990 (Public Law 101-508, enacted November 5). Reimbursement authorized for the cost of vocational rehabilitation services provided in months in which the
individual was not receiving federal SSI payments, if

SSI recipient status for Medicaid eligibility purposes was retained under work incentive provisions, or

Benefits were in suspense2 status (for a reason
other than cessation of disability or blindness), or

Federally administered state supplementation
was received.

Extends benefit continuation provision to disabled
SSI recipients who medically recover while participating in a nonstate VR program.
1999 (Public Law 106-170, enacted December 17).
Establishes a Ticket to Work and Self-Sufficiency
program that will provide SSI (and OASDI) disability
beneficiaries with a ticket that can be used to obtain
vocational rehabilitation services, employment services, or other support services, from an employment
network (EN) of their choice.
An EN chooses one of the two EN payment options
at the time it submits an application to SSA to
become an EN. The chosen payment system will
apply to all beneficiaries served. An EN can elect to
receive payment under the

2.

Outcome payment system, under which it can
receive payment for up to 60 outcome payment
months; or

Recipients who have lost eligibility for SSI benefits for fewer than
13 consecutive months are in suspended payment status.

26 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

Outcome-milestone payment system, under
which it can receive payment for up to four milestones in addition to outcome payments. These
milestones must occur before the EN enters the
first month for which it is eligible for an outcome
payment. Four milestone payments plus
60 months of reduced outcome payments equal
85 percent of the total that would be available if
the EN chose the outcome payment system.

The four milestones are based on gross earnings
exceeding the substantial gainful activity level for
specified months. An outcome payment month is any
month in which SSA does not pay any federal disability cash benefits to a beneficiary because of work or
earnings.
Also eliminates the requirement that blind or disabled
SSI recipients aged 16 through 64 be referred to the
state VR agency and accept the services offered.

Continuing Disability Reviews and Eligibility
Redeterminations
1994 (Public Law 103-296, enacted August 15). During
each of fiscal years 1996, 1997, and 1998, requires
SSA to conduct continuing disability reviews (CDRs)
on a minimum of 100,000 SSI recipients. In addition,
during the same period, requires SSA to redetermine
the SSI eligibility of at least one-third of all child SSI
recipients who reach age 18 after April 1995 during
the 1-year period following attainment of age 18.
Redeterminations for persons turning age 18 could
count toward the 100,000 CDR requirement.
1996 (Public Law 104-193, enacted August 22). Repeals
the requirement that SSA redetermine the eligibility
of at least one-third of all child SSI recipients who
reach age 18 after April 1995 during the 1-year
period following attainment of age 18.
Requires a CDR

At least once every 3 years for SSI recipients
under age 18 who are eligible by reason of an
impairment that is likely to improve, and

Not later than 12 months after birth for recipients
whose low birth weight is a contributing factor
material to the determination of their disability.

Requires eligibility redetermination for all child SSI
recipients eligible for the month before the month in
which they attain age 18.
Requires redetermination of eligibility for children
considered disabled based on an individual functional assessment and/or consideration of maladaptive behavior.
Requires the representative payee of a child SSI
recipient whose continuing eligibility is being

reviewed to present evidence that the recipient is
receiving treatment that is considered medically necessary and available for the condition which was the
basis for providing SSI benefits.
1997 (Public Law 105-33, enacted August 5). Modifies
provision of Public Law 104-193 to extend from 12 to
18 months the period for redetermining the disability
of children under age 18 under the new childhood
disability standard.
Modifies provision of Public Law 104-193 to permit
SSA to schedule a CDR for a disabled child for whom
low birth weight is a contributing factor material to the
determination of disability, at a date after the child’s
first birthday if the Commissioner determines the
impairment is not expected to improve within
12 months of the child’s birth.
Modifies provision of Public Law 104-193 to provide
SSA the authority to make redeterminations of disabled childhood recipients who attain age 18, more
than 1 year after the date such recipient attains
age 18.

1993 (Public Law 103-152, enacted November 24).
Sponsor-to-alien deeming period extended from
3 years to 5 years, effective January 1, 1994,
through September 30, 1996.
Considers an ineligible spouse or parent who is
absent from the household because of active military
service to be a member of the household for deeming purposes.
1996 (Public Law 104-193, enacted August 22). Deeming of income and resources from an immigration
sponsor to a noncitizen continues until citizenship,
with exceptions for those who earn, or can be credited with, 40 qualifying quarters of earnings. Effective
for those whose sponsor signs a new legally enforceable affidavit of support.
(Public Law 104-208, enacted September 30).
Amends Public Law 104-193 to add two exceptions
to the sponsor-to-alien deeming:

Provides that if the noncitizen is indigent and
would be unable to obtain food and shelter without SSI benefits even after receiving support
from the sponsor, then only the amount of
income and resources actually provided by the
sponsor will be counted for a 12-month period
after a determination of indigence; and

Provides that in certain cases, deeming would
not apply for a 12-month period (with some
options for extension) if the noncitizen (or his/her
children) has been battered or subjected to
extreme cruelty by family members.

1999 (Public Law 106-170, enacted December 17). Prohibits the initiation of a CDR during the period that a
recipient is “using a ticket” under the Ticket to Work
program.

Deeming of Income and Resources
1972 (Public Law 92-603, enacted October 30). Deeming
occurs when the income and resources of certain
family members living in the same household with
the SSI recipient are considered in determining the
amount of the SSI payment. These family members
are the ineligible spouse of an adult recipient and the
ineligible parents of a child recipient under age 21.
After deduction of personal allocations for the spouse
(or parents) and for ineligible children in the home,
and after application of income exclusions, any
remaining income of the spouse (or parents) is
added to the income of the eligible person.
1980 (Public Law 96-265, enacted June 9). Children
aged 18 or older are not subject to parental deeming.
Sponsor’s income and resources deemed to an alien
for 3 years.
1989 (Public Law 101-239, enacted December 19). Disabled children receiving home care services under
state Medicaid programs, who are ineligible for SSI
because of deeming of parental income, and who
received SSI benefits limited to $30 while in a medical treatment facility, may receive the $30 monthly
allowance that would be payable if the recipient were
institutionalized.

1997 (Public Law 105-33, enacted August 5). Amends
Public Law 104-208 to add an additional exception to
sponsor-to-alien deeming when the parent of a noncitizen has been battered or subjected to extreme
cruelty by family members.
2006 (Public Law 109-163, enacted January 6). Provides
that individuals who were made ineligible for SSI
because of their spouses or parents being called to
active military duty would not have to file a new application for SSI benefits if they again could be eligible
for benefits before the end of 24 consecutive months
of ineligibility.
Federal Benefit Payments

Federal Benefit Rates
Basic benefit standards are used in computing the
amount of federal SSI payments. Benefit levels differ for
individuals and couples living in households and for persons in Medicaid institutions. Individuals or couples living
in their own households receive the full federal benefit. If
an individual or couple is living in another person’s
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 27

household and receiving support and maintenance there,
the federal benefit is reduced by one-third. The federal
benefit rates for persons in households are increased
annually to reflect increases in the cost of living. Legislation affecting the level of federal benefit rates since the
inception of the SSI program are summarized in
Table 2.B1.

Windfall Offset
1980 (Public Law 96-265, enacted June 9). Offset (by
reduction of retroactive Social Security benefits) to
prevent persons whose initial OASDI payment is retroactive from receiving more in total benefits than if
they were paid the benefits when regularly due.
1984 (Public Law 98-617, enacted November 8). Offset
provision expanded to allow for reduction of retroactive SSI benefits and to apply in cases of OASDI benefit reinstatement.

Proration of Benefit
1982 (Public Law 97-248, enacted September 3). Benefit
for first month of eligibility to be prorated by the number of days in the month for which an application has
been filed and there is eligibility.
1996 (Public Law 104-193, enacted August 22).
Changes the effective date of an SSI application to
the first day of the month following the date on which
the application was filed or on which the individual
first becomes eligible, whichever is later. This, in
effect, eliminates prorated payments in initial claims.

Retrospective Monthly Accounting
1981 (Public Law 97-35, enacted August 13). Changes
the method of computing the SSI benefit to one
under which the benefit amount is computed on a
monthly basis and is based on income and other
characteristics in the previous (or second previous)
month.
1984 (Public Law 98-369, enacted July 18). Changes the
method of computing the SSI benefit to persons
receiving Title II payments. The effect of the
increased Title II income at the time of the cost-of-living increase is not delayed as it otherwise would be.
1987 (Public Law 100-203, enacted December 22). Provides an exception to retrospective monthly accounting so that amounts received under Aid to Families
with Dependent Children (AFDC), foster care, refugee cash assistance, Cuban-Haitian entrant assistance, or general and child welfare assistance
provided by the Bureau of Indian Affairs are counted
only in the month received.
1993 (Public Law 103-66, enacted August 10). Changes
the method of computing the SSI benefit to persons
28 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

receiving the value of the one-third reduction. The
effect of the increased value at the time of the costof-living increase is not delayed as it otherwise would
be. Effective January 1995.
2004 (Public Law 108-203, enacted March 2). Eliminates
triple counting of one-time, nonrecurring income by
providing that this income will be counted only for the
month that the income is received and not for any
other month during the transition to retrospective
monthly accounting during the first 3 months of an
individual’s SSI eligibility. Effective April 2005.

Uncashed Checks
1981 (Public Law 97-35, enacted August 13). States that
have federally administered supplements to be credited their share of SSI checks that remain unnegotiated for 180 days.
1987 (Public Law 100-86, enacted August 10). SSI
checks now unnegotiable after 1 year. States are
credited their share of SSI checks after 1 year rather
than 180 days.

Rounding of Payment Amounts
1982 (Public Law 97-248, enacted September 3). Costof-living adjustments in the federal SSI benefit and
income eligibility levels are to be rounded to the next
lower whole dollar, after the adjustment is calculated.
Subsequent cost-of-living adjustments will be calculated on the previous year’s benefit standard before
rounding.

Penalties Resulting in Nonpayment of Benefits for
False or Misleading Statements
1999 (Public Law 106-169, enacted December 14). Provides for the nonpayment of OASDI and SSI benefits
(6, 12, and 24 months, respectively, for the first, second, and third or subsequent violations) for individuals found to have knowingly made a false or
misleading statement of material fact for use in determining eligibility for benefits.
2004 (Public Law 108-203, enacted March 2). Expands
the administrative sanction of nonpayment of benefits to situations where an individual has failed to disclose material information, if the person knew or
should have known that such failure was misleading.
Authorizes federal courts to order a defendant convicted of defrauding Social Security, Special Veterans’ Benefits, or SSI to make restitution to SSA.
Restitution funds would be deposited to the trust
funds or General Fund of the Treasury, as appropriate. Effective with respect to violations occurring on
or after the date of enactment.

Installment Payments
1996 (Public Law 104-193, enacted August 22). Establishes a schedule for paying retroactive SSI benefit
amounts that exceed 12 times the federal benefit
rate (FBR) plus the state supplement level. Payments would be made at 6-month intervals:

The first installment would be 12 times the FBR
plus any federally administered state supplement.

Any remaining retroactive benefits would be paid
in a second installment (not to exceed the first
payment amount).

All remaining retroactive benefits would be paid
in the third installment.

Provides that where an underpaid individual has
incurred debts to provide for food, clothing, or shelter,
has expenses for disability-related items and services that exceed the installment amount, or has
entered into a contract to purchase a home, the
installment payment would be increased by the
amount needed to cover those debts, expenses, and
obligations.
Provides that full retroactive payments be paid to an
individual who is terminally ill or, if currently ineligible,
is likely to remain so for the next 12 months.
2006 (Public Law 109-171, enacted February 8).
Requires that past-due monthly SSI benefits that
exceed three times the maximum monthly benefit
(federal benefit rate plus state supplementary payment amount, if any) payable to the individual be paid
in up to three installment payments, 6 months apart.
Also, limits the amount of the first two installment
payments to three times the maximum monthly benefit. All remaining benefits due are to be paid in the
third installment. As under current law, the amounts
of the installment payments may be increased in certain cases, such as those in which the individual has
outstanding debt relating to food, clothing, or shelter,
or has necessary medical needs.
Effective 3 months after February 8, 2006.
Exclusions from Income

General Exclusions
1972 (Public Law 92-603, enacted October 30). The first
$60 of earned or unearned income per calendar
quarter for an individual or couple; the next $195 and
one-half the remainder of quarterly earned income.
Unearned income includes Social Security benefits,
other government or private pensions, veterans’ benefits, and workers’ compensation.

1981 (Public Law 97-35, enacted August 13). The first
$20 of earned or unearned income per month for an
individual or couple; the next $65 and one-half the
remainder of monthly earned income. Unearned
income includes Social Security benefits, other government or private pensions, veterans’ benefits, and
workers’ compensation.
2000 (Public Law 106-554, enacted December 21). Earnings of persons defined as Social Security statutory
employees are treated as self-employment income
for SSI purposes.

Special Exclusions
1972 (Public Law 92-603, enacted October 30). Any
amount of tax rebate issued to an individual by any
public agency that is based on either real property or
food purchase taxes.
Grants, scholarships, and fellowships used to pay
tuition and fees at an educational institution.
Income required for achieving an approved self-support plan for blind or disabled persons.
Work expenses of blind persons.
For blind persons transferred from state programs to
SSI, income exclusions equal to the maximum
amount permitted as of October 1972 under the state
programs.
Irregularly or infrequently received income totaling
$60 or less of unearned income and $30 of earned
income in a calendar quarter.
Payment for foster care of ineligible child residing in
recipient’s home through placement by a public or
private nonprofit child care agency.
One-third of any payment received from an absent
parent for the support of a child eligible for SSI.
Certain earnings of a blind or disabled child under
age 22 regularly attending an educational institution.
State or local government cash payments based on
need and designed to supplement SSI payments.
1976 (Public Law 94-331, enacted June 30). Disaster
assistance from income for 9 months and application
of one-third reduction for 6 months for certain victims
of disasters occurring between January 1, 1976, and
December 31, 1976.
(Public Law 94-566, enacted October 20). Any assistance based on need (including vendor payments)
made to or on behalf of SSI recipients, which is paid
and wholly funded by state or local governments.
The value of assistance provided under certain federal housing programs.
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 29

1977 (Public Law 95-113, enacted September 29). Food
stamps, federally donated food, and the value of free
or reduced price food for women and children under
the Child Nutrition Act and National School Lunch
Act.
(Public Law 95-171, enacted November 12). Provisions for exclusions for support and maintenance
under the Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance
Act of 1974 extended on a permanent basis. Effective January 1, 1978.
1980 (Public Law 96-222, enacted April 1). Earned
income tax credit treated as earned income (temporarily excluded from 1975 through 1980).
(Public Law 96-265, enacted June 9). Remunerations received in sheltered workshops and work
activity centers are considered earned income and
qualify for earned income exclusions.
Impairment-related work expenses paid by the individual (including cost for attendant care, medical
equipment, drugs, and services necessary to control
an impairment) are deducted from earnings when
determining if an individual is engaging in substantial
gainful activity. Impairment-related work expenses
are excluded in calculating income for benefit purposes if initial eligibility for benefits exists on the
basis of countable income without applying this
exclusion.
1981 (Public Law 97-35, enacted August 13). Modifies
provision under which irregularly or infrequently
received income is excluded to conform to change
from quarterly to monthly accounting; amounts
excludable: $20 or less of unearned income and $10
of earned income in a month.
1982 (Public Law 97-377, enacted December 21). From
December 18, 1982, to September 30, 1983, certain
home energy assistance payments are excluded if a
state agency certified that they are based on need.
1983 (Public Law 97-424, enacted January 6). Support
or maintenance assistance (including home energy
assistance) provided in kind by a nonprofit organization or in cash or in kind by certain providers of home
energy is excluded if the state determines that the
assistance is based on need. Provision is applicable
through September 1984.
Certain home energy assistance payments are
excluded if a state agency certified that the assistance is based on need. Provision is applicable
through June 1985.
1984 (Public Law 98-369, enacted July 18). The 1983
provisions for support and maintenance and home
energy assistance continue to October 1, 1987.

30 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

1986 (Public Law 99-498, enacted October 17). Educational assistance used for educational expenses
under the Higher Education Act of 1965 as amended.
1987 (Public Law 100-203, enacted December 22). The
1983 provisions for support and maintenance and
home energy assistance made permanent.
Excludes death payments (for example, proceeds
from life insurance) from SSI income determinations
to the extent they were spent on last illness and
burial.
Modifies the 1982 resource exclusion for burial funds
to extend the exclusion to any burial fund of $1,500
or less maintained separately from all other assets,
thereby allowing interest to be excluded from income
if retained in the fund.
1988 (Public Law 100-383, enacted August 10). Restitution payments made to Japanese internees and relocated Aleutians.
1989 (Public Law 101-239, enacted December 19). Interest on agreements representing the purchase of an
excluded burial space.
Payments from the Agent Orange Settlement.
Value of a ticket for domestic travel received as a gift
and not cashed.
1990 (Public Law 101-508, enacted November 5).
Earned income tax credit (including the child health
insurance portion).
Payments received from a state-administered fund
established to aid victims of crime.
Impairment-related work expenses excluded from
income in determining initial eligibility for benefits.
Payments received as state or local government relocation assistance.
Payments received under the Radiation Exposure
Compensation Act.
Redefines as earned income, royalties earned in
connection with any publication of the individual’s
work and honoraria received for services rendered
(previously defined as unearned income).
1993 (Public Law 103-66, enacted August 10). Hostile
fire pay to members of the uniformed services.
Payments received as state or local government relocation assistance made permanent.
1994 (Public Law 103-286, enacted August 1). Payments
to victims of Nazi persecution.
1998 (Public Law 105-285, enacted October 27). Funds
made available to an SSI recipient by a state or local
government or a nonprofit organization as part of the

Individual Development Account demonstration
project.
(Public Law 105-306, enacted October 28). In-kind
gifts to children with life-threatening conditions by
tax-exempt organizations not converted to cash.
The first $2,000 annually of cash gifts by tax-exempt
organizations to, or for the benefit of, individuals
under age 18 with life-threatening conditions.
(Public Law 105-369, enacted November 12). Payments made under the Ricky Ray Hemophilia Relief
Fund Act of 1998.
2000 (Public Law 106-554, enacted December 21). Interest on funds deposited in an individual development
account.
Any adjustments made to prior payments from other
federal programs to account for the error in the computation of the consumer price index during 1999.
2001 (Public Law 107-16, enacted June 7). The refundable child tax credit is excluded in determining eligibility for means-tested programs, including SSI.
2004 (Public Law 108-203, enacted March 2). Changes
the calculation of infrequent and irregular income
from a monthly to a quarterly basis.
Excludes from the determination of an individual’s
income all interest and dividend income earned on
countable resources. Effective July 2004.
Permits the student earned income exclusion to
apply to any individual under age 22 who is a student. Thus, students under age 22 who are married
or heads of households would be eligible for the
exclusion. Effective April 2005.
Excludes from the determination of income any gift to
an individual for use in paying tuition or educational
fees, just as grants, scholarships, and fellowships for
such use are currently excluded from the determination of income. Effective June 2004.
2005 (Public Law 109-64, enacted September 20).
Amends the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 to
specify that assistance provided under a program for
flood mitigation activities with respect to a property
would not be considered income or a resource of the
owner of the property when determining eligibility for
or benefit levels under any income assistance or
resource-tested program (including SSI) that is
funded in whole or in part by a federal agency or by
appropriated federal funds.
Resources
1972 (Public Law 92-603, enacted October 30). Countable resources limited to $1,500 or less for an individual and to $2,250 or less for a couple.

1984 (Public Law 98-369, enacted July 18). Limit on
countable resources raised by $100 a year for individuals and $150 a year for couples, beginning in calendar year 1985 through 1989. The respective limits
would become $2,000 for an individual and $3,000
for a couple in 1989 and thereafter.
1999 (Public Law 106-169, enacted December 14).
Includes generally in the countable resources of an
individual the assets of a trust that could be used for
the benefit of the individual or spouse.

General Exclusions
1972 (Public Law 92-603, enacted October 30). A home
of reasonable value—established by regulation as
not exceeding a fair-market value of $25,000
($35,000 in Alaska and Hawaii).
Personal effects and household goods of reasonable
value established by regulation as not exceeding a
total market value of $1,500.
An automobile of reasonable value—established by
regulation as not exceeding a market value of
$1,200.
An automobile may be excluded, regardless of value,
if the individual’s household uses it for employment
or medical treatment or if it is modified to be operated
by or for transportation of a handicapped person.
Life insurance with face value of $1,500 or less.
1976 (Public Law 94-569, enacted October 20). The
recipient’s home, regardless of value, is excluded
from consideration in determining resources.
1977 (Public Law 95-171, enacted November 12). Assistance received under the Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act of 1974 for 9 months following
receipt.
1979. Reasonable value for an automobile increased by
regulation to $4,500 of current-market value; personal goods and household effects increased to
$2,000 of equity value.
1982 (Public Law 97-248, enacted September 3). The
value, within prescribed limits, of a burial space for
the recipient, spouse, and immediate family is
excluded. In addition, $1,500 each (less the value of
already excluded life insurance and any amount in an
irrevocable burial arrangement) may be set aside for
the burial of the recipient and spouse.
1984 (Public Law 98-369, enacted July 18). The unspent
portion of any retroactive Title II or Title XVI payment
is excluded for 6 months following its receipt, and the
individual must be given written notice of the time
limit on the exclusion.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 31

1985. Regulations permit exclusion, regardless of value,
of an automobile needed for essential transportation
or modified for a handicapped person. The $4,500
current market value limit applies only if no automobile could be excluded based on the nature of its use.
1987 (Public Law 100-203, enacted December 22). Provides for suspension of the 1980 transfer of assets
provision, in any month that it is determined that
undue hardship would result.
Real property that cannot be sold for the following
reasons: it is jointly owned; its sale would cause the
other owner(s) undue hardship because of loss of
housing; its sale is barred by a legal impediment; or
the owner’s reasonable efforts to sell have been
unsuccessful.
Temporarily extends the 1984 exclusion of retroactive Title II and Title XVI benefits from 6 months to
9 months (the longer exclusion applies to benefits
paid in fiscal years 1988 and 1989).
1988 (Public Law 100-707, enacted November 23).
Removes the time limit for exclusion of disaster
assistance.
2004 (Public Law 108-203, enacted March 2). Increases
to 9 months and makes uniform the time period for
excluding from resources amounts attributable to
payments of past-due Social Security and SSI benefits and earned income and child tax credits. Effective
for such payments received on or after the date of
enactment.
2005. Regulations permit exclusion of, regardless of
value,

One automobile if used for transportation for the
beneficiary or a member of the beneficiary’s
household and
Personal goods and household effects.

Special Exclusions
1972 (Public Law 92-603, enacted October 30). Assets
of a blind or disabled individual that are necessary to
an approved plan of self-support.
Tools and other property essential to self-support
(PESS), within reasonable limits. Shares of nonnegotiable stock in regional or village corporations held by
natives of Alaska.
For persons transferred from state programs to SSI,
resource exclusions equal to the maximum amount
permitted as of October 1972 under the state program.
1988 (Public Law 100-383, enacted August 10). Restitution payments made to Japanese internees and relocated Aleutians.
32 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

1989 (Public Law 101-239, enacted December 19).
Specifies that no limitation can be placed on property
essential to self-support used in a trade or business,
or by an individual as an employee (including the
tools of a tradesperson and the machinery and livestock of a farmer).
Payments from the Agent Orange Settlement.
1990 (Public Law 101-508, enacted November 5).
Earned income tax credit excluded for the month following the month the credit is received.
Payments received from a state-administered fund
established to aid victims of crime excluded for a
9-month period. Individual not required to file for such
benefits.
Payments received as state or local government relocation assistance excluded for a 9-month period.
(The provision expired 3 years after its effective
date.)
Payments received under the Radiation Exposure
Compensation Act.
1993 (Public Law 103-66, enacted August 10). Makes
permanent the 9-month exclusion of payments
received as state or local government relocation
assistance.
1994 (Public Law 103-286, enacted August 1). Payments
to victims of Nazi persecution.
1996 (Public Law 104-193, enacted August 22). Dedicated financial institution accounts required to be
established for large past-due benefits for disabled
individuals under age 18 with a representative
payee.
1998 (Public Law 105-285, enacted October 27). Funds
made available to an SSI recipient by a state or local
government or a nonprofit organization as part of the
Individual Development Account demonstration
project.
(Public Law 105-306, enacted October 28). In-kind
gifts to children with life-threatening conditions by
tax-exempt organizations not converted to cash.
The first $2,000 annually of cash gifts by tax-exempt
organizations to, or for the benefit of, individuals
under age 18 with life-threatening conditions.
(Public Law 105-369, enacted November 12). Payments made under the Ricky Ray Hemophilia Relief
Fund Act of 1998.
2000 (Public Law 106-554, enacted December 21).
Funds deposited by an individual in an individual
development account and the interest on those
funds.

2001 (Public Law 107-16, enacted June 7). The refundable child tax credit in the month of receipt and in the
following month.
2004 (Public Law 108-203, enacted March 2). Excludes
grants, scholarships, fellowships, or gifts to be used
for tuition or educational fees from an individual’s
countable resources for 9 months after the month of
receipt.

Transfer-of-Assets Penalties
1980 (Public Law 96-611, enacted December 28). Assets
transferred for less than fair market value for the purpose of establishing eligibility for benefits under the
Social Security Act are counted as resources for
24 months after transfer.
1988 (Public Law 100-360, enacted July 1). Removes
the transfer-of-assets penalty for transfers made
July 1, 1988, or later.
1999 (Public Law 106-169, enacted December 14). Provides a penalty under the SSI program for the disposal of resources at less than fair market value. The
penalty is a loss of benefits for up to 36 months. A
formula is provided to determine the number of
months.
Presumptive and Emergency Payments
and Interim Assistance Reimbursement

Presumptive Payments
1972 (Public Law 92-603, enacted October 30). A person
applying on the basis of disability who meets all other
criteria of eligibility, and is likely to be disabled, may
receive payments for 3 months pending the disability
determination.
1976 (Public Law 94-569, enacted October 20). Presumptive payment provision was extended to persons applying on the basis of blindness.
1990 (Public Law 101-508, enacted November 5).
Extends the period for receipt of payments to
6 months.

Emergency Advance Payments
1972 (Public Law 92-603, enacted October 30). Any
applicant who can be presumed to meet the criteria
of eligibility, but has not yet been determined eligible,
and who is faced with a financial emergency may
receive an immediate cash advance of up to $100.
1987 (Public Law 100-203, enacted December 22).
Increases the maximum emergency advance payment amount to the maximum amount of the regular
federal SSI monthly benefit rate plus, if any, the federally administered state supplementary payment.

1996 (Public Law 104-193, enacted August 22). Applicants who have a financial emergency may receive
an emergency advance payment in the month of
application, which, effective with this law, is always
before the first month of eligibility. These advance
payments are recouped by proportional reductions in
the recipient’s first 6 months of SSI benefits.

Interim Assistance Reimbursement
1974 (Public Law 93-368, enacted August 7). SSA may
enter into agreements with the states to repay them
directly for assistance payments made to an SSI
applicant while his/her claim is being adjudicated.
The repayment is made from the first check due to
the individual. This legislation expires June 30, 1976.
1976 (Public Law 94-365, enacted July 14). The authority
to repay the state for interim assistance is made permanent.
1987 (Public Law 100-203, enacted December 22).
Extends interim assistance reimbursement to situations in which payments are made by states or political subdivisions to persons whose SSI payments
were suspended or terminated and who subsequently are found to be eligible for such benefits.
Also clarifies that the payment from which the interim
assistance reimbursement is paid must be the first
payment of benefits relating to the interim period.
Medicaid Eligibility
1972 (Public Law 92-603, enacted October 30). States
can provide Medicaid coverage to all recipients of
SSI payments. Alternatively, they can limit coverage
by applying more restrictive criteria from the state
Medicaid plan in effect on January 1, 1972.
States can accept SSA determination of eligibility or
make their own determination.
1976 (Public Law 94-566, enacted October 20). Preserves the Medicaid eligibility of recipients who
become ineligible for cash SSI payments due to the
cost-of-living increases in Social Security benefits.
1980 (Public Law 96-265, enacted June 9). Blind or disabled recipients under age 65 no longer eligible for
either regular or special SSI payments because of
their earnings may retain SSI recipient status for
Medicaid eligibility purposes under the following conditions: (1) they continue to have the disabling
impairment, (2) they meet all nondisability eligibility
criteria except for earned income, (3) they would be
seriously inhibited from continuing employment without Medicaid services, and (4) their earnings are
insufficient to provide a reasonable equivalent of SSI
payments and Medicaid.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 33

In states that do not provide Medicaid coverage categorically to all SSI recipients, qualification for Medicaid benefits depends on the state’s specific eligibility
and program requirements.
The Medicaid provision of the 1980 legislation was in
effect from January 1, 1981, through December 31,
1983. Under a 1-year demonstration project, beginning January 1, 1984, this provision was continued
for persons already eligible for regular or special SSI
payments or for retention of Medicaid eligibility.
1984 (Public Law 98-460, enacted October 9). Medicaid
provision of 1980 legislation extended through
June 30, 1987 (retroactive to January 1, 1984).
1986 (Public Law 99-272, enacted April 7). Restores
Medicaid eligibility for some disabled widow(er)s who
became ineligible for SSI when their Title II benefits
increased in 1984 because of a change in the Social
Security disabled widow(er)s benefits reduction factor.
1986 (Public Law 99-643, enacted November 10). The
SSI recipient status for Medicaid eligibility provision
of the 1980 amendments is made permanent.
Effective July 1, 1987, certain expenses are
excluded from earnings when determining sufficiency
of earnings to establish SSI recipient status eligibility
for Medicaid purposes:

Impairment-related work expenses of disabled
persons,

Work expenses of blind persons,

Income required for achieving an approved selfsupport plan, and

The value of publicly funded attendant care services.

Effective July 1, 1987, preserves the Medicaid eligibility of recipients who become ineligible for SSI payments because of entitlement to, or an increase in,
Social Security disabled adult child benefits on or
after the effective date.
Effective July 1, 1987, requires all states to provide
Medicaid coverage for recipients in special SSI status (either receiving special SSI payments or in the
special recipient status described for 1980) if they
received Medicaid coverage the month before special SSI status.
1987 (Public Law 100-203, enacted December 22).
Effective July 1, 1988, restores or preserves the
Medicaid eligibility of persons aged 60 or older who
are eligible for Social Security benefits as widows or
widowers (but not eligible for Medicare) and who
become ineligible for SSI payments or state supple34 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

mentation because of the receipt of old-age or survivors insurance benefits under Social Security.
1990 (Public Law 101-508, enacted November 5). Age
limit for retention of SSI recipient status for Medicaid
eligibility purposes (1980 and subsequent work
incentive provisions, above) is eliminated.
Preserves the Medicaid eligibility of SSI recipients
who become ineligible for payments when they
become entitled to Social Security disabled
widow(er)s benefits following the revised definition
used for their disability.
1997 (Public Law 105-33, enacted August 5). Requires
states to continue Medicaid coverage for disabled
children who were receiving SSI payments as of
August 22, 1996, and would have continued to be eligible for such payments except that their eligibility
terminated because they did not meet the revised
SSI childhood disability standard established under
Public Law 104-193.
2006 (Public Law 109-171, enacted February 8). Begins
Medicaid coverage for children who are eligible for
SSI effective the month the SSI application is filed or
the first month of SSI eligibility, whichever is later.
(Under prior law, Medicaid eligibility for such children
began the month following the month of the SSI
application or first eligibility.)
State Supplementation
1972 (Public Law 92-603, enacted October 30). States
are given the option of providing supplementary payments both to recipients transferred from the state
program and to those newly eligible for SSI.
States may either administer the payments themselves or have the Social Security Administration
make payments on their behalf. When state supplementary payments are federally administered, the
Social Security Administration makes eligibility and
payment determinations for the state and assumes
administrative costs.
“Hold harmless” protection, which limits a state’s fiscal liability to its share of expenditures for Old-Age
Assistance, Aid to the Blind, and Aid to the Permanently and Totally Disabled for calendar year 1972, is
provided to states electing federal administration of
their supplementary plans. This provision applies
only to supplementary payments that do not, on the
average, exceed a state’s “adjusted payment level.”
(The adjusted payment level is the average of the
payments that individuals with no other income
received in January 1972; it may include the bonus
value of food stamps. Adjustments are provided for
payments that had been below state standards.)

1973 (Public Law 93-66, enacted July 9). Provides for
mandatory state supplementation as assurance
against reduction of income for persons who
received state assistance in December 1973 and
were transferred to SSI. These supplementary payments must equal the difference between (1) the
amount of the state assistance payment that the individual received in December 1973 plus other income
and (2) the individual’s federal SSI payment plus
other income.
1976 (Public Law 94-585, enacted October 21). After
June 30, 1977, when the federal SSI payment level is
increased by a cost-of-living increase, such an
increase will be excluded in calculating the “hold
harmless” amount.
Requires states to maintain state supplementation
payments at the level of December 1976 (“maintenance of payments”) or to continue to pay in supplements the same total annual amounts (“maintenance
of expenditures”) when the federal SSI payment level
is increased and thereby pass through any increases
in federal benefits without reducing state supplements.
1982 (Public Law 97-248, enacted September 3). Begins
a 3-year phase out of “hold harmless” protection.
Effective with fiscal year 1985, Wisconsin and Hawaii
(the only remaining “hold harmless” states) assumed
the full cost of their supplementary payments.
1983 (Public Law 98-21, enacted April 20). Federal passthrough law is adjusted (1) by substituting the state
supplementary payment levels in effect in
March 1983 for those in effect in December 1976 as
the levels that states must maintain in complying with
the pass-through requirements, and (2) with regard
to the $20 (individual) and $30 (couple) increase in
the federal SSI standard in July 1983, by requiring
states to pass through only as much as would have
been required if the SSI cost-of-living adjustment had
been made in July 1983.
1987 (Public Law 100-203, enacted December 22). Provides for federal administration of state supplements
to residents of medical institutions.
Provides for required pass through of $5 increase in
federal rate for persons whose care in institutions is
paid in substantial part by Medicaid.
1993 (Public Law 103-66, enacted August 10). Requires
states to pay fees for federal administration of their
state supplementation payments. The fees are $1.67
for each monthly supplementary payment in fiscal
year 1994, $3.33 in fiscal year 1995, and $5.00 in fiscal year 1996. Fees for subsequent fiscal years will
be $5.00 or another amount determined by the commissioner to be appropriate. The commissioner may

charge the states additional fees for services they
request that are beyond the level customarily provided in administering state supplementary payments.
1997 (Public Law 105-33, enacted August 5). Revises
the schedule of per-payment fees for federal administration of state supplementation for fiscal years
1998 ($6.20) through 2002 ($8.50) and provides a
formula for determining the fee beyond fiscal year
2002.
1999 (Public Law 106-170, enacted December 17). A
state that has an agreement with SSA to administer
its supplementation payments must remit both payments and fees prior to the SSI payment date.
2000 (Public Law 106-554, enacted December 21).
Changes the effective date of above provision from
2009 to 2001.
Overpayment Recovery
1984 (Public Law 98-369, enacted July 18). Limits the
rate of recovering overpayments from monthly payments to the lesser of (1) the monthly payment or
(2) 10 percent of a recipient’s monthly income. Permits a higher or lower adjustment at the request of
the recipient subject to the agreement of the Commissioner. The limit does not apply if fraud, willful
misrepresentation, or concealment of material information was involved on the part of the recipient or
spouse in connection with the overpayment.
Waives recovery of certain overpayments due to
amount of excess resources of $50 or less.
Provides temporary authority for the recovery of
overpayments from tax refunds.
1988 (Public Law 100-485, enacted October 13). Grants
permanent authority to recover overpayments from
tax refunds.
1998 (Public Law 105-306, enacted October 28). Authorizes SSA to collect SSI overpayments by offsetting
Social Security benefits, with a maximum monthly
offset of no more than 10 percent of the Social Security benefit.
1999 (Public Law 106-169, enacted December 14).
Makes representative payees liable for an SSI overpayment caused by a payment made to a recipient
who has died, and requires SSA to establish an overpayment control record under the representative
payee’s Social Security number.
Requires SSA to recover SSI overpayments from SSI
lump-sum amounts by withholding at least
50 percent of the lump-sum payment or the amount
of the overpayment, whichever is less.
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 35

Extends all of the debt collection authorities currently
available for the collection of overpayments under
the OASDI program to the SSI program.
2001 (Public Law 107-16, enacted June 7). Subjects
one-time tax refund payments provided under this
Act to overpayment recovery under tax refund offset
provisions.
2004 (Public Law 108-203, enacted March 2). Provides
for recovery of overpayment of SSI benefits by withholding from OASDI and Special Veterans’ Benefits
up to 100 percent of any underpayment of benefits
and 10 percent of ongoing monthly benefits.

36 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

Also provides for recovery of overpayment of OASDI
or Special Veterans’ Benefits by withholding from SSI
up to 100 percent of any underpayment of benefits
but limits any recovery from SSI benefits to the lesser
of 100 percent of the monthly benefit or 10 percent of
the individual’s total monthly income.
Effective with respect to overpayments that are outstanding at the time of enactment.

CONTACT: Judi Papas (410) 965-2816.

Medicare
The following are brief summaries of complex subjects.
They should be used only as overviews and general
guides to the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The
views expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the
policies or legal positions of the Centers for Medicare &
Medicaid Services (CMS) or the Department of Health
and Human Services (HHS). These summaries do not
render any legal, accounting, or other professional
advice, nor are they intended to explain fully all of the
provisions or exclusions of the relevant laws, regulations,
and rulings of the Medicare and Medicaid programs.
Original sources of authority should be researched and
utilized.1

Overview
Title XVIII of the Social Security Act, designated “Health
Insurance for the Aged and Disabled,” is commonly
known as Medicare. As part of the Social Security
Amendments of 1965, the Medicare legislation established a health insurance program for aged persons to
complement the retirement, survivors, and disability
insurance benefits under Title II of the Social Security
Act.
When first implemented in 1966, Medicare covered
most persons aged 65 or older. In 1973, the following
groups also became eligible for Medicare benefits: persons entitled to Social Security or Railroad Retirement
disability cash benefits for at least 24 months, most persons with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and certain
otherwise noncovered aged persons who elect to pay a
premium for Medicare coverage. Beginning in July 2001,
persons with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s
Disease) are allowed to waive the 24-month waiting
period. This very broad description of Medicare eligibility
is expanded in the next section.
Medicare originally consisted of two parts: Hospital
Insurance (HI), also known as Part A, and Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI), which in the past was also
known simply as Part B. A third part of Medicare, sometimes known as Part C, is the Medicare Advantage program, which was established as the Medicare+Choice
program by the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997
(Public Law 105-33) and subsequently renamed and
modified by the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (MMA) of 2003 (Public
1.

These summaries were prepared by Earl Dirk Hoffman Jr.,
Barbara S. Klees, and Catherine A. Curtis, Office of the Actuary,
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 7500 Security Blvd.,
Baltimore, MD 21244. The authors wish to express their gratitude
to Mary Onnis Waid, who originated these summaries and
diligently prepared them for many years before her retirement.

Law 108-173). The Medicare Advantage program
expands beneficiaries’ options for participation in privatesector health care plans.
The MMA also established a fourth part of Medicare:
a new prescription drug benefit, also known as Part D,
beginning in 2004. Part D activities are handled within
the SMI trust fund but in an account separate from
Part B. It should thus be noted that the traditional treatment of “SMI” and “Part B” as synonymous is no longer
accurate, since SMI now consists of Parts B and D. The
purpose of the two separate accounts within the SMI trust
fund is to ensure that funds from one part are not used to
finance the other.
When Medicare began on July 1, 1966, approximately 19 million people enrolled. In 2006, over
43 million are enrolled in one or both of Parts A and B of
the Medicare program, and almost 6 million of them have
chosen to participate in a Medicare Advantage plan.

Entitlement and Coverage
Part A is generally provided automatically and free of
premiums to persons aged 65 or older who are eligible
for Social Security or Railroad Retirement benefits,
whether they have claimed these monthly cash benefits
or not. Also, workers and their spouses with a sufficient
period of Medicare-only coverage in federal, state, or
local government employment are eligible beginning at
age 65. Similarly, individuals who have been entitled to
Social Security or Railroad Retirement disability benefits
for at least 24 months, and government employees with
Medicare-only coverage who have been disabled for
more than 29 months, are entitled to Part A benefits. (As
noted previously, the waiting period is waived for persons
with Lou Gehrig’s Disease.) It should also be noted that,
over the years, there have been certain liberalizations
made to both the waiting period requirement and the limit
on earnings allowed for entitlement to Medicare coverage
based on disability. Part A coverage is also provided to
insured workers with ESRD (and to insured workers’
spouses and children with ESRD), as well as to some
otherwise ineligible aged and disabled beneficiaries who
voluntarily pay a monthly premium for their coverage. In
2005, Part A provided protection against the costs of
hospital and specific other medical care to about
42 million people (35 million aged and 7 million disabled
enrollees). Part A benefit payments totaled $180.0 billion
in 2005.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 37

a hospice patient requires treatment for a condition
that is not related to the terminal illness, Medicare
will pay for all covered services necessary for that
condition. The Medicare beneficiary pays no deductible for the hospice program but does pay small coinsurance amounts for drugs and inpatient respite
care.

The following health care services are covered under
Part A:

Inpatient hospital care coverage includes costs of a
semiprivate room, meals, regular nursing services,
operating and recovery rooms, intensive care, inpatient prescription drugs, laboratory tests, X-rays, psychiatric hospitals, inpatient rehabilitation, and longterm care hospitalization when medically necessary,
as well as all other medically necessary services and
supplies provided in the hospital. An initial deductible
payment is required of beneficiaries who are admitted to a hospital, plus copayments for all hospital
days following day 60 within a benefit period
(described later).
Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care is covered by
Part A only if it follows within 30 days (generally) of a
hospitalization of 3 days or more and is certified as
medically necessary. Covered services are similar to
those for inpatient hospital care, but they also include
rehabilitation services and appliances. The number
of SNF days provided under Medicare is limited to
100 days per benefit period (described later), with a
copayment required for days 21 through 100. Part A
does not cover nursing facility care if the patient does
not require skilled nursing or skilled rehabilitation services.
Home health agency (HHA) care is covered by
Parts A and B. The Balanced Budget Act transferred
from Part A to Part B those home health services furnished on or after January 1, 1998, that are unassociated with a hospital or SNF stay. Part A will
continue to cover the first 100 visits following a 3-day
hospital stay or a SNF stay; Part B covers any visits
thereafter. Home health care under Parts A and B
has no copayment and no deductible.
HHA care, including care provided by a home health
aide, may be furnished part time by an HHA in the
residence of a homebound beneficiary, if intermittent
or part-time skilled nursing or certain other therapy or
rehabilitation care or both is necessary. Certain medical supplies and durable medical equipment (DME)
may also be provided, although beneficiaries must
pay a 20 percent coinsurance for DME, as required
under Part B of Medicare. There must be a plan of
treatment and periodical review by a physician. Fulltime nursing care, food, blood, and drugs are not provided as HHA services.

Hospice care is a service provided to terminally ill
persons with life expectancies of 6 months or less
who elect to forgo the standard Medicare benefits for
treatment of their illness and to receive only hospice
care for it. Such care includes pain relief, supportive
medical and social services, physical therapy, nursing services, and symptom management. However, if

38 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

An important Part A component is the benefit period,
which starts when the beneficiary first enters a hospital
and ends when there has been a break of at least 60
consecutive days since inpatient hospital or skilled nursing care was provided. There is no limit to the number of
benefit periods covered by Part A during a beneficiary’s
lifetime; however, inpatient hospital care is normally
limited to 90 days during a benefit period, and copayment
requirements (detailed later) apply for days 61 through
90. If a beneficiary exhausts the 90 days of inpatient hospital care available in a benefit period, the beneficiary can
elect to use days of Medicare coverage from a nonrenewable “lifetime reserve” of up to 60 (total) additional
days of inpatient hospital care. Copayments are also
required for such additional days.
All citizens (and certain legal aliens) aged 65 or
older, and all disabled persons entitled to coverage under
Part A, are eligible to enroll in Part B on a voluntary basis
by payment of a monthly premium. Almost all persons
entitled to Part A choose to enroll in Part B. In 2005,
Part B provided protection against the costs of physician
and other medical services to about 40 million people
(34 million aged and 6 million disabled). Part B benefits
totaled $150.3 billion in 2005.
Part B covers certain medical services and supplies,
including the following:

Physicians’ and surgeons’ services, including some
covered services furnished by chiropractors, podiatrists, dentists, and optometrists; also covered are
the services provided by these Medicare-approved
practitioners who are not physicians: certified registered nurse anesthetists, clinical psychologists, clinical social workers (other than in a hospital or SNF),
physician assistants, and nurse practitioners and
clinical nurse specialists in collaboration with a physician;

Services in an emergency room, outpatient clinic,
or ambulatory surgical center, including same-day
surgery;

Home health care not covered under Part A;

Laboratory tests, X-rays, and other diagnostic
radiology services;

Certain preventive care services and screening tests;

Most physical and occupational therapy and speech
pathology services;

Comprehensive outpatient rehabilitation facility services, and mental health care in a partial hospitalization psychiatric program, if a physician certifies that
inpatient treatment would be required without it;

Radiation therapy; renal (kidney) dialysis and transplants; heart, lung, heart-lung, liver, pancreas, and
bone marrow transplants; and, as of April 2001,
intestinal transplants;

Approved DME for home use, such as oxygen equipment and wheelchairs, prosthetic devices, and surgical dressings, splints, casts, and braces;

Drugs and biologicals that are not usually selfadministered, such as hepatitis B vaccines and
immunosuppressive drugs (certain self-administered
anticancer drugs are covered);

Certain services specific to people with diabetes;

Ambulance services, when other methods of transportation are contraindicated;

Rural health clinic and federally qualified health center services, including some telemedicine services.

To be covered, all services must be either medically
necessary or one of several prescribed preventive benefits. Part B services are generally subject to a deductible
and coinsurance (see next section). Certain medical services and related care are subject to special payment
rules, including deductibles (for blood), maximum
approved amounts (for Medicare-approved physical,
speech, or occupational therapy services performed in
settings other than hospitals), and higher cost-sharing
requirements (such as those for outpatient treatments for
mental illness). The preceding description of Part B-covered services should be used only as a general guide,
due to the wide range of services covered under Part B
and the quite specific rules and regulations that apply.
Medicare Advantage (Part C) is an expanded set of
options for the delivery of health care. Although all Medicare beneficiaries can receive their benefits through the
original fee-for-service program, most beneficiaries
enrolled in Parts A and B can choose to participate in a
Medicare Advantage plan instead. Organizations that
seek to contract as Medicare Advantage plans must
meet specific organizational, financial, and other requirements. Following are the primary Medicare Advantage
plans:

Coordinated care plans, which include health maintenance organizations (HMOs), provider-sponsored
organizations (PSOs), preferred provider
organizations (PPOs), and other certified coordinated care plans and entities that meet the standards
set forth in the law; and

Private, unrestricted fee-for-service plans, which
allow beneficiaries to select certain private providers.
For those providers who agree to accept the plan’s
payment terms and conditions, this option does not
place the providers at risk nor does it vary payment
rates based on utilization.

These Medicare Advantage plans are required to
provide at least the current Medicare benefit package,
excluding hospice services. Plans may offer additional
covered services and are required to do so (or return
excess payments) if plan costs are lower than the Medicare payments received by the plan.
Beginning in 2006, a new regional Medicare Advantage plan program allows regional coordinated care plans
to participate in the Medicare Advantage program. There
are 26 regions (statute required that between 10 and
50 regions be established), and plans wishing to participate must serve an entire region. There are provisions to
encourage plan participation, and a fund was established
that is used to encourage plan entry and limit plan withdrawals. Enrollment began in late 2005.
For individuals entitled to Part A or enrolled in Part B
(except those entitled to Medicaid drug coverage), the
new Part D initially provided access to prescription drug
discount cards, at a cost of no more than $30 annually on
a voluntary basis. For low-income beneficiaries, Part D
initially provided transitional financial assistance (of up to
$600 per year) for purchasing prescription drugs, plus a
subsidized enrollment fee for the discount cards. This
temporary plan, which began in mid-2004, is phasing out
in 2006.
Beginning in 2006, Part D provides subsidized
access to prescription drug insurance coverage on a voluntary basis, upon payment of a premium, to individuals
entitled to Part A or enrolled in Part B, with premium and
cost-sharing subsidies for low-income enrollees. Beneficiaries may enroll in either a stand-alone prescription
drug plan (PDP) or an integrated Medicare Advantage
plan that offers Part D coverage. Enrollment began in
late 2005.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 39

Part D coverage includes most FDA-approved prescription drugs and biologicals. (The specific drugs currently covered in Parts A and B remain covered there.)
However, plans may set up formularies for their prescription drug coverage, subject to certain statutory standards. Part D coverage can consist of either standard
coverage (defined later) or an alternative design that provides the same actuarial value. For an additional premium, plans may also offer supplemental coverage
exceeding the value of basic coverage.
It should be noted that some health care services are
not covered by any portion of Medicare. Noncovered services include long-term nursing care, custodial care, and
certain other health care needs, such as dentures and
dental care, eyeglasses, and hearing aids. These services are not a part of the Medicare program, unless they
are a part of a private health plan under the Medicare
Advantage program.

Program Financing, Beneficiary Liabilities,
and Payments to Providers
All financial operations for Medicare are handled through
two trust funds, one for Hospital Insurance (HI, Part A)
and one for Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI,
Parts B and D). These trust funds, which are special
accounts in the U.S. Treasury, are credited with all
receipts and charged with all expenditures for benefits
and administrative costs. The trust funds cannot be used
for any other purpose. Assets not needed for the payment of costs are invested in special Treasury securities.
The following sections describe Medicare’s financing provisions, beneficiary cost-sharing requirements, and the
basis for determining Medicare reimbursements to health
care providers.
Program Financing
The HI trust fund is financed primarily through a mandatory payroll tax. Almost all employees and self-employed
workers in the United States work in employment
covered by Part A and pay taxes to support the cost of
benefits for aged and disabled beneficiaries. The Part A
tax rate is 1.45 percent of earnings, to be paid by each
employee and a matching amount by the employer for
each employee, and 2.90 percent for self-employed persons. Beginning in 1994, this tax is paid on all covered
wages and self-employment income without limit. (Prior
to 1994, the tax applied only up to a specified maximum
amount of earnings.) The Part A tax rate is specified in
the Social Security Act and cannot be changed without
legislation.

40 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

Part A also receives income from the following
sources: (1) a portion of the income taxes levied on
Social Security benefits paid to high-income beneficiaries, (2) premiums from certain persons who are not
otherwise eligible and choose to enroll voluntarily,
(3) reimbursements from the general fund of the U.S.
Treasury for the cost of providing Part A coverage to certain aged persons who retired when Part A began and
thus were unable to earn sufficient quarters of coverage
(and those federal retirees similarly unable to earn sufficient quarters of Medicare-qualified federal employment),
(4) interest earnings on its invested assets, and (5) other
small miscellaneous income sources. The taxes paid
each year are used mainly to pay benefits for current
beneficiaries.
The SMI trust fund differs fundamentally from the HI
trust fund with regard to the nature of its financing. As
previously noted, SMI is now composed of two parts,
Part B and Part D, each with its own separate account
within the SMI trust fund. The nature of the financing for
both parts of SMI is similar, in that both parts are primarily
financed by contributions from the general fund of the
U.S. Treasury and (to a much lesser degree) by beneficiary premiums.
For Part B, the contributions from the general fund of
the U.S. Treasury are the largest source of income, since
beneficiary premiums are generally set at a level that
covers 25 percent of the average expenditures for aged
beneficiaries. The standard Part B premium rate will be
$93.50 per beneficiary per month in 2007. While this will
be the amount paid by most Part B beneficiaries, there
are three provisions that can alter the premium rate for
certain enrollees. First, penalties for late enrollment (that
is, enrollment after an individual’s initial enrollment
period) may apply, subject to certain statutory criteria.
Second, beginning in 2007, beneficiaries whose income
is above certain thresholds will be required to pay an
income-related monthly adjustment amount, in addition
to their standard monthly premium. The 2007 Part B
income-related monthly adjustment amounts and total
monthly premium amounts to be paid by beneficiaries,
according to income level and filing status, are shown in
the table on the next page. Finally, a “hold-harmless” provision, which prohibits increases in the standard Part B
premium from exceeding the dollar amount of an individual’s Social Security cost-of-living adjustment, lowers the
premium rate for certain individuals who have their premiums deducted from their Social Security checks.
For Part D, as with Part B, general fund contributions
account for the largest source of income, since Part D
beneficiary premiums are to represent, on average,

Income-related
monthly adjustment
(dollars)

Income

Total monthly
premium
(dollars)

Beneficiaries who file individual tax returns
(single individuals, heads of households, qualifying widow(er)s
with dependent children, and married individuals who lived apart
from their spouse for the entire taxable year and file separately)
Less than or equal to $80,000

0

93.50

Greater than $80,000 and less than
or equal to $100,000

12.30

105.80

Greater than $100,000 and less than
or equal to $150,000

30.90

124.40

Greater than $150,000 and less than
or equal to $200,000

49.40

142.90

Greater than $200,000

67.90

161.40

have Medicare, and states are required to defray a portion of Part D expenditures for those beneficiaries.
In 2004–2006, the general fund of the U.S. Treasury
is financing the transitional assistance benefit for lowincome beneficiaries by providing funds to a Transitional
Assistance account within the SMI trust fund. The proceeds will be transferred to the Part D account at the
conclusion of the temporary program.
The SMI trust fund also receives income from interest earnings on its invested assets, as well as a small
amount of miscellaneous income. It is important to note
that beneficiary premiums and general fund payments for
Parts B and D are redetermined annually and separately.

Beneficiaries who file joint tax returns
0

93.50

Greater than $160,000 and less than
or equal to $200,000

12.30

105.80

Greater than $200,000 and less than
or equal to $300,000

30.90

124.40

Payments to Medicare Advantage plans are financed
from both the HI trust fund and the Part B account within
the SMI trust fund in proportion to the relative weights of
Part A and Part B benefits to the total benefits paid by the
Medicare program.

Greater than $300,000 and less than
or equal to $400,000

49.40

142.90

Beneficiary Payment Liabilities

Greater than $400,000

67.90

161.40

Less than or equal to $160,000

Beneficiaries who are married and lived with their spouse
at any time during the year but file separate tax returns
Less than or equal to $80,000

0

93.50

Greater than $80,000 and less than
or equal to $120,000

49.40

142.90

Greater than $120,000

67.90

161.40

25.5 percent of the cost of standard coverage. The
Part D base beneficiary premium for 2007 will be $27.35;
the 2006 amount was $32.20. The actual Part D premiums paid by individual beneficiaries equal the base beneficiary premiums adjusted by a number of factors.
Premiums vary significantly from one Part D plan to
another and seldom equal the base beneficiary premium.
As of this writing, it is estimated that the average enrollee
premium for basic Part D coverage, which reflects the
specific plan-by-plan premiums and the actual number of
beneficiaries in each plan, was about $24 in 2006 and
will be less than $24 for 2007. Penalties for late enrollment may apply. (Late enrollment penalties do not apply
to enrollees who have maintained creditable prescription
drug coverage.) Beneficiaries meeting certain lowincome and limited-resources requirements pay substantially reduced premiums or no premiums at all.
In addition to contributions from the general fund of
the U.S. Treasury and beneficiary premiums, Part D also
receives payments from the states. With the availability of
prescription drug coverage and low-income subsidies
under Part D, Medicaid is no longer the primary payer for
prescription drugs for Medicaid beneficiaries who also

Fee-for-service beneficiaries are responsible for charges
not covered by the Medicare program and for various
cost-sharing aspects of Parts A and B. These liabilities
may be paid (1) by the Medicare beneficiary; (2) by a
third party, such as an employer-sponsored retiree health
plan or private Medigap insurance; or (3) by Medicaid, if
the person is eligible. Medigap, or Medicare supplemental insurance, is sold by private insurance companies to
pay, within limits, most of the health care service charges
not covered by Parts A or B of Medicare. These policies,
which must meet federally imposed standards, are
offered by Blue Cross and Blue Shield and various commercial health insurance companies.
For beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare Advantage
plans, payment is based on the cost-sharing structure of
the specific plan selected by the beneficiary, since each
plan has its own requirements. Most plans have lower
deductibles and coinsurance than are required of fee-forservice beneficiaries. Such beneficiaries pay the monthly
Part B premium and may, depending on the plan, pay an
additional plan premium.
For hospital care covered under Part A, a beneficiary's fee-for-service payment includes a one-time
deductible amount at the beginning of each benefit
period ($992 in 2007). This deductible covers the beneficiary’s part of the first 60 days of each spell of inpatient
hospital care. If continued inpatient care is needed
beyond the 60 days, additional coinsurance payments
($248 per day in 2007) are required through day 90 of a
benefit period. Each Part A beneficiary also has a “lifetime reserve” of 60 additional hospital days that may be
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 41

used when the covered days within a benefit period have
been exhausted. Lifetime reserve days may be used only
once, and coinsurance payments ($496 per day in 2007)
are required.
For skilled nursing care covered under Part A, Medicare fully covers the first 20 days of care in a benefit
period. But for days 21 through 100, a copayment ($124
per day in 2007) is required from the beneficiary. After
100 days of SNF care per benefit period, Medicare pays
nothing. Home health care requires no deductible or
coinsurance payment by the beneficiary. In any Part A
service, the beneficiary is responsible for fees to cover
the first 3 pints or units of nonreplaced blood per
calendar year. The beneficiary has the option of paying
the fee or of having the blood replaced.
There are no premiums for most people covered by
Part A. Eligibility is generally earned through the work
experience of the beneficiary or of the beneficiary's
spouse. However, most aged people who are otherwise
ineligible for premium-free Part A coverage can enroll
voluntarily by paying a monthly premium, if they also
enroll in Part B. For people with fewer than 30 quarters of
coverage as defined by the Social Security Administration (SSA), the Part A monthly premium rate will be $410
in 2007; for those with 30 to 39 quarters of coverage, the
rate will be reduced to $226. Penalties for late enrollment
may apply. Voluntary coverage upon payment of the
Part A premium, with or without enrolling in Part B, is also
available to disabled individuals for whom coverage has
ceased because earnings are in excess of those allowed.
For Part B, the beneficiary’s payment share includes
the following: one annual deductible ($131 in 2007), the
monthly premiums, the coinsurance payments for Part B
services (usually 20 percent of the remaining allowed
charges with certain exceptions noted below), a deductible for blood, certain charges above the Medicareallowed charge (for claims not on assignment), and payment for any services not covered by Medicare. For outpatient mental health services, the beneficiary is liable for
50 percent of the approved charges. For services reimbursed under the outpatient hospital prospective payment system, coinsurance percentages vary by service
and currently fall in the range of 20 percent to 50 percent.
For certain services, such as clinical lab tests, home
health agency services, and some preventive care services, there are no deductibles or coinsurance.
For the standard Part D benefit design, there is an
initial deductible ($250 in 2006 and $265 in 2007). After
meeting the deductible, the beneficiary pays 25 percent
of the remaining costs, up to an initial coverage limit
($2,250 in 2006 and $2,400 in 2007). The beneficiary is
then responsible for all costs until an out-of-pocket
threshold is reached. (The 2006 out-of-pocket threshold
42 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

was $3,600, which is equivalent to total covered drug
costs of $5,100. The 2007 out-of-pocket threshold will be
$3,850, which is equivalent to total covered drug costs of
$5,451.25.) For costs thereafter, there is catastrophic
coverage, which requires enrollees to pay the greater of
5 percent coinsurance or a small defined copayment
amount ($2 in 2006 and $2.15 in 2007 for generic or preferred multisource drugs, and $5.00 in 2006 and $5.35 in
2007 for other drugs). The benefit parameters are
indexed annually to the growth in average per capita
Part D costs. Beneficiaries meeting certain low-income
and limited-resources requirements pay substantially
reduced cost-sharing amounts. In determining out-ofpocket costs, only those amounts actually paid by the
enrollee or another individual (and not reimbursed
through insurance) are counted; the exception to this
“true out-of-pocket” provision is cost-sharing assistance
from the low-income subsidies provided under Part D
and from State Pharmacy Assistance programs. Many
Part D plans offer alternative coverage that differs from
the standard coverage described above. In fact, the
majority of beneficiaries are not enrolled in the standard
benefit design but rather in plans with low or no deductibles, flat payments for covered drugs, and, in some
cases, partial coverage in the coverage gap. The monthly
premiums required for Part D coverage are described in
the previous section.
Payments to Providers
For Part A, before 1983, payments to providers were
made on a reasonable cost basis. Medicare payments for
most inpatient hospital services are now made under a
reimbursement mechanism known as the prospective
payment system (PPS). Under the PPS for acute inpatient hospitals, each stay is categorized into a diagnosisrelated group (DRG). Each DRG has a specific predetermined amount associated with it, which serves as the
basis for payment. A number of adjustments are applied
to the DRG’s specific predetermined amount to calculate
the payment for each stay. In some cases the payment
the hospital receives is less than the hospital’s actual
cost for providing Part A–covered inpatient hospital services for the stay; in other cases it is more. The hospital
absorbs the loss or makes a profit. Certain payment
adjustments exist for extraordinarily costly inpatient hospital stays and other situations. Payments for skilled
nursing care, home health care, inpatient rehabilitation
hospital care, and hospice care are made under separate
prospective payment systems. Prospective payment systems for inpatient psychiatric and long-term care hospitals have been implemented and are in transition periods,
with payments reflecting blends of the old reasonable
cost basis payment system and the new prospective payment systems.

For Part B, before 1992, physicians were paid on the
basis of reasonable charge. This amount was initially
defined as the lowest of (1) the physician’s actual charge,
(2) the physician’s customary charge, or (3) the prevailing charge for similar services in that locality. Beginning
January 1992, allowed charges are defined as the lesser
of (1) the submitted charges or (2) the amount determined by a fee schedule based on a relative value
scale (RVS). (In practice, most allowed charges are
based on the fee schedule.) Payments for durable medical equipment (DME) and clinical laboratory services are
also based on a fee schedule. Most hospital outpatient
services are reimbursed on a prospective payment system, and home health care is reimbursed under the same
prospective payment system as Part A.
If a doctor or supplier agrees to accept the Medicareapproved rate as payment in full (“takes assignment”),
then payments provided must be considered as payments in full for that service. The provider may not
request any added payments (beyond the initial annual
deductible and coinsurance) from the beneficiary or
insurer. If the provider does not take assignment, the
beneficiary will be charged for the excess (which may be
paid by Medigap insurance). Limits now exist on the
excess that doctors or suppliers can charge. Physicians
are “participating physicians” if they agree before the
beginning of the year to accept assignment for all Medicare services they furnish during the year. Since Medicare beneficiaries may select their doctors, they have the
option to choose those who participate.
Medicare Advantage plans and their precursors have
generally been paid on a capitation basis, meaning that a
fixed, predetermined amount per month per member is
paid to the plan, without regard to the actual number and
nature of services used by the members. The specific
mechanisms to determine the payment amounts have
changed over the years. Under the new regional plan
program, which began for Medicare Advantage in
January 2006, capitated payment rates are based on a
competitive bidding process.
For Part D, each month for each plan member, Medicare pays Part D drug plans (stand-alone prescription
drug plans [PDPs] and the prescription drug portions of
Medicare Advantage plans) their risk-adjusted bid (net of
estimated reinsurance), minus the enrollee premium.
Plans also receive payments representing premiums and
cost-sharing amounts for certain low-income beneficiaries for whom these items are reduced or waived. Under
the reinsurance provision, plans receive payments for
80 percent of costs in the catastrophic coverage
category.
To help them gain experience with the Medicare population, Part D plans are protected by a system of “risk

corridors” that allow Medicare to assist plans with unexpected costs and to share in unexpected savings. The
risk corridors become less protective after 2007.
Under Part D, Medicare provides certain subsidies to
employer and union PDPs that continue to offer coverage
to Medicare retirees and meet specific criteria in doing
so.

Claims Processing
Medicare’s Part A and Part B fee-for-service claims are
processed by nongovernment organizations or agencies
that contract to serve as the fiscal agent between
providers and the federal government. These claims
processors are known as intermediaries and carriers.
They apply the Medicare coverage rules to determine the
appropriateness of claims.
Medicare intermediaries process Part A claims for
institutional services, including inpatient hospital claims,
SNFs, HHAs, and hospice services. They also process
outpatient hospital claims for Part B. Examples of intermediaries are Blue Cross and Blue Shield (which utilizes
its plans in various states) and other commercial insurance companies. Intermediaries’ responsibilities include
the following:

Determining costs and reimbursement amounts,

Maintaining records,

Establishing controls,

Safeguarding against fraud and abuse or excess
use,

Conducting reviews and audits,

Making the payments to providers for services, and

Assisting both providers and beneficiaries as
needed.

Medicare carriers handle Part B claims for services
by physicians and medical suppliers. Examples of
carriers are the Blue Shield plans in a state and various
commercial insurance companies. Carriers’ responsibilities include the following:

Determining charges allowed by Medicare,

Maintaining quality-of-performance records,

Assisting in fraud and abuse investigations,

Assisting both suppliers and beneficiaries as needed,
and

Making payments to physicians and suppliers for services that are covered under Part B.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 43

Claims for services provided by Medicare Advantage
plans (that is, claims under Part C) are processed by the
plans themselves.
Part D plans are responsible for processing their
claims, akin to Part C. However, because of the “true outof-pocket” provision discussed previously, the Centers for
Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has contracted the
services of a facilitator, who works with CMS, Part D drug
plans (stand-alone PDPs and the prescription drug portions of Medicare Advantage plans), and carriers of supplemental drug coverage to coordinate benefit payments
and track the sources of cost-sharing payments. Claims
under Part D also have to be submitted by the plans to
CMS, so that certain payments based on actual experience (such as payments for low-income cost-sharing and
premium subsidies, reinsurance, and risk corridors) can
be determined.
Quality improvement organizations (QIOs; formerly
called peer review organizations, or PROs) are groups of
practicing health care professionals who are paid by the
federal government to generally oversee the care provided to Medicare beneficiaries in each state and to
improve the quality of services. QIOs educate other
health care professionals and assist in the effective, efficient, and economical delivery of health care services to
the Medicare population. The ongoing effort to combat
monetary fraud and abuse in the Medicare program was
intensified after enactment of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (Public
Law 104-191), which created the Medicare Integrity Program. Before this 1996 legislation, the Centers for
Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) was limited by law
to contracting with its current carriers and fiscal intermediaries to perform payment safeguard activities. The
Medicare Integrity Program provided CMS with stable,
increasing funding for payment safeguard activities, as
well as new authorities to contract with entities to perform
specific payment safeguard functions.

Administration
The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
has the overall responsibility for administration of the
Medicare program. Within HHS, responsibility for administering Medicare rests with CMS. The Social Security
Administration (SSA) assists, however, by initially determining an individual’s Medicare entitlement, by withholding Part B premiums from the Social Security benefit
checks of most beneficiaries, and by maintaining Medicare data on the Master Beneficiary Record, which is
SSA’s primary record of beneficiaries.
The MMA requires SSA to undertake a number of
additional Medicare-related responsibilities, including
44 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

making low-income subsidy determinations under Part D,
notifying individuals of the availability of Part D subsidies,
withholding Part D premiums from monthly Social Security cash benefits for beneficiaries who request such an
arrangement, and, for 2007 and later, making determinations as to the amount of the individual’s Part B premium
if the income-related monthly adjustment applies. The
Internal Revenue Service (IRS) in the Department of the
Treasury collects the Part A payroll taxes from workers
and their employers. IRS data, in the form of income tax
returns, play a role in determining which Part D enrollees
are eligible for low-income subsidies (and to what
degree) and, for 2007 and later, which Part B enrollees
are subject to the income-related monthly adjustment
amount in their premiums (and to what degree).
A Board of Trustees, composed of two appointed
members of the public and four members who serve by
virtue of their positions in the federal government, oversees the financial operations of the HI and SMI trust
funds. The Secretary of the Treasury is the managing
trustee. Each year, around the first day of April, the Board
of Trustees reports to Congress on the financial and actuarial status of the Medicare trust funds.
State agencies (usually state health departments
under agreements with CMS) identify, survey, and
inspect provider and supplier facilities and institutions
wishing to participate in the Medicare program. In consultation with CMS, these agencies then certify the facilities
that are qualified.

Data Summary
The Medicare program covers 95 percent of our nation’s
aged population, as well as many people who are on
Social Security because of disability. In 2005, Part A covered about 42 million enrollees with benefit payments of
$180.0 billion, and Part B covered about 40 million enrollees with benefit payments of $150.3 billion. Administrative costs in 2005 were less than 1.6 percent of
disbursements for HI and less than 2.1 percent of disbursements for SMI. Total disbursements for Medicare in
2005 were $336.4 billion.

Medicare: History of Provisions
This section is a summary of select Medicare provisions,
based on general interest. It should be used only as a
broad overview of the history of the provisions of the
Medicare program. This section does not render any
legal, accounting, or other professional advice and is not
intended to explain fully all the provisions and exclusions
of the relevant laws, regulations, and rulings of the Medicare program. Original sources of authority should be
researched and utilized.

Insured Status

Entitlement to Medicare Part A (also known as
Hospital Insurance, or HI) Benefits
1965. Individual aged 65 or older entitled to monthly benefits under the Social Security or Railroad Retirement
program, or aged 65 before 1968, or 3 quarters of
coverage (QC) after 1965 and before attainment of
age 65.
1967. 3 QC for each year after 1966 and before attainment of age 65.
1972. Disabled individual, under the age of 65, entitled to
disability benefits for 24 consecutive months under
the Social Security or Railroad Retirement program
(excludes spouses and children of disabled individuals). Individual under the age of 65 who has endstage renal disease (ESRD) and who is either fully or
currently insured, or is entitled to monthly benefits
under the Social Security or Railroad Retirement program, or is the spouse or dependent child of such an
insured individual or beneficiary. Entitlement begins
on the first day of the third month following the initiation of a course of renal dialysis and ends with the
12th month following the month in which either the
dialysis terminates or the individual has a renal
transplant.
Individual aged 65 or older enrolled in the Part B program who is not otherwise entitled to HI benefits,
upon voluntary participation with payment of HI premium.
1980. Individual who would be entitled to monthly benefits under the Social Security or Railroad Retirement
program if application were made.
Disabled individual under the age of 65 entitled to
disability benefits for at least 24 months, not necessarily consecutive, under the Social Security or Railroad Retirement program.
Coverage extended for up to 36 months for disabled
individuals whose disability continues but whose
monthly benefit ceased because they engaged in
substantial gainful activity.
Second waiting period eliminated if a former
disabled-worker beneficiary becomes entitled again
within 5 years (7 years for disabled widows and widowers and disabled children aged 18 or older).
1982. Federal employees covered under HI on the basis
of QC for earnings as federal employees or on the
basis of deemed QC for earnings as federal
employees before 1983.
1983. Employees of nonprofit organizations, effective
January 1, 1984.

1986. Mandatory coverage for state and local government employees not covered under Social Security
and hired after March 31, 1986.
1987. Second waiting period eliminated if a former disabled beneficiary becomes entitled again (no time
limit).
1989. Disabled individuals under the age of 65 who are
no longer entitled to Social Security disability benefits
because their earnings exceeded the substantial
gainful activity level have the option to purchase
Medicare coverage by paying the HI and Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Part B premiums.
2000. The 24-month waiting period (otherwise required
for an individual to establish Medicare eligibility on
the basis of a disability) is waived for persons with
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, effective July 1, 2001.
The entitlement to Medicare begins with the first
month of the Social Security Administration’s determination of eligibility for Disability Insurance benefits.

Entitlement to Medicare Part B (also known as
Supplementary Medical Insurance Part B Account, or
SMI Part B) Benefits
1965. U.S. resident (citizen or lawfully admitted alien with
5 years continuous residence) aged 65 or older or
any individual entitled to HI benefits, upon voluntary
participation with payment of Part B premium.
1972. Individual under the age of 65 entitled to HI benefits, upon voluntary participation with payment of
Part B premium.

Entitlement to Medicare Part D (also known as
Supplementary Medical Insurance Part D Account, or
SMI Part D) Benefits
2003. For temporary Medicare-endorsed prescription
drug discount card program (as a prelude to the new
Part D prescription drug program), individual entitled
or enrolled under Part A or enrolled in Part B, except
those enrolled in Medicaid and entitled to Medicaid
outpatient drug coverage, upon voluntary participation with payment of up to $30 annual enrollment fee.
Under a Transitional Assistance provision, a drug
card-eligible beneficiary whose income does not
exceed 135 percent of the federal poverty level and
does not have third-party prescription drug coverage
is entitled to further benefits. Enrollment begins in
May 2004, access to discounts begins in June 2004,
and program phases out as drug benefit becomes
available in 2006 (see next entry).
Beginning January 1, 2006, individual entitled to benefits under Part A or enrolled under Part B, upon voluntary enrollment (including payment of Part D
premium, if applicable) in either a stand-alone preAnnual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 45

scription drug plan (PDP) or an integrated Medicare
Advantage plan that offers Part D coverage in its
benefit package.
Medicare Benefits

Under Part A
1965. In each benefit period, inpatient hospital services,
90 days. Includes semiprivate accommodations,
operating room, hospital equipment (including renal
dialysis), laboratory tests and X-ray, drugs, dressings, general nursing services, and services of
interns and residents in medical osteopathic or dentistry training. Inpatient psychiatric hospital care limited to 190-day lifetime maximum. Outpatient hospital
diagnostic services. Post-hospital extended-care services, 100 days (including physical, occupational,
and speech therapy). Post-hospital home health services, 100 visits. Deductible and coinsurance provisions (see Table 2.C1).
1967. Lifetime reserve of 60 additional days of inpatient
hospital services. Outpatient hospital diagnostic services transferred to SMI.
1972. Services of interns and residents in podiatry
training.
1980. Unlimited home health visits in a year. Requirement for prior hospitalization eliminated. Home
health services provided for up to 4 days a week and
up to 21 consecutive days.
Alcohol detoxification facility services.
1981. Part A coinsurance is based on the deductible for
the calendar year in which services are received
rather than the deductible in effect at the time the
beneficiary's spell of illness began, starting in 1982.
Alcohol detoxification facility services eliminated.
1982. Beneficiaries expected to live 6 months or less
may elect to receive hospice care benefits instead of
other Medicare benefits. May elect maximum of two
90-day and one 30-day hospice care periods, effective November 1, 1983, to October 1, 1986.
1984. For durable medical equipment provided by home
health agencies, the payment amount is reduced
from 100 percent of costs to 80 percent of reasonable charges.
1986. Set the Part A deductible for 1987 at $520 with
resulting increases in cost sharing. Increased the
Part A deductible annually by the applicable percentage increase in the hospital prospective payment
rates.
Hospice care benefit (enacted in 1982) made permanent.
46 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

1987. Specifies in law that to be eligible for home health
care, a Medicare beneficiary must have a restricted
ability to leave the home, requiring the assistance of
another or the aid of a supportive device (such as
crutches, a cane, a wheelchair, or a walker).
1988. Enrollee pays annual hospital deductible (set at
$560 for 1989) and Medicare pays balance of covered charges, regardless of the number of days of
hospitalization (except for psychiatric hospital care,
which is still limited by 190-day lifetime maximum).
The number of days in a skilled nursing facility
changed to 150 per year. Deletes the requirement for
a prior hospital stay of 3 or more consecutive days.
Expands home health care to provide care for less
than 7 days per week and up to 38 consecutive days.
Hospice care extended beyond 210 days when beneficiary is certified as terminally ill.
All 1988 provisions became effective January 1,
1989.
1989. The spell of illness and benefit period coverage of
laws before 1988 return to the determination of inpatient hospital benefits in 1990 and later. After the
deductible is paid in benefit period, Medicare pays
100 percent of covered costs for the first 60 days of
inpatient hospital care. Coinsurance applies for the
next 30 days in a benefit period.
The requirement for a prior hospital stay of 3 or more
consecutive days is reinstated for skilled nursing
facility services. Coverage returns to 100 days posthospital care per spell of illness with a daily coinsurance rate in effect for days 21 through 100.
Home health services return to a limit of 21 consecutive days of care. Provision providing for home health
care for fewer than 7 days per week continued due to
a court decision.
Hospice care is returned to a lifetime limit of
210 days.
1990. Hospice care is extended beyond 210 days when
beneficiary is certified as terminally ill.
1997. Home health services not associated with a hospital or skilled nursing facility stay for individuals
enrolled in both HI and SMI are transferred from the
HI program to the SMI program, effective January
1998. The HI program will continue to cover the first
100 visits following a hospital stay of at least 3 consecutive days or a skilled nursing facility stay. The
cost to the SMI trust fund of the transferred services
will phase in over a 6-year period (that is, the HI trust
fund will transfer funds to the SMI trust fund during
that period).

Limits on the number of hours and days that home
health care can be provided have been clarified.
Part-time now defined as skilled nursing and home
health aide services (combined) furnished any number of days per week, for less than 8 hours per day
and 28 or fewer hours per week. Intermittent now
defined as skilled nursing care provided for fewer
than 7 days each week, or less than 8 hours each
day (combined) for 21 days or less.
Hospice benefit periods are restructured to include
two 90-day periods, followed by an unlimited number
of 60-day periods.
Medicare coverage provided for a number of prevention initiatives, most of which are covered under SMI
program. HI program affected mainly by two of the
initiatives: (1) annual prostate cancer screening for
male beneficiaries aged 50 or older, effective
January 1, 2000, and (2) colorectal screening procedures, including fecal-occult blood tests and flexible
sigmoidoscopies, for beneficiaries aged 50 or older,
colonoscopy for beneficiaries at high risk for colorectal cancer, and other procedures, including screening
barium enemas under certain circumstances.
2000. The homebound criterion for home health services
is clarified to specify that beneficiaries who require
home health services may attend adult day care for
therapeutic, psychosocial, or medical treatment and
still remain eligible for the home health benefit.
Homebound beneficiaries may also attend religious
services without being disqualified from receiving
home health benefits.
Screening colonoscopies are covered for all beneficiaries, not just for those at high risk, beginning
July 1, 2001. For persons not at high risk, a screening colonoscopy is covered 10 years after a previous
one, or 4 years after a screening flexible sigmoidoscopy. (See 1997.)

Under Part B
1965. Physician and surgeon services. In-hospital services of anesthesiologists, pathologists, radiologists,
and psychiatrists. Limited dental services. Home
health services, 100 visits in calendar year. Other
medical services including various diagnostic tests,
limited ambulance services, prosthetic devices,
rental of durable medical equipment used at home
(including equipment for dialysis), and supplies used
for fractures. For deductible and coinsurance provisions, see Table 2.C1.
Beginning in 1966, the beneficiary pays a $50
deductible, with a 3-month carryover provision.

1967. Outpatient hospital diagnostic services transferred
from HI. Includes physical therapy services in a facility. Purchase of durable medical equipment.
1972. Physical therapy services furnished by a therapist
in his or her office or individual's home (calendar year
limit of $100). Chiropractor services (limited to manual manipulation of the spine). Outpatient services
include speech pathology services furnished in, or
under arrangements with, a facility or agency. Services of a doctor of optometry in furnishing prosthetic
lenses.
Beginning in 1973, the beneficiary pays a $60
deductible.
1977. Services in rural health clinics.
1980. Home health services. Deductible applicable to
home health services is eliminated, effective July 1,
1981.
Facility costs of certain surgical procedures performed in freestanding ambulatory surgical centers.
Increase in annual limit for outpatient therapy from
$100 to $500.
Recognizes comprehensive outpatient rehabilitation
facilities as Medicare providers.
1981. Beginning in 1982, the beneficiary pays a $75
deductible, with the carryover provision eliminated.
1984. Hepatitis B and pneumococcal vaccines and blood
clotting factors and necessary supplies are included
as Part B benefits. Debridement of mycotic toenails
is limited.
For outpatient physical therapy services, includes
services of a podiatrist. For outpatient ambulatory
surgery, includes services of a dentist and podiatrist
furnished in his or her office.
1986. Includes vision care services furnished by an
optometrist.
For occupational therapy services, includes services
furnished in a skilled nursing facility (when Part A
coverage has been exhausted), in a clinic, rehabilitation agency, public health agency, or by an independently practicing therapist.
Includes outpatient (in addition to previously covered
inpatient) immunosuppressive drugs for 1 year after
covered transplant.
Includes occupational therapy services provided in
certain delivery settings.
For ambulatory surgical procedures performed in
ambulatory surgical centers, hospital outpatient
departments, and certain physician offices, the

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 47

Part B coinsurance and deductible are no longer
waived.
1987. Increases the maximum payment for mental health
services and includes outpatient mental health services provided by ambulatory hospital-based or
hospital-affiliated programs under the supervision of
a physician.
Services provided by clinical social workers when
furnished by risk-sharing health maintenance organizations and competitive medical plans, physician
assistants in rural health manpower shortage areas,
clinical psychologists in rural health clinics and community mental health centers, and certified nurse
midwives.
Coverage of outpatient immunosuppressive drugs
(see 1986) is broadened and clarified to include prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive therapy.
Specifies in law that to be eligible for home health
care, a Medicare beneficiary must have a restricted
ability to leave the home, requiring the assistance of
another or the aid of a supportive device (such as
crutches, a cane, a wheelchair, or a walker).
1988. Beginning January 1, 1990, the beneficiary pays a
$75 deductible and 20 percent coinsurance, but once
out-of-pocket expenses for the deductible and coinsurance exceed $1,370, Medicare pays 100 percent
of allowable charges for remainder of year.
Beginning in 1991, Medicare pays 50 percent of the
cost of outpatient prescription drugs above $600.
When fully implemented in 1993, Medicare will pay
80 percent of prescription drug costs above a
deductible that assumes that 16.8 percent of Part B
enrollees will exceed the deductible.
Certain prescription drugs administered in an outpatient or home setting, including immunosuppressive
drugs (previously covered for 1 year after a covered
transplant), home intravenous drugs, and certain
others, will be covered in 1990 under a new prescription drug provision.
1989. Provisions enacted in 1988 and to begin in 1990
and 1991 are repealed, and benefits are restored to
levels in effect before January 1, 1989.
Limits on mental health benefits eliminated in 1990.
Coverage extended to services of clinical psychologists and social workers.
The annual payment limits of $500 per beneficiary for
outpatient physical therapy services and outpatient
occupational therapy services, each, are raised to
$750 for 1990 and later. (See 1980.)
1990. Beginning in 1991, routine mammography screenings are covered.
48 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

The Part B deductible is set at $100 in 1991 and subsequent years.
Beginning in 1992, physicians’ services are reimbursed on a fee-schedule basis.
1993. Includes coverage of oral, self-administered
anticancer drugs.
Lengthens the coverage period for immunosuppressive drugs after a transplant to 18 months in
1995, 24 months in 1996, 30 months in 1997, and
36 months thereafter. (See 1986.)
The annual payment limits of $750 per beneficiary for
outpatient physical therapy services and outpatient
occupational therapy services, each, are raised to
$900 for 1994 and later. (See 1989.)
1997. Home health services not associated with a hospital or skilled nursing facility stay for individuals
enrolled in both HI and SMI are transferred from the
HI program to the SMI program, effective January
1998. The HI program will continue to cover the first
100 visits following a hospital stay of at least 3 consecutive days or a skilled nursing facility stay. The
cost to the SMI trust fund of the transferred services
will phase in over a 6-year period, while the cost of
the home health services will phase into the SMI premium over 7 years.
Coverage provided for a number of prevention initiatives, including (1) annual screening mammograms
for female beneficiaries aged 40 or older, with SMI
deductible waived; (2) screening pap smear and pelvic exam (including clinical breast exam) every
3 years or annually for beneficiaries at higher risk,
with SMI deductible waived; (3) annual prostate cancer screening for male beneficiaries aged 50 or older,
effective January 1, 2000; (4) colorectal screening
procedures, including fecal occult blood tests and
flexible sigmoidoscopies, for beneficiaries aged 50 or
older, colonoscopy for beneficiaries at high risk for
colorectal cancer, and other procedures, including
screening barium enemas under certain circumstances; (5) diabetes outpatient self-management
training in nonhospital-based programs (previously
covered in hospital-based programs only) and blood
glucose monitors and testing strips for all diabetics
(previously provided for insulin-dependent diabetics
only), effective July 1, 1998; (6) procedures to identify bone mass, detect bone loss, or determine bone
quality for certain qualified beneficiaries, at frequencies determined by the secretary of Health and
Human Services, effective July 1, 1998.
Beginning January 1999, an annual beneficiary limit
of $1,500 will apply to all outpatient physical therapy
services, except for services furnished by a hospital
outpatient department. A separate $1,500 limit will

also apply to outpatient occupational therapy services, except for services furnished by hospital outpatient departments. Beginning with 2002, these
caps will be increased by the percentage increase in
the Medical Economic Index. (See 1993.)

Time and budget limitations are removed on the coverage of immunosuppressive drugs, making coverage of these drugs a permanent benefit for
beneficiaries who have received a covered organ
transplant. (See 1999.)

1999. The coverage period for immunosuppressive drugs
after a transplant is lengthened to 44 months, for
individuals who exhaust their 36 months of coverage
in 2000. For those exhausting their 36 months of coverage in 2001, at least 8 more months will be covered. (The secretary of Health and Human Services
will specify the increase, if any, beyond 8 months.)
For those exhausting their 36 months of coverage in
2002, 2003, or 2004, the number of additional
months may be more or fewer than 8. (The secretary
will specify the increase for each of these years.)
(See 1993.)

The annual payment limits of $1,500 per beneficiary
for outpatient physical therapy services and outpatient occupational therapy services, each, for services provided by independent practitioners (that is,
not by a hospital outpatient department), which were
suspended for 2000 and 2001, are also suspended
for 2002. (See 1999.)

The annual payment limits of $1,500 per beneficiary
for outpatient physical therapy services and outpatient occupational therapy services, each, for services furnished by independent practitioners (that is,
not by a hospital outpatient department) are suspended for 2000 and 2001. (See 1997.)
2000. Coverage for screening pap smears and pelvic
exams (including a clinical breast exam) is provided
every 2 years (increased from every 3 years) beginning July 1, 2001. (Annual coverage continues for
beneficiaries at higher risk, and SMI deductible continues to be waived.) (See 1997.)
Annual coverage of glaucoma screenings is provided
for certain high-risk beneficiaries, effective
January 1, 2002.
Screening colonoscopies are covered for all beneficiaries, not just for those at high risk, beginning
July 1, 2001. For persons not at high risk, a screening colonoscopy is covered 10 years after a previous
one, or 4 years after a screening flexible sigmoidoscopy. (See 1997.)
Coverage is provided for medical nutrition therapy
services under certain circumstances for beneficiaries who have diabetes or a renal disease, effective
January 1, 2002.
The amount of a beneficiary’s copayment for a procedure in a hospital outpatient department is limited,
beginning April 1, 2001, to the hospital inpatient
deductible applicable for that year. Also, the secretary of Health and Human Services must reduce the
effective copayment rate for outpatient services to a
maximum rate of 57 percent in 2001 (for services
received after April 1), 55 percent in 2002 and 2003,
50 percent in 2004, 45 percent in 2005, and
40 percent in 2006 and later.

The homebound criterion for home health services is
clarified to specify that beneficiaries who require
home health services may attend adult day care for
therapeutic, psychosocial, or medical treatment and
still remain eligible for the home health benefit.
Homebound beneficiaries may also attend religious
services without being disqualified from receiving
home health benefits.
2003. The Part B deductible remains at $100 through
2004 and increases to $110 in 2005. Beginning in
2006, it will be increased each year by the annual
percentage increase in the Part B aged actuarial
rate.
A one-time, initial preventive physical exam is covered within 6 months of a beneficiary’s first coverage
under Part B, beginning January 1, 2005, for beneficiaries whose Part B coverage begins on or after that
date.
Certain screening blood tests are covered for the
early detection of cardiovascular disease and abnormalities associated with elevated risk for such disease, including certain tests for cholesterol and other
lipid or triglyceride levels, effective January 1, 2005,
under frequency standards to be established (but not
to exceed once every 2 years).
Diabetes screening tests, including a fasting plasma
glucose test and other such tests determined appropriate by the secretary of Health and Human Services, are covered for beneficiaries at risk for
diabetes, beginning January 1, 2005, under frequency standards to be established (but not to
exceed two times per year).
2005. The colorectal screening benefit (see 1997 and
2000) is exempt from the Part B deductible, effective
January 2007.

Under Parts A and B
1965. Requires that Medicare be secondary payer to
benefits provided by liability insurance policies or
under no-fault insurance.
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 49

1981. Requires that Medicare be secondary payer to
employer-based group health plans for beneficiaries
entitled to Medicare solely on the basis of end-stage
renal disease (ESRD) for up to 12 months.
1982. For workers and their spouses aged 65 to 69,
Medicare is the secondary payer when benefits are
provided under an employer-based group health plan
(applicable to employers with 20 or more employees
who sponsor or contribute to the group plan).
Health maintenance organizations (HMOs) will be
authorized as providers of benefits. The secretary of
Health and Human Services must certify the prospective payment mechanism for HMOs before
implementation.
1984. Medicare secondary-payer provisions are
extended to spouses aged 65 to 69 of workers under
the age of 65 whose employer-based group health
plan covers such spouses.
For HMOs, includes medical and other health services furnished by clinical psychologists.
1985. Provides payment for liver transplant services.
1986. Extends the working-age, secondary-payer provision to cover workers and their spouses beyond
age 69.
For HMOs that offered organ transplants as a basic
health service on April 15, 1985, such services may
be offered from October 1, 1985, through April 1,
1988.
For disabled individuals who are covered by
employer-based health plans (with at least
100 employees), Medicare is the secondary payer,
effective for the period from 1987 to 1991.
1987. Requires HMOs and competitive medical plans
that cease to contract with Medicare to provide or
arrange supplemental coverage of benefits related to
preexisting conditions for the lesser of 6 months or
the duration of an exclusion period.
Specifies in law that to be eligible for home health
care, a Medicare beneficiary must have a restricted
ability to leave the home, requiring the assistance of
another or the aid of a supportive device (such as
crutches, a cane, a wheelchair, or a walker).
Clarifies that the secondary-payer provision for disabled individuals covered under employer-based
health plans for employers with at least 500
employees applies to employers who are government entities.
1990. Requires that Medicare be the secondary payer to
employer-based group health plans for beneficiaries
entitled to Medicare solely on the basis of ESRD for
50 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

up to 18 months (extended from 12 months), effective February 1, 1991, to January 1, 1996.
The secondary-payer provision for disabled beneficiaries covered under large employer plans (see
1986) is effective through September 30, 1995.
1993. The secondary-payer provision for disabled beneficiaries covered under large employer plans is effective through September 30, 1998.
The secondary-payer provision for beneficiaries with
ESRD applies to all beneficiaries with end-stage
renal disease, not only those entitled to Medicare
solely on the basis of it. The extension to include the
first 18 months of an individual's entitlement on the
basis of ESRD is effective through September 30,
1998.
1997. Established an expanded set of options for the
delivery of health care under Medicare, referred to as
Medicare+Choice (and also known as “Medicare
Part C”). All Medicare beneficiaries can receive their
Medicare benefits through the original fee-for-service
program. In addition, most beneficiaries can choose
instead to receive their Medicare benefits through
one of the following Medicare+Choice plans:
(1) coordinated care plans (such as HMOs, providersponsored organizations, and preferred provider
organizations), (2) Medical Savings Account (MSA)/
High Deductible plans (through a demonstration
available for up to 390,000 beneficiaries), or
(3) private fee-for-service plans. Except for MSA
plans, all Medicare+Choice plans are required to provide the current Medicare benefit package (excluding
hospice services) and any additional health services
required under the adjusted community rate (ACR)
process. MSA plans provide Medicare benefits after
a single high deductible is met, and enrollees receive
an annual deposit in their medical savings account.
Transition rules for current Medicare HMO program
also provided. (See also HMO provision of 1982.)
The provision making Medicare the secondary payer
for disabled beneficiaries covered under large
employer plans, previously scheduled to expire
September 30, 1998, made permanent.
The provision making Medicare the secondary payer
for the first 12 months of entitlement because of
ESRD, which had been extended on a temporary
basis (through September 30, 1998) to include the
first 18 months of entitlement, has been extended,
permanently, to include the first 30 months of entitlement on the basis of ESRD.
2003. Medicare+Choice is renamed Medicare Advantage. (It is still sometimes referred to as “Medicare
Part C.”) As before, beneficiaries enrolled in both
Part A and Part B can receive their Medicare benefits

through the original fee-for-service program; most
can opt instead to use a Medicare Advantage plan in
their area. Medicare Advantage plans include
(1) Medicare Managed Care plans (like HMOs),
(2) Medicare Preferred Provider Organization
plans (PPOs), (3) Private Fee-for-Service plans, and
(4) Medicare Specialty plans (available in some
areas to provide Medicare benefits for certain people
with special needs, such as beneficiaries in institutions). Beginning in 2006, Medicare Advantage plan
choices will be expanded to include regional PPOs.
Participating regional PPOs will be required to serve
an entire region (10 to 50 regions are to be established), and there are provisions to encourage plan
participation. Regional PPOs must have a single
deductible for benefits under Parts A and B, and they
must include catastrophic limits for out-of-pocket
expenditures. Beginning in 2006, the adjusted community rate (ACR) process for determining plan payments is replaced by a competitive bidding process.
(Historical reference points to this item include the
Medicare+Choice provision of 1997 and the HMO
provision of 1982, both of which are displayed in this
section.)

Under Part D
2003. Under temporary Medicare-endorsed prescription
drug discount card program, for eligible beneficiaries
voluntarily enrolling and paying up to $30 annually,
discounts on certain prescription drugs, as specified
by card sponsors. Under Transitional Assistance (TA)
provision, eligible beneficiaries whose incomes do
not exceed 135 percent of the federal poverty level
and do not have third-party prescription drug coverage are eligible for (1) financial assistance of up to
$600 per year for purchasing prescription drugs and
(2) a subsidized enrollment fee under the temporary
Medicare-endorsed prescription drug discount card
program. Enrollment begins in May 2004, access to
discounts begins in June 2004, and program phases
out as drug benefit becomes available in 2006 (see
next entry).
Beginning January 1, 2006, upon voluntary enrollment in either a stand-alone prescription drug plan
(PDP) or an integrated Medicare Advantage plan that
offers Part D coverage in its benefit, subsidized prescription drug coverage. Most FDA-approved drugs
and biologicals are covered. However, plans may set
up formularies for their drug coverage, subject to certain statutory standards. (Drugs currently covered in
Parts A and B remain covered there.) Part D coverage can consist of either standard coverage or an
alternative design that provides the same actuarial
value. (For an additional premium, plans may also
offer supplemental coverage exceeding the value of
basic coverage.) Standard Part D coverage is

defined for 2006 as having a $250 deductible, with
25 percent coinsurance (or other actuarially equivalent amounts) for drug costs above the deductible
and below the initial coverage limit of $2,250. The
beneficiary is then responsible for all costs until the
$3,600 out-of-pocket limit (which is equivalent to total
drug costs of $5,100) is reached. For higher costs,
there is catastrophic coverage; it requires enrollees
to pay the greater of 5 percent coinsurance or a
small copay ($2 for generic or preferred multisource
brand and $5 for other drugs). After 2006, these benefit parameters are indexed to the growth in per capita Part D spending (see Table 2.C1). In determining
out-of-pocket costs, only those amounts actually paid
by the enrollee or another individual (and not reimbursed through insurance) are counted; the exception is cost-sharing assistance from Medicare’s lowincome subsidies (certain beneficiaries with low
incomes and modest assets will be eligible for certain
subsidies that eliminate or reduce their Part D premiums, cost-sharing, or both) and from State Pharmacy
Assistance Programs. A beneficiary premium, representing 25.5 percent of the cost of basic coverage on
average, is required (except for certain low-income
beneficiaries, as previously mentioned, who may pay
a reduced or no premium). For PDPs and the drug
portion of Medicare Advantage plans, the premium
will be determined by a bid process; each plan’s premium will be 25.5 percent of the national weighted
average plus or minus the difference between the
plan’s bid and the average. To help them gain experience with the Medicare population, plans will be protected by a system of risk corridors, which allow
Part D to assist plans with unexpected costs and to
share in unexpected savings; after 2007, the risk corridors will become less protective. To encourage
employer and union plans to continue prescription
drug coverage to Medicare retirees, subsidies to
these plans are authorized; the plan must meet or
exceed the value of standard Part D coverage, and
the subsidy pays 28 percent of the allowable costs
associated with enrollee prescription drug costs
between a specified cost threshold ($250 in 2006,
indexed thereafter) and a specified cost limit ($5,000
in 2006, indexed thereafter).
Medicare Financing

Hospital Insurance Taxes
See Table 2.A3.

Appropriations from General Revenues
1965. For HI costs attributable to transitionally insured
beneficiaries.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 51

For HI costs attributable to noncontributory wage
credits granted for military service prior to 1957 (see
Table 2.A2).
For the Part B program, an amount equal to participant premiums.
1972. For cost of Part B not met by enrollee premiums.
1982. For HI costs attributable to beneficiaries having
transitional entitlement based on Medicare-qualified
federal employment.
1983. For HI taxes on noncontributory wage credits
granted for military service (a) from the inception of
HI program through 1983 and (b) on a current basis,
annually, beginning in 1984 (see Table 2.A2).
2002. Eliminated for HI taxes on noncontributory wage
credits granted for military service on a current basis,
for all years after calendar year 2001 (see
Table 2.A2).
2003. For Part D costs not met by enrollee premiums or
otherwise, beginning in January 2006. (That is, transfers from general revenues [plus smaller income
sources, particularly the payments from states
described below] will pay for (1) the 74.5 percent
subsidy to PDPs and the prescription drug portion of
Medicare Advantage plans [which remains after
enrollee premiums of 25.5 percent, on average], in
the form of a direct subsidy and reinsurance, and
(2) for other Part D costs, such as low-income subsidies and subsidies to employers who provide qualifying drug coverage to their Medicare-eligible retirees.)
Beginning January 2007, for Part B beneficiaries
meeting certain income thresholds and thus paying
income-related adjustment amounts in addition to
their standard Part B premiums (see “Medicare
Financing, Participant Premiums, 2003”), the per
capita general revenue appropriations to Part B (see
1965 and 1972) are supposed to be reduced accordingly.

Participant Premiums
See Table 2.C1.
1965. Part B enrollee premium rate (originally $3 per
month) to be established annually such that it will pay
one-half of program costs.
1972. Part B enrollee premium rate increase limited to
rate of increase in OASDI cash benefits.
HI premium (originally $33 per month) to be established annually. Only individuals not otherwise entitled to HI but desiring voluntary participation need to
pay the HI premium.

52 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

1983. Part B enrollee premiums for July 1983 to
December 31, 1983, frozen at premium level of
June 30, 1983. Premiums for January 1, 1984, to
December 31, 1985, set to cover 25 percent of aged
program costs.
1984. Part B enrollee premiums for January 1, 1986, to
December 31, 1987, will be set to cover 25 percent
of aged program costs. Increases in the Part B premium may not exceed the dollar amount of the Social
Security cost-of-living adjustment.
For calculating the amount of Part B premium surcharge for individuals from age 65 up to age 70 not
previously enrolled in Part B, the number of years an
individual did not enroll because of coverage by
employer group health insurance will not be taken
into account.
1985. Extends through calendar year 1988 the requirement that Part B premiums be set to cover
25 percent of aged program costs and that increases
in the Part B premium may not exceed the dollar
amount of the Social Security cost-of-living adjustment.
Premium-paying individuals who do not purchase
Part A coverage within a specific time after becoming
eligible because of age are subject to a 10 percent
penalty for each 12 months they are late in enrolling.
There is a cutoff on the length of time these individuals will have to pay an enrollment penalty. The
10 percent premium penalty would be limited to twice
the number of years enrollment was delayed. Therefore, if enrollment were delayed 1 year, the penalty
would be assessed for 2 years. Individuals in this category and already enrolled will have the length of
time the higher premium was paid credited to them.
1987. Extends through calendar year 1989 the provisions
requiring that the Part B premium be set to cover
25 percent of aged program costs, prohibiting any
increase in the premium if there is no Social Security
cost-of-living adjustment, and continuing to hold
beneficiaries harmless from Social Security check
reductions as a result of a premium increase.
1988. Increases in the Part B premium may not exceed
the dollar amount of the Social Security cost-of-living
adjustments for 1989 and beyond.
1989. Extends through calendar year 1990 the requirement that Part B premiums be set to cover
25 percent of aged program costs.
1990. The Part B premium is set at $29.90 in 1991,
$31.80 in 1992, $36.60 in 1993, $41.10 in 1994, and
$46.10 in 1995.

1993. Part B enrollee premiums for January 1, 1996, to
December 31, 1998, will be set to cover 25 percent
of aged program costs.
1997. The Part B premium is permanently set at
25 percent of program costs.
2003. Beginning January 2007, the Part B premium is
increased for beneficiaries meeting certain income
thresholds. (Beneficiaries with modified adjusted
gross incomes under $80,000 will continue to pay
premiums that are 25 percent of twice the actuarial
rate. Actuarial rate is defined as one-half of the
Part B expected monthly cost per enrollee. For beneficiaries with incomes greater than $80,000 and less
than or equal to $100,000, the applicable percentage
is 35 percent; for those with incomes greater than
$100,000 and less than or equal to $150,000, the
percentage is 50 percent; for incomes greater than
$150,000 and less than or equal to $200,000, the
percentage is 65 percent; and for incomes greater
than $200,000, the percentage is 80 percent. For
married couples who file joint tax returns, the income
thresholds are doubled. For beneficiaries who are
married and lived with their spouses at any time during the taxable year but who file separate tax returns
from their spouses, with incomes greater than
$80,000 and less than or equal to $120,000, the percentage is 65 percent; with incomes greater than
$120,000, the percentage is 80 percent. These
thresholds are to be updated each calendar year by
the consumer price index (CPI). There is a 5-year
adjustment period for this provision as well; that is,
the amount of premium above 25 percent of twice the
actuarial rate is phased in—at 20, 40, 60, 80, and
100 percent for 2007 to 2011 and later, respectively.
For military retirees, their spouses (including eligible
divorced spouses and widows and widowers), and
dependent children, who enroll(ed) in Part B during
the period from 2001 to 2004, the late enrollment
penalty imposed on beneficiaries who do not enroll in
Part B upon becoming eligible for Medicare is waived
for premium payments for January 2004 and later.
(Also, a special enrollment period for these beneficiaries is to begin as soon as possible and end
December 31, 2004.)
For Part D, beginning in January 2006, a beneficiary
premium, representing 25.5 percent of the cost of
basic coverage on average, is required (except for
certain low-income beneficiaries who may pay a
reduced or no premium). For PDPs and the drug portion of Medicare Advantage plans, the premium will
be determined by a bid process; each plan’s premium will be 25.5 percent of the national weighted

average plus or minus the difference between the
plan’s bid and the average. A late enrollment penalty
will apply for certain beneficiaries who fail to enroll at
the first opportunity and who do not maintain creditable coverage elsewhere (external prescription drug
coverage, such as through a retiree group health
plan that meets or exceeds the actuarial value of
standard Part D coverage).
2005. The phase-in of the income-related Part B premium (see 2003) is shortened from 5 years to
3 years, beginning January 1, 2007. (That is, the
amount of premium above 25 percent of twice the
actuarial rate is phased in at 1/3 for 2007, 2/3 for
2008, and 3/3 for 2009 and later.)
For beneficiaries who are volunteering outside the
United States through a 12-month or longer program
sponsored by a tax-exempt organization and who
have other health insurance, the late enrollment penalties imposed on beneficiaries who do not enroll in
Part B upon becoming eligible for Medicare is
waived, effective January 2007, and a special enrollment period for these beneficiaries is established.

Income from Taxation of OASDI Benefits
1993. The additional income tax revenues resulting from
the increase in the taxable percentage applicable to
OASDI benefits (an increase from 50 percent to
85 percent, see Table 2.A31) are transferred to the
HI trust fund.

Payment from States
2003. Beginning in January 2006, with the availability of
drug coverage and low-income subsidies under
Part D, Medicaid will no longer be primary payer for
full-benefit dual eligibles, and states are required to
make payments to defray a portion of the Part D drug
expenditures for these beneficiaries. States pay
90 percent of the estimated costs for 2006, phasing
down over a 10-year period to 75 percent for 2015
and later.

Interfund Borrowing
1981. See Table 2.A6.
1983. See Table 2.A6.

CONTACT: Clare McFarland (410) 786-6390.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 53

Medicaid
The following are brief summaries of complex subjects.
They should be used only as overviews and general
guides to the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The
views expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the
policies or legal positions of the Centers for Medicare &
Medicaid Services (CMS) or the Department of Health
and Human Services (HHS). These summaries do not
render any legal, accounting, or other professional
advice, nor are they intended to explain fully all of the
provisions or exclusions of the relevant laws, regulations,
and rulings of the Medicare and Medicaid programs.
Original sources of authority should be researched and
utilized.1

Overview
Title XIX of the Social Security Act is a federal and state
entitlement program that pays for medical assistance for
certain individuals and families with low incomes and
resources. This program, known as Medicaid, became
law in 1965 as a cooperative venture jointly funded by the
federal and state governments (including the District of
Columbia and the Territories) to assist states in furnishing
medical assistance to eligible needy persons. Medicaid is
the largest source of funding for medical and healthrelated services for America’s poorest people.
Within broad national guidelines established by federal statutes, regulations, and policies, each state
(1) establishes its own eligibility standards; (2) determines the type, amount, duration, and scope of services;
(3) sets the rate of payment for services; and
(4) administers its own program. Medicaid policies for eligibility, services, and payment are complex and vary considerably, even among states of similar size or
geographic proximity. Thus, a person who is eligible for
Medicaid in one state may not be eligible in another state,
and the services provided by one state may differ considerably in amount, duration, or scope from services provided in a similar or neighboring state. In addition, state
legislatures may change Medicaid eligibility, services,
and reimbursement during the year.

1.

These summaries were prepared by Earl Dirk Hoffman Jr.,
Barbara S. Klees, and Catherine A. Curtis, Office of the Actuary,
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 7500 Security Blvd.,
Baltimore, MD 21244. The authors wish to express their gratitude
to Mary Onnis Waid, who originated these summaries and
diligently prepared them for many years before her retirement.

54 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

Basis of Eligibility and Maintenance
Assistance Status
Medicaid does not provide medical assistance for all poor
persons. Under the broadest provisions of the federal
statute, Medicaid does not provide health care services
even for very poor persons unless they are in one of the
groups designated below. Low income is only one test for
Medicaid eligibility for persons within these groups; their
resources also are tested against threshold levels (as
determined by each state within federal guidelines).
States generally have broad discretion in determining
which groups their Medicaid programs will cover and the
financial criteria for Medicaid eligibility. To be eligible for
federal funds, however, states are required to provide
Medicaid coverage for certain individuals who receive
federally assisted income-maintenance payments, as
well as for related groups not receiving cash payments.
In addition to their Medicaid programs, most states have
additional “state-only” programs to provide medical assistance for specified poor persons who do not qualify for
Medicaid. Federal funds are not provided for state-only
programs. The following enumerates the mandatory
Medicaid “categorically needy” eligibility groups for which
federal matching funds are provided:

Individuals, in general, who meet the requirements
for the Aid to Families with Dependent
Children (AFDC) program that were in effect in their
state on July 16, 1996

Children under the age of 6 whose family income is
at or below 133 percent of the federal poverty
level (FPL)

Pregnant women whose family income is below
133 percent of the FPL (services to these women are
limited to those related to pregnancy, complications
of pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum care)

Supplemental Security Income (SSI) recipients in
most states (some states use more restrictive
Medicaid eligibility requirements that predate SSI)

Recipients of adoption or foster care assistance
under Title IV of the Social Security Act

Special protected groups (typically individuals who
lose their cash assistance because of earnings from
work or from increased Social Security benefits but
who may keep Medicaid for a period of time)

All children under the age of 19, in families with
incomes at or below the FPL

Certain Medicare beneficiaries (described later)

States also have the option of providing Medicaid
coverage for other “categorically related” groups. These
optional groups share characteristics of the mandatory
groups (that is, they fall within defined categories), but
the eligibility criteria are somewhat more liberally defined.
The broadest optional groups for which states will receive
federal matching funds for coverage under the Medicaid
program include the following:

infants up to the age of 1 and pregnant women not
covered under the mandatory rules whose family
income is no more than 185 percent of the FPL (the
percentage amount is set by each state);

children under the age of 21 who meet criteria more
liberal than the AFDC income and resources requirements that were in effect in their state on July 16,
1996;

institutionalized individuals eligible under a “special
income level” (the amount is set by each state—up to
300 percent of the SSI federal benefit rate);

individuals who would be eligible if institutionalized,
but who are receiving care under home and community-based services (HCBS) waivers;

certain aged, blind, or disabled adults who have
incomes above those requiring mandatory coverage
but below the FPL;

recipients of state supplementary income payments;

certain working-and-disabled persons with family
income less than 250 percent of the FPL who would
qualify for SSI if they did not work;

tuberculosis-infected persons who would be financially eligible for Medicaid at the SSI income level if
they were within a Medicaid-covered category (however, coverage is limited to tuberculosis-related
ambulatory services and tuberculosis drugs);

certain uninsured or low-income women who are
screened for breast or cervical cancer through a program administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (the Breast and Cervical Cancer
Prevention and Treatment Act of 2000 [Public
Law 106-354] provides these women with medical
assistance and follow-up diagnostic services through
Medicaid);

“optional targeted low-income children” included
within the State Children’s Health Insurance
Program (SCHIP) established by the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997 (Public Law 105-33); and

medically needy persons (described below).

The medically needy (MN) option allows states to
extend Medicaid eligibility to additional persons. These
persons would be eligible for Medicaid under one of the

mandatory or optional groups, except that their income or
resources or both are above the eligibility level set by
their state. Persons may qualify immediately or may
spend down by incurring medical expenses that reduce
their income to or below their state’s MN income level.
Medicaid eligibility and benefit provisions for the
medically needy do not have to be as extensive as for the
categorically needy and may be quite restrictive. Federal
matching funds are available for MN programs. However,
if a state elects to have a MN program, there are federal
requirements that certain groups and certain services
must be included, for example, children under the age of
19 and pregnant women who are medically needy must
be covered, and prenatal and delivery care for pregnant
women, as well as ambulatory care for children, must be
provided. A state may elect to provide MN eligibility to
certain additional groups and may elect to provide certain
additional services within its MN program. As of 2003,
36 states plus the District of Columbia have elected to
have a MN program and are providing at least some MN
services to at least some MN beneficiaries. All remaining
states utilize the special-income-level option to extend
Medicaid to the near poor in medical institutional settings.
The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity
Reconciliation Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-193)—
known as the welfare reform bill—made restrictive
changes regarding eligibility for SSI coverage that had an
impact on the Medicaid program. For example, legal resident aliens and other qualified aliens who entered the
United States on or after August 22, 1996, are ineligible
for Medicaid for 5 years. States have the option of providing Medicaid coverage for most aliens entering before
that date and coverage for those eligible after the 5-year
ban; emergency services, however, are mandatory for
both of these alien coverage groups. For aliens who lose
SSI benefits because of the new restrictions regarding
SSI coverage, Medicaid coverage for them can continue
only if these persons can be covered under some other
eligibility status (again with the exception of emergency
services, which are mandatory). Public Law 104-193 also
affected a number of disabled children, who lost SSI as a
result of the restrictive changes; however, their eligibility
for Medicaid was reinstituted by Public Law 105-33, the
BBA.
In addition, welfare reform repealed the open-ended
federal entitlement program known as Aid to Families
with Dependent Children (AFDC) and replaced it with
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), which
provides states with grants to be spent on time-limited
cash assistance. TANF generally limits a family’s lifetime
cash welfare benefits to a maximum of 5 years and permits states to impose a wide range of other requirements
as well—in particular, those related to employment. However, the impact on Medicaid eligibility has not been sigAnnual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 55

nificant. Under welfare reform, persons who would have
been eligible for AFDC under the AFDC requirements in
effect on July 16, 1996, are generally still eligible for
Medicaid. Although most persons covered by TANF
receive Medicaid, it is not required by law.
Title XXI of the Social Security Act, known as the
State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), is a
program initiated by the BBA. In addition to allowing
states to craft or expand an existing state insurance program, SCHIP provides more federal funds for states to
expand Medicaid eligibility to include a greater number of
children who are currently uninsured. With certain exceptions, these are low-income children who would not
qualify for Medicaid on the basis of the plan that was in
effect on April 15, 1997. Funds from SCHIP also may be
used to provide medical assistance to children during a
presumptive eligibility period for Medicaid. This is one of
several options from which states may select to provide
health care coverage for more children, as prescribed
within the BBA’s Title XXI program.
Medicaid coverage may begin as early as the third
month before application—if the person would have been
eligible had he or she applied during that time. Medicaid
coverage generally stops at the end of the month in
which a person no longer meets the criteria of any Medicaid eligibility group. The BBA allows states to provide
12 months of continuous Medicaid coverage (without
reevaluation) for eligible children under the age of 19.
The Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999 (Public Law 106-170) provides or continues Medicaid coverage to certain disabled
beneficiaries who work despite their disability. Beneficiaries with higher incomes may pay a sliding-scale premium based on income.
The Deficit Reduction Act (DRA) of 2005 (Public
Law 109-171) refined eligibility requirements for Medicaid
beneficiaries by tightening standards for citizenship and
immigration documentation and by changing the rules
concerning long-term care eligibility—specifically, the
look-back period for determining community spouse
income and assets has been lengthened from 36 months
to 60 months, individuals whose homes exceed
$500,000 in value are disqualified, and the states are
required to impose partial months of ineligibility.

Scope of Medicaid Services
Title XIX of the Social Security Act allows considerable
flexibility within states’ Medicaid plans. However, some
federal requirements are mandatory if federal matching
funds are to be received. A state’s Medicaid program
must offer medical assistance for certain basic services
56 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

to most categorically needy populations. These services
generally include the following;

inpatient hospital services

outpatient hospital services

prenatal care

vaccines for children

physician services

nursing facility services for persons aged 21 or older

family planning services and supplies

rural health clinic services

home health care for persons eligible for skilled-nursing services

laboratory and X-ray services

pediatric and family nurse practitioner services

nurse-midwife services

federally qualified health center (FQHC) services and
ambulatory services of an FQHC that would be available in other settings

early and periodic screening, diagnostic, and
treatment (EPSDT) services for children under the
age of 21

States may also receive federal matching funds to
provide certain optional services. Following are the most
common of the 34 currently approved optional Medicaid
services:

diagnostic services

clinic services

intermediate care facilities for the mentally retarded
(ICFs/MR)

prescribed drugs and prosthetic devices

optometrist services and eyeglasses

nursing facility services for children under the age of
21

transportation services

rehabilitation and physical therapy services

home and community-based care to certain persons
with chronic impairments

The BBA included a state option known as Programs
of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). PACE provides an alternative to institutional care for persons
aged 55 and older who require a nursing facility level of
care. The PACE team offers and manages all health,
medical, and social services and mobilizes other services

as needed to provide preventive, rehabilitative, curative,
and supportive care. This care, provided in day health
centers, homes, hospitals, and nursing homes, helps the
person maintain independence, dignity, and quality of life.
PACE functions within the Medicare program as well.
Regardless of source of payment, PACE providers
receive payment only through the PACE agreement and
must make available all items and services covered
under both Titles XVIII and XIX, without amount, duration, or scope limitations and without application of any
deductibles, copayments, or other cost sharing. The individuals enrolled in PACE receive benefits solely through
the PACE program.

Amount and Duration of Medicaid Services
Within broad federal guidelines and certain limitations,
states determine the amount and duration of services
offered under their Medicaid programs. States may limit,
for example, the number of days of hospital care or the
number of physician visits covered. Two restrictions
apply: (1) limits must result in a sufficient level of services
to reasonably achieve the purpose of the benefits, and
(2) limits on benefits may not discriminate among beneficiaries on the basis of medical diagnosis or condition.
In general, states are required to provide comparable
amounts, duration, and scope of services to all categorically needy and categorically related eligible persons.
There are two important exceptions: (1) medically necessary health care services that are identified under the
EPSDT program for eligible children, and that are within
the scope of mandatory or optional services under federal law, must be covered even if those services are not
included as part of the covered services in that state’s
plan, and (2) states may request waivers to pay for otherwise uncovered home and community-based
services (HCBS) for Medicaid-eligible persons who might
otherwise be institutionalized. As long as the services are
cost effective, states have few limitations on the services
that may be covered under these waivers (except that,
other than as a part of respite care, states may not provide room and board for the beneficiaries). With certain
exceptions, a state’s Medicaid program must allow beneficiaries to have some informed choices among participating providers of health care and to receive quality care
that is appropriate and timely.

Payment for Medicaid Services
Medicaid operates as a vendor payment program. States
may pay health care providers directly on a fee-forservice basis, or states may pay for Medicaid services
through various prepayment arrangements, such as
health maintenance organizations (HMOs). Within federally imposed upper limits and specific restrictions, each

state for the most part has broad discretion in determining the payment methodology and payment rate for services. Generally, payment rates must be sufficient to
enlist enough providers so that covered services are
available at least to the extent that comparable care and
services are available to the general population within
that geographic area. Providers participating in Medicaid
must accept Medicaid payment rates as payment in full.
States must make additional payments to qualified hospitals that provide inpatient services to a disproportionate
number of Medicaid beneficiaries and to other lowincome or uninsured persons under what is known as the
disproportionate share hospital (DSH) adjustment. From
1988 to 1991, excessive and inappropriate use of the
DSH adjustment resulted in rapidly increasing federal
expenditures for Medicaid. Under legislation passed in
1991, 1993, and again within the BBA of 1997, the federal share of payments to DSH hospitals was somewhat
limited. However, the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP
Benefits Improvement and Protection Act (BIPA) of 2000
(Public Law 106-554) increased DSH allotments for 2001
and 2002 and made other changes to DSH provisions
that resulted in increased costs to the Medicaid program.
States may impose nominal deductibles, coinsurance, or copayments on some Medicaid beneficiaries for
certain services. The following Medicaid beneficiaries,
however, must be excluded from cost sharing: pregnant
women, children under the age of 18, and hospital or
nursing home patients who are expected to contribute
most of their income to institutional care. In addition, all
Medicaid beneficiaries must be exempt from copayments
for emergency and family planning services. Under the
DRA, new cost sharing and benefit rules provide states
with the option of imposing new premiums and increased
cost sharing on all Medicaid beneficiaries except for
those mentioned above and for terminally ill patients in
hospice care. The DRA also established special rules for
cost sharing for prescription drugs and for nonemergency
services furnished in emergency rooms.
The federal government pays a share of the medical
assistance expenditures under each state’s Medicaid
program. That share, known as the Federal Medical
Assistance Percentage (FMAP), is determined annually
by a formula that compares the state’s average per capita
income level with the national income average. States
with a higher per capita income level are reimbursed a
smaller share of their costs. By law, the FMAP cannot be
lower than 50 percent or higher than 83 percent. In fiscal
year 2006, the FMAPs varied from 50.0 percent in
12 states to 76.0 percent in Mississippi and averaged
56.7 percent overall. The BBA also permanently raised
the FMAP for the District of Columbia from 50.0 percent
to 70.0 percent and raised the FMAP for Alaska from
50 percent to 59.8 percent through 2000. The BIPA of
2000 further adjusted Alaska’s FMAP to a higher level for
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 57

fiscal years 2001 to 2005, as did the DRA for fiscal years
2006 and 2007. The Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-27), to bring about
state fiscal relief in a troubled economy, made three temporary modifications to the states’ FMAP calculation:
(1) the FMAP for the last two quarters of 2003 equaled
the greater of the current law FMAPs for 2002 or 2003;
(2) the FMAP for the first three quarters of 2004 equaled
the greater of the current law FMAPs for 2003 or 2004;
and (3) for the last two quarters of 2003 and first three
quarters of 2004, the newly calculated (under 1 and 2
above) FMAP increased by 2.95 percentage points. For
children covered through the SCHIP program, the federal
government pays states a higher share, or enhanced
FMAP, that averages about 70 percent for all states as
compared with the general Medicaid average of
56.7 percent.
The federal government also reimburses states for
100 percent of the cost of services provided through facilities of the Indian Health Service, provides financial help
to the 12 states that furnish the highest number of emergency services to undocumented aliens, and shares in
each state’s expenditures for the administration of the
Medicaid program. Most administrative costs are
matched at 50 percent, although higher percentages are
paid for certain activities and functions, such as development of mechanized claims processing systems.
Except for the SCHIP program, the Qualifying
Individuals (QI) program (described later), and DSH payments, federal payments to states for medical assistance
have no set limit (cap). Rather, the federal government
matches (at FMAP rates) state expenditures for the mandatory services, as well as for the optional services that
the individual state decides to cover for eligible beneficiaries, and matches (at the appropriate administrative rate)
all necessary and proper administrative costs. The Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Balanced Budget Refinement
Act of 1999 (as incorporated into Public Law 106-113, the
appropriations bill for the District of Columbia for fiscal
year 2000) increased the amount that certain states and
the territories can spend on DSH and SCHIP payments,
respectively. The BIPA set upper payment limits for inpatient and outpatient services provided by certain types of
facilities.

Summary and Trends
Medicaid was initially formulated as a medical care
extension of federally funded programs providing cash
income assistance for the poor, with an emphasis on
dependent children and their mothers, the disabled, and
the elderly. Over the years, however, Medicaid eligibility
has been incrementally expanded beyond its original ties
with eligibility for cash programs. Legislation in the late
58 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

1980s assured Medicaid coverage to an expanded number of low-income pregnant women and poor children
and to some Medicare beneficiaries who are not eligible
for any cash assistance program. Legislative changes
also focused on increased access, better quality of care,
specific benefits, enhanced outreach programs, and
fewer limits on services.
In most years since its inception, Medicaid has had
very rapid growth in expenditures. This rapid growth has
been due primarily to the following factors:

the increase in size of the Medicaid-covered populations, as a result of federal mandates, population
growth, and economic recessions

the expanded coverage and utilization of services

the DSH payment program, coupled with its inappropriate use to increase federal payments to states

the increase in the number of very old and disabled
persons requiring extensive acute and long-term
health care and various related services

the results of technological advances to keep a
greater number of very low-birth-weight babies and
other critically ill or severely injured persons alive and
in need of continued extensive and very costly care

the increase in drug costs and the availability of new
expensive drugs

the increase in payment rates to providers of health
care services, when compared with general inflation

As with all health insurance programs, most
Medicaid beneficiaries incur relatively small average
expenditures per person each year, and a relatively small
proportion incurs very large costs. Moreover, the average
cost varies substantially by type of beneficiary. National
data for 2003, for example, indicate that Medicaid payments for services for 26.8 million children, who constitute 52 percent of all Medicaid beneficiaries, average
about $1,550 per child (a relatively small average expenditure per person). Similarly, for 12.6 million adults, who
make up 24 percent of beneficiaries, payments average
about $2,215 per person. However, certain other specific
groups have much larger per-person expenditures. Medicaid payments for services for 4.4 million aged, constituting 8 percent of all Medicaid beneficiaries, average about
$13,220 per person; for 8.3 million disabled, who make
up 16 percent of beneficiaries, payments average about
$12,855 per person. When expenditures for these highand lower-cost beneficiaries are combined, the 2003 payments to health care vendors for 52.0 million Medicaid
beneficiaries average $4,485 per person.
Long-term care is an important provision of Medicaid
that will be increasingly utilized as our nation’s population

ages. The Medicaid program paid for over 41 percent of
the total cost of care for persons using nursing facility or
home health services in 2003. National data for 2003
show that Medicaid payments for nursing facility services
(excluding ICFs/MR) totaled $40.4 billion for more than
1.7 million beneficiaries—an average expenditure of
$23,880 per nursing home beneficiary. The national data
also show that Medicaid payments for home health services totaled $4.4 billion for more than 1.2 million beneficiaries—an average expenditure of $3,725 per home
health care beneficiary. With the percentage of our population who are elderly or disabled increasing faster than
that of the younger groups, the need for long-term care is
expected to increase.
Another significant development in Medicaid is the
growth in managed care as an alternative service delivery concept different from the traditional fee-for-service
system. Under managed care systems, HMOs, prepaid
health plans (PHPs), or comparable entities agree to provide a specific set of services to Medicaid enrollees, usually in return for a predetermined periodic payment per
enrollee. Managed care programs seek to enhance
access to quality care in a cost-effective manner. Waivers
may provide the states with greater flexibility in the
design and implementation of their Medicaid managed
care programs. Waiver authority under sections 1915(b)
and 1115 of the Social Security Act is an important part of
the Medicaid program. Section 1915(b) waivers allow
states to develop innovative health care delivery or reimbursement systems. Section 1115 waivers allow statewide health care reform experimental demonstrations to
cover uninsured populations and to test new delivery systems without increasing costs. Finally, the BBA provided
states with a new option to use managed care. The number of Medicaid beneficiaries enrolled in some form of
managed care program is growing rapidly, from
32 percent of enrollees in 1995 to 63 percent in 2005.
More than 52.0 million persons received health care
services through the Medicaid program in fiscal year
2003 (the last year for which beneficiary data are available). In fiscal year 2005, total outlays for the Medicaid
program (federal and state) were $317.7 billion, including
direct payment to providers of $226.2 billion, payments
for various premiums (for HMOs, Medicare, etc.) of
$58.9 billion, payments to disproportionate share hospitals of $15.6 billion, administrative costs of $15.5 billion,
and $1.3 billion for the Vaccines for Children program.
Outlays under the SCHIP program in fiscal year 2005
were $7.3 billion. With no changes to either program,
expenditures under Medicaid and SCHIP are projected to
reach $455.6 billion and $7.4 billion, respectively, by fiscal year 2011.

The Medicaid-Medicare Relationship
Medicare beneficiaries who have low incomes and limited resources may also receive help from the Medicaid
program. For such persons who are eligible for full
Medicaid coverage, the Medicare health care coverage is
supplemented by services that are available under their
state’s Medicaid program, according to eligibility category. These additional services may include, for example,
nursing facility care beyond the 100-day limit covered by
Medicare, prescription drugs, eyeglasses, and hearing
aids. For persons enrolled in both programs, any services that are covered by Medicare are paid for by the
Medicare program before any payments are made by the
Medicaid program, since Medicaid is always the payer of
last resort.
Certain other Medicare beneficiaries may receive
help with Medicare premium and cost-sharing payments
through their state Medicaid program. Qualified Medicare
Beneficiaries (QMBs) and Specified Low-Income Medicare Beneficiaries (SLMBs) are the best-known categories and the largest in numbers. QMBs are those
Medicare beneficiaries who have resources at or below
twice the standard allowed under the SSI program and
incomes at or below 100 percent of the FPL. For QMBs,
Medicaid pays the Hospital Insurance (HI, or Part A) and
Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI, or Part B) premiums and the Medicare coinsurance and deductibles,
subject to limits that states may impose on payment
rates. SLMBs are Medicare beneficiaries with resources
like the QMBs but with incomes that are higher, though
still less than 120 percent of the FPL. For SLMBs, the
Medicaid program pays only the Part B premiums. A third
category of Medicare beneficiaries who may receive help
consists of disabled and working individuals. According
to the Medicare law, disabled and working individuals
who previously qualified for Medicare because of disability, but who lost entitlement because of their return to
work (despite the disability), are allowed to purchase
Medicare Part A and Part B. If these persons have
incomes below 200 percent of the FPL but do not meet
any other Medicaid assistance category, they may qualify
to have Medicaid pay their Part A premiums as Qualified
Disabled and Working Individuals (QDWIs).
For Medicare beneficiaries with incomes above
120 percent and less than 135 percent of the FPL, states
receive a capped allotment of federal funds for payment
of Medicare Part B premiums. These beneficiaries are
known as Qualifying Individuals (QIs). Unlike the QMBs
and SLMBs, who may be eligible for other Medicaid benefits in addition to their QMB/SLMB benefits, the QIs cannot be otherwise eligible for medical assistance under a
state plan. The QI benefit is 100 percent federally
funded, up to the state’s allotment. The QI program was
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 59

established by the BBA for fiscal years 1998–2002 and
has been extended several times. The current extension
will expire at the end of fiscal year 2007.
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services
(CMS) estimates that in 2005 Medicaid provided some
level of supplemental health coverage for about
6.8 million Medicare beneficiaries.
Starting January 2006, a new Medicare prescription
drug benefit provides drug coverage for Medicare beneficiaries, including those who also receive coverage from
Medicaid. In addition, individuals eligible for Medicare
and Medicaid receive the low-income subsidy for the
Medicare drug plan premium and assistance with cost
sharing for prescriptions. Medicaid no longer provides
drug benefits for Medicare beneficiaries.

Since the Medicare drug benefit and low-income
subsidy replace a portion of state Medicaid expenditures
for drugs, states will see a reduction in Medicaid expenditures. To offset this reduction, the Medicare Prescription
Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-173) requires each state to make a monthly
payment to Medicare representing a percentage of the
projected reduction. For 2006, this payment was
90 percent of the projected 2006 reduction in state
spending. After 2006, the percentage will decrease by
1 2/3 percent per year to 75 percent for 2014 and later.
Note: Medicaid data are based on the projections of the
Mid-Session Review of the President’s Fiscal Year 2007
Budget and are consistent with data received from the
states on Forms CMS-2082, MSIS, CMS-37, and
CMS-64.

CONTACT: Earl Dirk Hoffman Jr. (410) 786-7913.

60 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

Unemployment Insurance
Through federal and state cooperation, unemployment
insurance programs are designed to provide benefits to
regularly employed members of the labor force who
become involuntarily unemployed and who are able and
willing to accept suitable employment. Workers in all
50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the
Virgin Islands are covered under unemployment insurance programs.
To induce states to enact unemployment insurance
laws, the Social Security Act of 1935 provided a tax offset
incentive. A uniform national tax was imposed on payrolls
of industrial and commercial employers who employed
eight or more workers in 20 or more weeks in a calendar
year. Employers who paid taxes to a state with an
approved unemployment insurance law could credit (offset) up to 90 percent of the state tax against the federal
tax. This ensured that employers in states without an
unemployment insurance law would not have an advantage competing with similar businesses in states with
such a law because they would still be subject to the
federal payroll tax, and their employees would not be eligible for benefits.
In addition, the Social Security Act authorized grants
to states to meet the costs of administering the state systems. By July 1937, all 48 states, the then territories of
Alaska and Hawaii, and the District of Columbia had
passed unemployment insurance laws. Later, Puerto
Rico adopted its own program, which was incorporated in
1961 into the federal-state system. A similar program for
workers in the Virgin Islands was added in 1978.
If employers are to receive an offset against federal
taxes and if states are to receive federal grants for
administration, federal law requires state unemployment
insurance programs to meet certain requirements. These
requirements are intended to ensure that a state participating in the program has an unemployment insurance
system that is fairly administered and financially secure.
One requirement is that all contributions collected
under state laws be deposited in the unemployment trust
fund of the U.S. Treasury Department. The fund is
invested as a whole, but each state has a separate
account to which its deposits and its share of interest on
investments are credited. At any time, a state may withdraw money from its account in the trust fund, but only to
pay benefits. Thus, unlike the situation in the majority of
states having workers' compensation and temporary disability insurance laws, unemployment insurance benefits
are paid exclusively through a public fund. Private plans
cannot be substituted for the state plan.

Aside from federal standards, each state has major
responsibility for the content and development of its
unemployment insurance law. The state itself decides the
amount and duration of benefits (except for certain
federal requirements concerning federal-state Extended
Benefits); the contribution rates (with limitations); and, in
general, the eligibility requirements and disqualification
provisions. The states also directly administer the programs collecting contributions, maintaining wage records
(where applicable), taking claims, determining eligibility,
and paying benefits to unemployed workers.

Coverage
Originally, coverage had been limited to employment
covered by the Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA),
which relates primarily to industrial and commercial workers in private industry. However, several federal laws
added substantially to the number and types of workers
protected under the state programs, such as the Employment Security Amendments of 1970 and the Unemployment Compensation Amendments of 1976.
Private employers in industry and commerce are
subject to the law if they have one or more individuals
employed on 1 day in each of 20 weeks during the current or preceding year or if they paid wages of $1,500 or
more during any calendar quarter in the current or preceding year.
Agricultural workers are covered on farms with a
quarterly payroll of at least $20,000 or employing 10 or
more employees in 20 weeks of the year. Domestic
employees in private households are subject to FUTA if
their employer pays wages of $1,000 or more in a calendar quarter. Excluded from coverage are workers
employed by their families and the self-employed.
Before 1976, employment in state and local governments and nonprofit organizations were exempt from
FUTA. However, as a result of federal legislation enacted
in 1976, most employment in these groups must now be
covered by state law as a condition for securing federal
approval of the state law. Under this form of coverage,
local government and nonprofit employers have the
option of making contributions as under FUTA or of reimbursing the state for benefit expenditures actually made.
Elected officials, legislators, members of the judiciary,
and the state National Guard are still excluded, as are
employees of nonprofit organizations that employ fewer
than four workers in 20 weeks in the current or preceding
calendar year. Many states have extended coverage
beyond that provided by federal legislation.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 61

Through special federal legislation, federal civilian
employees and ex-servicemembers of the armed forces
were brought under the unemployment insurance system. Benefits for those persons are financed through
federal funds but are administered by the states and paid
in accordance with the provisions of the state laws. A
separate unemployment insurance law enacted by Congress covers railroad workers.
Amendments to FUTA made in 2000 added Indian
tribes to the set of entities for whom coverage is required,
although they are not liable for FUTA taxes. As a result,
workers performing services for tribes are now potentially
eligible to receive unemployment insurance benefits.
Coverage is required when service is performed for any
Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group community that is recognized as eligible for federal assistance because of their status as Indians. The same
permissible exclusion from coverage that is applicable to
other governmental entities also applies to services performed for Indian tribes. If an Indian tribe fails to make
payments to states as required, the tribe loses its FUTA
exemption and may lose coverage.

Eligibility for Benefits
Unemployment benefits are available as a matter of right
(without a means test) to unemployed workers who have
demonstrated their attachment to the labor force by a
specified amount of recent work or earnings in covered
employment. All workers whose employers contribute to
or make payments in lieu of contributions to state unemployment funds, federal civilian employees, and exservicemembers are eligible if they are involuntarily
unemployed, able to work, available for work, and
actively seeking work. Workers must also meet the eligibility and qualifying requirements of the state law and be
free from disqualifications. Workers who meet these eligibility conditions may still be denied benefits if they are
found to have voluntarily quit their jobs without good
cause or were discharged for misconduct.
Work Requirements
A worker's monetary benefit rights are based on his or
her employment in covered work over a prior reference
period called the base period, and these benefit rights
remain fixed for a benefit year. In most states, the base
period is the first 4 quarters of the last 5 completed calendar quarters preceding the claim for unemployment benefits.
Benefits
Under all state laws, the weekly benefit amount—that is,
the amount payable for a week of total unemployment—
62 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

varies with the worker's past wages within certain minimum and maximum limits. In most states, the formula is
designed to compensate for a fraction of the usual
weekly wage, normally about 50 percent, subject to specified dollar maximums.
Three-fourths of the laws use a formula that computes weekly benefits as a fraction of wages in one or
more quarters of the base period. Most commonly, the
fraction is taken of wages in the quarter during which
wages were highest, because this quarter most nearly
reflects full-time work. In most of these states, the same
fraction is used at all benefit levels. The other laws use a
weighted schedule that gives a greater proportion of the
high-quarter wages to lower-paid workers than to those
earning more.
Each state establishes a ceiling on the weekly benefit
amount, and no worker may receive an amount larger
than the ceiling. The maximum may be either a fixed dollar amount or a flexible amount. Under the latter arrangement, which has been adopted in 34 jurisdictions, the
maximum is adjusted automatically in accordance with
the weekly wages of covered employees.
Thirteen states provide additional allowances for certain dependents. They all include children under the ages
of 16, 18, or 19 (and, generally, older if incapacitated);
8 states include a nonworking spouse; and 2 states consider other dependent relatives. The amount allowed per
dependent varies considerably by state but generally is
$30 or less per week, and, in the majority of states, the
amount is the same for each dependent.
All but 14 states require a waiting period of 1 week of
total unemployment before benefits can begin. Two
states pay benefits retroactively for the waiting period if
unemployment lasts a certain period or if the employee
returns to work within a specified period.
Except for three jurisdictions, states provide a statutory maximum duration of 26 weeks of benefits in a benefit year. However, jurisdictions vary the duration of
benefits through various formulas.

Extended Benefits
In the 1970s, a permanent federal-state program of
Extended Benefits was established for workers who
exhaust their entitlement to regular state benefits during
periods of high unemployment. The program is financed
equally from federal and state funds. Employment conditions in an individual state trigger Extended Benefits. This
happens when the unemployment rate among insured
workers in a state averages 5 percent or more over a
13-week period and is at least 20 percent higher than the

rate for the same period in the 2 preceding years. If the
insured unemployment rate reaches 6 percent, a state
may by state law disregard the 20 percent requirement in
initiating Extended Benefits. Once triggered, Extended
Benefit provisions remain in effect for at least 13 weeks.
When a state's benefit period ends, Extended Benefits to
individual workers also end, even if they have received
less than their potential entitlement and are still unemployed. Further, once a state's benefit period ends,
another statewide period cannot begin for at least
13 weeks.
State law determines most eligibility conditions for
Extended Benefits and the weekly benefit payable. However, under federal law a claimant must have had
20 weeks in full-time employment (or the equivalent in
insured wages) and must meet special work requirements. A worker who has exhausted his or her regular
benefits is eligible for a 50 percent increase in duration of
benefits for a maximum of 13 weeks of Extended Benefits. There is, however, an overall maximum of 39 weeks
of regular and Extended Benefits. Extended Benefits are
payable at the same rate as the weekly amount under the
regular state program.
Before the 1992 legislation, the Extended Benefits
program was based on the insured unemployment rate
(IUR)—the number of unemployed workers receiving
benefits in a state as a percentage of the number of persons in employment that is covered by unemployment
insurance in that state. By definition, the IUR does not
include workers who have exhausted their benefits but
are still unemployed.

The 1992 legislation (Public Law 102-318) provided
states with the option of adopting an additional formula
for triggering the permanent Extended Benefits program.
Effective March 1993, states had the option of amending
their laws to use alternative total unemployment rate
triggers, in addition to the current insured unemployment
rate triggers. Under this option, Extended Benefits would
be paid when (1) the state's seasonally adjusted total
unemployment rate for the most recent 3 months is at
least 6.5 percent and (2) that rate is at least 110 percent
of the state average total unemployment rate in the corresponding 3-month period in either of the 2 preceding
years.
States triggering on to the Extended Benefits program under other triggers would provide the regular
26 weeks of unemployment benefits in addition to
13 weeks of Extended Benefits (which is the same number of weeks of benefits provided previously). In addition,
states that have chosen the total unemployment rate
option will also amend their state laws to add an additional 7 weeks of Extended Benefits (for a total of
20 weeks) when the total unemployment rate is at least
8 percent and is 110 percent of the state's total unemployment rate for the same 3 months in either of the 2
preceding years. As of October 23, 2005, Extended Benefits were not payable in any state.

CONTACT: Daniel L. Hays (202) 693-3011.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 63

Workers’ Compensation
Workers' compensation was the first form of social insurance to develop widely in the United States. It is
designed to provide cash benefits and medical care
when employees suffer work-related injuries or illnesses
and survivor benefits to the dependents of workers
whose deaths result from a work-related incident. In
exchange for receiving benefits, workers who receive
workers' compensation are generally not allowed to bring
a tort suit against their employers for damages of any
kind.

ment in underground uranium mines. The lump-sum payments are specified in law and range from $50,000 to
$100,000.

The federal government was the first to establish a
workers' compensation program, covering its civilian
employees with an act that was passed in 1908 to provide benefits for workers engaged in hazardous work.
The remaining federal workforce was covered in 1916.
Nine states enacted workers' compensation laws in 1911.
By 1921, all but 6 states and the District of Columbia had
workers' compensation laws.

Common exemptions from coverage are domestic
service, agricultural employment, small employers, and
casual labor. However, 39 programs have some coverage for agricultural workers, and 25 programs have some
coverage for domestic workers.

Today each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia,
Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands have their own program. The federal government covers its employees
through its own program. It also administers the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act, enacted
in 1927, which covers longshore and harbor workers
throughout the United States.
Coal miners suffering from pneumoconiosis, or
"black lung" disease, are covered by the Black Lung Benefits Act of 1972, with the initial benefits enacted as part
of the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969. Under
this program, monthly cash benefits are payable to
miners disabled by black lung disease and to their
dependents or survivors. Medical benefits are also payable to the worker on the basis of a diagnosis of pneumoconiosis.
The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program provides lump-sum payments up to
$150,000 to civilian workers (and/or their survivors) who
became ill as a result of exposure to radiation, beryllium,
or silica in the production or testing of nuclear weapons.
This is the Part B of the program, which went into effect
in July 2001. It provides smaller lump-sum payments to
individuals found eligible for an award under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act. Medical benefits are
awarded for the treatment of covered conditions.
The Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990
provides lump-sum compensation payments to individuals who contracted certain cancers and other serious diseases as a result of exposure to radiation released during
above-ground nuclear weapons tests or during employ64 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

Coverage
In 2004, state and federal workers’ compensation laws
covered about 125.9 million employees. Covered payroll
in 2004—that is, total wages paid to covered workers—
was $4.95 trillion.

Many programs exempt employees of nonprofit,
charitable, or religious institutions. The coverage of state
and local public employees differs widely from one state
program to another.
The workers’ compensation programs are compulsory for most private employment, except in Texas,
where it is elective. That is, in Texas, employers may
accept or reject coverage under the law. If they reject it,
they lose the customary common-law defenses against
suits by employees in private industry.
Two groups outside the coverage of workers' compensation laws are railroad employees engaged in interstate commerce and seamen in the U.S. Merchant
Marine. These workers have health insurance and shortterm and long-term cash benefit plans that cover disabilities whether or not the conditions are work-related. In
addition, under federal laws these workers retain the right
to bring tort suits against their employers for negligence
in the case of work-related injuries or illness.

Benefits
The benefits provided under workers' compensation
include periodic cash payments and medical services to
the worker during the period of disablement for the disabling condition. They also include death and funeral
benefits to the workers' survivors. Lump-sum settlements
are permitted under most programs.
Approximately three-fourths of all workers' compensation cases involve only medical benefits. Cash wage
replacement benefits are categorized according to the
duration and severity of the worker's disability.

Temporary Total Disability

Medical Benefits

Most compensation cases that involve cash payments
are for temporary total disability. In these cases, the
worker is temporarily precluded from performing the preinjury job or another job with the employer that the worker
could have performed before the injury. When workers’
lost time exceeds the waiting period (3 to 7 days,
depending on the state), they receive a percentage of
their weekly wages—typically two-thirds—up to a maximum weekly amount. The maximum is generally set at
some percentage of the states’ average weekly wage,
ranging from 66 2/3 percent to 200 percent, but typically
100 percent.

All workers’ compensation acts require that medical aid
be furnished without delay, to workers suffering from a
work-related injury or illness, whether or not the condition
entails work interruption. This care includes first-aid treatment, physician services, surgical and hospital services,
nursing, medications, medical supplies, appliances, and
prosthetic devices. Care is typically provided with no copayment from the worker. A few state laws contain provisions for contributions by the covered employee for hospital and medical benefits.

Temporary Partial Disability

Workers' compensation programs are financed almost
exclusively by employers and are based on the principle
that the cost of work-related accidents is a business
expense. Depending on state laws, employers can purchase insurance from a private carrier or state fund, or
they can self-insure. No program relies on general taxing
power to finance workers' compensation. Employers in
most programs are permitted to carry insurance against
work accidents with commercial insurance companies or
to qualify as self-insurers by giving proof of financial ability to carry their own risk. In five jurisdictions, commercial
insurance is not allowed. In two of these areas, employers must insure with an exclusive state fund, and in three
others, they must either insure with an exclusive state
insurance fund or self-insure. In 21 jurisdictions, state
funds have been established that compete with private
insurance carriers. Federal employees are provided protection through a federally financed and operated
system.

In some cases, workers return to work before they reach
maximum medical improvement and have reduced
responsibilities and a lower salary. In those cases, they
receive temporary partial disability benefits.
Permanent Total Disability
If a worker has very significant impairments that are
judged to be permanent after he or she reaches maximum medical improvement, the worker receives permanent total disability benefits. Very few workers’
compensation cases are found to have permanent total
disabilities.
Permanent Partial Disability
When the worker has impairments that, although permanent, do not completely limit the workers’ ability to work,
permanent partial disability benefits are paid. The system
for determining benefits in these cases is complex and
varies across jurisdictions. Some states provide benefits
based on an impairment rating scheme. The level of
impairment, often expressed as a percentage of total disability, is used to determine the benefit amount. Some
states provide benefits on the basis of loss of earning
capacity. They use impairment ratings with modifications
based on vocational factors, such as the worker's education, job experience, and age. Other states use systems
that attempt to compensate workers for actual lost
wages.
Death Benefits
Generally, compensation is related to earnings and to the
number of dependents eligible as the survivors of workers who die from a work-related illness or injury.

Financing

Program Highlights
Benefit payments under workers’ compensation programs increased to $56.0 billion in 2004, which was a
2.3 percent increase from the benefit figure of
$54.7 billion in 2003. When compared with covered
wages, benefits fell by $0.03, from $1.16 to $1.13 per
$100 of covered wages.
In 2004, medical benefits accounted for $26.1 billion,
and wage loss compensation accounted for $29.9 billion.
The latter amount includes payments to disabled workers
and the survivors of deceased workers.
The $56.0 billion for workers' compensation benefit
payments in 2004 includes more than $714 million in
benefits for the Black Lung program. This program is
described separately (see Tables 9.D1 and 9.D2).

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 65

The employers' cost of providing workers' compensation coverage varies generally according to risk, industrial
classification, and experience rating. Nationally, in 2004,
such costs were approximately $1.76 per $100 of covered wages, or about $694 for each of the 125.9 million
protected employees.

66 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

It is the first time since 2001 that wages grew faster
than benefits. Since 2001, employer costs have
increased relative to covered wages.

CONTACT: Virginia Reno (202) 452-8097.

Temporary Disability Insurance
Five states, Puerto Rico, and the railroad industry have
social insurance programs that partially compensate for
the loss of wages caused by temporary nonoccupational
disability or maternity. Those programs are known as
temporary disability insurance (TDI) because the duration of the payments is limited.
Federal law does not provide for a federal-state system of short-term disability comparable with the federalstate system of unemployment insurance. However, the
Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA) was amended in
1946 to permit states where employees made contributions under the unemployment insurance program to use
some or all of these contributions for the payment of disability benefits (but not for administration). Three of the
nine states that could have benefited by this provision for
initial funding for TDI took advantage of it: California,
New Jersey, and Rhode Island. The first state law was
enacted by Rhode Island in 1942, followed by legislation
in California and the railroad industry in 1946, New Jersey in 1948, and New York in 1949. Then came a hiatus
of two decades before Puerto Rico and Hawaii passed
laws in 1968 and 1969, respectively.
The temporary disability insurance laws of the five
states and Puerto Rico cover most commercial and
industrial wage and salary workers in private employment
if the employer has at least one worker. In no state is coverage under TDI identical with that of the unemployment
insurance program. Principal occupational groups
excluded are domestic workers, family workers (parent,
child, or spouse of the employer), government employees, and the self-employed. State and local government
employees are included in Hawaii, and the other state
programs generally provide elective coverage for some
or all public employees.
Agricultural workers are covered to varying degrees
in California, Hawaii, New Jersey, and Puerto Rico, but
they are not covered in other jurisdictions. The California
law permits self-employed individuals to elect coverage
on a voluntary basis. Workers employed by railroads, railroad associations, and railroad unions are covered by
TDI under the national system included in the Railroad
Unemployment Insurance Act.
The methods used for providing this protection vary.
In Rhode Island, the coverage is provided through an
exclusive, state-operated fund into which all contributions
are paid and from which all benefits are disbursed. In
addition, covered employers may provide supplemental
benefits in any manner they choose. The railroad program is also exclusively publicly operated in conjunction
with its unemployment insurance provisions.

In California, New Jersey, and Puerto Rico, coverage
is provided through a state-operated fund, but employers
are permitted to "contract out" of the state fund by purchasing group insurance from commercial insurance
companies, by self-insuring, or by negotiating an agreement with a union or employees' association. Coverage
by the state fund is automatic unless or until an employer
or the employees take positive action by substituting a
private plan that meets the standards prescribed in the
law and is approved by the administering agency. Premiums (in lieu of contributions) are then paid directly to the
private plan, and benefits are paid to the workers
affected.
The laws in Hawaii and New York require employers
to provide their own disability insurance plans for their
workers by setting up an approved self-insurance plan,
by reaching an agreement with employees or a union
establishing a labor-management benefit plan, or by purchasing group insurance from a commercial carrier. In
New York, the employer may also provide protection
through the State Insurance Fund, which is a state-operated competitive carrier. Both Hawaii and New York operate special funds to pay benefits to workers who become
disabled while unemployed or whose employers have
failed to provide the required protection. In other jurisdictions, benefit payments for the disabled unemployed are
made from the regular state-operated funds.

Eligibility for Benefits
To qualify for benefits, a worker must fulfill certain
requirements regarding past earnings or employment
and must be disabled as defined in the law. In addition,
claimants may be disqualified if they received certain
types of income during the period of disability.
Earnings or Employment Requirements
A claimant must have a specified amount of past employment or earnings to qualify for benefits. However, in most
jurisdictions with private plans, the plans either insure
workers immediately upon their employment or, in some
cases, require a short probationary period of employment, usually from 1 to 3 months. Upon cessation of
employment after a specified period, workers generally
lose their private plan coverage and must look to a statecreated fund for such protection.
Disability Requirements
The laws generally define disability as inability to perform
regular or customary work because of a physical or mental condition. Stricter requirements are imposed for disAnnual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 67

ability during unemployment in New Jersey and New
York. All the laws pay full benefits for disability due to
pregnancy.
Disqualifying Income
All the laws restrict payment of disability benefits when
the claimant is also receiving workers' compensation
payments. However, the statutes usually contain some
exceptions to this rule (for example, if the workers' compensation is for partial disability or for previously incurred
work disabilities).
The laws differ with respect to the treatment of sick
leave payments. Rhode Island pays disability benefits in
full even though the claimant draws wage continuation
payments. New York deducts from the benefits any payment from the employer or from a fund contributed to by
the employer, except for benefits paid pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement. In California, New Jersey,
and Puerto Rico, benefits plus paid sick leave for any
week during disability may not exceed the individual's
weekly earnings before their disablement. Railroad workers are not eligible for TDI benefits while they receive
sick leave pay.
In all seven TDI systems, as with unemployment
insurance, weekly benefit amounts are related to a claimant's previous earnings in covered employment. In general, the benefit amount for a week is intended to replace
at least one-half the weekly wage loss for a limited time.
All the laws, however, specify minimum and maximum
amounts payable for a week. The maximum duration of
benefits varies from 26 weeks to 52 weeks. Hawaii, New
York, and Puerto Rico provide for benefits of a uniform
duration of 26 weeks for all claimants; California and the
railroad program have maximum benefit periods of
52 weeks; New Jersey, 26 weeks; and Rhode Island,
30 weeks. Under the railroad program, duration of benefits varies from 26 weeks to 52 weeks, on the basis of the
total number of years of employment in the industry. In
the other jurisdictions, limited predisability "base period"
wages reduce benefit duration. A noncompensable
waiting period of a week or 7 consecutive days of disability (4 days for railroad workers) is generally required
before the payment of benefits for subsequent weeks.

68 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

The statutory provisions described above govern the
benefits payable to employees covered by the stateoperated plans. In those states where private plans are
permitted to participate, those provisions represent standards against which the private plan can be measured (in
accordance with provisions in the state law).

Financing and Administration
Under each of the laws, except for that governing the railroad program, employees may be required to contribute
to the cost of the temporary disability benefit. In five of
the jurisdictions (all but California and Rhode Island),
employers are also required to contribute. In general, the
government does not contribute.
Four of the seven TDI programs are administered by
the same agency that administers unemployment insurance. Under those five programs, the unemployment
insurance administrative machinery is used to collect
contributions, to maintain wage records, to determine eligibility, and to pay benefits to workers under the stateoperated funds. The New York law is administered by the
state Workers' Compensation Board, and the Hawaii law
is administered separately in the Department of Labor
and Industrial Relations.
By way of contrast, claims in New York and Hawaii
are filed with and paid by the employer, the insurance
carrier, or the union health and welfare fund that is operating the private plan. The state agency limits its functions with respect to employed workers to exercising
general supervision over private plans, to setting standards of performance, and to adjudicating disputed
claims arising between claimants and carriers. A similar
situation applies to claimants under private plans in California, New Jersey, and Puerto Rico.

CONTACT: Daniel L. Hays (202) 693-3011.

Black Lung Benefits
The Black Lung benefit program established by the
Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 provides monthly benefit payments to coal miners totally disabled as a result of pneumoconiosis, to the widows of
coal miners who died as a result of pneumoconiosis, and
to their dependents. The Social Security
Administration (SSA) was responsible for the payment
and administration of these Part B benefits (miner, survivor, and dependent) with respect to claims filed through
June 30, 1973 (and certain survivor cases, before
December 31, 1973).
On October 1, 1997, responsibility for maintenance
and payment of Part B was transferred from SSA to the
Department of Labor (DOL); SSA, however, maintains
responsibility for conducting formal hearings necessary
to resolve contested issues with respect to Part B claims.
Only data on these Part B claims are reported in this
Supplement. Part C claims are reported in the OWCP
Annual Report to Congress, U.S. Department of Labor,
Office of Workers’ Compensation Programs.
Under the Black Lung Benefits Act of 1972, DOL was
assigned jurisdiction over Part C benefits, generally
claims filed July 1, 1973, and later. Different financing
provisions are applicable to these claims.
Legislation enacted on November 2, 2002, (Public
Law 107-275) transferred permanently the responsibility
for all Black Lung claims (Parts B and C) to the Office of
Workers’ Compensation Programs (OWCP) of the
Department of Labor. The Social Security Administration
will only continue to handle a small number of pending
Part B appeals cases on a reimbursable basis.
The basic Black Lung benefit rate is set by law at
37 1/2 percent of the monthly pay rate for federal
employees in the first step of grade GS-2. The basic rate

to a miner or widow may be increased according to the
number of qualified dependents—50 percent of the basic
benefit rate if one dependent qualifies, 75 percent for two
dependents, and 100 percent for three or more dependents.
Since Black Lung payments are tied directly to federal
employee salary scales, increases are automatically payable when federal salaries are increased. Reflecting a
2.1 percent adjustment, monthly benefit rates effective
January 1, 2006, are the following:

Miner or widow, $574.00

Miner or widow and 1 dependent, $861.00

Miner or widow and 2 dependents, $1,005.00

Miner or widow and 3 or more dependents (family
benefit), $1,149.00

If a miner or surviving spouse is receiving workers’
compensation, unemployment compensation, or disability insurance payments under state law, the Black Lung
benefit is offset by the amount being paid under these
other programs.
The amendments of 1972 extended benefit payments to full orphans, parents, brothers, and sisters of
deceased miners. Under earlier law, survivor payments
were limited to widows and their dependent children (if
the miner and spouse were both deceased, no benefits
were payable to surviving children). These amendments
also expanded coverage to include surface as well as
underground coal miners.

CONTACT: Bennett Stewart (606) 432-0116, ext. 126.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 69

Veterans' Benefits
A variety of programs and benefits are available to servicemembers and veterans of military service: disability
payments, educational assistance, health care, vocational rehabilitation, survivor and dependents benefits,
life insurance, burial benefits, special loan programs, and
hiring preference for certain jobs. Most of the veterans
programs are administered by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA).

Monetary Benefits
Two major cash benefit programs are available for veterans. The first program provides benefits to veterans with
service-connected disabilities and, on the veteran's
death, benefits are available for eligible surviving
spouses, children, and dependent parents. These benefits are payable regardless of other income or resources.
The second program provides benefits to needy veterans
who have non-service-connected disabilities. These benefits are means tested.
Compensation for Service-connected Disabilities
Disability compensation is a monetary benefit paid to veterans who are disabled by injury or disease incurred in or
aggravated during active military service. Individuals discharged or separated from military service under dishonorable conditions are generally not eligible for
compensation payments. The amount of monthly compensation depends on the degree of disability, rated as
the percentage of normal function lost. Payments in 2007
range from $115 a month for a 10 percent disability to
$2,471 a month for total disability. Veterans who have at
least a 30 percent service-connected disability are entitled to an additional dependent's allowance. The amount
is based on the number of dependents and degree of disability.
Pensions for Non-service-connected Disabilities
Monthly benefits are provided to wartime veterans with
limited income and resources who are totally and permanently disabled because of a condition not attributable to
their military service. To qualify for these pensions, a veteran must have served in one or more of the following
designated war periods: The Mexican Border Period,
World War I, World War II, the Korean Conflict, the Vietnam Era, or the Gulf War. The period of service must
have lasted at least 90 days, and the discharge or separation cannot have been dishonorable. Service less than
90 days is acceptable if the veteran was discharged with
a service-connected disability.

70 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

Pension payments are reduced by countable income.
Some medical and other expenses are allowed as
deductions from countable income. Veterans aged 65
years or older who meet service, net worth, and income
requirements are eligible for a pension, regardless of current physical condition.
Effective December 1, 2006, maximum benefit
amounts for non-service-connected disabilities range
from $911 per month for a veteran without a dependent
spouse or child to $1,801 per month for a veteran who is
in need of regular aid and attendance and who has one
dependent. For each additional dependent child, the pension is raised by $156 per month.
Benefits for Survivors
The dependency and indemnity compensation (DIC) program provides monthly benefits to the surviving spouse,
children (under age 18, disabled, or students), and certain parents of service persons or veterans who die as
the result of an injury or disease incurred while in or
aggravated by active duty or training, or from a disability
otherwise compensable under laws administered by the
Department of Veterans Affairs.
DIC payments may also be authorized for survivors
of veterans who were totally disabled by serviceconnected conditions at the time of death, even though
their service-connected disabilities did not cause their
deaths.
Eligibility for survivor benefits based on a nonservice-connected death of a veteran with a serviceconnected disability requires a marriage of at least a
1-year duration before the veteran's death. A surviving
spouse is generally required to have lived continuously
with the veteran from marriage until his or her death.
Entitlement for death benefits ends with the surviving
spouse’s remarriage but may be restored upon termination of the remarriage. A surviving spouse receiving DIC
benefits who remarries on or after December 16, 2003,
and on or after attaining age 57 is entitled to continue to
receive DIC.
The monthly benefit amount payable to surviving
spouses of veterans who died before January 1, 1993,
depends on the last pay rate of the deceased service
person or veteran. In 2007, for pay grades E-1 through
E-6, a flat monthly rate of $1,067 is paid to surviving
spouses. Monthly benefits for grades E-7 through E-9
range between $1,104 and $1,312. For veterans who
died after January 1, 1993, surviving spouses receive a

flat $1,067 a month. An additional $228 a month will be
paid to supplement the basic rate if the deceased veteran
had been entitled to receive 100 percent service-connected compensation for at least 8 years immediately
preceding death. VA also adds a transitional benefit of
$250 to the surviving spouse’s monthly DIC if there are
children under age 18. The amount is based on a family
unit, not individual children, and is paid up to a maximum
of 2 years. The amounts payable to eligible parents are
lower and depend on (1) the number of parents eligible,
(2) their income, and (3) their marital status.
Pensions for Non-service-connected Death
Pensions are paid on the basis of need to surviving
spouses and dependent children (under age 18, disabled, or students) of deceased veterans of the wartime
periods specified in the disability pension program. For a
pension to be payable, the veteran generally must have
met the same service requirements established for the
non-service-connected disability pension program, and
the surviving spouse must meet the same marriage
requirements as under the dependency and indemnity
compensation program.
The pension amount depends on the composition of
the surviving family and the physical condition of the surviving spouse. In 2007, pensions range from $611 a
month for a surviving spouse without dependent children
to $1,165 a month for a spouse who is in need of regular
aid and attendance and who has a dependent child. The
pension is raised by $156 a month for each additional
dependent child. Pension payments are reduced by
countable income. Some medical and other expenses
are allowed as deductions from countable income.

Hospitalization and Other Medical Care
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) provides a
nationwide system of health care through a system of
hospitals and community-based outpatient clinics to eligible veterans.
Enrollment and Provision of Hospitalization
and Outpatient Medical Care to Veterans
To receive health care, veterans generally must be
enrolled with the VA and may apply for enrollment at any
time. Veterans do not have to be enrolled if they (1) have
a service-connected disability of 50 percent or more,
(2) want care for a disability that the military determined
was incurred or aggravated in the line of duty but that the
VA has not yet rated during the 12-month period following
discharge, or (3) want care for a service-connected disability.

Enrolled veterans and those not subject to enrollment are eligible to receive comprehensive medical benefits, which include basic and preventive care.
Eligibility Requirements
Basic eligibility for hospital care and outpatient medical
services are based on a veteran's character of discharge
from active military service. Veterans discharged prior to
September 7, 1980, for other than dishonorable conditions have basic eligibility for care. However, veterans
discharged after September 7, 1980, must have completed 24 consecutive months of active-duty service.
Reservists who were called or ordered to active duty may
also be eligible for care as a veteran if they complete the
full period for which they were called or ordered to active
duty. The 24-month minimum service time requirement
does apply to veterans who were discharged for reasons
of early-out under Title 38, U.S.C. 1173, discharged for a
disability incurred or aggravated in the line of duty, was
awarded VA compensation, or is in need of care for an
adjudicated service-connected disability.
Care for Dependents and Survivors
The dependents and survivors of certain veterans may
be eligible for medical care under the Civilian Health and
Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs
(CHAMPVA) if not eligible for medical care under Tricare
or Medicare. Tricare (formerly known as CHAMPUS) is
the health program administered by the Department of
Defense for dependents of active-duty personnel and military retirees and their dependents.
Beneficiaries covered by CHAMPVA may be treated
at Department facilities when space is available. Usually,
however, the person with CHAMPVA coverage is treated
at a community hospital of his or her choice. The Department of Veterans Affairs pays for a part of the bill, and the
beneficiary is responsible for any required copayment.
Nursing Home Care
A veteran seeking nursing home care must meet the
established eligibility requirements for admission to a
Department of Veterans Affairs nursing home. The Veterans Millennium Health Care and Benefits Act
(P.L. 106-117, passed by Congress on November 30,
1999) made amendments to the original authority for
nursing home placement. The new law requires that the
VA:

Provide nursing home care to any veteran in need of
such care for a service-connected disability;

Provide nursing home care to any veteran who is in
need of such care and who has a service-connected
disability rated at 70 percent or greater;
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 71

Provide nursing home care, either directly or through
contracts when clinically indicated for eligible veterans;
Facilities will determine the need for nursing home
care based on a comprehensive interdisciplinary
assessment.

Other Medical Benefits
Other Department of Veterans Affairs programs and
medical benefits are available to certain veterans. Veterans do not need to be enrolled in the VA health care system to be eligible for any of the following benefits,
although there may be restrictions: domiciliary care, alcohol and drug dependency treatment; prosthetic appliances; modification in certain veterans’ homes when so
ordered by his or her physician, subject to cost limitations; compensation and pension examinations; care as
part of a VA-approved research project; readjustment
counseling and treatment for Vietnam veterans; sexual
trauma counseling for veterans suffering from trauma of
a sexual nature during active military service; counseling;
vocational rehabilitation counseling; special registry
examinations and dental care.

72 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

Educational Assistance
The post-Vietnam Veterans' Educational Assistance
Program (VEAP) is a voluntary contributory matching
program for persons entering service after December 31,
1976. To be eligible, the servicemember must have initially contributed to VEAP before April 1, 1987. The Montgomery GI Bill–Active Duty program provides education
benefits for individuals entering military service on or
after July 1, 1985, and for certain other individuals. Servicemembers entering active duty have their basic pay
reduced $100 a month for the first 12 months of their service unless they specifically elect not to participate. An
educational assistance program is also available for individuals who enter the Selected Reserve on or after
July 1, 1985.
The Department of Veterans Affairs also pays educational assistance for dependents if a veteran is permanently and totally disabled from a service-related cause,
or dies as a result of service, or while completely disabled from service-related causes.

CONTACT: Michael Wells (202) 273-5776.

Section 2. History of Program
Provisions and SSA
Administrative Data

Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability
Insurance
Coverage, Financing, and
Insured Status
Benefit Computation and
Automatic Adjustments
Benefit Types and Levels
Effect of Current Earnings and
Taxation of Benefits

2.1
2.11
2.35
2.53

Supplemental Security Income
History of Provisions
Medicare
Medicaid

2.59
2.60
2.62

SSA Administrative Data
Offices and Staff
Claims Workloads
Service Delivery
Hearings and Appeals

2.64
2.66
2.67
2.68

2.A OASDI: Coverage, Financing, and Insured Status
Table 2.A1—Covered employment and self-employment provisions, by year enacted
Coverage election
or waiver

Year enacted
1935

Provision

...

All workers in commerce and industry (except railroads) under age 65 in the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii
and on American vessels. (Covered after 1936.)

1939

...

Age restriction eliminated.

1946

...

Railroad and Social Security earnings combined to determine eligibility for and amount of survivors benefits.

1950

...

Regularly employed farm and domestic workers. Nonfarm self-employed (except members of professional groups).
Federal civilian employees not under a federal retirement system. U.S. citizens employed outside the United States by
American employers. Workers in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (effective January 1, 1951).

Elective by employer

State and local government employees not under a state and local government retirement system. Termination permitted
2 years after giving notice if group has 5 years of coverage when notice is given.

Elective by employer
and employee

Employees (other than members of the clergy) of nonprofit organizations (upon election by employer, each current
employee given a choice as to coverage; new employees are covered). Nonprofit organizations permitted to terminate
coverage 2 years after giving notice, if the organization has 8 years of coverage when notice is given.

1951

...

Railroad workers with less than 10 years of service, for all benefits. (After October 1951, coverage retroactive to 1937.)

1954

...

Farm self-employed. Professional self-employed except lawyers, dentists, physicians, and members of other medical
groups (taxable years ending after 1954). Additional regularly employed farm and domestic workers. Homeworkers.

1956

1960
1965

Elective by employer

U.S. citizens employed outside the United States by a foreign subsidiary of an American employer.

Elective by employer
and employee

State and local government employees (except fire fighters and police personnel) under a state or local government
retirement system (coverage provided at state’s option; a majority of the eligible employees must vote in favor). See
above (elective by employer, 1950) for termination rule.

Elective by individual

Members of the clergy and of religious orders not under a vow of poverty.

...

Members of the uniformed services on active duty or on active duty for training. Remainder of professional self-employed
except physicians (taxable years ending after 1955). Farm landlords who materially participate in farm operations.

Elective by employer
and employee

Fire fighters and police personnel in designated states. State and local government employees under a state or local
government retirement system in designated states may be divided into two systems, one excluding employees not
desiring coverage (new employees covered).

...

U.S. citizens employed in United States by foreign governments or international organizations. Parents working for
children (except domestic or casual labor). Workers in Guam and American Samoa.

...

Interns. Self-employed physicians (taxable years ending on or after December 31, 1965). Tips for employee tax only.

Elective by individual

Members of certain religious sects may obtain exemptions from self-employed coverage (retroactive to 1951).

Elective by employer
and employee

Fire fighters under state and local government retirement system (under a majority favorable vote) and only if governor of
state certifies Social Security protection.

Subject to waiver
by individual

Members of the clergy and of religious orders not under a vow of poverty are covered automatically, but they can choose
to be exempt on grounds of conscience or religious principles. Taxable years ending after 1967.

1972

Elective by employer

Members of a religious order who are subject to a vow of poverty. Retroactivity allowed for 5 years but not earlier than
January 1, 1968.

1977

Elective by individual

Members of the clergy and of religious orders who filed an application for exemption from coverage may revoke the
exemption if the revocation is filed before the due date of the individual’s federal income tax return for the first taxable year
beginning after December 20, 1977.

1982

...

Federal employees—Hospital Insurance (Part A) program only, effective January 1, 1983.

1983

...

Federal employees newly hired after December 31, 1983, including executive, legislative, and judicial branch employees,
and also including those hired before January 1, 1984, with a break in service lasting more than 365 days. Excludes reemployed annuitants hired before January 1, 1984.

...

Legislative branch employees hired before 1984 who were not participating in the Civil Service Retirement System on
December 31, 1983.

...

Members of Congress, the president, the vice president, sitting federal judges, and most executive-level political
appointees of the federal government.

1967

...

Employees of nonprofit organizations.

...

U.S. residents employed outside the United States by American employers.

Elective by employer

U.S. residents employed outside the United States by a foreign affiliate of an American employer.

...

Employees of nonprofit organizations placed under compulsory coverage; nonprofit organizations prohibited from
terminating coverage of their employees on or after March 31, 1983.

Elective by employer or by
employer and employee

States prohibited from terminating coverage of employees (after April 20, 1983) and permitted to reinstate coverage for a
terminated group.
(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.1

2.A OASDI: Coverage, Financing, and Insured Status
Table 2.A1—Covered employment and self-employment provisions, by year enacted—Continued
Coverage election
or waiver

Year enacted
1984

1986

Provision

...

Rehired federal employees whose previous service was covered.

...

Persons exercising reemployment rights to noncovered federal employment retain exemption after a period (not limited to
365 or fewer days) of military or national guard service or work for an international organization.

...

Generally, all legislative branch employees except those who were participating on December 31, 1983, and are also
currently participating in the Civil Service Retirement System or another federal retirement system.

...

Employees of nonprofit organizations who are also participating on a mandatory basis in the Civil Service Retirement
System are treated like federal employees for Social Security tax and coverage purposes. They are therefore not covered
unless hired on or after January 1, 1984, or reemployed after a break in service of more than 365 days.

Elective by employer

Churches or church-related organizations may elect irrevocably to have services performed by their employees excluded
from covered employment. Their employees are then treated as self-employed for Social Security purposes.

...

State and local government employees hired after March 31, 1986—Hospital Insurance (Part A) program only.

Elective by individual

Members of the clergy and of religious orders who filed an application for exemption from coverage may revoke the
exemption if the revocation is filed before the due date of the individual’s federal income tax return for the first taxable year
beginning after October 22, 1986.

Elective by employee

Employees covered under Civil Service Retirement System can elect to switch to Federal Employees Retirement System
from July 1, 1987, to December 31, 1987.

1987

...

Members of uniformed services reserve components on inactive duty training. Irregularly employed farm workers (if
employer’s annual expenditures for farm labor is at least $2,500). Services performed in trade or business of spouse or by
children aged 18 or older in trade or business of parent. For employers, the full amount of covered tips.

1990

...

State and local government employees not under a state or local government retirement system. Exceptions: (1) students
employed by the educational institution they attend and (2) election workers paid less than the mandated amount ($100),
unless either group covered under a state’s Section 218 agreement.

1994

...

Threshold for exclusion of wages paid to election workers raised from $100 to $1,000 annually beginning January 1, 1995,
and will be indexed for wage increases each year after December 31, 1999.

...

Police and fire fighters under a public retirement system can be covered for Social Security in all states.

...

Threshold for coverage of domestic employees’ earnings raised from $50 per calendar quarter to $1,000 per calendar
year per employer; amount subject to annual automatic adjustments. Domestic workers no longer covered for years in
which they were under age 18, unless they are no longer in school and domestic employment is their principal occupation.
Coverage of earnings of domestic workers on farms becomes subject to new annual threshold for domestic workers
instead of annual threshold for agricultural employees.

1997

Elective by employee

Employees covered under Civil Service Retirement System can elect to switch to Federal Employees Retirement System
from July 1, 1998, to December 31, 1998.

1998

...

States can modify their Social Security coverage agreements made between January 1, 1999, and March 31, 1999, to
exclude from coverage services performed by students employed by state schools, colleges, or universities, effective for
services performed after June 30, 2000.

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm.
NOTE: . . . = not applicable.
CONTACT: Greg Diez (410) 965-0153.

2.2 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Coverage, Financing, and Insured Status
Table 2.A2—Noncontributory wage credit provisions, by year enacted
Year enacted

Provision

1946

Fully insured status and average monthly wage of $160 for World War II veterans who died within 3 years after discharge.

1950

Wage credits of $160 per month of military service during World War II period (September 16, 1940–July 24, 1947).

1952

Wage credits of $160 per month of military service to December 31, 1953.

1953

Wage credits of $160 per month of military service to June 30, 1955.

1954

Wage credits of $160 per month of military service to March 31, 1956.

1956

Wage credits of $160 per month of military service to December 31, 1956.

1967

For uniformed services, wage credits of $100 for each $100 (or fraction thereof) of basic pay not in excess of $300 per calendar quarter, beginning in
1968.

1972

For uniformed services, wage credits of $300 per calendar quarter of service after 1956. (Supersedes 1967 provision.) For U.S. citizens of Japanese
ancestry, wage credits for the period they were interned by the U.S. government during World War II period (December 7, 1941–December 31, 1946)
and who were aged 18 or older.

1977

For uniformed services, wage credits of $100 for each $300 of basic pay up to maximum credit of $1,200 per calendar year after 1977.

2002

For uniformed services, deemed wage credits are eliminated for all years after calendar year 2001. Deemed wage credits will continue to be given for
appropriate earnings for periods prior to calendar year 2002.

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm.
CONTACT: Greg Diez (410) 965-0153.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.3

2.A OASDI: Coverage, Financing, and Insured Status
Table 2.A3—Annual maximum taxable earnings and contribution rates, 1937–2006
Contribution rate (percent)

Annual maximum
taxable earnings (dollars)

Employer and employee, each

Self-employed person

OASDI

HI

Total,
OASDI
and HI

OASI

DI

HI

Total,
OASDI
and HI

OASI

DI

HI

1937–1949
1950
1951–1953
1954
1955–1956
1957–1958
1959

3,000
3,000
3,600
3,600
4,200
4,200
4,800

...
...
...
...
...
...
...

1.0
1.5
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.25
2.5

1.0
1.5
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.25

...
...
...
...
...
0.25
0.25

...
...
...
...
...
...
...

...
...
2.25
3.0
3.0
3.375
3.75

...
...
2.25
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.375

...
...
...
...
...
0.375
0.375

...
...
...
...
...
...
...

1960–1961
1962
1963–1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

4,800
4,800
4,800
6,600
6,600
7,800
7,800

...
...
...
6,600
6,600
7,800
7,800

3.0
3.125
3.625
4.2
4.4
4.4
4.8

2.75
2.875
3.375
3.5
3.55
3.325
3.725

0.25
0.25
0.25
0.35
0.35
0.475
0.475

...
...
...
0.35
0.5
0.6
0.6

4.5
4.7
5.4
6.15
6.4
6.4
6.9

4.125
4.325
5.025
5.275
5.375
5.0875
5.5875

0.375
0.375
0.375
0.525
0.525
0.7125
0.7125

...
...
...
0.35
0.5
0.6
0.6

7,800
7,800
9,000
10,800
13,200

7,800
7,800
9,000
10,800
13,200

4.8
5.2
5.2
5.85
5.85

3.65
4.05
4.05
4.3
4.375

0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.575

0.6
0.6
0.6
1.0
0.9

6.9
7.5
7.5
8.0
7.9

5.475
6.075
6.075
6.205
6.185

0.825
0.825
0.825
0.795
0.815

0.6
0.6
0.6
1.0
0.9

Year

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

a

14,100
15,300
a 16,500
a 17,700
22,900

a

a

a

14,100
15,300
a 16,500
a 17,700
22,900

5.85
5.85
5.85
6.05
6.13

4.375
4.375
4.375
4.275
4.33

0.575
0.575
0.575
0.775
0.75

0.9
0.9
0.9
1.0
1.05

7.9
7.9
7.9
8.1
8.1

6.185
6.185
6.185
6.01
6.01

0.815
0.815
0.815
1.09
1.04

0.9
0.9
0.9
1.0
1.05

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

25,900
29,700
a
32,400
a
35,700
a
37,800

25,900
29,700
a
32,400
a
35,700
a
37,800

6.13
6.65
6.7
6.7
b
7.0

4.52
4.7
4.575
4.775
5.2

0.56
0.65
0.825
0.625
0.5

1.05
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3

8.1
9.3
9.35
9.35
b
14.0

6.2725
7.025
6.8125
7.1125
10.4

0.7775
0.975
1.2375
0.9375
1.0

1.05
1.3
1.3
1.3
2.6

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

a

a

39,600
42,000
a 43,800
a 45,000
a 48,000
a

7.05
7.15
7.15
7.51
7.51

5.2
5.2
5.2
5.53
5.53

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.53
0.53

1.35
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45

b

a

14.1
14.3
b 14.3
b 15.02
b 15.02

10.4
10.4
10.4
11.06
11.06

1.0
1.0
1.0
1.06
1.06

2.7
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

c

51,300
53,400
c
55,500
a
57,600
a
60,600

c

7.65
7.65
7.65
7.65
7.65

5.6
5.6
5.6
5.6
5.26

0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.94

1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45

15.3
15.3
15.3
15.3
15.3

11.2
11.2
11.2
11.2
10.52

1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.88

2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

a

e

a

e

7.65
7.65
7.65
7.65
7.65

5.26
5.26
5.35
5.35
5.35

0.94
0.94
0.85
0.85
0.85

1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45

15.3
15.3
15.3
15.3
15.3

10.52
10.52
10.7
10.7
10.7

1.88
1.88
1.7
1.7
1.7

2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9

39,600
42,000
a 43,800
a 45,000
a 48,000
c

61,200
62,700
a
65,400
a
68,400
a
72,600

51,300
125,000
130,200
a
135,000
d

e

e
e
e

b

(Continued)

2.4 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Coverage, Financing, and Insured Status
Table 2.A3—Annual maximum taxable earnings and contribution rates, 1937–2006—Continued
Contribution rate (percent)

Annual maximum
taxable earnings (dollars)

Year

Employer and employee, each

OASDI

HI

76,200
a
80,400
a
84,900
a
87,000
a
87,900

e

a

e

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

a

2005
2006

a

90,000
94,200

e
e
e
e

e

Total,
OASDI
and HI

OASI

DI

7.65
7.65
7.65
7.65
7.65

5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3

0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9

7.65
7.65

5.3
5.3

0.9
0.9

Self-employed person

HI

Total,
OASDI
and HI

OASI

DI

HI

1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45

15.3
15.3
15.3
15.3
15.3

10.6
10.6
10.6
10.6
10.6

1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8

2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9

1.45
1.45

15.3
15.3

10.6
10.6

1.8
1.8

2.9
2.9

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Social Security
Administration, "Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2006," Federal Register, vol. 70, no. 205 (October 25, 2005).
NOTE: DI = Disability Insurance; HI = Hospital Insurance; OASI = Old-Age and Survivors Insurance; OASDI = Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance;
. . . = not applicable.
a.
b.

c.
d.
e.

Based on automatic adjustment, under legislation in 1972 (as modified by legislation in 1973), in proportion to increases in average wage level.
Tables 2.A3 and 2.A4 show the tax rate and tax amount paid by employers and received by the OASDI trust funds. In 1984, the 5.7 percent OASDI tax on taxable
wages of employees was offset by a tax credit of 0.3 percent, resulting in an effective employee tax rate of 5.4 percent. However, the OASDI trust funds received the
full 5.7 percent because of a general revenue transfer equivalent to 0.3 percent of taxable wages. Similar credits of 2.7 percent, 2.3 percent, and 2.0 percent were
allowed against the combined OASDI and HI taxes on net earnings from self-employment in 1984, 1985, and from 1986 to 1989, respectively.
Based on automatic adjustment, under legislation in 1972 (as modified by legislation in 1973), using a transitional rule, specified by the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1989, for computing a "deemed" average annual wage for 1988, 1989, and 1990.
Based on legislation in 1990.
Upper limit on earnings subject to HI taxes was repealed by OBRA 1993.

CONTACT: Greg Diez (410) 965-0153.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.5

2.A OASDI: Coverage, Financing, and Insured Status
Table 2.A4—Maximum annual amount of contributions, 1937–2006 (in dollars)
Employee

Self-employed person

Year

Total,
OASDI
and HI

HI

Total,
OASDI
and HI

Subtotal,
OASDI

OASI

DI

Subtotal,
OASDI

1937–1949
1950
1951–1953
1954
1955–1956
1957–1958
1959

30.00
45.00
54.00
72.00
84.00
94.50
120.00

30.00
45.00
54.00
72.00
84.00
94.50
120.00

30.00
45.00
54.00
72.00
84.00
84.00
108.00

OASI

DI

HI

...
...
...
...
...
10.50
12.00

...
...
...
...
...
...
...

...
...
81.00
108.00
126.00
141.75
180.00

...
...
81.00
108.00
126.00
141.75
180.00

...
...
81.00
108.00
126.00
126.00
162.00

...
...
...
...
...
15.75
18.00

...
...
...
...
...
...
...

1960–1961
1962
1963–1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

144.00
150.00
174.00
277.20
290.40
343.20
374.40

144.00
150.00
174.00
254.10
257.40
296.40
327.60

132.00
138.00
162.00
231.00
234.30
259.35
290.55

12.00
12.00
12.00
23.10
23.10
37.05
37.05

...
...
...
23.10
33.00
46.80
46.80

216.00
225.60
259.20
405.90
422.40
499.20
538.20

216.00
225.60
259.20
382.80
389.40
452.40
491.40

198.00
207.60
241.20
348.15
354.75
396.825
435.825

18.00
18.00
18.00
34.65
34.65
55.575
55.575

...
...
...
23.10
33.00
46.80
46.80

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

374.40
405.60
468.00
631.80
772.20

327.60
358.80
414.00
523.80
653.40

284.70
315.90
364.50
464.40
577.50

42.90
42.90
49.50
59.40
75.90

46.80
46.80
54.00
108.00
118.80

538.20
585.00
675.00
864.00
1,042.80

491.40
538.20
621.00
756.00
924.00

427.05
473.85
546.75
670.14
816.42

64.35
64.35
74.25
85.86
107.58

46.80
46.80
54.00
108.00
118.80

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

824.85
895.05
965.25
1,070.85
1,403.77

697.95
757.35
816.75
893.85
1,163.32

616.875
669.375
721.875
756.675
991.59

81.075
87.975
94.875
137.175
171.75

126.90
137.70
148.50
177.00
240.45

1,113.90
1,208.70
1,303.50
1,433.70
1,854.90

987.00
1,071.00
1,155.00
1,256.70
1,614.45

872.085
946.305
1,020.525
1,063.77
1,376.29

114.915
124.695
134.475
192.93
238.16

126.90
137.70
148.50
177.00
240.45

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984 a

1,587.67
1,975.05
2,170.80
2,391.90
2,646.00

1,315.72
1,588.95
1,749.60
1,927.80
2,154.60

1,170.68
1,395.90
1,482.30
1,704.675
1,965.60

145.04
193.05
267.30
223.125
189.00

271.95
386.10
421.20
464.10
491.40

2,097.90
2,762.10
3,029.40
3,337.95
5,292.00

1,825.95
2,376.00
2,608.20
2,873.85
4,309.20

1,624.58
2,086.43
2,207.25
2,539.1625
3,931.20

201.37
289.57
400.95
334.6875
378.00

271.95
386.10
421.20
464.10
982.80
(Continued)

2.6 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Coverage, Financing, and Insured Status
Table 2.A4—Maximum annual amount of contributions, 1937–2006 (in dollars)—Continued
Employee

Self-employed person

Total,
OASDI
and HI

Subtotal,
OASDI

OASI

DI

1985 a
1986 a
1987 a
1988 a
1989 a

2,791.80
3,003.00
3,131.70
3,379.50
3,604.80

2,257.20
2,394.00
2,496.60
2,727.00
2,908.80

2,059.20
2,184.00
2,277.60
2,488.50
2,654.40

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

3,924.45
5,123.30
5,328.90
5,528.70

3,180.60
3,310.80
3,441.00
3,571.20
3,757.20

2,872.80
2,990.40
3,108.00
3,225.60
3,187.56

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

b

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

b

2005
2006

b

Year

b

b
b
b
b

b
b
b
b

b

HI

Total,
OASDI
and HI

Subtotal,
OASDI

OASI

DI

HI

198.00
210.00
219.00
238.50
254.40

534.60
609.00
635.10
652.50
696.00

5,583.60
6,006.00
6,263.40
6,759.00
7,209.60

4,514.40
4,788.00
4,993.20
5,454.00
5,817.60

4,118.40
4,368.00
4,555.20
4,977.00
5,308.80

396.00
420.00
438.00
477.00
508.80

1,069.20
1,218.00
1,270.20
1,305.00
1,392.00

307.80
320.40
333.00
345.60
569.64

743.85
1,812.50
1,887.90
1,957.50

7,848.90
10,246.60
10,657.80
11,057.40
b

5,745.60
5,980.80
6,216.00
6,451.20
6,375.12

615.60
640.80
666.00
691.20
1,139.28

1,487.70
3,625.00
3,775.80
3,915.00

b

6,361.20
6,621.60
6,882.00
7,142.40
7,514.40

b
b

b

b

b

b

7,588.80
7,774.80
8,109.60
8,481.60
9,002.40

6,438.24
6,596.04
6,997.80
7,318.80
7,768.20

1,150.56
1,178.76
1,111.80
1,162.80
1,234.20

b

b

9,448.80
9,969.60
10,527.60
10,788.00
10,899.60

8,077.20
8,522.40
8,999.40
9,222.00
9,317.40

1,371.60
1,447.20
1,528.20
1,566.00
1,582.20

b

11,160.00
11,680.80

9,540.00
9,985.20

1,620.00
1,695.60

b

3,794.40
3,887.40
4,054.80
4,240.80
4,501.20

3,219.12
3,298.02
3,498.90
3,659.40
3,884.10

575.28
589.38
555.90
581.40
617.10

b

b

b

4,724.40
4,984.80
5,236.80
5,394.00
5,449.80

4,038.60
4,261.20
4,499.70
4,611.00
4,658.70

685.80
723.60
764.10
783.00
791.10

b

b

b

b

b

b

b

b

b

b

810.00
847.80

b

b

b

b

5,580.00
5,840.40

4,770.00
4,992.60

b

b
b
b
b

b
b
b
b

b

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Social Security
Administration, "Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2006," Federal Register, vol. 70, no. 205 (October 25, 2005).
NOTE: DI = Disability Insurance; HI = Hospital Insurance; OASI = Old-Age and Survivors Insurance; OASDI = Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance;
. . . = not applicable.
a.

b.

Tables 2.A3 and 2.A4 show the tax rate and tax amount paid by employers and received by the OASDI trust funds. In 1984, the 5.7 percent OASDI tax on taxable
wages of employees was offset by a tax credit of 0.3 percent, resulting in an effective employee tax rate of 5.4 percent. However, the OASDI trust funds received the
full 5.7 percent because of a general revenue transfer equivalent to 0.3 percent of taxable wages. Similar credits of 2.7 percent, 2.3 percent, and 2.0 percent were
allowed against the combined OASDI and HI taxes on net earnings from self-employment in 1984, 1985, and from 1986 to 1989, respectively.
Upper limit on earnings subject to HI taxes was repealed by the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1993.

CONTACT: Greg Diez (410) 965-0153.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.7

2.A OASDI: Coverage, Financing, and Insured Status
Table 2.A5—Tax credits enacted in 1983
Group

Tax payable under—

Percentage
of earnings

Tax credit, effective with respect to—

Employee

Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA)

0.3

Remuneration paid in calendar year 1984

Self-employed

Self-Employment Contributions Act (SECA)

2.7

Self-employment income for taxable years beginning in 1984

2.3

Self-employment income for taxable years beginning in 1985

2.0

Self-employment income for taxable years beginning in 1986, 1987, 1988,
and 1989

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm.
NOTES: During this period, scheduled taxes were credited to the Social Security (Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance, or OASDI) trust funds, monies for tax
credits were paid from the Treasury, and the reduced tax rates were paid by employees and the self-employed.
Tables 2.A3 and 2.A4 show the tax rate and tax amount paid by employers and received by the OASDI trust funds. In 1984, the 5.7 percent OASDI tax on taxable wages
of employees was offset by a tax credit of 0.3 percent, resulting in an effective employee tax rate of 5.4 percent. However, the OASDI trust funds received the full
5.7 percent because of a general revenue transfer equivalent to 0.3 percent of taxable wages. Similar credits of 2.7 percent, 2.3 percent, and 2.0 percent were allowed
against the combined OASDI and Hospital Insurance (HI) taxes on net earnings from self-employment in 1984, 1985, and from 1986 to 1989, respectively.
CONTACT: Greg Diez (410) 965-0153.

Table 2.A6—Appropriations from general revenues and interfund borrowing provisions, by type of transaction
and year enacted
Year enacted

Provision

Appropriations from general revenues
1935

Annual appropriations to the old-age reserve account to provide payments; direct appropriation to pay for administrative expenses.

1939

Trust fund created from which benefits and administrative expenses were to be paid.

1944

General authorization to finance benefits and payments.

1947

For cost of gratuitous military service wage credits.

1950

General authorization repealed.

1951

Railroad interchange provisions enacted.

1956

For cost of gratuitous military service wage credits.

1966

For cost of transitional uninsured monthly benefits for those aged 72 and older with fewer than 3 quarters of coverage.

1972

For cost of gratuitous wage credits for Japanese-American internees.

1983

A lump-sum payment to the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) trust funds equal to (1) the present value of the estimated
additional benefits arising from the gratuitous military service wage credits for service before 1957 and (2) the amount of the combined employeremployee OASDI taxes on the gratuitous wage credits for service after 1956 and before 1984 but less any amounts previously transferred. After
1983, the trust funds will be reimbursed on a current basis for employer-employee taxes on such wage credits for service after 1983.
A lump-sum payment to the OASDI trust funds representing the amount of uncashed benefit checks (including interest) issued in the past. In the
future, the trust funds will be credited on a regular basis. All transfers made for uncashed benefit checks will be subject to the annual
appropriation process.
Transfers in each year from the Treasury Department to the OASDI trust funds of amounts equal to income tax receipts attributable to inclusion of
Social Security benefits in taxable income.
For tax credits for part of the 1984 employment FICA tax and part of the tax on self-employment income under SECA for 1984–1989, see
Table 2.A5.

1993

Transfers in each year from the Treasury Department to the Hospital Insurance (HI) trust fund of amounts equal to income tax receipts
attributable to the increased portions of Social Security benefits included in taxable income under the 1993 Act.

Interfund borrowing
1981

Interfund borrowing permitted among Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI), Disability Insurance (DI), and Hospital Insurance (HI) trust funds
as needed until December 31, 1982. For all or part of any loan to be repaid, the managing trustee determines if assets of borrowing trust fund(s)
are sufficient for that purpose. Interest with respect to any outstanding loan balance at a rate equal to the rate earned by lending trust fund is
transferred from time to time.

1983

Interfund borrowing reauthorized among OASI, DI, and HI trust funds for calendar years 1983–1987, with provisions for scheduled repayment, no
later than December 31, 1989, of principal and interest (including amounts borrowed in 1982). No borrowing permitted from any fund that has
been reduced to specified levels.

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm.
CONTACT: Greg Diez (410) 965-0153.

2.8 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Coverage, Financing, and Insured Status
Table 2.A7—Insured status (benefit eligibility) provisions, by eligibility concept and year enacted
Year enacted

Provision

Quarter of coverage
1939

Calendar quarter in which $50 of wages is earned. Four quarters of coverage (QC) are credited for covered earnings equal to maximum limitation for
the year.

1946

Calendar quarter in which $50 of wages is paid.

1950

Calendar quarter credited with $100 of self-employment income (reported annually).

1954

Calendar quarter credited with $100 of agricultural wages (reported annually).

1977

Calendar quarters of coverage (up to 4) for each $250 of annual earnings, effective January 1, 1978 (effective on January 1 of each year, dollar amount
subject to automatic increase):

Year

Amount (dollars)

1979

260

1980

290

1981

310

1982

340

1983

370

1984

390

1985

410

1986

440

1987

460

1988

470

1989

500

1990

520

1991

540

1992

570

1993

590

1994

620

1995

630

1996

640

1997

670

1998

700

1999

740

2000

780

2001

830

2002

870

2003

890

2004

900

2005

920

2006

970

Disability definition
1954

Inability to engage in substantial gainful activity because of any medically determinable permanent physical or mental impairment.

1965

Disability lasting at least 12 months. For blind persons aged 55–64, inability to engage in usual occupation.

1967

Disability that precludes engagement in any substantial gainful work existing in the national economy. For surviving spouse, disability precludes any
gainful activity.

1990

More restrictive definition for surviving spouse eliminated.

1954

Continuous period of at least 6 months as defined above or of blindness.

1972

At least 5 months of disability.

Period of disability

(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.9

2.A OASDI: Coverage, Financing, and Insured Status
Table 2.A7—Insured status (benefit eligibility) provisions, by eligibility concept and year enacted—Continued
Year enacted

Provision

Fully insured
1935

Cumulative wages of $2,000 and employment in each of 5 years after 1936 and before attainment of age 65.

1939

QC equal to one-half the quarters elapsed after 1936 (or quarter in which age 21 attained) and before quarter of death or attainment of age 65.
Minimum 6 QC, maximum 40 QC.

1950

Elapsed period measured after 1950 (QC earned at any time are used).

1954

Period of disability excluded from elapsed period. Alternatively, QC earned in all quarters after 1954 and before quarter in which age 65 attained
(minimum 6 QC).

1956

Elapsed period measured to age 62 for women. Alternatively, QC earned in all except 4 quarters after 1954 and before quarter in which age 65 attained
(62 for women).

1960

QC reduced to one-third the elapsed quarters.

1961

QC equal to years elapsed after 1950 (or year age 21 attained) and before year of death or age 65 (62 for women).

1972

Elapsed period for men reaching age 62 after 1972, measured to age 62 or to 1975, if later.

1983

Any person aged 55 or older on January 1, 1984, and employed by a nonprofit organization to whose employees coverage is extended solely by
reason of the new compulsory coverage provision will be deemed fully insured upon subsequently acquiring 6 QC if aged 60 or older on January 1,
1984; 8 QC if aged 59; 12 QC if aged 58; 16 QC if aged 57; and 20 QC if aged 55 or 56.

2004

Workers who are not citizens or nationals of the United States (referred to here as noncitizens) must meet additional requirements to be fully or
currently insured. Noncitizen workers whose Social Security number (SSN) was originally assigned on or after January 1, 2004, must have been issued
an SSN for work purposes at any time on or after January 1, 2004; or must have been admitted to the United States at any time as a nonimmigrant
visitor for business (B-1) or as an alien crewman (D-1 or D-2).

Currently insured
1939

6 QC earned in 12 quarters before quarter of death.

1946

6 QC earned in preceding 13 quarters, including quarter of death.

1950

Including quarter of retirement added.

1954

Including quarter of disablement added.

2004

Workers who are not citizens or nationals of the United States (referred to here as noncitizens) must meet additional requirements to be fully or
currently insured. Noncitizen workers whose Social Security number (SSN) was originally assigned on or after January 1, 2004, must have been issued
an SSN for work purposes at any time on or after January 1, 2004; or must have been admitted to the United States at any time as a nonimmigrant
visitor for business (B-1) or as an alien crewman (D-1 or D-2).

Disability insured
1954

20 QC earned in last 40 quarters, including quarter of disablement, and currently insured.

1956

Fully insured requirement added.

1958

Currently insured requirement eliminated.

1960

Alternatively, 20 QC earned before quarter of disablement (not necessarily in last 40 quarters) but QC earned in all quarters after 1950, with minimum
of 6 QC.

1965

Alternatively, for blind under age 31, QC earned in one-half the quarters elapsed after age 21, with minimum of 6 QC. For blind under age 24, 6 QC
earned in preceding 12 quarters.

1967

For all disabled under age 31, same alternative.

1972

For blind, requirement for recent QC eliminated.

1983

For those who become disabled again at age 31 or older and who were previously disabled before age 31, same alternative as that for those under
age 31.

Transitionally insured
1965

Same as fully insured, but minimum reduced to 3 QC.

Requirement for special age-72 monthly benefit
1966

3 QC for each year elapsed after 1966 and before attainment of age 72. (No QC if aged 72 before 1968.)

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Social Security
Administration, "Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2006," Federal Register, vol. 70, no. 205 (October 25, 2005).
CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

2.10 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A8—Factors for indexing earnings, 1951–2006
Factors for workers who were first eligible (attained age 62, became disabled, or died) in b—

Year

Annual
maximum
taxable
earnings
(dollars)

Average
annual
wage a
(dollars)

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1951
1952
1953
1954

3,600
3,600
3,600
3,600

2,799.16
2,973.32
3,139.44
3,155.64

7.5122465
7.0722223
6.6980035
6.6636182

7.7921948
7.3357728
6.9476085
6.9119418

8.1936795
7.7137409
7.3055768
7.2680724

8.2641471
7.7800809
7.3684065
7.3305795

8.4859494
7.9888912
7.5661679
7.5273257

8.8260978
8.3091157
7.8694481
7.8290489

9.2577416
8.7154763
8.2543065
8.2119317

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

4,200
4,200
4,200
4,200
4,800

3,301.44
3,532.36
3,641.72
3,673.80
3,855.80

6.3693358
5.9529550
5.7741891
5.7237683
5.4535972

6.6066928
6.1747953
5.9893677
5.9370679
5.6568287

6.9470958
6.4929452
6.2979636
6.2429691
5.9482909

7.0068425
6.5487861
6.3521276
6.2966601
5.9994476

7.1948998
6.7245496
6.5226129
6.4656568
6.1604673

7.4832982
6.9940946
6.7840636
6.7248244
6.4074018

7.8492718
7.3361435
7.1158409
7.0537046
6.7207583

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

4,800
4,800
4,800
4,800
4,800

4,007.12
4,086.76
4,291.40
4,396.64
4,576.32

5.2476542
5.1453915
4.9000280
4.7827386
4.5949540

5.4432111
5.3371375
5.0826304
4.9609702
4.7661877

5.7236669
5.6121279
5.3445076
5.2165790
5.0117605

5.7728918
5.6603936
5.3904716
5.2614428
5.0548629

5.9278310
5.8123134
5.5351470
5.4026552
5.1905308

6.1654405
6.0452926
5.7570164
5.6192138
5.3985866

6.4669638
6.3409400
6.0385655
5.8940236
5.6626066

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

4,800
6,600
6,600
7,800
7,800

4,658.72
4,938.36
5,213.44
5,571.76
5,893.76

4.5136819
4.2580897
4.0334175
3.7740283
3.5678378

4.6818869
4.4167699
4.1837251
3.9146697
3.7007954

4.9231162
4.6443394
4.3992872
4.1163690
3.8914751

4.9654562
4.6842818
4.4371221
4.1517707
3.9249427

5.0987245
4.8100037
4.5562105
4.2632005
4.0302846

5.3031004
5.0028066
4.7388404
4.4340855
4.1918334

5.5624506
5.2474708
4.9705952
4.6509361
4.3968367

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

7,800
7,800
9,000
10,800
13,200

6,186.24
6,497.08
7,133.80
7,580.16
8,030.76

3.3991536
3.2365278
2.9476548
2.7740813
2.6184296

3.5258251
3.3571389
3.0575009
2.8774591
2.7160070

3.7074895
3.5301120
3.2150355
3.0257171
2.8559464

3.7393748
3.5604718
3.2426855
3.0517390
2.8805082

3.8397363
3.6560316
3.3297163
3.1336449
2.9578184

3.9936472
3.8025790
3.4631837
3.2592531
3.0763788

4.1889581
3.9885456
3.6325521
3.4186482
3.2268303

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

14,100
15,300
16,500
17,700
22,900

8,630.92
9,226.48
9,779.44
10,556.03
11,479.46

2.4363544
2.2790902
2.1502233
1.9920349
1.8317917

2.5271466
2.3640218
2.2303527
2.0662692
1.9000545

2.6573552
2.4858256
2.3452693
2.1727316
1.9979529

2.6802091
2.5072043
2.3654391
2.1914176
2.0151357

2.7521435
2.5744954
2.4289254
2.2502333
2.0692202

2.8624596
2.6776907
2.5262858
2.3404310
2.1521622

3.0024493
2.8086443
2.6498348
2.4548907
2.2574145

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

25,900
29,700
32,400
35,700
37,800

12,513.46
13,773.10
14,531.34
15,239.24
16,135.07

1.6804289
1.5267427
1.4470778
1.3798575
1.3032469

1.7430511
1.5836377
1.5010040
1.4312787
1.3518132

1.8328600
1.6652330
1.5783417
1.5050239
1.4214639

1.8486230
1.6795543
1.5919158
1.5179674
1.4336889

1.8982384
1.7246321
1.6346414
1.5587083
1.4721678

1.9743268
1.7937618
1.7001639
1.6211871
1.5311777

2.0708821
1.8814864
1.7833111
1.7004719
1.6060606

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

39,600
42,000
43,800
45,000
48,000

16,822.51
17,321.82
18,426.51
19,334.04
20,099.55

1.2499906
1.2139590
1.1411808
1.0876144
1.0461916

1.2965723
1.2591979
1.1837076
1.1281450
1.0851785

1.3633768
1.3240768
1.2446969
1.1862715
1.1410912

1.3751022
1.3354642
1.2554016
1.1964737
1.1509049

1.4120087
1.3713068
1.2890954
1.2285860
1.1817941

1.4686072
1.4262739
1.3407672
1.2778323
1.2291648

1.5404301
1.4960264
1.4063379
1.3403251
1.2892776

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

51,300
53,400
55,500
57,600
60,600

21,027.98
21,811.60
22,935.42
23,132.67
23,753.53

1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0372656
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0907096
1.0515240
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.1000900
1.0605673
1.0086002
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.1296154
1.0890320
1.0356702
1.0268391
1.0000000

1.1748946
1.1326844
1.0771837
1.0679986
1.0400837

1.2323533
1.1880788
1.1298638
1.1202295
1.0909494

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

61,200
62,700
65,400
68,400
72,600

24,705.66
25,913.90
27,426.00
28,861.44
30,469.84

1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0489054
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

76,200
80,400
84,900
87,000
87,900

32,154.82
32,921.92
33,252.09
34,064.95
35,648.55

1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

2005
2006

90,000
94,200

...
...

1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000
(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.11

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A8—Factors for indexing earnings, 1951–2006—Continued
Factors for workers who were first eligible (attained age 62, became disabled, or died) in b—

Year

Annual
maximum
taxable
earnings
(dollars)

Average
annual
wage a
(dollars)

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

1951
1952
1953
1954

3,600
3,600
3,600
3,600

2,799.16
2,973.32
3,139.44
3,155.64

9.7979394
9.2240324
8.7359529
8.6911054

10.3107504
9.7068059
9.1931809
9.1459862

10.8853513
10.2477500
9.7055016
9.6556768

11.4873105
10.8144498
10.2422152
10.1896351

11.7613570
11.0724443
10.4865581
10.4327236

11.8793102
11.1834885
10.5917265
10.5373522

12.1697045
11.4568731
10.8506453
10.7949418

12.7354456
11.9894764
11.3550665
11.2967734

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

4,200
4,200
4,200
4,200
4,800

3,301.44
3,532.36
3,641.72
3,673.80
3,855.80

8.3072841
7.7642143
7.5310568
7.4652948
7.1129208

8.7420762
8.1705828
7.9252221
7.8560183
7.4852015

9.2292575
8.6259158
8.3668816
8.2938211
7.9023393

9.7396348
9.1029284
8.8295695
8.7524688
8.3393381

9.9719880
9.3200919
9.0402118
8.9612717
8.5382852

10.0719959
9.4135620
9.1308750
9.0511432
8.6239146

10.3182096
9.6436801
9.3540827
9.2724019
8.8347295

10.7978791
10.0919923
9.7889322
9.7034542
9.2454354

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

4,800
4,800
4,800
4,800
4,800

4,007.12
4,086.76
4,291.40
4,396.64
4,576.32

6.8443171
6.7109397
6.3909214
6.2379453
5.9930250

7.2025395
7.0621813
6.7254136
6.5644310
6.3066918

7.6039250
7.4557449
7.1002097
6.9302558
6.6581533

8.0244215
7.8680471
7.4928508
7.3134985
7.0263487

8.2158558
8.0557508
7.6716037
7.4879726
7.1939724

8.2982516
8.1365409
7.7485413
7.5630686
7.2661199

8.5011055
8.3354418
7.9379573
7.7479507
7.4437430

8.8963021
8.7229370
8.3069744
8.1081348
7.7897852

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

4,800
6,600
6,600
7,800
7,800

4,658.72
4,938.36
5,213.44
5,571.76
5,893.76

5.8870248
5.5536656
5.2606341
4.9223226
4.6533961

6.1951437
5.8443370
5.5359686
5.1799503
4.8969486

6.5403888
6.1700322
5.8444789
5.4686203
5.1698474

6.9020718
6.5112345
6.1676782
5.7710346
5.4557396

7.0667308
6.6665695
6.3148171
5.9087111
5.5858942

7.1376022
6.7334277
6.3781476
5.9679688
5.6419145

7.3120836
6.8980289
6.5340639
6.1138581
5.7798332

7.6520053
7.2187022
6.8378173
6.3980771
6.0485242

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

7,800
7,800
9,000
10,800
13,200

6,186.24
6,497.08
7,133.80
7,580.16
8,030.76

4.4333876
4.2212809
3.8445148
3.6181294
3.4151189

4.6654252
4.4422171
4.0457316
3.8074975
3.5938616

4.9254216
4.6897745
4.2711935
4.0196830
3.7941415

5.1977970
4.9491187
4.5073902
4.2419711
4.0039573

5.3217981
5.0671871
4.6149205
4.3431695
4.0994775

5.3751697
5.1180053
4.6612030
4.3867267
4.1405907

5.5065678
5.2431169
4.7751479
4.4939619
4.2418090

5.7625553
5.4868572
4.9971334
4.7028757
4.4390008

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

14,100
15,300
16,500
17,700
22,900

8,630.92
9,226.48
9,779.44
10,556.03
11,479.46

3.1776450
2.9725312
2.8044551
2.5981359
2.3891368

3.3439587
3.1281095
2.9512365
2.7341188
2.5141810

3.5303119
3.3024339
3.1157040
2.8864867
2.6542921

3.7255379
3.4850582
3.2880022
3.0461092
2.8010743

3.8144161
3.5681994
3.3664423
3.1187786
2.8678980

3.8526704
3.6039844
3.4002039
3.1500564
2.8966598

3.9468504
3.6920852
3.4833232
3.2270607
2.9674697

4.1303303
3.8637216
3.6452547
3.3770793
3.1054205

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

25,900
29,700
32,400
35,700
37,800

12,513.46
13,773.10
14,531.34
15,239.24
16,135.07

2.1917200
1.9912728
1.8873690
1.7996960
1.6997757

2.3064316
2.0954934
1.9861513
1.8938897
1.7887397

2.4349652
2.2122717
2.0968362
1.9994330
1.8884232

2.5696186
2.3346102
2.2127911
2.1100015
1.9928528

2.6309206
2.3903057
2.2655805
2.1603387
2.0403952

2.6573058
2.4142778
2.2883017
2.1820045
2.0608581

2.7222647
2.4732958
2.3442401
2.2353444
2.1112366

2.8488164
2.5882735
2.4532184
2.3392604
2.2093830

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

39,600
42,000
43,800
45,000
48,000

16,822.51
17,321.82
18,426.51
19,334.04
20,099.55

1.6303156
1.5833209
1.4883991
1.4185344
1.3645082

1.7156441
1.6661898
1.5662999
1.4927785
1.4359247

1.8112541
1.7590438
1.6535871
1.5759686
1.5159464

1.9114163
1.8563188
1.7450304
1.6631196
1.5997781

1.9570159
1.9006040
1.7866606
1.7027957
1.6379431

1.9766426
1.9196649
1.8045788
1.7198728
1.6543699

2.0249624
1.9665918
1.8486925
1.7619158
1.6948116

2.1190982
2.0580141
1.9346339
1.8438231
1.7735994

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

51,300
53,400
55,500
57,600
60,600

21,027.98
21,811.60
22,935.42
23,132.67
23,753.53

1.3042622
1.2574043
1.1957924
1.1855960
1.1546073

1.3725256
1.3232152
1.2583785
1.2476485
1.2150379

1.4490141
1.3969557
1.3285059
1.3171778
1.2827500

1.5291445
1.4742073
1.4019721
1.3900177
1.3536860

1.5656245
1.5093767
1.4354182
1.4231786
1.3859801

1.5813259
1.5245140
1.4498139
1.4374514
1.3998799

1.6199820
1.5617813
1.4852551
1.4725905
1.4341005

1.6952912
1.6343849
1.5543012
1.5410478
1.5007685

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

61,200
62,700
65,400
68,400
72,600

24,705.66
25,913.90
27,426.00
28,861.44
30,469.84

1.1101100
1.0583509
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.1682117
1.1137436
1.0523387
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.2333141
1.1758107
1.1109837
1.0557283
1.0000000

1.3015163
1.2408329
1.1724211
1.1141100
1.0552999

1.3325659
1.2704348
1.2003909
1.1406888
1.0804756

1.3459300
1.2831758
1.2124294
1.1521286
1.0913116

1.3788318
1.3145435
1.2420677
1.1802928
1.1179891

1.4429305
1.3756536
1.2998086
1.2351619
1.1699618
(Continued)

2.12 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A8—Factors for indexing earnings, 1951–2006—Continued
Factors for workers who were first eligible (attained age 62, became disabled, or died) in b—

Year

Annual
maximum
taxable
earnings
(dollars)

Average
annual
wage a
(dollars)

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

76,200
80,400
84,900
87,000
87,900

32,154.82
32,921.92
33,252.09
34,064.95
35,648.55

1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0238565
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0341246
1.0100289
1.0000000
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0594042
1.0347194
1.0244454
1.0000000
1.0000000

1.1086534
1.0828211
1.0720695
1.0464877
1.0000000

2005
2006

90,000
94,200

...
...

1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000

1.0000000
1.0000000

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Social Security
Administration, "Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2006," Federal Register, vol. 70, no. 205 (October 25, 2005).
NOTE: . . . = not available.
a.

b.

National average wage levels. For years before 1978, average wages were determined from wages earned during the first quarter of the year and reported to the
Social Security Administration (SSA) for Social Security tax purposes. These wages were then multiplied by 4 to obtain the average wage for the year. For 1973–
1977, from data collected on all taxable wages reported to SSA; for 1957–1972, based on 1 percent statistical sample; for 1951–1956, based on 1/10 of 1 percent statistical sample. For 1978–1984, from wage data collected by the Internal Revenue Service during processing of annual tax returns. For years after 1984, from W-2
data processed by SSA. For years after 1977, the average wage amounts have been adjusted to be consistent with the pre-1978 series.
The indexing factor for a given year represents the ratio of the average annual wage for the second year before the year of first eligibility to the average annual wage
for the year to be indexed. Multiplying a worker’s covered earnings, up to the maximum taxable amounts for various years after 1951, by the indicated factors gives
the indexed earnings. Earnings in the year before the year of first eligibility, and any earnings thereafter, are not indexed. The actual taxable earnings for those years
are considered in calculating the average indexed monthly earnings (AIME).

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.13

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A9—Indexed earnings for workers with maximum earnings, 1951–2006 (in dollars)
Annual maximum indexed earnings for workers who were first eligible
(attained age 62, became disabled, or died) in b—

Year

Annual
maximum
taxable
earnings

Average
annual
wage a

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

1951
1952
1953
1954

3,600
3,600
3,600
3,600

2,799.16
2,973.32
3,139.44
3,155.64

35,272.58
33,206.52
31,449.43
31,287.98

37,118.70
34,944.50
33,095.45
32,925.55

39,187.26
36,891.90
34,939.81
34,760.44

41,354.32
38,932.02
36,871.97
36,682.69

42,340.89
39,860.80
37,751.61
37,557.81

42,765.52
40,260.56
38,130.22
37,934.47

43,810.94
41,244.74
39,062.32
38,861.79

45,847.60
43,162.12
40,878.24
40,668.38

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

4,200
4,200
4,200
4,200
4,800

3,301.44
3,532.36
3,641.72
3,673.80
3,855.80

34,890.59
32,609.70
31,630.44
31,354.24
34,142.02

36,716.72
34,316.45
33,285.93
32,995.28
35,928.97

38,762.88
36,228.85
35,140.90
34,834.05
37,931.23

40,906.47
38,232.30
37,084.19
36,760.37
40,028.82

41,882.35
39,144.39
37,968.89
37,637.34
40,983.77

42,302.38
39,536.96
38,349.67
38,014.80
41,394.79

43,336.48
40,503.46
39,287.15
38,944.09
42,406.70

45,351.09
42,386.37
41,113.52
40,754.51
44,378.09

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

4,800
4,800
4,800
4,800
4,800

4,007.12
4,086.76
4,291.40
4,396.64
4,576.32

32,852.72
32,212.51
30,676.42
29,942.14
28,766.52

34,572.19
33,898.47
32,281.99
31,509.27
30,272.12

36,498.84
35,787.58
34,081.01
33,265.23
31,959.14

38,517.22
37,766.63
35,965.68
35,104.79
33,726.47

39,436.11
38,667.60
36,823.70
35,942.27
34,531.07

39,831.61
39,055.40
37,193.00
36,302.73
34,877.38

40,805.31
40,010.12
38,102.20
37,190.16
35,729.97

42,702.25
41,870.10
39,873.48
38,919.05
37,390.97

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

4,800
6,600
6,600
7,800
7,800

4,658.72
4,938.36
5,213.44
5,571.76
5,893.76

28,257.72
36,654.19
34,720.18
38,394.12
36,296.49

29,736.69
38,572.62
36,537.39
40,403.61
38,196.20

31,393.87
40,722.21
38,573.56
42,655.24
40,324.81

33,129.94
42,974.15
40,706.68
45,014.07
42,554.77

33,920.31
43,999.36
41,677.79
46,087.95
43,569.98

34,260.49
44,440.62
42,095.77
46,550.16
44,006.93

35,098.00
45,526.99
43,124.82
47,688.09
45,082.70

36,729.63
47,643.43
45,129.59
49,905.00
47,178.49

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

7,800
7,800
9,000
10,800
13,200

6,186.24
6,497.08
7,133.80
7,580.16
8,030.76

34,580.42
32,925.99
34,600.63
39,075.80
45,079.57

36,390.32
34,649.29
36,411.58
41,120.97
47,438.97

38,418.29
36,580.24
38,440.74
43,412.58
50,082.67

40,542.82
38,603.13
40,566.51
45,813.29
52,852.24

41,510.02
39,524.06
41,534.28
46,906.23
54,113.10

41,926.32
39,920.44
41,950.83
47,376.65
54,655.80

42,951.23
40,896.31
42,976.33
48,534.79
55,991.88

44,947.93
42,797.49
44,974.20
50,791.06
58,594.81

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

14,100
15,300
16,500
17,700
22,900

8,630.92
9,226.48
9,779.44
10,556.03
11,479.46

44,804.79
45,479.73
46,273.51
45,987.00
54,711.23

47,149.82
47,860.08
48,695.40
48,393.90
57,574.74

49,777.40
50,527.24
51,409.12
51,090.81
60,783.29

52,530.09
53,321.39
54,252.04
53,916.13
64,144.60

53,783.27
54,593.45
55,546.30
55,202.38
65,674.86

54,322.65
55,140.96
56,103.36
55,756.00
66,333.51

55,650.59
56,488.90
57,474.83
57,118.98
67,955.06

58,237.66
59,114.94
60,146.70
59,774.30
71,114.13

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

25,900
29,700
32,400
35,700
37,800

12,513.46
13,773.10
14,531.34
15,239.24
16,135.07

56,765.55
59,140.80
61,150.75
64,249.15
64,251.52

59,736.58
62,236.15
64,351.30
67,611.86
67,614.36

63,065.60
65,704.47
67,937.49
71,379.76
71,382.40

66.553.12
69,337.92
71,694.43
75,327.06
75,329.84

68,140.84
70,992.08
73,404.81
77,124.09
77,126.94

68,824.22
71,704.05
74,140.98
77,897.56
77,900.44

70,506.65
73,456.88
75,953.38
79,801.80
79,804.74

73,784.34
76,871.72
79,484.27
83,511.59
83,514.68

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

39,600
42,000
43,800
45,000
48,000

16,822.51
17,321.82
18,426.51
19,334.04
20,099.55

64,560.50
66,499.48
65,191.88
63,834.05
65,496.39

67,939.51
69,979.97
68,603.93
67,175.03
68,924.38

71,725.66
73,879.84
72,427.12
70,918.59
72,765.43

75,692.09
77,965.39
76,432.33
74,840.38
76,789.35

77,497.83
79,825.37
78,255.74
76,625.81
78,621.27

78,275.05
80,625.93
79,040.55
77,394.28
79,409.75

80,188.51
82,596.86
80,972.73
79,286.21
81,350.96

83,916.29
86,436.59
84,736.96
82,972.04
85,132.77

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

51,300
53,400
55,500
57,600
60,600

21,027.98
21,811.60
22,935.42
23,132.67
23,753.53

66,908.65
67,145.39
66,366.48
68,290.33
69,969.20

70,410.56
70,659.69
69,840.01
71,864.55
73,631.30

74,334.42
74,597.44
73,732.08
75,869.44
77,734.65

78,445.11
78,722.67
77,809.45
80,065.02
82,033.37

80,316.54
80,600.71
79,665.71
81,975.09
83,990.39

81,122.02
81,409.05
80,464.67
82,797.20
84,832.72

83,105.08
83,399.12
82,431.66
84,821.21
86,906.49

86,968.44
87,276.15
86,263.71
88,764.35
90,946.57

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

61,200
62,700
65,400
68,400
72,600

24,705.66
25,913.90
27,426.00
28,861.44
30,469.84

67,938.73
66,358.60
65,400.00
68,400.00
72,600.00

71,494.55
69,831.72
68,822.95
68,400.00
72,600.00

75,478.83
73,723.33
72,658.34
72,211.82
72,600.00

79,652.80
77,800.22
76,676.34
76,205.13
76,614.77

81,553.03
79,656.26
78,505.56
78,023.11
78,442.53

82,370.92
80,455.12
79,292.89
78,805.60
79,229.22

84,384.51
82,421.88
81,231.23
80,732.03
81,166.01

88,307.35
86,253.48
85,007.48
84,485.07
84,939.23
(Continued)

2.14 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A9—Indexed earnings for workers with maximum earnings, 1951–2006 (in dollars)—Continued
Annual maximum indexed earnings for workers who were first eligible
(attained age 62, became disabled, or died) in b—

Year

Annual
maximum
taxable
earnings

Average
annual
wage a

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

76,200
80,400
84,900
87,000
87,900

32,154.82
32,921.92
33,252.09
34,064.95
35,648.55

76,200.00
80,400.00
84,900.00
87,000.00
87,900.00

76,200.00
80,400.00
84,900.00
87,000.00
87,900.00

76,200.00
80,400.00
84,900.00
87,000.00
87,900.00

76,200.00
80,400.00
84,900.00
87,000.00
87,900.00

78,017.86
80,400.00
84,900.00
87,000.00
87,900.00

78,800.29
81,206.32
84,900.00
87,000.00
87,900.00

80,726.60
83,191.44
86,975.41
87,000.00
87,900.00

84,479.39
87,058.82
91,018.70
91,044.43
87,900.00

2005
2006

90,000
94,200

...
...

90,000.00
94,200.00

90,000.00
94,200.00

90,000.00
94,200.00

90,000.00
94,200.00

90,000.00
94,200.00

90,000.00
94,200.00

90,000.00
94,200.00

90,000.00
94,200.00

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Social Security
Administration, "Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2006," Federal Register, vol. 70, no. 205 (October 25, 2005).
NOTE: . . . = not available.
a.

b.

National average wage levels. For years before 1978, average wages were determined from wages earned during the first quarter of the year and reported to the
Social Security Administration (SSA) for Social Security tax purposes. These wages were then multiplied by 4 to obtain the average wage for the year. For 1973–
1977, from data collected on all taxable wages reported to SSA; for 1957–1972, based on 1 percent statistical sample; for 1951–1956, based on 1/10 of 1 percent statistical sample. For 1978–1984, from wage data collected by the Internal Revenue Service during processing of annual tax returns. For years after 1984, from W-2
data processed by SSA. For years after 1977, the average wage amounts have been adjusted to be consistent with the pre-1978 series.
A worker’s earnings for each year after 1950 and through the second year before the year of first eligibility are indexed by multiplying covered earnings, up to the
maximum taxable amounts, by specified indexing factors (see Table 2.A8). The indexing factor for a given year represents the ratio of the average annual wage for
the second year before the year of first eligibility to the average annual wage for the year to be indexed. For example, if the year of first eligibility is 1999, the indexing
factor for 1982 is $27,426.00/14,531.34, or 1.8873690. Multiplication of maximum taxable earnings of $32,400 for 1982 by this factor gives maximum indexed earnings of $61,150.75 for 1982.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.15

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A10—Average monthly wage and average indexed monthly earnings provisions, by year enacted
Year enacted

Provision

Average monthly wage (AMW)
1939

Computed using creditable earnings after 1936 and before year of death or retirement, divided by months after 1936 and before quarter of death
or retirement, excluding months before age 22 in quarters not covered.

1950

Alternatively, computed using creditable earnings after 1950 (or year aged 21, if later) and before year of death, year of retirement, or subsequent
year (or year age 65 attained if then insured), divided by number of months in those years.

1954

Earnings and months in 4 years may be excluded in all cases; 5 years if worker has 20 quarters of coverage. Period of disability may be
excluded.

1956

Earnings and months in 5 years may be excluded in all cases. Computation period may end at age 62 for women then insured.

1960

Earnings may be used for any year after 1950 and before year of retirement but including year of death, with the number of years equal to the
years elapsed after 1955 (or year age 26 attained) and before year of death or age 65 attained (62 for women).
Same method may be used for earnings after 1936 and years elapsed after 1941.

1972

Number of years for men reaching age 62 after 1972, measured to age 62 or to 1975, if later.

1977

For workers who attain age 62, become disabled, or die after 1978, excludes earnings in year of attainment of age 62 and later, computed using
creditable earnings after 1936.
For workers who attain age 62 after 1978 and before 1984, excludes earnings in year of attainment of age 62 and later, computed using
creditable earnings after 1950.

Average indexed monthly earnings (AIME)
1977

For workers who attain age 62, become disabled, or die after 1978, AIME is computed by using indexed earnings after 1950 for the same
computation period applicable in calculating the AMW. Indexed earnings for a given year equal actual creditable earnings multiplied by the
national average wage for the second year before worker attains age 62, becomes disabled, or dies, divided by the national average wage for the
given year, except that for years after the second year before the worker attains age 62, becomes disabled, or dies, indexed earnings equal
actual creditable earnings.

1980

For disabled workers, the number of years of earnings used equals the number of years elapsed after 1950 (or year age 21 attained, if later) and
before year of disability, minus dropout years equal to one-fifth of the number of elapsed years rounded to the next lower integer (to a maximum
of 5 dropout years). However, the number of years of earnings used is at least 2. Effective for initial entitlement after June 1980.
Disabled workers with computations using fewer than 3 dropout years under the one-fifth rule may be credited with additional dropout years
based on child care, up to a total of 3 dropout years. (To receive this credit, a worker must have had no earnings in that year and have been living
with his or her child or spouse’s child under age 3.) However, the number of years of earnings used is at least 2. Effective July 1981.

1983

For workers who die after 1978 but before attaining age 62, indexed earnings for a given year equal actual creditable earnings, multiplied by the
national average wage for the earlier of (1) the year in which the worker reached or would have reached age 60 or (2) the second year before the
survivor becomes eligible for aged or disabled widow(er) benefits, and then divided by the national average wage for the given year. This
computation method applies only if it results in a higher benefit. Effective for surviving spouses first eligible after 1984.

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm.
CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

2.16 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A11—Formulas for computing PIA from AIME, cost-of-living adjustments, and minimum PIA for
workers who were first eligible in 1979 or later, by year of first eligibility
Calculation of PIA (based on percentage of AIME) a (dollars)
Eligibility year

90 percent
of the first

Plus 32 percent
of the next

First applicable cost-of-living adjustment

Plus 15 percent
of the amount above

Effective
date

Percentage
increase

Minimum PIA
based on indexed
earnings (dollars)

Enacted in 1977 b
1979

180

905

1,085

June 1979

9.9

c

122

1980

194

977

1,171

June 1980

14.3

c

122

c

122

Enacted in 1981
1981

211

1,063

1,274

June 1981

11.2

1982

230

1,158

1,388

June 1982

7.4

d

Enacted in 1983
1983

254

1,274

1,528

December 1983

3.5

d

1984

267

1,345

1,612

December 1984

3.5

d

1985

280

1,411

1,691

December 1985

3.1

d

1986

297

1,493

1,790

December 1986

1.3

d

1987

310

1,556

1,866

December 1987

4.2

d

1988

319

1,603

1,922

December 1988

4.0

d

1989

339

1,705

2,044

December 1989

4.7

d

1990

356

1,789

2,145

December 1990

5.4

d

1991

370

1,860

2,230

December 1991

3.7

d

1992

387

1,946

2,333

December 1992

3.0

d

1993

401

2,019

2,420

December 1993

2.6

d

1994

422

2,123

2,545

December 1994

2.8

d

1995

426

2,141

2,567

December 1995

2.6

d

1996

437

2,198

2,635

December 1996

2.9

d

1997

455

2,286

2,741

December 1997

2.1

d

1998

477

2,398

2,875

December 1998

1.3

d

1999

505

2,538

3,043

December 1999

2.5

d

2000

531

2,671

3,202

December 2000

3.5

d

e

(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.17

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A11—Formulas for computing PIA from AIME, cost-of-living adjustments, and minimum PIA for
workers who were first eligible in 1979 or later, by year of first eligibility—Continued
Calculation of PIA (based on percentage of AIME) a (dollars)
Eligibility year

90 percent
of the first

Plus 32 percent
of the next

First applicable cost-of-living adjustment

Plus 15 percent
of the amount above

Effective
date

Percentage
increase

Minimum PIA
based on indexed
earnings (dollars)

Enacted in 1983 (cont.)
2001

561

2,820

3,381

December 2001

2.6

d

2002

592

2,975

3,567

December 2002

1.4

d

2003

606

3,047

3,653

December 2003

2.1

d

2004

612

3,077

3,689

December 2004

2.7

d

2005

627

3,152

3,779

December 2005

4.1

d

2006

656

3,299

3,955

December 2006

...

d

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Social Security
Administration, "Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2006," Federal Register, vol. 70, no. 205 (October 25, 2005).
NOTES: Eligible workers are those who attained age 62, became disabled, or died in the given year.
AIME = average indexed monthly earnings; AMW = average monthly wage; PIA = primary insurance amount; . . . = not available.
a.

b.

c.
d.

e.

For workers who attained age 62 in the 1979–1983 period, the PIA cannot be less than that derived from the PIA table in effect in December 1978 (approximated by
the PIA formula in Table 2.A16) on the basis of provisions in effect before 1979 but excluding earnings after year aged 61 in computations of AMW and including any
general benefit increase after year aged 61.
The amendments in 1977 provided for annual automatic adjustments of bend points (AIME brackets) in benefit formula in proportion to increases in average wage
level. As a result, separate formulas are applicable to workers who were first eligible in successive calendar years. The legislation also froze the minimum PIA at
$122.
Not subject to automatic adjustments until earlier of year of attainment of age 65 or year of first receipt of benefits.
In 1981, legislation eliminated the minimum PIA for workers who attain age 62 or die after 1981 (after 1991 for members of certain religious orders). In August 1981,
legislation would have eliminated the minimum PIA effective March 1982 for workers who attained age 62 before November 1981 or who died (before attaining
age 62) before March 1982; for all others, the minimum would have been eliminated effective November 1981. This legislation was superseded in December 1981 by
legislation that restored the minimum PIA for workers who attained age 62 or died (before attaining age 62) before 1982.
The cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) for December 1999 was originally determined to be 2.4 percent, based on the consumer price index (CPI). The underlying CPI
was later recomputed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics; a 2.5 percent COLA would have been consistent with the recomputed CPI. Pursuant to Public Law 106-554,
benefits were calculated and paid in August 2001 and later as if the COLA for December 1999 had been 2.5 percent. Affected beneficiaries received a one-time payment to cover the shortfall that occurred before August 2001.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

2.18 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A11.1—Computation of PIA based on Windfall Elimination Provision (WEP),
by year enacted
Year effective

Provision

Enacted in 1983
1986

Workers first eligible for pensions based on noncovered employment and disability or retired workers after December 31, 1985.a The benefit
computation formula uses a reduced factor of the usual first AIME bend point.

Year
eligible

Factor
(percent)

1986

80

1987

70

1988

60

1989

50

1990 and later

40

WEP is not applicable to persons who were federal employees or nonprofit employees on January 1, 1984, and who were covered by Social Security
on that date with no Civil Service Retirement System coverage; to persons with Railroad Retirement pensions; or to workers with 30 years of
substantial Social Security earnings. Workers with 26–29 years of coverage have less than full WEP applied.b For benefits payable before
January 1989:

Years of
coverage

Factor
(percent)

26

50

27

60

28

70

29

80

Enacted in 1988
1989

5 percent added to factor for each year of coverage over 20.

Years of
coverage

Factor
(percent)

21

45

22

50

23

55

24

60

25

65

26

70

27

75

28

80

29

85
(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.19

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A11.1—Computation of PIA based on Windfall Elimination Provision (WEP),
by year enacted—Continued
Year effective

Provision

Enacted in 1988 (cont.)
1991

Earnings required for a year of substantial coverage (decoupled from the definition of a year of coverage for special minimum PIA).b

Year

Earnings
(dollars)

1991

9,900

1992

10,350

1993

10,725

1994

11,250

1995

11,325

1996

11,625

1997

12,150

1998

12,675

1999

13,425

2000

14,175

2001

14,925

2002

15,750

2003

16,125

2004

16,275

2005

16,725

2006

17,475

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Social Security
Administration, "Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2006," Federal Register, vol. 70, no. 205 (October 25, 2005).
a.
b.

Reduction in PIA will not be greater than one-half the amount of the pension based on noncovered employment performed after 1956.
See Table 2.A12. Before 1991, a year of substantial coverage for WEP was the same amount as for the minimum PIA (25 percent of the "old law" contribution and
benefit base). For 1991 and following, a year of substantial coverage under WEP provisions remains 25 percent of the old law base, while the criterion for computing
the special minimum PIA was changed to 15 percent of the base.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

2.20 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A12—Special minimum PIA (formula applies to years of coverage), by year enacted
Year enacted
1972

1973

Number of years of coverage

PIA computation

Effective date

Amount a per year
of coverage over
10 years (dollars)

Maximum amount a
for workers with
30 or more years
of coverage
(dollars)

January 1973

8.50

170.00

Amount a per year of
coverage over
10 years (dollars)

Maximum amount a
for workers with
30 or more years
of coverage
(dollars)

For 1937–1950, the number (disregarding any remainder and not exceeding 14)
obtained by dividing total creditable wages in 1937–1950 by $900
After 1950, the number of years with creditable earnings equal to at least
25 percent of the effective annual maximum taxable earnings, that is:

Year

Amount (dollars)

1951–1954

900

1955–1958

1,050

1959–1965

1,200

1966–1967

1,650

1968–1971

1,950

1972

2,250

1973

2,700

1974

3,300

1975

3,525

1976

3,825

1977

4,125

1978

4,425

...

Effective date
March 1974
1977 b

After 1978, the number of years with creditable earnings equal to at least
25 percent of what the annual taxable maximum would have been if the statutory
increases in the maximum under the 1977 amendments had not been enacted
Effective date
(the "old law" contribution and benefit base), that is:

9.00

180.00

Amount a per year of
coverage over
10 years (dollars)

Maximum amount a
for workers with 30
or more years of
coverage (dollars)

Year

Amount (dollars)

11.50

230.00

1979

4,725

June 1979

c

12.64

252.80

1980

5,100

June 1980

c

14.45

289.00

1981

5,500

June 1981

c

16.07

321.40

1982

6,075

June 1982

c

17.26

345.10

1983

6,675

December 1983

c

17.86

357.10

1984

7,050

December 1984

c

18.49

369.50

1985

7,425

December 1985

c

19.06

380.90

1986

7,875

December 1986

c

19.31

385.80

1987

8,175

December 1987

c

20.12

402.00

1988

8,400

December 1988

c

20.92

418.00

1989

8,925

December 1989

c

21.90

437.60

1990

9,525

December 1990

c

23.08

461.20

December 1991

c

23.93

478.20

December 1992

c

24.65

492.50

December 1993

c

25.29

505.30

December 1994

c

26.00

519.40

December 1995

c

26.68

532.90

December 1996

c

27.45

548.30

December 1997

c

28.03

559.80

December 1998

c

28.39

December 1999

c,d

29.10

December 2000

c

30.12

601.40

December 2001

c

30.90

617.00

December 2002

c

31.33

625.60

December 2003

c

31.99

638.70

December 2004

c

32.85

655.90

December 2005

c

34.20

682.70

January 1979

567.00
d

581.10

(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.21

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A12—Special minimum PIA (formula applies to years of coverage), by year enacted—Continued
Year enacted
1990

Number of years of coverage

PIA computation

After 1990, the number of years with creditable earnings equal to at least
15 percent of what the annual taxable maximum would have been if the statutory
increases in the maximum under the 1977 amendments had not been enacted
(the "old law" contribution and benefit base), that is: e

...

Year

Amount (dollars)

1991

5,940

1992

6,210

1993

6,435

1994

6,750

1995

6,795

1996

6,975

1997

7,290

1998

7,605

1999

8,055

2000

8,505

2001

8,955

2002

9,450

2003

9,675

2004

9,765

2005

10,035

2006

10,485

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Social Security
Administration, "Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2006," Federal Register, vol. 70, no. 205 (October 25, 2005).
NOTES: Alternative PIA applicable when it exceeds the regularly computed PIA. The usual rates of actuarial reduction apply for retirement before the full retirement age.
No delayed retirement credits are applicable to the benefit derived from the special minimum PIA. However, the resulting retirement benefit will be raised if necessary to
equal the benefit derived from the regularly computed PIA plus any delayed retirement credits.
. . . = not applicable.
a.
b.
c.

d.

e.

The amount effective for a given month applies, as of that month, to all workers from the date of entitlement to benefits.
Provision for future automatic cost-of-living increases of amount per year of coverage (and maximum amount), beginning with the June 1979 increase.
Factors were obtained by applying cost-of-living increases to initial 1979 factor of $11.50 and rounding each one to nearest cent. An approximate PIA may be computed by multiplying factor in year of entitlement by the number of years of coverage in excess of 10 with a maximum of 20. Actual PIAs are published yearly in the
Federal Register.
The cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) for December 1999 was originally determined to be 2.4 percent, based on the consumer price index (CPI). The underlying CPI
was later recomputed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics; a 2.5 percent COLA would have been consistent with the recomputed CPI. Pursuant to Public Law 106-554,
benefits were calculated and paid in August 2001 and later as if the COLA for December 1999 had been 2.5 percent. Affected beneficiaries received a one-time payment to cover the shortfall that occurred before August 2001.
For 1991 and following, a year of substantial coverage under the Windfall Elimination Provision remains 25 percent of the old law base, while the criterion for the special minimum PIA was changed to 15 percent of the base.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

2.22 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A13—Formulas enacted in 1977 for computing OASI maximum family benefit from PIA and
cost-of-living adjustments for workers who were first eligible in 1979 or later, by year of first eligibility
Calculation of maximum family benefit (based on percentage of PIA) (dollars)

First applicable cost-of-living adjustment

150 percent
of the first

Plus 272 percent
of the next

Plus 134 percent
of the next

Plus 175 percent
of the amount above

Effective
date

1979

230

102

101

433

June 1979

9.9

1980

248

110

109

467

June 1980

14.3

Eligibility year

Percentage
increase

1981

270

120

118

508

June 1981

11.2

1982

294

131

129

554

June 1982

7.4

1983

324

144

142

610

December 1983

3.5

1984

342

151

150

643

December 1984

3.5

1985

358

159

158

675

December 1985

3.1

1986

379

169

166

714

December 1986

1.3

1987

396

175

174

745

December 1987

4.2

1988

407

181

179

767

December 1988

4.0

1989

433

193

190

816

December 1989

4.7

1990

455

201

200

856

December 1990

5.4

1991

473

209

208

890

December 1991

3.7

1992

495

219

217

931

December 1992

3.0

1993

513

227

226

966

December 1993

2.6

1994

539

240

237

1,016

December 1994

2.8

1995

544

241

239

1,024

December 1995

2.6

1996

559

247

246

1,052

December 1996

2.9

1997

581

258

255

1,094

December 1997

2.1

1998

609

271

267

1,147

December 1998

1999

645

286

283

1,214

December 1999

2000

679

301

298

1,278

December 2000

3.5

2001

717

317

315

1,349

December 2001

2.6

2002

756

336

332

1,424

December 2002

1.4

2003

774

344

340

1,458

December 2003

2.1

2004

782

347

343

1,472

December 2004

2.7

2005

801

355

352

1,508

December 2005

4.1

2006

838

372

368

1,578

December 2006

...

1.3
a

2.5

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Social Security
Administration, "Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2006," Federal Register, vol. 70, no. 205 (October 25, 2005).
NOTES: The 1977 amendments provided for annual automatic adjustments of bend points (PIA brackets) in the maximum family benefit formula in proportion to
increases in the average wage level. As a result, separate formulas are applicable to workers first eligible in successive calendar years.
Eligible workers are those who attained age 62 or died in the given year.
. . . = not available.
a.

The cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) for December 1999 was originally determined to be 2.4 percent, based on the consumer price index (CPI). The underlying CPI
was later recomputed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics; a 2.5 percent COLA would have been consistent with the recomputed CPI. Pursuant to Public Law 106-554,
benefits were calculated and paid in August 2001 and later as if the COLA for December 1999 had been 2.5 percent. Affected beneficiaries received a one-time payment to cover the shortfall that occurred before August 2001.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.23

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A14—Formulas for computing maximum family benefit and cost-of-living adjustments for workers first
eligible for disability benefits in 1979 or later, by year of enactment
Eligibility year

Formula

Enacted in 1977 a
1979 b

150% of first $230 of PIA + 272% of next $102 of PIA + 134% of next $101 of PIA + 175% of PIA over $433 c

b

150% of first $248 of PIA + 272% of next $110 of PIA + 134% of next $109 of PIA + 175% of PIA over $467 c

1980

Enacted in 1980 d
1979 or later

Smaller of (1) 85% of the AIME (or 100% of PIA, if larger) and (2) 150% of PIA e

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Social Security
Administration, "Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2006," Federal Register, vol. 70, no. 205 (October 25, 2005).
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

The 1977 amendments provided for annual automatic adjustments of bend points (PIA brackets) in maximum family benefit formula in proportion to increases in
average wage level. As a result, separate formulas are applicable to workers first eligible in successive calendar years.
Applicability of formula limited to workers with initial entitlement before July 1980, as a result of 1980 amendments.
Calculated amount subject to cost-of-living adjustments beginning with the one effective for June of the year of first eligibility.
Formula for computing maximum family benefit revised effective for workers with initial entitlement in or after July 1980. New formula remains unchanged for workers
eligible in successive calendar years because it has no bend points requiring adjustments.
Calculated amount subject to cost-of-living adjustments beginning with the one effective in year of first eligibility (or in 1981, if later).

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

2.24 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A16—Percentage of average monthly wage (AMW) applicable to primary insurance amount (PIA)
based on formula for computing PIA from AMW, and percentage increases in PIA
April
1952

AMW (dollars)
First 110
Next 290
Next 150
Next 100
Next 100
Next 250
Next 175
Percentage
increase in PIA

a
b

50.00
15.00
...
...
...
...
...
f

77.0

September
1952
a
b

55.00
15.00
...
...
...
...
...
g

12.5

September
1954

January
1959

January
1965

February
1968

January
1970

January
1971

September
1972

June
1974

55.00
20.00
...
...
...
...
...

58.85
21.40
...
...
...
...
...

62.97
22.90
21.40
...
...
...
...

71.16
25.88
24.18
28.43
...
...
...

81.83
29.76
27.81
32.69
...
...
...

90.01
32.74
30.59
35.96
20.00
...
...

108.01
39.29
36.71
43.15
24.00
d
20.00
...

119.89
43.61
40.75
47.90
26.64
22.20
e
20.00

13.0

15.0

10.0

20.0

c

h

13.0

i

7.0

j

7.0

k

11.0

(Continued)

Table 2.A16—Percentage of average monthly wage (AMW) applicable to primary insurance amount (PIA)
based on formula for computing PIA from AMW, and percentage increases in PIA—Continued
AMW (dollars)
First 110
Next 290
Next 150
Next 100
Next 100
Next 250
Next 175
Next 100
Next 100
Next 100
Next 435
Next 250
Next 315
Next 225
Next 275
Next 175
Next 150
Percentage
increase in PIA

June
1975

June
1976

June
1977

June
1978

June
1979

June
1980

June
1981

June
1982

Dec.
1983

Dec.
1984

129.48
47.10
44.01
51.73
28.77
23.98
21.60
20.00
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

137.77
50.10
46.82
55.05
30.61
25.51
22.98
21.28
20.00
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

145.90
53.06
49.58
58.30
32.42
27.02
24.34
22.54
21.18
20.00
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

155.38
56.51
52.81
62.09
34.53
28.78
25.92
24.01
22.56
21.30
20.00
...
...
...
...
...
...

170.76
62.10
58.04
68.24
37.95
31.63
28.49
26.39
24.79
23.41
21.98
20.00
...
...
...
...
...

195.18
70.98
66.34
78.00
43.38
36.15
32.56
30.16
28.33
26.76
25.12
22.86
20.00
...
...
...
...

217.04
78.93
73.77
86.74
48.24
40.20
36.21
33.54
31.50
29.76
27.93
25.42
22.24
20.00
...
...
...

233.10
84.77
79.23
93.16
51.81
43.17
38.89
36.02
33.83
31.96
30.00
27.30
23.89
21.48
20.00
...
...

241.26
87.74
82.00
96.42
53.62
44.68
40.25
37.28
35.01
33.08
31.05
28.26
24.73
22.23
20.70
20.00
...

249.70
90.81
84.87
99.79
55.50
46.24
41.66
38.58
36.24
34.24
32.14
29.25
25.60
23.01
21.42
20.70
20.00

6.4

5.9

6.5

9.9

14.3

11.2

7.4

3.5

3.5

l

8.0

(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.25

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A16—Percentage of average monthly wage (AMW) applicable to primary insurance amount (PIA)
based on formula for computing PIA from AMW, and percentage increases in PIA—Continued
AMW (dollars)
First 110
Next 290
Next 150
Next 100
Next 100
Next 250
Next 175
Next 100
Next 100
Next 100
Next 435
Next 250
Next 315
Next 225
Next 275
Next 175
Next 150
Next 200
Next 150
Next 100
Next 250
Next 275
Next 175
Next 175
Next 175
Next 250
Next 50
Percentage
increase in PIA

Dec.
1985

Dec.
1986

Dec.
1987

Dec.
1988

Dec.
1989

Dec.
1990

Dec.
1991

Dec.
1992

Dec.
1993

Dec.
1994

257.44
93.62
87.50
102.88
57.22
47.67
42.95
39.78
37.36
35.30
33.14
30.16
26.39
23.72
22.08
21.34
20.63
20.00
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

260.79
94.84
88.64
104.22
57.96
48.29
43.51
40.30
37.85
35.76
33.57
30.55
26.73
24.03
22.37
21.62
20.90
20.26
20.00
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

271.74
98.82
92.36
108.60
60.39
50.32
45.34
41.99
39.44
37.26
34.98
31.83
27.85
25.04
23.31
22.53
21.78
21.11
20.84
20.00
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

282.61
102.77
96.05
112.94
62.81
52.33
47.15
43.67
41.02
38.75
36.38
33.10
28.96
26.04
24.24
23.43
22.65
21.95
21.67
20.80
20.00
...
...
...
...
...
...

295.89
107.60
100.56
118.25
65.76
54.79
49.37
45.72
42.95
40.57
38.09
34.66
30.32
27.26
25.38
24.53
23.71
22.98
22.69
21.78
20.94
20.00
...
...
...
...
...

311.87
113.42
105.99
124.64
69.31
57.75
52.04
48.19
45.27
42.76
40.15
36.53
31.96
28.73
26.75
25.85
24.99
24.22
23.92
22.96
22.07
21.08
20.00
...
...
...
...

323.41
117.62
109.91
129.25
71.87
59.89
53.97
49.97
46.94
44.34
41.64
37.88
33.14
29.79
27.74
26.81
25.91
25.12
24.81
23.81
22.89
21.86
20.74
20.00
...
...
...

333.11
121.15
113.21
133.13
74.03
61.69
55.59
51.47
48.35
45.67
42.89
39.02
34.13
30.68
28.57
27.61
26.69
25.87
25.55
24.52
23.58
22.52
21.36
20.60
20.00
...
...

341.77
124.30
116.15
136.59
75.95
63.29
57.04
52.81
49.61
46.86
44.01
40.03
35.02
31.48
29.31
28.33
27.38
26.54
26.21
25.16
24.19
23.11
21.92
21.14
20.52
20.00
...

351.34
127.78
119.40
140.41
78.08
65.06
58.64
54.29
51.00
48.17
45.24
41.15
36.00
32.36
30.13
29.12
28.15
27.28
26.94
25.86
24.87
23.76
22.53
21.73
21.73
21.09
20.56

3.1

1.3

4.2

4.0

4.7

5.4

3.7

3.0

2.6

2.8
(Continued)

2.26 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A16—Percentage of average monthly wage (AMW) applicable to primary insurance amount (PIA)
based on formula for computing PIA from AMW, and percentage increases in PIA—Continued
AMW (dollars)
First 110
Next 290
Next 150
Next 100
Next 100
Next 250
Next 175
Next 100
Next 100
Next 100
Next 435
Next 250
Next 315
Next 225
Next 275
Next 175
Next 150
Next 200
Next 150
Next 100
Next 250
Next 275
Next 175
Next 175
Next 175
Next 250
Next 50
Next 125
Next 225
Next 250
Next 350
Next 300
Next 350
Next 375
Next 175
Next 75
Next 175
Next 350
Percentage
increase in PIA

Dec.
1995

Dec.
1996

Dec.
1997

Dec.
1998

Dec.
1999

Dec.
2000

Dec.
2001

Dec.
2002

Dec.
2003

Dec.
2004

Dec.
2005

360.47
131.10
122.50
144.06
80.11
66.75
60.16
55.70
52.33
49.42
46.42
42.22
36.94
33.20
30.91
29.88
28.88
27.99
27.64
26.53
25.52
24.38
23.12
22.29
21.64
21.09
20.52
20.00
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

370.93
134.90
126.06
148.24
82.43
68.69
61.91
57.32
53.84
50.86
47.76
43.44
38.01
34.16
31.81
30.74
29.72
28.80
28.44
27.30
26.26
25.08
23.79
22.94
22.27
21.71
21.12
20.58
20.00
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

378.72
137.73
128.71
151.35
84.16
70.13
63.21
58.52
54.97
51.93
48.76
44.35
38.81
34.88
32.48
31.39
30.34
29.40
29.04
27.87
26.81
25.61
24.29
23.42
22.74
22.17
21.56
21.01
20.42
20.00
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

383.64
139.52
130.38
153.32
85.26
71.04
64.03
59.28
55.69
52.60
49.40
44.93
39.31
35.33
32.90
31.79
30.74
29.79
29.41
28.24
27.16
25.94
24.61
23.73
23.03
22.45
21.84
21.29
20.69
20.26
20.00
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

393.23
143.01
133.64
157.15
87.39
72.82
65.63
60.77
57.08
53.92
50.63
46.05
40.30
36.21
33.72
32.59
31.51
30.53
30.15
28.94
27.84
26.59
25.22
24.32
23.61
23.02
22.39
21.82
21.20
20.77
20.50
20.00
...
...
...
...
...
...

407.00
148.02
138.32
162.65
90.45
75.37
67.93
62.89
59.08
55.81
52.40
47.66
41.71
37.48
34.90
33.73
32.61
31.60
31.21
29.95
28.81
27.52
26.10
25.17
24.44
23.82
23.17
22.58
21.94
21.49
21.22
20.70
20.00
...
...
...
...
...

417.58
151.87
141.91
166.88
92.80
77.33
69.70
64.53
60.61
57.26
53.77
48.90
42.79
38.46
35.81
34.61
33.46
32.42
32.02
30.73
29.56
28.23
26.78
25.82
25.07
24.44
23.78
23.17
22.52
22.05
21.77
21.24
20.52
20.00
...
...
...
...

423.43
153.99
143.90
169.22
94.10
78.41
70.67
65.43
61.46
58.06
54.52
49.59
43.39
38.99
36.31
35.09
33.93
32.88
32.46
31.16
29.98
28.63
27.16
26.19
25.42
24.78
24.11
23.49
22.83
22.36
22.07
21.54
20.81
20.28
20.00
...
...
...

432.32
157.23
146.92
172.77
96.07
80.06
72.16
66.81
62.75
59.28
55.66
50.63
44.30
39.81
37.07
35.83
34.64
33.57
33.15
31.82
30.61
29.23
27.73
26.74
25.96
25.30
24.62
23.99
23.31
22.83
22.54
21.99
21.24
20.71
20.42
20.00
...
...

443.99
161.47
150.89
177.44
98.67
82.22
74.10
68.61
64.44
60.88
57.17
52.00
45.50
40.89
38.08
36.79
35.57
34.47
34.04
32.68
31.43
30.02
28.48
27.46
26.66
25.99
25.28
24.63
23.94
23.45
23.15
22.58
21.82
21.26
20.97
20.54
20.00
...

462.19
168.09
157.08
184.71
102.71
85.59
77.14
71.42
67.09
63.37
59.51
54.13
47.36
42.56
39.64
38.30
37.03
35.89
35.44
34.02
32.72
31.25
29.64
28.58
27.75
27.05
26.32
25.64
24.92
24.41
24.09
23.51
22.71
22.14
21.83
21.38
20.82
20.00

2.6

2.9

2.1

1.3

3.5

2.6

1.4

2.1

2.7

4.1

m

2.5

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Social Security
Administration, "Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2006," Federal Register, vol. 70, no. 205 (October 25, 2005).
NOTE: The average monthly wage (AMW) computation is based on earnings after 1950. The amounts shown in the table are percentages of the AMW.
. . . = not applicable.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.

Applied to first $100 of AMW.
Applied to next $200 of AMW.
Applied to next $190 before 1955 and to next $240 effective for January 1955.
Applied to next $150 effective for January 1973 and to next $350 effective for January 1974.
Applied to next $100 before January 1975.
Average increase in benefits of about 77 percent—from 100 percent at the lowest level to 50 percent at the highest level.
Increase of 12.5 percent or $5, if larger.
Average increase of about 13 percent, with minimum increase of $5.
Increase of 7 percent or $3, if larger.
Increase of 7 percent or $4, if larger.
Increase effective in two steps: 7 percent for March–May and 4 percent for June.
Beginning June 1975, all benefit increases are based on automatic cost-of-living adjustments.
The cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) for December 1999 was originally determined to be 2.4 percent, based on the consumer price index (CPI). The underlying CPI
was later recomputed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics; a 2.5 percent COLA would have been consistent with the recomputed CPI. Pursuant to Public Law 106-554,
benefits were calculated and paid in August 2001 and later as if the COLA for December 1999 had been 2.5 percent. Affected beneficiaries received a one-time payment to cover the shortfall that occurred before August 2001.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.27

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A17—Minimum primary insurance amount (PIA) and maximum family benefit for workers who attained
age 62, were first eligible for disabled-worker benefits, or died before 1979
Year enacted

Effective date

Maximum family benefit

Minimum PIA a
(dollars)

Percentage of AMW

Not less than—

1935

...

10.00

1939

...

...

...

...

1950

September 1950

1952

September 1952

1954

September 1954

1958

January 1959

33.00

80% of first $317.50

$20.00 + PIA or 150% of PIA

1961

August 1961

40.00

80% of first $317.50

150% of PIA

1965

January 1965

44.00

80% of first $370 + 40% of next $180

150% of PIA

1967

February 1968

55.00

80% of first $436 + 40% of next $214

150% of PIA

1969

January 1970

64.00

80% of first $436 + 40% of next $180

Lesser of 80%, $85, or 200% of PIA

$20.00

20.00

80% of first $187.50

$40.00

25.00

80% of first $210.93

30.00

80% of first $250

$45.00
$50.00 or 150% of PIA

150% of PIA
b

1971

January 1971

70.40

88% of first $436 + 44% of next $191

1972

September 1972

84.50

105.6% of first $436 + 52.8% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

1973 c

June 1974

89.50

111.8% of first $436 + 55.9% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

March 1974

90.50

113.0% of first $436 + 56.5% of next $191

b

150% of PIA

June 1974

93.80

117.2% of first $436 + 58.6% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

June 1975

101.40

126.6% of first $436 + 63.3% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

June 1976

107.90

134.7% of first $436 + 67.3% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

June 1977

114.30

142.6% of first $436 + 71.3% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

June 1978

121.80

151.9% of first $436 + 76.0% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

June 1979

133.90

167.0% of first $436 + 83.5% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

June 1980

153.10

190.9% of first $436 + 95.4% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

June 1981

170.30

212.2% of first $436 + 106.1% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

1973

d

150% of PIA

(Continued)

2.28 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A17—Minimum primary insurance amount (PIA) and maximum family benefit for workers who attained
age 62, were first eligible for disabled-worker benefits, or died before 1979—Continued
Year enacted
1981
1981

e

Effective date

Minimum PIA a
(dollars)
f

March 1982

Maximum family benefit
Percentage of AMW
190.9% of first $436 + 106.1% of next $191

Not less than—
b

150% of PIA

June 1982

182.90

227.9% of first $436 + 114.0% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

December 1983

189.30

235.9% of first $436 + 118.0% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

December 1984

195.90

244.2% of first $436 + 122.1% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

December 1985

201.90

251.8% of first $436 + 125.9% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

December 1986

204.50

255.1% of first $436 + 127.5% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

December 1987

213.00

265.8% of first $436 + 132.9% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

December 1988

221.50

276.4% of first $436 + 138.2% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

December 1989

231.90

289.4% of first $436 + 144.7% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

December 1990

244.40

305.0% of first $436 + 152.5% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

December 1991

253.40

316.3% of first $436 + 158.1% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

December 1992

261.00

325.8% of first $436 + 162.8% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

December 1993

267.70

334.3% of first $436 + 167.0% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

December 1994

275.10

343.7% of first $436 + 171.7% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

December 1995

282.20

352.6% of first $436 + 176.2% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

December 1996

290.30

362.8% of first $436 + 181.3% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

December 1997

296.30

370.4% of first $436 + 185.1% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

December 1998

300.10

375.2% of first $436 + 187.5% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

December 1999 g

307.60

384.6% of first $436 + 192.2% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

December 2000

318.30

398.1% of first $436 + 198.9% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

December 2001

326.50

408.5% of first $436 + 204.1% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

December 2002

331.00

414.2% of first $436 + 206.9% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

December 2003

337.90

422.9% of first $436 + 211.2% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

December 2004

347.00

434.3% of first $436 + 216.9% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

December 2005

361.20

452.1% of first $436 + 225.8% of next $191 b

150% of PIA

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Social Security
Administration, "Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2006," Federal Register, vol. 70, no. 205 (October 25, 2005).
NOTE: AMW = average monthly wage; . . . = not applicable.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

Based on earnings; subject to reduction if claimed before age 65.
For AMW of $628 or more, 175 percent of PIA.
Superseded by legislation in 1973.
Beginning in 1975, minimum PIA and percentages in maximum family benefit formula are subject to automatic cost-of-living increases. (Superseded legislation in
1972 for automatic increases beginning in 1974.)
Superseded by legislation in 1981 that restored the minimum PIA for these groups.
Minimum PIA eliminated by legislation in 1981.
The cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) for December 1999 was originally determined to be 2.4 percent, based on the consumer price index (CPI). The underlying CPI
was later recomputed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics; a 2.5 percent COLA would have been consistent with the recomputed CPI. Pursuant to Public Law 106-554,
benefits were calculated and paid in August 2001 and later as if the COLA for December 1999 had been 2.5 percent. Affected beneficiaries received a one-time payment to cover the shortfall that occurred before August 2001.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.29

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A17.1—Full retirement age and maximum reduction of retired-worker benefits, by year of birth
Year of attainment
of age 62

Year of attainment
of age 65

Full retirement age

Maximum
reduction months

Maximum reduction
at age 62 b

1935

1997

2000

65 years

36

0.2000000

1936

1998

2001

65 years

36

0.2000000

1937

1999

2002

65 years

36

0.2000000

1938

2000

2003

65 years and 2 months

38

0.2083333

1939

2001

2004

65 years and 4 months

40

0.2166667

1940

2002

2005

65 years and 6 months

42

0.2250000

1941

2003

2006

65 years and 8 months

44

0.2333333
0.2416667

Year of birth a

1942

2004

2007

65 years and 10 months

46

2005–2016

2008–2019

66 years

48

0.2500000

1955

2017

2020

66 years and 2 months

50

0.2583333

1956

2018

2021

66 years and 4 months

52

0.2666667

1957

2019

2022

66 years and 6 months

54

0.2750000

1958

2020

2023

66 years and 8 months

56

0.2833333

2021

2024

66 years and 10 months

58

0.2916667

2022 and later

2025 and later

67 years

60

0.3000000

1943–1954

1959
1960 or later

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm.
a.
b.

If birthday is January 1, refer to previous year.
The monthly reduction factor is 0.0055556 for the first 36 months and 0.0041667 for additional months.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

2.30 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A18—Automatic adjustment provisions
Year enacted

Provision

Quarter of coverage
1977

Mandatory annual determination, beginning in 1978, as to whether an adjustment is required in the amount of wages and self-employment earnings an
individual needs in order to be credited with a quarter of coverage (QC) in the succeeding year. The amount required for a QC is the product of $250 (in
effect in 1978) multiplied by the following quotient: the national average wage for the year before the year of determination, divided by the average
wage for 1976 (see Table 2.A8 for average annual wages after 1950). The resulting product, rounded to the nearest multiple of $10, is the new amount
required for a QC. In no case, however, is the new amount reduced below the amount in effect in the year of determination.

Maximum amount of taxable and creditable earnings
1972

The 1972 Act (as modified by the legislation in 1973) mandated a determination in 1974, and in every subsequent year in which a cost-of-living benefit
increase is established, as to whether an adjustment is required in the maximum amount of annual earnings that will be taxed and credited toward
benefits.
The determination in the years after 1975 is made by multiplying the "maximum" in effect in the year of determination by the following quotient: the
national average wage for the year before the year of determination, divided by the average wage for the year before the most recent year in which an
automatic determination was made that resulted in an increase or in which an increase in the maximum was enacted. (See Table 2.A8 for annual
amounts of the average wage after 1950). The resulting product, rounded to the nearest multiple of $300, is the new maximum amount of taxable and
creditable earnings, effective with respect to remuneration paid after the year of determination and with respect to taxable years beginning after that
year. In no case, however, is the maximum reduced to an amount below the maximum in the year of determination.

1976

In the 1974 and 1975 determinations, the quotient was the average wage for the year of determination, estimated from data for the first calendar
quarter, divided by the corresponding amount for the year before the year of determination. Public Law (P.L.) 94-202 (signed January 2, 1976) revised
the adjustment method by increasing by a year the lag in average wages used in the computation. Thus, for example, the determination in 1976 was
based on the percentage increase in the average wage from 1974 to 1975.

1977

Statutory in lieu of automatic increases in the maximum instituted for 1979, 1980, and 1981. Also, for purposes of establishing a "year of coverage"
used in the computation of the special minimum primary insurance amount (PIA), annual maximum taxable and creditable earnings after 1978 are the
amounts that would have been determined under the automatic adjustment provisions if the statutory increases in the maximum under the 1977 Act
had not been enacted (see Table 2.A12).

1989

Automatic increases in the maximum for 1990, 1991, and 1992 determined under a transitional rule, specified by the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation
Act of 1989, for computing "deemed" average annual wage for 1988, 1989, and 1990. The purpose of the legislation was to include contributions to
certain "deferred compensation" plans, most importantly section 401(k) pension plans, in the average annual average wage.

1994

The determination for years after 1994 is made by multiplying $60,600, the "maximum" for 1994, by the following quotient: the national average wage
index for the year before the year in which the determination is made, divided by the national average wage index for 1992. (See Table 2.A8 for annual
amounts of the national average wage index.) The resulting product, rounded to the nearest $300, is the new maximum amount of taxable and
creditable earnings, effective with respect to remuneration paid in (and taxable years beginning in) the year following the year the determination is
made. In no case, however, is the new maximum reduced to an amount below the maximum in the year of determination.

Benefits
Computation
1977

New benefit computation method based on average indexed monthly earnings (AIME) after 1950, effective for workers first eligible after 1978. Provision
for automatic adjustment of the dollar amounts, or bend points, defining (1) the AIME brackets in the PIA formula (see Table 2.A11) and (2) the PIA
brackets in the maximum family benefit formula (see Table 2.A13). New bend points are established by multiplying the bend points in effect in 1979—
$180 and $1,085 for the PIA formula and $230, $332, and $433 for the maximum family benefit formula—by the following quotient: the national average
wage for the second year before the year for which the determination was made, divided by the average wage for 1977 (see Table 2.A8 for average
annual wages after 1950). The resulting products, rounded to the nearest dollar, are the new bend points.

1980

Modified maximum family benefit formula applicable to workers with initial entitlement to disability benefits in or after July 1980 (see Table 2.A14). New
formula for disabled workers has no bend points subject to automatic adjustment.

Cost-of-living increase
1972

Under the original provisions (based on 1972 and 1973 legislation), the arithmetical mean of the consumer price index (CPI) for January, February, and
March in the year of determination was compared with the arithmetical mean of the CPI for the later of (a) January, February, and March of the year in
which the last effective cost-of-living increase was established or (b) the 3 months of the calendar quarter in which the effective month of the last
general benefit increase occurred. (Before the introduction, in 1977, of the alternative CPI series for "all urban consumers," or the CPI-U, the CPI-W
was referred to as the CPI.) If the percentage increase in the CPI, rounded to the nearest one-tenth of 1 percent, was at least 3.0 (the triggering
requirement), a cost-of-living benefit increase was established and the level of benefits was increased by the same percentage, effective for June of the
year in which the determination was made.
(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.31

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A18—Automatic adjustment provisions—Continued
Year enacted

Provision

Benefits (cont.)
Cost-of-living increase (cont.)
1983

The 1983 Act moved the effective date for a cost-of-living benefit increase from June to December, beginning in 1983, and eliminated the "triggering
requirement" for the 1983 increase only. Effective with the determination made in 1984, the two periods used in calculating the CPI-W percentage
increase were shifted from the first to the third quarter.
The 1983 Act also introduced an alternative method for determining the size of a cost-of-living adjustment. This method, called the stabilizer provision,
is applied when the ratio of the combined OASDI trust fund assets to estimated outgo falls below a certain percentage. The "triggering" percentage is
15 percent for 1985–1988 and 20 percent for years after 1988. Under these circumstances, the cost-of-living adjustment is based on the lesser of the
CPI-W percentage increase determined above or the increase in average wages. The latter increase is the percentage, rounded to the nearest onetenth of 1 percent by which the national average wage for the year before the year of determination exceeds the average wage for the year before the
most recent year in which either a cost-of-living increase or a general benefit increase occurred. (See Table 2.A8 for the annual amount of the average
wage after 1950 and footnote a in that table for the underlying data sources.)
The 1983 legislation also included a provision for making up any benefit increases that are based on a lower wage increase rather than on the increase
in the cost of living. When the fund ratio is greater than 32 percent, additional increases will be provided so that benefits are increased to the level at
which they would have been if all increases had been based on the CPI-W. (See Table 2.A19 for the cumulative effect of statutory and automatic
increases in benefits.)

1986

Triggering requirement eliminated for cost-of-living increases in and after 1986 by P.L. 99-509 (signed October 21, 1986).

2001

The cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) for December 1999 was originally determined to be 2.4 percent, based on the consumer price index (CPI). The
underlying CPI was later recomputed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics; a 2.5 percent COLA would have been consistent with the recomputed CPI.
Pursuant to Public Law 106-554, benefits were calculated and paid in August 2001 and later as if the COLA for December 1999 had been 2.5 percent.
Affected beneficiaries received a one-time payment to cover the shortfall that occurred before August 2001.

Earnings test
1972

The 1972 Act (as modified by the 1973 Acts) mandated a determination in 1974, and in every subsequent year in which a cost-of-living increase is
established, as to whether an adjustment in the exempt amount—the amount of earnings permitted without reduction in benefits—is required.
The determination in the years after 1975 is made by multiplying the monthly exempt amount in effect in the year of determination by the following
quotient: the national average wage for the year before the year of determination, divided by the average wage for the year before the most recent year
in which an automatic determination was made that resulted in an increase or in which an increase in the exempt amount was enacted. (See Table 2.A8
for annual amounts of the average wage after 1950.) The resulting product, rounded to the nearest multiple of $10, is the new monthly exempt amount,
effective with respect to remuneration paid after the year of determination and with respect to taxable year beginning after that year. In no case,
however, is the new exempt amount reduced below the exempt amount in the year of determination. The new annual exempt amount is determined by
multiplying the new monthly amount by 12.

1976

In the 1974 and 1975 determinations, the quotient was the average wage for the year of determination, estimated from data for the first calendar
quarter, divided by the corresponding amount for the year before the year of determination. Public Law 94-202 (signed January 2, 1976) revised the
adjustment method by increasing by a year the lag in average wages used in the computation. Thus, for example, the 1976 determination was based
on the percentage increase in the average wage from 1974 to 1975.

1994

The determination for years after 1994 is made by multiplying the monthly exempt amounts in effect for 1994 ($930 for beneficiaries who have, $670 for
beneficiaries who have not yet, reached "full retirement age"; see footnote f in Table 2.A29) by the following quotient: the national average wage for the
year before the year in which the determination is made, divided by the national average wage for 1992. (See Table 2.A8 for annual amounts of the
national average wage.) The resulting products, rounded to the nearest $10, are the new monthly exempt amounts effective for the year following the
year the determination is made. The new annual exempt amounts are determined by multiplying the new monthly amounts by 12.

1996

Public Law 104-121, enacted March 29, 1996, suspended the automatic indexing of the exempt amounts through the year 2002 for workers aged 65–
69. It legislated ad hoc increases in the annual exempt amounts to $12,500 in 1996; $13,500 in 1997; $14,500 in 1998; $15,500 in 1999; $17,000 in
2000; $25,000 in 2001; and $30,000 in 2002. Thereafter, the exempt amounts will increase automatically based on the annual increase in the national
average wage as under the 1994 legislation.

2000

Public Law 106-182, enacted April 7, 2000, eliminated the earnings test beginning with the month a beneficiary reaches full retirement age (FRA). The
annual earnings test that applies in the year of attainment of FRA is based on the annual limits established under P.L. 104-121 (including the $1 for $3
withholding rate). In determining annual earnings for purposes of the annual earnings test under this legislation, only earnings before the month of
attainment of FRA will be considered. Public Law 106-182 did not change the annual exempt amount for beneficiaries who are under FRA throughout
the year, which continues to be pegged to increases in the average wage.

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Social Security
Administration, "Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2006," Federal Register, vol. 70, no. 205 (October 25, 2005).
CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

2.32 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A19—Illustrative benefit growth: Cumulative effect of statutory and automatic increases in benefits
using a 100 dollar base benefit
Base date

August September September September
1950
1950
1952
1954

January
1959

January
1965

February
1968

January
1970

January September
1971
1972

June
1974

June
1975

June
1976

August 1950
September 1950
September 1952
September 1954
January 1959
January 1965
February 1968
January 1970
January 1971
September 1972
June 1974
June 1975
June 1976

100
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

177
100
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

199
113
100
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

225
127
113
100
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

241
136
121
107
100
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

258
146
129
114
107
100
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

291
164
146
129
121
113
100
...
...
...
...
...
...

335
189
168
149
139
130
115
100
...
...
...
...
...

368
208
185
164
153
143
127
110
100
...
...
...
...

442
250
222
196
184
172
152
132
120
100
...
...
...

491
277
246
218
204
190
168
147
133
111
100
...
...

530
299
266
235
220
206
182
158
144
120
108
100
...

564
318
283
250
234
219
194
168
153
128
115
106
100

Cost-of-living
adjustment

...

77.0

12.5

13.0

7.0

7.0

13.0

15.0

10.0

20.0

11.0

8.0

6.4

(Continued)

Table 2.A19—Illustrative benefit growth: Cumulative effect of statutory and automatic increases in benefits
using a 100 dollar base benefit—Continued
June
1977

June
1978

June
1979

June
1980

June
1981

June
1982

Dec.
1983

Dec.
1984

Dec.
1985

Dec.
1986

Dec.
1987

Dec.
1988

Dec.
1989

August 1950
September 1950
September 1952
September 1954
January 1959
January 1965
February 1968
January 1970
January 1971
September 1972
June 1974
June 1975
June 1976
June 1977
June 1978
June 1979
June 1980
June 1981
June 1982
December 1983
December 1984
December 1985
December 1986
December 1987
December 1988
December 1989

597
337
300
265
248
232
205
178
162
135
122
113
106
100
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

636
359
319
283
264
247
218
190
173
144
130
120
113
107
100
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

699
395
351
310
290
271
240
209
190
158
142
132
124
117
110
100
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

799
451
401
355
332
310
274
239
217
181
163
151
142
134
126
114
100
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

888
502
446
395
369
345
305
265
241
201
181
168
158
149
140
127
111
100
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

954
539
479
424
396
370
328
285
259
216
194
180
169
160
150
137
119
107
100
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

987
558
496
439
410
383
339
295
268
223
201
186
175
165
155
141
124
111
104
100
...
...
...
...
...
...

1,022
577
513
454
424
397
351
305
277
231
208
193
181
171
161
146
128
115
107
104
100
...
...
...
...
...

1,053
595
529
468
437
409
362
315
286
238
215
199
187
176
166
151
132
119
110
107
103
100
...
...
...
...

1,067
603
536
474
443
414
367
319
290
241
218
201
189
179
168
153
134
120
112
108
104
101
100
...
...
...

1,112
628
558
494
462
432
382
332
302
252
227
210
197
186
175
159
139
125
117
113
109
106
104
100
...
...

1,156
653
581
514
480
449
397
345
314
262
236
218
205
194
182
166
145
130
121
117
113
110
108
104
100
...

1,211
684
608
538
503
470
416
362
329
274
247
229
215
203
190
173
152
136
127
123
118
115
113
109
105
100

Cost-of-living
adjustment

5.9

6.5

9.9

14.3

11.2

7.4

3.5

3.5

3.1

1.3

4.2

4.0

4.7

Base date

(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.33

2.A OASDI: Benefit Computation and Automatic Adjustments
Table 2.A19—Illustrative benefit growth: Cumulative effect of statutory and automatic increases in benefits
using a 100 dollar base benefit—Continued
Base date

Dec.
1990

Dec.
1991

Dec.
1992

Dec.
1993

Dec.
1994

Dec.
1995

Dec.
1996

Dec.
1997

Dec.
1998

Dec.
1999

Dec.
2000

Dec.
2001

Dec.
2002

Dec.
2003

Dec.
2004

Dec.
2005

August 1950
September 1950
September 1952
September 1954
January 1959
January 1965
February 1968
January 1970
January 1971
September 1972
June 1974
June 1975
June 1976
June 1977
June 1978
June 1979
June 1980
June 1981
June 1982
December 1983
December 1984
December 1985
December 1986
December 1987
December 1988
December 1989
December 1990
December 1991
December 1992
December 1993
December 1994
December 1995
December 1996
December 1997
December 1998
December 1999
December 2000
December 2001
December 2002
December 2003
December 2004
December 2005

1,276
721
641
567
530
495
438
381
347
289
260
241
226
214
201
183
160
144
134
129
125
121
120
115
110
105
100
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

1,323
748
665
588
550
514
455
395
359
299
270
250
235
222
208
189
166
149
139
134
130
126
124
119
114
109
104
100
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

1,363
770
684
606
566
529
468
407
370
308
278
257
242
228
214
195
171
153
143
138
133
129
128
123
118
113
107
103
100
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

1,398
790
702
621
581
543
480
418
380
316
285
264
248
234
220
200
175
157
147
142
137
133
131
126
121
116
110
106
103
100
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

1,437
812
722
639
597
558
494
429
390
325
293
271
255
241
226
206
180
162
151
146
141
136
135
129
124
119
113
109
105
103
100
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

1,475
833
741
655
613
573
507
441
401
334
301
278
262
247
232
211
185
166
155
149
144
140
138
133
128
122
116
111
108
105
103
100
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

1,518
857
762
674
630
589
521
453
412
343
309
286
269
254
239
217
190
171
159
154
149
144
142
137
131
125
119
115
111
109
106
103
100
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

1,549
875
778
689
644
601
532
463
421
351
316
292
275
260
244
222
194
174
162
157
152
147
145
139
134
128
121
117
114
111
108
105
102
100
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

1,570
887
788
698
652
609
539
469
426
355
320
296
278
263
247
225
197
177
165
159
154
149
147
141
136
130
123
119
115
112
109
106
103
101
100
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

1,609
909
808
715
668
625
553
481
437
364
328
304
285
270
253
230
201
181
169
163
157
153
151
145
139
133
126
122
118
115
112
109
106
104
103
100
...
...
...
...
...
...

1,665
941
836
740
692
646
572
497
452
377
339
314
295
279
262
238
209
188
175
169
163
158
156
150
144
138
131
126
122
119
116
113
110
107
106
104
100
...
...
...
...
...

1,708
965
858
759
710
663
587
510
464
387
348
323
303
286
269
245
214
192
179
173
167
162
160
154
148
141
134
129
125
122
119
116
113
110
109
106
103
100
...
...
...
...

1,732
979
870
770
720
672
595
517
470
392
353
327
307
290
273
248
217
195
182
176
170
164
162
156
150
143
136
131
127
124
121
117
114
112
110
108
104
101
100
...
...
...

1,769
999
888
786
735
687
608
528
480
400
361
334
314
296
278
253
222
199
185
179
173
168
166
159
153
146
139
134
130
126
123
120
117
114
113
110
106
104
102
100
...
...

1,817
1,026
912
807
754
705
624
543
493
411
370
343
322
304
286
260
227
205
190
184
178
172
170
163
157
150
142
137
133
130
126
123
120
117
116
113
109
106
105
103
100
...

1,890
1,067
949
839
785
733
649
563
512
428
385
356
335
316
296
269
235
213
197
190
184
179
176
169
163
156
148
142
138
135
131
127
124
122
120
116
113
110
109
107
104
100

5.4

3.7

3.0

2.6

2.8

2.6

2.9

2.1

1.3

3.5

2.6

1.4

2.1

2.7

4.1

Cost-of-living
adjustment

a

2.5

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Social Security
Administration, "Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2006," Federal Register, vol. 70, no. 205 (October 25, 2005).
NOTES: Growth reflects cost-of-living adjustments only. Data are rounded to the nearest dollar.
. . . = not applicable.
a.

The cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) for December 1999 was originally determined to be 2.4 percent, based on the consumer price index (CPI). The underlying CPI
was later recomputed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics; a 2.5 percent COLA would have been consistent with the recomputed CPI. Pursuant to Public Law 106-554,
benefits were calculated and paid in August 2001 and later as if the COLA for December 1999 had been 2.5 percent. Affected beneficiaries received a one-time payment to cover the shortfall that occurred before August 2001.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

2.34 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Benefit Types and Levels
Table 2.A20—Monthly benefits for retired and disabled workers
Year
enacted

Age

Percentage
of PIA

Condition or qualification

Retired worker
1935

65 or older

100

Fully insured. Amount based on cumulative wages.

1939

...

...

Amount based on PIA.

1956

Women: 62–64

...

Reduced 5/9 of 1% for each month under age 65.

1961

Men: 62–64

...

Reduced 5/9 of 1% for each month under age 65.

1972

...

...

Increased 1/12 of 1% for each month between ages 65 and 72 for which no benefits received after 1970 (PIA based
on AMW only). Applicable only to worker whose benefit has not been actuarially reduced.

1977

...

...

Increased 1/4 of 1% for each month after 1981 and between ages 65 and 72 in which no benefits received.
Requirement for nonreceipt of actuarially reduced benefit removed.

1983

65 and 2 months–67

...

Beginning in year 2000, the age at which 100% of PIA is payable will be gradually increased, as follows:

Applicable PIA payable at age—

Applicable to workers who attain age 62 in—

65 and 2 months

2000

65 and 4 months

2001

65 and 6 months

2002

65 and 8 months

2003

65 and 10 months

2004

66

2005–2016

66 and 2 months

2017

66 and 4 months

2018

66 and 6 months

2019

66 and 8 months

2020

66 and 10 months

2021

67

2022 and later

62–66

...

Reduced 5/9 of 1% for each of the first 36 months of receipt of benefits immediately preceding the age at which
100% of PIA is payable, plus 5/12 of 1% for each of up to 24 earlier months of benefit receipt.

...

...

Increased by the following percentage for each month between the age at which 100% of PIA is payable and age 70
in which no benefits are received:

Age 62 in years—

Rate of increase

1987–1988

7/24 of 1%

Annual rate (percent)
3.5

1989–1990

8/24 of 1%

4

1991–1992

9/24 of 1%

4.5

1993–1994

10/24 of 1%

5

1995–1996

11/24 of 1%

5.5

1997–1998

12/24 of 1%

6

1999–2000

13/24 of 1%

6.5

2001–2002

14/24 of 1%

7

2003–2004

15/24 of 1%

7.5

2005 and later

16/24 of 1%

8

...

...

No further increases for months of nonreceipt of benefits after age 70, effective 1984.

...

...

Partial offset for receipt of pension based on noncovered employment, phased in over a 5-year period beginning in
1986 for individuals first eligible for Social Security and noncovered pension after 1985 (see Table 2.A11).
(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.35

2.A OASDI: Benefit Types and Levels
Table 2.A20—Monthly benefits for retired and disabled workers—Continued
Year
enacted

Age

Percentage
of PIA

Condition or qualification

Disabled worker
1956

50–64

...

Disability insured. Waiting period of 6 calendar months. Reduced by amount of workers’ compensation.

1958

...

...

Reduction for workers’ compensation eliminated.

1960

Under 50

...

...

1965

...

...

Reduced if benefits plus workers’ compensation exceed 80% of the higher of AMW or high 5-year average taxable
earnings in covered employment. Adjusted periodically for rises in wage levels.

1967

...

...

Reduced if benefits plus workers’ compensation exceed 80% of the higher of AMW or high 5-year average earnings
in covered employment, regardless of taxable limit.

1972

...

...

Reduced if benefits plus workers’ compensation exceed 80% of the highest of (a) AMW, (b) high 5-year average
earnings or (c) highest annual earnings in the period consisting of year of disability onset and 5 preceding years in
covered employment.

...

...

Waiting period reduced to 5 full calendar months.

...

...

Partial offset for receipt of pension based on noncovered employment phased in over a 5-year period beginning in
1986 for individuals first eligible for Social Security and noncovered pension after 1985.

1983

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm.
NOTE: PIA = primary insurance amount; AMW = average monthly wage; . . . = not applicable.
CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

2.36 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Benefit Types and Levels
...

Table 2.A21—Monthly benefits for spouses and children of retired and disabled workers
Year enacted

Age

Percentage
of PIA

Condition or qualification

Wife
1939

65 or older

50

Fully insured.

1956

62–64

...

Reduced 25/36 of 1% for each month under age 65.

1967

...

...

Maximum $105.

1969

...

...

Maximum eliminated.

1977

...

...

Reduced by full amount of pension payable based on own earnings in noncovered governmental employment
(noncovered pension offset). Reduction does not apply if eligible for such pension before December 1982.

1983

...

...

Noncovered pension offset not applicable if first eligible for such pension before July 1983 and dependent. Reduced
by only two-thirds of such pension if first eligible for it after June 1983.

65 and
2 months–67

...

Beginning in year 2000, the age at which 50% of PIA is payable will be gradually increased (see Table 2.A20).

62–66

...

Reduced 25/36 of 1% for each of the first 36 months under the age at which 50% of PIA is payable, plus 5/12 of 1%
for each of up to 24 earlier months of benefit receipt.

...

...

Noncovered pension offset limited to two-thirds of such pension.

1984

Divorced wife
1965

65 or older

...

Fully insured. Dependent. Married 20 years. Not counted toward family maximum.

62–64

...

Reduced 25/36 of 1% for each month under age 65.

1967

...

...

Maximum $105.

1969

...

...

Maximum eliminated.

1972

...

...

Dependency requirement eliminated.

1977

...

...

Married 10 years.

...

...

Reduced by full amount of pension payable based on own earnings in noncovered governmental employment
(noncovered pension offset). Reduction does not apply if eligible for such pension before December 1982 and
married 20 years.

...

...

Noncovered pension offset not applicable if first eligible for such pension before July 1983 and dependent. Reduced
by only two-thirds of such pension if first eligible for it after June 1983.

...

...

Can be independently entitled to benefits if divorced for 2 years or more (after marriage of 10 or more years) and
worker could be entitled to benefits if he applied. Effective with benefits for months after December 1984.

65 and
2 months–67

...

Beginning in year 2000, the age at which 50% of PIA is payable will be gradually increased (see Table 2.A20).

62–66

...

Reduced 25/36 of 1% for each of the first 36 months under the age at which 50% of PIA is payable, plus 5/12 of 1%
for each of up to 24 earlier months of benefit receipt.

...

...

Noncovered pension offset limited to two-thirds of such pension.

1983

1984

Wife (mother)
1950

Under 65

...

Fully insured. Caring for eligible child.

1965

...

...

Eligible child excludes student aged 18–21.

1967

...

...

Maximum $105.

1969

...

...

Maximum eliminated.

1977

...

...

Reduced by full amount of pension payable based on own earnings in noncovered governmental employment
(noncovered pension offset). Reduction does not apply if eligible for such pension before December 1982.

1981

...

...

Eligible child excludes nondisabled child aged 16–17.

1983

...

...

Noncovered pension offset not applicable if first eligible for such pension before July 1983 and dependent. Reduced
by only two-thirds of such pension if first eligible for it after June 1983.

1984

...

...

Noncovered pension offset limited to two-thirds of such pension.
(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.37

2.A OASDI: Benefit Types and Levels
Table 2.A21—Monthly benefits for spouses and children of retired and disabled workers—Continued
Year enacted

Age

Percentage
of PIA

Condition or qualification

Child
...

Fully insured. a

1939

Under 18

1965

18–21

...

Full-time student.

1972

...

...

Benefits extended to end of quarter or semester in which 22nd birthday occurs while undergraduate student.

...

...

Includes grandchild under certain circumstances.

1981

18–22

...

Student benefits eliminated (to be phased out gradually for those entitled before May 1982), except for elementary
or secondary school students under age 19.

1996

...

...

Stepchildren must be dependent on worker.

Disabled child
1956
1972

...

Fully insured. a Disabled before age 18.

...

...

Disabled before age 22.

...

...

Includes grandchild under certain circumstances.

18 or older

Husband
1950

65 or older

1961

62–64

...

Reduced 25/36 of 1% for each month under age 65.

1967

...

...

Currently insured requirement eliminated. Maximum $105.

1969

...

...

Maximum eliminated.

1977

...

...

Dependency requirement eliminated.

...

...

Reduced by full amount of pension payable based on own earnings in noncovered governmental employment
(noncovered pension offset). Reduction does not apply if eligible for such pension before December 1982 and
dependent.

...

...

Noncovered pension offset provision not applicable if first eligible for such pension before July 1983 and dependent.
Reduced by only two-thirds of such pension if first eligible for it after June 1983.

65 and
2 months–67

...

Beginning in year 2000, the age at which 50% of PIA is payable will be gradually increased (see Table 2.A20).

62–66

...

Reduced 25/36 of 1% for each of the first 36 months under the age at which 50% of PIA is payable, plus 5/12 of 1%
for each of up to 24 earlier months of benefit receipt.

...

...

Noncovered pension offset limited to two-thirds of such pension.

1983

1984

50

Fully and currently insured. Dependent.

Divorced husband
1977 b

1983

1984

65 or older

...

Fully insured. Married 10 years. Not counted toward family maximum.

62–64

...

Reduced 25/36 of 1% for each month under age 65.

...

...

Reduced by full amount of pension payable based on own earnings in noncovered governmental employment
(noncovered pension offset).

...

...

Noncovered pension offset not applicable if first eligible for such pension before July 1983 and dependent. Reduced
by only two-thirds of such pension if first eligible after June 1983.

...

...

Can be independently entitled to benefits if divorced for 2 years or more (after marriage of 10 or more years) and
worker could be entitled to benefits if she applied. Effective with benefits for months after December 1984.

65 and
2 months–67

...

Beginning in year 2000, the age at which 50% of PIA is payable will be gradually increased (see Table 2.A20).

62–66

...

Reduced 25/36 of 1% for each of the first 36 months under the age at which 50% of PIA is payable, plus 5/12 of 1%
for each of up to 24 earlier months of benefit receipt.

...

...

Noncovered pension offset limited to two-thirds of such pension.
(Continued)

2.38 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Benefit Types and Levels
Table 2.A21—Monthly benefits for spouses and children of retired and disabled workers—Continued
Year enacted

Age

Percentage
of PIA

Condition or qualification

Husband (father)
1978

c

Under 65

...

Fully insured. Caring for eligible child. Reduced by full amount of pension payable based on own earnings in
noncovered governmental employment (noncovered pension offset).

1981

...

...

Eligible child excludes nondisabled child aged 16–17.

1983

...

...

Noncovered pension offset not applicable if first eligible for such pension before July 1983 and dependent. Reduced
by only two-thirds of such pension if first eligible for it after June 1983.

1984

...

...

Noncovered pension offset limited to two-thirds of such pension.

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm.
NOTE: PIA = primary insurance amount; . . . = not applicable.
a.
b.
c.

Under the Act of 1939, generally not available to child of married female worker. Under the Act of 1950, available if female worker is fully and currently insured. Currently insured requirement eliminated by the Act of 1967.
Northern District of California District Court decision in Oliver v. Califano, June 24, 1977. Statutory change enacted in 1983.
Eastern District of Pennsylvania District Court decision in Cooper v. Califano, December 29, 1978. Statutory change enacted in 1983.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.39

2.A OASDI: Benefit Types and Levels
Table 2.A22—Monthly benefits for survivors of deceased workers
Year
enacted

Age

Percentage
of PIA

Condition or qualification

Widow
1939

65 or older

75

Fully insured.

1956

62–64

...

...

1961

...

82.5

...

1965

60–61

...

Reduced 5/9 of 1% for each month under age 62.

1972

65 or older

100

Limited, if husband retired before age 65, to amount husband would be receiving if still living, but not less than
82 1/2% of PIA.

60–64

...

Reduced 19/40 of 1% each month under age 65. In addition, for a widow aged 62–64 whose husband retired
before age 65 limited to amount he would be receiving if still living, but not less than 82 1/2% of PIA.

1977

1983

1984

...

...

Increased by any delayed retirement credit husband would be receiving.

...

...

Reduced by full amount of pension payable based on own earnings in noncovered governmental employment
(noncovered pension offset). Reduction does not apply if eligible for such pension before December 1982.

...

...

Noncovered pension offset not applicable if first eligible for such pension before July 1983 and dependent.
Reduced by only two-thirds of such pension if first eligible for it after June 1983.

65 and 2 months–67

...

Beginning in year 2000, the age at which 100% of PIA is payable will be gradually increased, as follows:

Applicable PIA payable at age—

Applicable to widows who attain age 60 in—

65 and 2 months

2000

65 and 4 months

2001

65 and 6 months

2002

65 and 8 months

2003

65 and 10 months

2004

66

2005–2016

66 and 2 months

2017

66 and 4 months

2018

66 and 6 months

2019

66 and 8 months

2020

66 and 10 months

2021

67

2022 and later

60–66

...

The percent of reduction for each month depends on the age at which 100% of PIA is payable. The
percentage is adjusted so that the total reduction, in equal monthly steps, is always 28 1/2% at age 60.

...

...

Noncovered pension offset limited to two-thirds of such pension.

Disabled widow
1967

50–59

82.5

Fully insured. Reduced 13 1/3%, plus 43/198 of 1% for each month under age 60. Includes divorced wife,
dependent and married 20 years.

1972

...

100

Reduced 28 1/2%, plus 43/240 of 1% for each month under age 60.

1977

...

...

Increased by any delayed retirement credit husband would be receiving.

...

...

Reduced by full amount of pension payable based on own earnings in noncovered governmental employment
(noncovered pension offset). Reduction does not apply if eligible for such pension before December 1982.

...

...

Noncovered pension offset not applicable if first eligible for such pension before July 1983 and dependent.
Reduced by only two-thirds of such pension if first eligible for it after June 1983.

...

...

Additional reduction for each month under age 60 eliminated.

...

...

Noncovered pension offset limited to two-thirds of such pension.

1983

1984

Surviving divorced wife
1965

60 or older

82.5

Fully insured. Dependent. Married 20 years. Not counted toward family maximum. Reduced 5/9 of 1% for
each month under age 62.

1972

65 or older

100

Limited, if former husband retired before age 65, to amount he would be receiving if still living, but not less
than 82 1/2% of PIA.

60–64

...

Reduced 19/40 of 1% for each month under age 65. In addition, for widow aged 62–64 whose former husband
retired before age 65, limited to amount he would be receiving if still living, but not less than 82 1/2% of PIA.
(Continued)

2.40 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Benefit Types and Levels
Table 2.A22—Monthly benefits for survivors of deceased workers—Continued
Year
enacted

Age

Percentage
of PIA

Condition or qualification

Surviving divorced wife (cont.)
1977

1983

1984

...

...

Dependency requirement eliminated.

...

...

Increased by any delayed retirement increment former husband would be receiving.

...

...

Married 10 years.

...

...

Reduced by full amount of pension payable based on own earnings in noncovered governmental employment
(noncovered pension offset). Reduction does not apply if eligible for such pension before December 1982 and
married 20 years.

...

...

Noncovered pension offset provision not applicable if first eligible for such pension before July 1983 and
dependent. Reduced by only two-thirds of such pension if first eligible for it after June 1983.

65 and 2 months–67

...

Beginning in year 2000, the age at which 100% of PIA is payable will be gradually increased (see Widow).

60–66

...

The percent of reduction for each month depends on the age at which 100% of PIA is payable. The
percentage is adjusted so that the total reduction, in equal monthly steps, is always 28 1/2% at age 60.

...

...

Noncovered pension offset limited to two-thirds of such pension.

Disabled surviving divorced wife
1967
1972

1977

1983

1984

50–59

82.5

Fully insured. Dependent. Married 20 years. Not counted toward family maximum. Reduced 13 1/3%, plus
43/198 of 1% for each month under age 62.

...

100

Reduced 28 1/2%, plus 43/240 of 1% for each month under age 60.

...

...

Dependency requirement eliminated.

...

...

Increased by any delayed retirement increment husband (or former husband) would be receiving.

...

...

Married 10 years.

...

...

Reduced by full amount of pension payable based on own earnings in noncovered governmental employment
(noncovered pension offset). Reduction does not apply if eligible for such pension before December 1982 and
married 20 years.

...

...

Noncovered pension offset not applicable if first eligible for such pension before July 1983 and dependent.
Reduced by only two-thirds of such pension if first eligible for it after June 1983.

...

...

Additional reduction for each month under age 60 eliminated.

...

...

Noncovered pension offset limited to two-thirds of such pension.

Widowed mother
1939

Under 65

75

Fully or currently insured. Caring for eligible child.

1965

...

...

Eligible child excludes student over age 18.

1977

...

...

Reduced by full amount of pension payable based on own earnings in noncovered governmental employment
(noncovered pension offset). Reduction does not apply if eligible for such pension before December 1982.

1981

...

...

Eligible child excludes nondisabled child aged 16–17.

1983

...

...

Noncovered pension offset not applicable if first eligible for such pension before July 1983 and dependent.
Reduced by only two-thirds of such pension if first eligible for it after June 1983.

1984

...

...

Noncovered pension offset limited to two-thirds of such pension.

Surviving divorced mother
1950

Under 65

75

Fully or currently insured. Caring for eligible child. Dependent. Not counted toward family maximum.

1965

...

...

Eligible child excludes student over age 18.

1972

...

...

Dependency requirement eliminated.

1977

...

...

Reduced by full amount of pension payable based on own earnings in noncovered governmental employment
(noncovered pension offset). Reduction does not apply if eligible for such pension before December 1982.

1981

...

...

Eligible child excludes nondisabled child aged 16–17.

1983

...

...

Noncovered pension offset not applicable if first eligible for such pension before July 1983 and dependent.
Reduced by only two-thirds of such pension if first eligible for it after June 1983.

1984

...

...

Noncovered pension offset limited to two-thirds of such pension.

Child
a

1939

Under 18

50

Fully or currently insured. Student aged 16–17.

1946

...

...

Student requirement eliminated.

1950

...

...

Plus 25% of PIA divided among the children.

1960

...

75

Additional 25% of PIA eliminated.
(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.41

2.A OASDI: Benefit Types and Levels
Table 2.A22—Monthly benefits for survivors of deceased workers—Continued
Year
enacted

Age

Percentage
of PIA

Condition or qualification

Child (cont.)
1965

...

...

Full-time student.

1972

...

...

Benefits extended to end of quarter or semester in which 22nd birthday occurs while undergraduate student.

...

...

Includes grandchild under certain circumstances.

1981

18–22

...

Student category eliminated (to be phased out gradually for those entitled before May 1982), except for
elementary or secondary school students under age 19.

1996

...

...

Stepchildren must be dependent on worker.

Disabled child
50

Fully or currently insured. a Disabled before age 18. Plus 25% of PIA divided among the children.

1956

18 or older

1960

...

75

Additional 25% of PIA eliminated.

1972

...

...

Disabled before age 22.

...

...

Includes grandchild under certain circumstances.

Parent
1939

65 or older

50

Fully insured. Dependent. No surviving widow or child under age 18.

1946

...

...

No surviving eligible widow or child.

1950

...

75

...

1956

62–64

...

Women.

1958

...

...

No-other-survivor requirement eliminated.

1961

62 or older

82.5

75% each if two parents.

1950

65 or older

75

1961

62 or older

82.5

...

1967

...

...

Currently insured requirement eliminated.

1972

65 or older

100

Limited, if wife retired before age 65, to amount wife would be receiving if still living, but not less than 82 1/2%
of PIA.

60–64

...

Reduced 19/40 of 1% for each month under age 65. In addition, for a widower aged 62–64 whose wife retired
before age 65, limited to amount she would be receiving if still living, but not less than 82 1/2% of PIA.

Widower

1977

1983

1984

Fully and currently insured. Dependent.

...

...

Dependency requirement eliminated.

...

...

Increased by any delayed retirement increment wife would be receiving.

...

...

Reduced by full amount of pension payable based on own earnings in noncovered governmental employment
(noncovered pension offset). Reduction does not apply if eligible for such pension before December 1982,
dependent, and not remarried before age 60.

...

...

Noncovered pension offset not applicable if first eligible for such pension before July 1983 and dependent.
Reduced by only two-thirds of such pension if first eligible for it after June 1983.

65 and 2 months–67

...

Beginning in year 2000, the age at which 100% of PIA is payable will be gradually increased (see Widow).

60–66

...

The percent of reduction for each month depends on the age at which 100% of PIA is payable. The
percentage is adjusted so that the total reduction, in equal monthly steps, is always 28 1/2% at age 60.

...

...

Noncovered pension offset limited to two-thirds of such pension.

Disabled widower
1967

50–61

82.5

Fully insured. Dependent. Reduced 5/9 of 1% per month between ages 60–62, plus 43/198 of 1% for each
month under age 60.

1972

50–59

100

Reduced 28 1/2%, plus 43/240 of 1% for each month under age 60. Disability requirement eliminated for
ages 60–61.

...

...

Dependency requirement eliminated.

1977

...

...

Increased by any delayed retirement increment wife would be receiving.

...

...

Reduced by full amount of pension payable based on own earnings in noncovered governmental employment
(noncovered pension offset). Reduction does not apply if eligible for such pension before December 1982,
dependent, and not remarried before age 60.
(Continued)

2.42 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Benefit Types and Levels
Table 2.A22—Monthly benefits for survivors of deceased workers—Continued
Year
enacted

Age

Percentage
of PIA

Condition or qualification

Disabled widower (cont.)
1983

1984

...

...

Noncovered pension offset not applicable if first eligible for such pension before July 1983 and dependent.
Reduced by only two-thirds of such pension if first eligible for it after June 1983.

...

...

Additional reduction for each month under age 60 eliminated.

...

...

Noncovered pension offset limited to two-thirds of such pension.

Surviving divorced husband
1980

b

1983

1984

65 or older

100

Fully insured. Married 10 years. Increased by any delayed retirement credit former wife would be receiving.
Limited, if former wife retired before age 65, to amount she would be receiving if still living, but not less than
82 1/2% of PIA. Not counted toward family maximum. Reduced by full amount of pension payable based on
own earnings in noncovered governmental employment (noncovered pension offset).

60–64

...

Reduced 19/40 of 1% for each month under age 65. In addition, for a widower aged 62–64 whose wife retired
before age 65, limited to amount she would be receiving if still living, but not less than 82 1/2% of PIA.

...

...

Noncovered pension offset provision not applicable if first eligible for such pension before July 1983 and
dependent. Reduced by only two-thirds of such pension if first eligible for it after June 1983.

65 and 2 months–67

...

Beginning in year 2000, the age at which 100% of PIA is payable will be gradually increased (see Widow).

60–66

...

The percent of reduction for each month depends on the age at which 100% of PIA is payable. The
percentage is adjusted so that the total reduction, in equal monthly steps, is always 28 1/2% at age 60.

...

...

Noncovered pension offset limited to two-thirds of such pension.

Disabled surviving divorced husband
1980

b

1983

1984

50–59

100

Fully insured. Married 10 years. Increased by any delayed retirement credit former wife would be receiving.
Reduced 28 1/2%, plus 43/240 of 1% for each month under age 60. Not counted toward family maximum.
Reduced by full amount of pension payable based on own earnings in noncovered employment (noncovered
pension offset).

...

...

Noncovered pension offset provision not applicable if first eligible for such pension before July 1983 and
dependent. Reduced by only two-thirds of such pension if first eligible for it after June 1983.

...

...

Additional reduction for each month under age 60 eliminated.

...

...

Noncovered pension offset limited to two-thirds of such pension.

Widowed father
1975

c

Under 65

75

Fully or currently insured. Caring for eligible child under age 18.

1977

...

...

Reduced by full amount of pension payable based on own earnings in noncovered governmental employment
(noncovered pension offset). Reduction does not apply if eligible for such pension before December 1982.

1981

...

...

Eligible child excludes nondisabled child aged 16–17.

1983

...

...

Noncovered pension offset provision not applicable if first eligible for such pension before July 1983 and
dependent. Reduced by only two-thirds of such pension if first eligible for it after June 1983.

1984

...

...

Noncovered pension offset to two-thirds of such pension.

Surviving divorced father
1979

d

Under 65

75

Fully or currently insured. Caring for eligible child under age 18. Reduced by full amount of pension payable
based on own earnings in noncovered governmental employment (noncovered pension offset).

1981

...

...

Eligible child excludes nondisabled child aged 16–17.

1983

...

...

Noncovered pension offset provision not applicable if first eligible for such pension before July 1983 and
dependent. Reduced by only two-thirds of such pension if first eligible for it after June 1983.

1984

...

...

Noncovered pension offset limited to two-thirds of such pension.

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm.
NOTE: PIA = primary insurance amount; . . . = not applicable.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Under the Act of 1939, generally not available to child of married female worker. Under the Act of 1950, available if female worker is fully and currently insured; currently insured requirement eliminated by the Act of 1967.
Oregon District Court decision in Ambrose v. Harris, July 17, 1980. Statutory change enacted in 1983.
Supreme Court decision in Weinberger v. Wiesenfeld, March 19, 1975. Statutory change enacted in 1983.
Western District Court decision in Yates v. Califano, January 28, 1979. Statutory change enacted in 1983.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.43

2.A OASDI: Benefit Types and Levels
Table 2.A23—Monthly benefits for transitionally insured workers and their spouses and surviving spouses,
aged 72 before 1969
Type of benefit

Effective date

Amount

Enacted in 1965
Worker

September 1965

$35.00

October 1966

Same as benefit for individual receiving special age-72 benefits (see Table 2.A24)

Wife

September 1963

One-half of worker’s benefit

Widow

September 1963

Same as worker’s benefit

Enacted in 1983
Husband

May 1983

One-half of worker’s benefit

Widower

May 1983

Same as worker’s benefit

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm.
CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

2.44 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Benefit Types and Levels
Table 2.A24—Monthly benefits for individuals and couples insured for special age-72
(Prouty) benefits
Amount a (dollars)
Effective date

Age

Individual

Couple

1966

October 1966

72

35.00

52.50

1967

February 1968

...

40.00

60.00

January 1970

...

46.00

69.00

January 1971

...

48.30

72.50

September 1972

...

58.00

87.00

June–December 1974

...

61.50

92.30

March 1974

...

62.10

93.20

June 1974

...

64.40

96.60

June 1975

...

69.50

104.40

Year enacted

1969
1971
1972 b
1973

c

1973

d

1983

e

June 1976

...

74.10

111.20

June 1977

...

78.50

117.80

June 1978

...

83.70

125.60

June 1979

...

92.00

138.10

June 1980

...

105.20

157.90

June 1981

...

117.00

175.70

June 1982

...

125.60

188.60

December 1983

...

129.90

...

December 1984

...

134.40

...

December 1985

...

138.50

...

December 1986

...

140.30

...

December 1987

...

146.10

...

December 1988

...

151.90

...

December 1989

...

159.00

...
(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.45

2.A OASDI: Benefit Types and Levels
Table 2.A24—Monthly benefits for individuals and couples insured for special age-72
(Prouty) benefits—Continued
Amount a (dollars)
Year enacted
1990

Effective date

Age
f

Individual

Couple

December 1990

72 before 1972

167.50

...

December 1991

...

173.60

...

December 1992

...

178.80

...

December 1993

...

183.40

...

December 1994

...

188.50

...

December 1995

...

193.40

...

December 1996

...

199.00

...

December 1997

...

203.10

...

December 1998

...

205.70

...

December 1999 g

...

210.80

...

December 2000

...

218.10

...

December 2001

...

223.70

...

December 2002

...

226.80

...

December 2003

...

231.50

...

December 2004

...

237.70

...

December 2005

...

247.40

...

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Social Security
Administration, "Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2006," Federal Register, vol. 70, no. 205 (October 25, 2005).
NOTE: . . . = not applicable.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

Monthly benefit reduced by amount of any government pension excluding workers’ compensation benefits and veterans’ compensation for service-connected
disability or death. Not available for persons receiving assistance.
Provision for future automatic cost-of-living adjustments.
Suspended by legislation in 1973.
Beginning June 1975, subject to automatic cost-of-living adjustments. Benefits no longer available to persons receiving payments under the Supplemental Security
Income program.
Separate rate for couples eliminated. Rate for individuals applied to all beneficiaries.
Effective for applications after November 5, 1990.
The cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) for December 1999 was originally determined to be 2.4 percent, based on the consumer price index (CPI). The underlying CPI
was later recomputed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics; a 2.5 percent COLA would have been consistent with the recomputed CPI. Pursuant to Public Law 106-554,
benefits were calculated and paid in August 2001 and later as if the COLA for December 1999 had been 2.5 percent. Affected beneficiaries received a one-time payment to cover the shortfall that occurred before August 2001.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

2.46 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Benefit Types and Levels
Table 2.A25—Lump-sum benefits and vocational rehabilitation services, by type of benefit
Year enacted

Provision

Lump-sum refund
1935

Persons not insured at age 65 eligible for lump-sum refund equal to 3.5 percent of cumulative wage credits.

1939

Lump-sum refund eliminated.

Lump-sum death payment
1935

Under age 65: 3.5 percent of cumulative wage credits. Aged 65 or older and fully insured: 3.5 percent of cumulative wage credits, less monthly benefits
received.

1939

Fully and currently insured: 6 times PIA if no survivor eligible for monthly benefits.

1950

3 times PIA for all deaths.

1954

3 times PIA with maximum of $255.

1981

Payable only to a widow or widower who was living with the worker at time of the death or to a widow, widower, or children eligible for monthly benefits.a

Vocational rehabilitation services
1965

Available to selected disabled individuals. Costs of services payable from OASDI trust funds to state vocational rehabilitation agencies. Reimbursement
in any year may not exceed 1 percent of the total amount of OASDI disability benefits disbursed in the prior year.

1972

Maximum annual reimbursement increased to 1.25 percent for fiscal year ending June 30, 1973, and 1.50 percent thereafter.

1981

Reimbursement from trust funds for cost of rehabilitation services made if the services result in the disabled individual’s return to work (performance of
substantial gainful activity for 9 consecutive months).

1999

Enhancements including expanded beneficiary choice of service providers and extended health care for beneficiaries who return to work.

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm.
a.

The amount of the lump sum is effectively fixed at $255 because of increases in the pre-1981 PIA. The 1981 legislation eliminating the minimum PIA is not applicable
to the calculation of the lump-sum death payment.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.47

2.A OASDI: Benefit Types and Levels
Table 2.A26—Monthly benefit amount for selected beneficiary families with first eligibility in 2005, by average
indexed monthly earnings for stipulated yearly wage levels, effective December 2005 (in dollars)

Beneficiary family

Federal
minimum
wage a

75% of
average
wage

Average
wage b

150% of
average
wage

Maximum
taxable
earnings c

Retired-worker families d
Average indexed monthly earnings
Primary insurance amount
Maximum family benefit
Monthly benefit amount for retired worker claiming benefits at age 62
Worker alone
Worker with spouse claiming benefits at—
Full retirement age or older e
Age 62

1,280.00
804.90
1,207.30

2,131.00
1,088.30
1,943.00

2,842.00
1,325.20
2,419.20

4,221.00
1,706.40
2,985.90

6,137.00
2,005.50
3,509.50

603.00

816.00

993.00

1,279.00

1,504.00

1,005.00
884.00

1,360.00
1,196.00

1,655.00
1,456.00

2,132.00
1,876.00

2,506.00
2,205.00

Survivor families f
Average indexed monthly earnings
Primary insurance amount
Maximum family benefit
Monthly benefit amount for survivor of worker deceased at age 40
1 surviving child
Widowed mother or father and 1 child
Widowed mother or father and 2 children

1,045.00
726.60
1,089.90

2,136.00
1,090.00
1,947.50

2,848.00
1,327.20
2,421.80

4,273.00
1,714.50
3,000.10

7,019.00
2,143.30
3,750.50

544.00
1,088.00
1,089.00

817.00
1,634.00
1,947.00

995.00
1,990.00
2,421.00

1,285.00
2,570.00
3,000.00

1,607.00
3,214.00
3,750.00

Disabled-worker families g
Average indexed monthly earnings
Primary insurance amount
Maximum family benefit h
Monthly benefit amount for disabled worker age 50
Worker alone
Worker, spouse, and 1 child

1,176.00
770.20
1,040.50

2,133.00
1,089.00
1,633.60

2,844.00
1,325.90
1,988.80

4,266.00
1,713.30
2,570.00

6,870.00
2,119.90
3,179.90

770.00
1,040.00

1,089.00
1,633.00

1,325.00
1,987.00

1,713.00
2,569.00

2,119.00
3,179.00

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Social Security
Administration, "Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2006," Federal Register, vol. 70, no. 205 (October 25, 2005).
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.

Annual earnings are calculated by multiplying the federal minimum wage by 2,080 hours (see Table 3.B3). Increases in the minimum wage during the year are
prorated.
See Table 2.A8.
See Table 2.A9.
Assumes the worker began to work at age 22, retired at age 62 in 2005 with maximum reduction, and had no prior period of disability.
The full retirement age is the earliest age at which an unreduced spousal benefit is payable.
Assumes the deceased worker began to work at age 22, died in 2005 at age 40, had no earnings in that year, and had no prior period of disability.
Assumes the worker began to work at age 22, became disabled at age 50 in 2005, had no earnings in that year, and had no prior period of disability.
The Amendments of 1980 to the Social Security Act provide for a different family maximum amount in disability cases. For disabled workers entitled after June 1980,
the maximum is the smaller of (1) 85 percent of the worker’s average indexed monthly earnings (or 100 percent of the primary insurance amount, if larger) or
(2) 150 percent of the primary insurance amount.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

2.48 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Benefit Types and Levels
Table 2.A27—Minimum and maximum monthly retired-worker benefits payable to individuals who retired at
age 62, by year they attained age 62, 1957–2006 (in dollars)
Minimum benefit payable

Maximum benefit payable

At retirement

Effective
December 2005 b

1957
1958
1959

24.00
24.00
26.40

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

Year a

Effective December 2005 b

At retirement
Men

Women

Men

Women

340.10
340.10
340.10

...
...
...

86.80
86.80
92.80

...
...
...

838.80
838.80
838.80

26.40
26.40
32.00
32.00
32.00

338.70
336.80
335.80
334.10
334.10

...
...
93.60
94.40
95.20

95.20
96.00
96.80
97.60
98.40

...
...
845.20
851.00
856.50

860.40
866.60
874.30
880.10
885.80

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

35.20
35.20
35.20
c
44.00
44.00

333.70
330.80
328.90
324.50
321.40

102.80
102.80
105.40
c
121.00
124.80

105.40
106.20
108.80
c
124.80
128.40

861.20
858.30
877.40
881.80
900.90

884.00
887.10
905.10
910.70
927.30

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

51.20
56.40
56.40
67.60
67.60

316.80
312.60
308.20
303.90
299.00

146.80
163.60
167.10
207.60
217.00

151.90
170.50
172.90
212.90
219.70

909.60
908.20
915.50
932.60
961.30

941.00
947.30
947.10
957.40
972.80

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

75.10
81.20
86.40
91.50
97.60

295.10
291.60
289.50
288.10
289.30

253.10
285.60
319.40
354.60
d
388.90

253.10
285.60
319.40
354.60
d
388.90

995.30
1,027.60
1,072.80
1,122.00
1,155.70

995.30
1,027.60
1,072.80
1,122.00
1,155.70

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

97.60
97.60

262.90
229.70

d

d

e

e

e

e

e

e

402.80
432.00
474.60
526.40
559.40

1,089.00
1,021.40
1,009.40
1,042.10
1,070.10

1,089.00
1,021.40
1,009.40
1,042.10
1,070.10

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

591.30
630.50
662.10
686.70
734.00

591.30
630.50
662.10
686.70
734.00

1,093.40
1,130.70
1,172.20
1,166.80
1,199.10

1,093.40
1,130.70
1,172.20
1,166.80
1,199.10

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

774.60
810.00
854.10
893.60
948.00

774.60
810.00
854.10
893.60
948.00

1,208.90
1,199.30
1,219.90
1,239.20
1,281.30

1,208.90
1,199.30
1,219.90
1,239.20
1,281.30

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

965.90
999.90
1,049.10
1,109.60
1,183.60

965.90
999.90
1,049.10
1,109.60
1,183.60

1,270.10
1,281.50
1,306.90
1,353.90
f 1,425.60

1,270.10
1,281.50
1,306.90
1,353.90
f 1,425.60

402.80
432.00
474.60
526.40
559.40

(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.49

2.A OASDI: Benefit Types and Levels
Table 2.A27—Minimum and maximum monthly retired-worker benefits payable to individuals who retired at
age 62, by year they attained age 62, 1957–2006 (in dollars)—Continued
Minimum benefit payable
Year a
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006

Maximum benefit payable

At retirement

Effective
December 2005 b

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

Effective December 2005 b

At retirement
Men

Women

Men

Women

1,241.70
1,307.30
1,375.30
1,404.30
1,414.80
1,444.90
1,522.50

1,241.70
1,307.30
1,375.30
1,404.30
1,414.80
1,444.90
1,522.50

1,459.10
1,484.20
1,522.00
1,532.70
1,512.40
1,504.10
...

1,459.10
1,484.20
1,522.00
1,532.70
1,512.40
1,504.10
...

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Social Security
Administration, "Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2006," Federal Register, vol. 70, no. 205 (October 25, 2005).
NOTES: Benefit first available at age 62 to female workers effective November 1956 and to male workers effective August 1961.
. . . = not applicable.
a.

b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Assumes the worker began to work at age 22, retired at the beginning of the year, had no prior disability, and received the maximum reduction. Through 1999, the
assumed reduction was 36 months at 5/9 of 1 percent per month, or 20 percent. In 2000, with the increase in the full retirement age (FRA) to 65 and 2 months, the
reduction increased to 20.008333 percent (see Tables 2.A17.1 and 2.A20). In 2001, the FRA increased to 65 and 4 months for a maximum reduction of
21.666667 percent. In 2002, the FRA increased to 65 and 6 months for a maximum reduction of 22.5 percent. In 2003, the FRA increased to 65 and 8 months for a
maximum reduction of 23.333333 percent. In 2004, the FRA increased to 65 and 10 months for a maximum reduction of 24.16667 percent. In 2005 and 2006, the
FRA increased to 66 for a maximum reduction of 25 percent.
Final benefit amount payable after Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) premium or any other deduction is rounded to next lower $1.
Effective February 1968.
Derived from transitional guarantee computation based on primary insurance amount (PIA) table of 1978.
In 1981, legislation eliminated the minimum PIA for workers who attain age 62 in 1982 or later. (The minimum is retained until 1991 for members of religious orders
who were under a vow of poverty, provided that the order had elected Social Security coverage before December 29, 1981.)
The cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) for December 1999 was originally determined to be 2.4 percent, based on the consumer price index (CPI). The underlying CPI
was later recomputed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics; a 2.5 percent COLA would have been consistent with the recomputed CPI. Pursuant to Public Law 106-554,
benefits were calculated and paid in August 2001 and later as if the COLA for December 1999 had been 2.5 percent. Affected beneficiaries received a one-time payment to cover the shortfall that occurred before August 2001.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

2.50 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Benefit Types and Levels
Table 2.A28—Minimum and maximum monthly retired-worker benefits payable to individuals who retired at
age 65, by year they attained age 65, 1940–2006 (in dollars)
Minimum benefit payable

Maximum benefit payable

At retirement

Effective
December 2005 b

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

10.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
10.00

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

Year a

Effective December 2005 b

At retirement
Men

Women

Men

Women

360.90
360.90
360.90
360.90
360.90

41.20
41.60
42.00
42.40
42.80

41.20
41.60
42.00
42.40
42.80

699.80
699.80
708.10
708.10
708.10

699.80
699.80
708.10
708.10
708.10

10.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
10.00

360.90
360.90
360.90
360.90
360.90

43.20
43.60
44.00
44.40
44.80

43.20
43.60
44.00
44.40
44.80

715.70
724.40
731.10
731.10
738.60

715.70
724.40
731.10
731.10
738.60

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

10.00
20.00
20.00
25.00
25.00

360.90
360.90
360.90
360.90
360.90

45.20
68.50
68.50
85.00
85.00

45.20
68.50
68.50
85.00
85.00

747.70
747.70
747.70
826.10
826.10

747.70
747.70
747.70
826.10
826.10

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

30.00
30.00
30.00
30.00
33.00

360.90
360.90
360.90
360.90
360.90

98.50
103.50
108.50
108.50
116.00

98.50
103.50
108.50
108.50
116.00

826.10
872.80
912.30
912.30
912.30

826.10
872.80
912.30
912.30
912.30

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

33.00
33.00
40.00
40.00
40.00

360.90
360.90
360.90
360.90
360.90

119.00
120.00
121.00
122.00
123.00

119.00
120.00
123.00
125.00
127.00

935.20
942.70
951.30
958.80
967.50

935.20
942.70
967.50
981.80
998.40

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

44.00
44.00
44.00
c 55.00
55.00

360.90
360.90
360.90
360.90
360.90

131.70
132.70
135.90
c 156.00
160.50

135.90
135.90
140.00
c 161.60
167.30

967.50
974.50
998.40
1,013.30
1,043.00

998.40
998.40
1027.80
1,049.80
1,086.90

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

64.00
70.40
70.40
84.50
84.50

360.90
360.90
360.90
360.90
360.90

189.80
213.10
216.10
266.10
274.60

196.40
220.40
224.70
276.40
284.90

1,072.20
1,094.10
1,110.40
1,138.70
1,174.40

1,110.40
1,130.80
1,153.70
1,182.80
1,219.10

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

93.80
101.40
107.90
114.30
121.80

360.90
360.90
360.90
360.90
360.90

316.30
364.00
412.70
459.80
503.40

333.70
378.80
422.40
459.80
503.40

1,219.10
1,298.10
1,383.80
1,455.70
1,496.10

1,286.10
1,351.10
1,415.80
1,455.70
1,496.10

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

133.90
153.10
d 170.30
d 166.40
d 150.50

360.90
360.90
360.90
328.30
286.40

572.00
677.00
d 679.30
709.50
703.60

572.00
677.00
d 679.30
709.50
703.60

1,546.90
1,601.80
1,444.50
1,405.30
1,346.40

1,546.90
1,601.80
1,444.50
1,405.30
1,346.40

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

717.20
760.10
789.20
838.60
899.60

717.20
760.10
789.20
838.60
899.60

1,326.30
1,363.30
1,397.50
1,425.30
1,469.90

1,326.30
1,363.30
1,397.50
1,425.30
1,469.90

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

975.00
1,022.90
1,088.70
1,128.80
1,147.50

975.00
1,022.90
1,088.70
1,128.80
1,147.50

1,522.00
1,515.00
1,555.10
1,565.50
1,551.00

1,522.00
1,515.00
1,555.10
1,565.50
1,551.00

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

1,199.10
1,248.90
1,326.60
1,342.80
1,373.10

1,199.10
1,248.90
1,326.60
1,342.80
1,373.10

1,576.80
1,600.70
1,652.60
1,638.40
1,653.90

1,576.80
1,600.70
1,652.60
1,638.40
1,653.90
(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.51

2.A OASDI: Benefit Types and Levels
Table 2.A28—Minimum and maximum monthly retired-worker benefits payable to individuals who retired at
age 65, by year they attained age 65, 1940–2006 (in dollars)—Continued
Minimum benefit payable

Maximum benefit payable

Year a

At retirement

Effective
December 2005 b

2000
2001
2002
2003 g
2004 h
2005 i
2006 j

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

Effective December 2005 b

At retirement
Men
f

1,435.30
1,538.20
1,660.50
1,721.70
1,784.80
1,874.30
1,961.90

f

Women

Men

Women

1,435.30
1,538.20
1,660.50
1,721.70
1,784.80
1,874.30
1,961.90

1,686.80
1,746.50
1,837.70
1,879.20
1,908.00
1,951.10
...

1,686.80
1,746.50
1,837.70
1,879.20
1,908.00
1,951.10
...

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Social Security
Administration, "Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2006," Federal Register, vol. 70, no. 205 (October 25, 2005).
NOTE: . . . = not applicable.
a.

b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

g.
h.
i.
j.

Through 2002, assumes that the worker began to work at age 22, retired at the beginning of the year with unreduced benefits, had no earnings after retirement, and
had no prior period of disability. Effective 2003, the same assumptions apply except that the benefit is reduced by 2 months because, for a worker retiring at age 65 in
2003, the age at which one can receive an unreduced benefit—the full retirement age (FRA)—has been raised from 65 to 65 and 2 months. In 2004, the FRA is 65
and 4 months, so the benefit is reduced by 4 months. In 2005, the FRA is 65 and 6 months, so the benefit is reduced by 6 months. In 2006, the FRA is 65 and
8 months, so the benefit is reduced by 8 months.
Final benefit amount payable after Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) premium or any other deduction is rounded to next lower $1.
Effective February 1968.
Derived from transitional guarantee computation based on primary insurance amount (PIA) table of 1978.
In 1981, legislation eliminated the minimum PIA for workers who attain age 62 in 1982 or later. (The minimum is retained until 1991 for members of religious orders
who are under a vow of poverty, provided that the order had elected Social Security coverage before December 29, 1981.)
The cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) for December 1999 was originally determined to be 2.4 percent, based on the consumer price index (CPI). The underlying CPI
was later recomputed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics; a 2.5 percent COLA would have been consistent with the recomputed CPI. Pursuant to Public Law 106-554,
benefits were calculated and paid in August 2001 and later as if the COLA for December 1999 had been 2.5 percent. Affected beneficiaries received a one-time payment to cover the shortfall that occurred before August 2001.
The full retirement benefit at age 65 and 2 months is $1,741.10.
The full retirement benefit at age 65 and 4 months is $1,825.40.
The full retirement benefit at age 65 and 6 months is $1,939.00.
The full retirement benefit at age 65 and 8 months is $2,053.20.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

2.52 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Effect of Current Earnings and Taxation of Benefits
Table 2.A29—Earnings (retirement) test for years through 1999, by year enacted
Amount permitted without
reduction in benefits
(exempt amount)
Year
enacted

Effective
year

Beneficiaries
exempt

Earnings
subject
to test

Annual
earnings
(dollars)

Monthly
wages b
(dollars)

Reduction in monthly benefit a

For all beneficiaries
1935

...

...

Covered

...

...

1939

1940

...

...

...

14.99

...

Full monthly benefit

1950

1951

Aged 75 or older

...

c

600

50.00

...

1952

1953

...

...

c

900

75.00

...

1954

1955

Aged 72 or older

All d

1,200

80.00

One month’s full benefit for each $80.00 or fraction thereof

1956

1958

Disabled

...

...

...

1958

1959

...

...

...

100.00

1960

1961

...

...

...

...

$1 for each $2 of earnings from $1,201–$1,500

1961

1962

...

...

...

...

$1 for each $2 of earnings from $1,201–$1,700

1965

1966

...

...

1,500

125.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings from $1,501–$2,700

1967

1968

...

...

1,680

140.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings from $1,681–$2,880

1972

1973

...

Up to age 72

2,100

175.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $2,100

1973

1974

...

...

...
...

$1 for each $1 of earnings above $1,500

$1 for each $1 of earnings above $1,700

$1 for each $1 of earnings above $2,700

$1 for each $1 of earnings above $2,880

2,400

1975

e

1976

e

1977

e

200.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $2,400

2,520

e

210.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $2,520

2,760

e

230.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $2,760

3,000

e

250.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $3,000

For beneficiaries who have not reached full retirement age f
1977

e

3,240

e

270.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $3,240

1979

e

3,480

e

290.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $3,480

1980

e

3,720

e

310.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $3,720

1981

e

4,080

e

340.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $4,080

1982

e

4,440

e

370.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $4,440

1983

e

4,920

e

410.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $4,920

1984

e

5,160

e

430.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $5,160

1985

e

5,400

e

450.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $5,400

1986

e

5,760

e

480.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $5,760

1987

e

6,000

e

500.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $6,000

1988

e

6,120

e

510.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $6,120

1989

e

6,480

e

540.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $6,480

1990

e

6,840

e

570.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $6,840

1991

e

7,080

e

590.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $7,080

1992

e

7,440

e

620.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $7,440

1993

e

7,680

e

640.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $7,680

1994

e

8,040

e

670.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $8,040

1995

e

8,160

e

680.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $8,160

1996

e

8,280

e

690.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $8,280

1997

e

8,640

e

720.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $8,640

1998

e

9,120

e

760.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $9,120

1999

e

9,600

e

800.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $9,600

1978

...

...

(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.53

2.A OASDI: Effect of Current Earnings and Taxation of Benefits
Table 2.A29—Earnings (retirement) test for years through 1999, by year enacted—Continued
Amount permitted without
reduction in benefits
(exempt amount)
Year
enacted

Effective
year

Beneficiaries
exempt

Earnings
subject
to test

Annual
earnings
(dollars)

Monthly
wages b
(dollars)

Reduction in monthly benefit a

For beneficiaries who have reached full retirement age f
1977

1981

1983

1996

2000

g

4,000

g

333.33

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $4,000

1979

g

4,500

g

375.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $4,500

1980

g

5,000

g

416.66

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $5,000

1981

g

5,500

g

458.33

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $5,500

1982

g

6,000

g

500.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $6,000

1978

1983

...

Aged 70 or older

...

Up to age 70

...

...

...

1983

e

6,600

e

550.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $6,600

1984

e

6,960

e

580.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $6,960

1985

e

7,320

e

610.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $7,320

1986

e

7,800

e

650.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $7,800

1987

e

8,160

e

680.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $8,160

1988

e

8,400

e

700.00

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $8,400

1989

e

8,880

e

740.00

1990

...

...

...

...

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $8,880
$1 for each $3 of earnings above exempt amount

1990

e

9,360

e

780.00

1991

e

9,720

e

810.00

$1 for each $3 of earnings above $9,720

$1 for each $3 of earnings above $9,360

1992

e

10,200

e

850.00

$1 for each $3 of earnings above $10,200

1993

e

10,560

e

880.00

$1 for each $3 of earnings above $10,560

1994

e

11,160

e

930.00

$1 for each $3 of earnings above $11,160

1995

e

11,280

e

940.00

$1 for each $3 of earnings above $11,280

1,041.67

$1 for each $3 of earnings above $12,500

1996

...

...

12,500

h

1997

13,500

1,125.00

$1 for each $3 of earnings above $13,500

1998

14,500

i

1,208.33

$1 for each $3 of earnings above $14,500

1999

15,500

j

1,291.67

$1 for each $3 of earnings above $15,500

2000

...

Earnings test
eliminated at
full retirement
age k

...

...

...

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Social Security
Administration, "Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2006," Federal Register, vol. 70, no. 205 (October 25, 2005).
NOTE: . . . = not applicable.
a.

b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.

Earnings of a retired-worker beneficiary affect total monthly family benefit. Earnings of a dependent or survivor beneficiary affect only his or her benefit. However,
effective January 1985, earnings of a retired-worker beneficiary do not affect the benefit to a divorced spouse who has been divorced at least 2 years. Effective for
benefits after December 1990, the 2-year requirement is waived if the worker was entitled to benefits before the divorce.
Monthly test for self-employment income is defined in terms of substantial services. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1977, monthly test eliminated for
wage and self-employment income except that each individual may use a monthly test for 1 grace year, usually the year of retirement.
Applied to self-employment income only.
Special provisions for earnings in noncovered employment outside the United States.
Became effective because of automatic adjustment provisions mandated by legislation in 1972 and 1973.
Full retirement age is 65 for beneficiaries who attain age 62 (age 60 for widow(er)s) before 2000, gradually increasing to age 67 for beneficiaries who attain age 62 in
2022 or later.
Discretionary increase included in legislation of 1977.
Actual amount is $1,041.66 2/3.
Actual amount is $1,208.33 1/3.
Actual amount is $1,291.66 2/3.
Public Law (P.L.) 106-182, enacted April 7, 2000, eliminated the earnings test beginning with the month a beneficiary reaches full retirement age (FRA). The annual
earnings test that applies in the year of attainment of FRA is based on the annual limits established under P.L. 104-121 (including the $1 for $3 withholding rate). In
determining annual earnings for purposes of the annual earnings test under this legislation, only earnings before the month of attainment of FRA will be considered.
Public Law 106-182 did not change the annual exempt amount for beneficiaries who are under FRA throughout the year, which continues to be pegged to increases
in the average wage.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

2.54 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Effect of Current Earnings and Taxation of Benefits
Table 2.A29.1—Earnings (retirement) test for 2000–2006, by year enacted
Amount permitted without
reduction in benefits
(exempt amount)
Year
enacted

Effective
year

Beneficiaries
exempt

Earnings
subject
to test

Monthly
wages c
(dollars)

Annual
earnings b
(dollars)

Reduction in monthly benefit a

For beneficiaries who have reached full retirement age d
2000

2000

...

The earnings
test no longer
applies effective
with the month
of attainment of
full retirement
age.

...

...

...

For beneficiaries who will not reach full retirement age during year d
2000

10,080

840

2001

2000

...

...

10,680

890

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $10,080
$1 for each $2 of earnings above $10,680

2002

11,280

940

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $11,280

2003

11,520

960

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $11,520

2004

11,640

970

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $11,640

2005

12,000

1,000

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $12,000

2006

12,480

1,040

$1 for each $2 of earnings above $12,480

For beneficiaries who will reach full retirement age during year d
2000

17,000

e

1,416.67

2001

25,000

f

2,083.33

$1 for each $3 of earnings above $25,000

2002

30,000

2,500.00

$1 for each $3 of earnings above $30,000

2003

30,720

2,560.00

$1 for each $3 of earnings above $30,720

2004

31,080

2,590.00

$1 for each $3 of earnings above $31,080

2005

31,800

2,650.00

$1 for each $3 of earnings above $31,800

2006

33,240

2,770.00

$1 for each $3 of earnings above $33,240

2000

...

...

$1 for each $3 of earnings above $17,000

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Social Security
Administration, "Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2006," Federal Register, vol. 70, no. 205 (October 25, 2005).
NOTES: Public Law (P.L.) 106-182, enacted April 7, 2000, eliminated the earnings test beginning with the month a beneficiary reaches full retirement age (FRA). The
annual earnings test that applies in the year of attainment of FRA is based on the annual limits established under P.L. 104-121 (including the $1 for $3 withholding rate).
In determining annual earnings for purposes of the annual earnings test under this legislation, only earnings before the month of attainment of FRA will be considered.
Public Law 106-182 did not change the annual exempt amount for beneficiaries who are under FRA throughout the year, which continues to be pegged to increases in the
average wage.
. . . = not applicable.
a.

b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Earnings of a retired-worker beneficiary affect total monthly family benefit. Earnings of a dependent or survivor beneficiary affect only his or her benefit. However,
earnings of a retired-worker beneficiary do not affect the benefit to a divorced spouse who has been divorced at least 2 years. The 2-year requirement is waived if the
worker was entitled to benefits before the divorce.
Automatic adjustment provisions and legislative history of the earnings test are in Table 2.A18.
Monthly test for self-employment income is defined in terms of substantial services. Each individual may use a monthly test for 1 grace year, usually the year of retirement.
Full retirement age is 65 for beneficiaries who attain age 62 (age 60 for widow(er)s) before 2000, gradually increasing to age 67 for beneficiaries who attain age 62 in
2022 or later. See Table 2.A17.1 for the FRA by year of birth.
Actual amount is $1,416.66 2/3.
Actual amount is $2,083.33 1/3.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.55

2.A OASDI: Effect of Current Earnings and Taxation of Benefits
Table 2.A30—Monthly earnings guidelines for substantial gainful activity, 1961–2006 (in dollars)
Nonblind beneficiaries a
Minimum

Maximum

Blind beneficiaries b

1961–1965
1966–June 1968
July 1968–1973
1974–1975

50
75
90
130

100
125
140
200

c

1976
1977
1978
1979

150
160
170
180

230
240
260
280

c

1980
1981
1982
1983–1989

190
190
190
190

300
300
300
300

417
459
500

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

300
300
300
300
300

500
500
500
500
500

780
810
850
880
930

1995
1996
1997

300
300
300

500
500
500

940
960
1,000

1998
January–June 1999
July 1999

300
300
300

500
500
700

1,050
1,110
1,110

January 2000
January 2001
January 2002
January 2003
January 2004

300
Discontinued
...
...
...

700
740
780
800
810

1,170
1,240
1,300
1,330
1,350

January 2005
January 2006

...
...

830
860

1,380
1,450

Year

c
c
c

c

334
375

d

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Social Security
Administration, "Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2006," Federal Register, vol. 70, no. 205 (October 25, 2005).
NOTES: Earnings are net of any wage subsidies and impairment related expenses.
The guidelines for substantial gainful activity (SGA) for self-employed individuals differ from the guidelines for wage earners.
Self-employment activity is generally examined in terms of time spent and degree of effort, as compared with that of nondisabled self-employed individuals.
. . . = not applicable.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Earnings above the maximum amount ordinarily demonstrate SGA; earnings below the minimum amount show that SGA has not occurred. When earnings are
between the minimum and maximum, other factors are considered.
The amendments in 1977 provided that, effective 1978, earnings of blind beneficiaries would be evaluated under different SGA guidelines than are nonblind
beneficiaries.
Guidelines pre-1978 are the same as those applicable to nonbind beneficiaries.
Annual amounts were determined by automatic adjustments linked to increases in average wage level. The amounts equal the monthly exempt amounts under the
earnings test applicable to beneficiaries who have reached full retirement age (see Table 2.A29 for the amounts for 1983–1995).

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

2.56 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.A OASDI: Effect of Current Earnings and Taxation of Benefits
Table 2.A31—Taxation of Social Security benefits

Year enacted

Individuals or couples with
income exceeding
(dollars)—

Benefits included in gross income

Effective for
taxable years—

Married filing jointly
1983

32,000

Lesser of one-half of Social Security and Tier 1 Railroad Retirement benefits or one-half of income Ending after
over $32,000
December 31, 1983

1993

32,000 but not 44,000

Lesser of one-half of Social Security and Tier 1 Railroad Retirement benefits or one-half of income Beginning after
over $32,000
December 31, 1993

44,000

Lesser of 85 percent of Social Security and Tier 1 Railroad Retirement benefits or the sum of
$6,000 plus 85 percent of income over $44,000

Beginning after
December 31, 1993

Married filing separate returns a
1983

0

Lesser of one-half of Social Security and Tier 1 Railroad Retirement benefits or one-half of
income

Ending after
December 31, 1983

1993

0

Lesser of 85 percent of Social Security and Tier 1 Railroad Retirement benefits or 85 percent
of income

Beginning after
December 31, 1993

Individuals in all other filing categories
1983

25,000

Lesser of one-half of Social Security and Tier 1 Railroad Retirement benefits or one-half of
income over $25,000

Ending after
December 31, 1983

1993

25,000 but not 34,000

Lesser of one-half of Social Security and Tier 1 Railroad Retirement benefits or one-half of
income over $25,000

Beginning after
December 31, 1993

Lesser of 85 percent of Social Security and Tier 1 Railroad Retirement benefits or the sum of
$4,500 plus 85 percent of income over $34,000

Beginning after
December 31, 1993

34,000

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Taxation of Social
Security benefits is governed by the Internal Revenue Service Code. IRS describes the rules governing taxation of Social Security benefits in IRS publication 915, available at http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/p915.pdf.
NOTES: Income is defined as modified adjusted gross income, plus 50 percent of Social Security and Tier 1 Railroad Retirement benefits. Modified adjusted gross
income is adjusted gross income (before Social Security or Railroad Retirement benefits are considered), plus tax-exempt interest income, with further modification of
adjusted gross income in some cases involving certain tax provisions of limited applicability among the beneficiary population.
Social Security and Tier 1 Railroad Retirement benefits include workers’ compensation benefits to the extent they cause a reduction in Social Security or Tier 1 Railroad
Retirement disability benefits.
a.

Includes only married taxpayers filing separately who lived with their spouse at any time during the tax year; married individuals filing separately who did not live with
their spouse are treated the same as unmarried individuals.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.57

2.A OASDI: Effect of Current Earnings and Taxation of Benefits
Table 2.A32—Taxation of Social Security benefits: Examples (in dollars)
Taxable benefits included
in gross income

Modified
adjusted
gross
income a
(A)

Amount of One-half of
benefits b
benefits b
(B)

(C)

Income
to be
compared
with base
amount
(D = A + C)

Relevant
base
amount c
(E)

Income in
excess of
base One-half of
amount
excess
(F = D - E)

(G = F / 2)

85 percent
of excess
income

Lower of
one-half
of benefits,
or one-half
of income
between
upper and
lower base
amounts

(H = .85 F)

(I)

If income
does not
exceed upper
base
amount—
lesser of
one-half of
benefits or
one-half of
85 percent income over
of benefits base amount
(J = .85 B)

(K = lesser
of C or G)

If income
exceeds upper
base amount—
lesser of
85 percent of
benefits or
one-half of
income between
base amounts
plus 85 percent
of income
over upper
base amount
(L = lesser
of J or I + H)

Married filing jointly
25,000

10,000

5,000

30,000

32,000

0

...

...

...

...

...

...

28,000

10,000

5,000

33,000

32,000

1,000

500

...

...

...

500

...

33,000

10,000

5,000

38,000

32,000

6,000

3,000

...

...

...

3,000

...

38,000

10,000

5,000

43,000

32,000

11,000

5,500

...

...

...

5,000

...

40,000

10,000

5,000

45,000

44,000

1,000

...

850

5,000

8,500

...

5,850

43,000

10,000

5,000

48,000

44,000

4,000

...

3,400

5,000

8,500

...

8,400

45,000

10,000

5,000

50,000

44,000

6,000

...

5,100

5,000

8,500

...

8,500

Married filing separate returns

d

0

6,000

3,000

3,000

0

3,000

...

2,550

0

5,100

...

2,550

2,000

6,000

3,000

5,000

0

5,000

...

4,250

0

5,100

...

4,250

4,000

6,000

3,000

7,000

0

7,000

...

5,950

0

5,100

...

5.100

10,000

6,000

3,000

13,000

0

13,000

...

11,050

0

5,100

...

5,100

20,000

6,000

3,000

23,000

0

23,000

...

19,550

0

5,100

...

5,100

...

Individuals in all other filing categories
20,000

8,000

4,000

24,000

25,000

0

...

...

...

...

...

25,000

8,000

4,000

29,000

25,000

4,000

2,000

...

...

...

2,000

...

30,000

8,000

4,000

34,000

25,000

9,000

4,500

...

...

...

4,000

...

32,000

8,000

4,000

36,000

34,000

2,000

...

1,700

4,000

6,800

...

5,700

35,000

8,000

4,000

39,000

34,000

5,000

...

4,250

4,000

6,800

...

6,800

40,000

8,000

4,000

44,000

34,000

10,000

...

8,500

4,000

6,800

...

6,800

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Taxation of Social
Security benefits is governed by the Internal Revenue Service Code. IRS describes the rules governing taxation of Social Security benefits in IRS publication 915, available at http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/p915.pdf.
NOTE: . . . = not applicable.
a.
b.
c.

d.

Adjusted gross income (before Social Security or Railroad Retirement benefits are considered), plus tax-exempt interest income, with further modification of adjusted
gross income in some cases involving certain tax provisions of limited applicability among the beneficiary population.
Social Security and Tier 1 Railroad Retirement benefits, including workers’ compensation benefits to the extent they cause a reduction in either of these two types of
benefits.
For married couples filing joint returns, up to 50 percent of benefits are subject to income tax if gross income is over $32,000 but less than $44,000. If gross income is
less than $32,000, none of the Social Security benefits will be taxable. If gross income exceeds $44,000, up to 85 percent of Social Security benefits will be taxable
income. Similar lower and upper level thresholds or "base amounts" for single individuals are $25,000 and $34,000. There is no similar threshold or base amount for
married individuals who live together but file separate returns (for example, up to 85 percent of Social Security benefits in those cases may be considered taxable
income).
Includes only married taxpayers filing separately who lived with their spouse at any time during the tax year; married individuals filing separately who did not live with
their spouse are treated the same as unmarried individuals.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

2.58 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.B SSI: History of Provisions
Table 2.B1—Federal benefit rates, by living arrangement, 1974–2006
Amount a (dollars)
Act

Effective date

Own household

Individual

Couple

b

1972

January 1, 1974 c

130.00

195.00

1973

January 1, 1974

140.00

210.00

1973

July 1, 1974

146.00

219.00

1974 d

July 1, 1975

157.70

236.60

July 1, 1976

167.80

251.80

July 1, 1977

177.70

266.70

July 1, 1978

189.40

284.10

July 1, 1979

208.20

312.30

July 1, 1980

238.00

357.00

July 1, 1981

264.70

397.00

July 1, 1982

284.30

426.40

July 1, 1983 e

304.30

456.40

January 1, 1984

314.00

472.00

January 1, 1985

325.00

488.00

January 1, 1986

336.00

504.00

January 1, 1987

340.00

510.00

January 1, 1988

354.00

532.00

January 1, 1989

368.00

553.00

January 1, 1990

386.00

579.00

January 1, 1991

407.00

610.00

January 1, 1992

422.00

633.00

January 1, 1993

434.00

652.00

January 1, 1994

446.00

669.00

January 1, 1995

458.00

687.00

January 1, 1996

470.00

705.00

January 1, 1997

484.00

726.00

January 1, 1998

494.00

741.00

January 1, 1999

500.00

751.00

1983

January 1, 2000

f

513.00

769.00

January 1, 2001

f

531.00

796.00

January 1, 2002

545.00

817.00

January 1, 2003

552.00

829.00

January 1, 2004

564.00

846.00

January 1, 2005

579.00

869.00

January 1, 2006

603.00

Receiving institutional care covered by Medicaid

904.00
g

1972

January 1, 1974

25.00

50.00

1987

July 1, 1988

30.00

60.00

SOURCES: Social Security Act of 1935 (the Act), as amended through December 31, 2005; regulations issued under the Act; and precedential case decisions (rulings).
Specific laws, regulations, rulings, legislation, and a link to the Federal Register can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/regulations/index.htm. Social Security
Administration, Office of the Chief Actuary, "SSI Federal Payment Amounts," http://www.socialsecurity.gov/OACT/COLA/SSIamts.html.
NOTE: For those in another person’s household receiving support and maintenance there, the federal benefit rate is reduced by one-third.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

g.

For those without countable income. These payments are reduced by the amount of countable income of the individual or couple.
Includes persons in private institutions whose care is not provided by Medicaid.
Superseded by the provision of 1973.
Mechanism established for providing cost-of-living adjustments.
General benefit increase.
Benefits originally paid in 2000 and through July 2001 were based on federal benefit rates of $512 and $530, respectively. Pursuant to Public Law 106-554, monthly
payments beginning in August 2001 were effectively based on the higher $531 amount. Lump-sum compensation payments were made on the basis of an adjusted
benefit rate for months prior to August 2001.
Must be receiving more than 50 percent of the cost of the care from Medicaid (Title XIX of the Social Security Act).

CONTACT: Alfreda Brooks (410) 965-9849.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.59

2.C Medicare: History of Provisions
Table 2.C1—Medicare cost sharing and premium amounts, 1966–2007
Supplementary Medical Insurance (Medicare Parts B and D)
Hospital Insurance (Medicare Part A)

Part B

All expenses in "benefit period" covered
except—

Effective
date a

Inpatient
hospital
deductible (IHD)
covers
first 60
days
(dollars)

Inpatient hospital
daily coinsurance
Days 61
through
90
(1/4 x
IHD)
(dollars)

Part D

Monthly premium (dollars)

Lifetime
reserve
days
after 90
days
(1/2 x
IHD)

Skilled
nursing
facility daily
coinsurance after
20 days
(1/8 x IHD)
(dollars)

i

i

i

Government
amounts for—

For enrollee g,h
(aged
Coinsurance c and disabled)
(percent)

Out-ofBase
pocket
benefithresh- ciary preold d,e mium d,f
(dollars) (dollars)

Monthly
premium b
(dollars)

Annual
deductible c
(dollars)

...
...
...
...

50
50
j 50
50

20
20
j 20
20

3.00
3.00
k 4.00
4.00

3.00
3.00
k 4.00
4.00

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

Aged Disabled h

Annual
Initial
deduct- coverage
d,e
ible
limit d,e
(dollars) (dollars)

1966
1967
1968
1969

40
40
40
44

10
10
10
11

20
22

5.00
5.00
5.50

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

52
60
68
72
84

13
15
17
18
21

26
30
34
36
42

6.50
7.50
8.50
9.00
10.50

...
...
...
33
36

50
50
50
60
60

20
20
l 20
20
20

5.30
5.60
5.80
m 6.30
6.70

5.30
5.60
5.80
6.30
6.70

...
...
...
22.70
29.30

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

92
104
124
144
160

23
26
31
36
40

46
52
62
72
80

11.50
13.00
15.50
18.00
20.00

40
45
54
63
69

60
60
60
60
60

20
20
20
20
20

6.70
7.20
7.70
8.20
8.70

8.30
14.20
16.90
18.60
18.10

30.30
30.80
42.30
41.80
41.30

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

180
204
260
304
356

45
51
65
76
89

90
102
130
152
178

22.50
25.50
32.50
38.00
44.50

78
89
113
113
155

20
20
p 20
20
20

9.60
11.00
12.20
12.20
14.60

23.00
34.20
37.00
41.80
43.80

41.40
62.20
72.00
80.00
94.00

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

400
492
520
540
q 560

100
123
130
135

200
246
260
270

q

q

50.00
61.50
65.00
67.50
25.50

174
214
226
234
156

75
75
75
75
75

20
20
20
20
20

15.50
15.50
17.90
24.80
s 31.90

46.50
46.50
53.70
74.40
83.70

89.90
66.10
88.10
72.40
40.70

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

592
628
652
676
696

148
157
163
169
174

296
314
326
338
348

74.00
78.50
81.50
84.50
87.00

175
177
192
221
t 245

75
100
100
100
100

20
20
20
20
20

28.60
29.90
31.80
36.60
41.10

85.80
95.30
89.80
104.40
82.50

59.60
82.10
129.80
129.20
111.10

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

716
736
760
764
768

179
184
190
191
192

358
368
380
382
384

89.50
92.00
95.00
95.50
96.00

t

261
289
t 311
t 309
t
309

100
100
100
100
100

20
20
20
20
20

46.10
42.50
43.80
43.80
45.50

100.10
127.30
131.40
132.00
139.10

165.50
167.70
177.00
150.40
160.50

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

776
792
812
840
876

194
198
203
210
219

388
396
406
420
438

97.00
99.00
101.50
105.00
109.50

t

100
100
100
100
100

20
20
20
20
20

45.50
50.00
54.00
58.70
66.60

138.30
152.00
164.60
178.70
199.80

196.70
214.40
192.20
223.30
284.40

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

u

u

u

u

114.00
119.00
124.00

t

305.40
318.90
y
301.10

u

u

u

250
265

2,250
2,400

2005
2006
2007

912
952
992

228
238
248

456
476
496

r

t

301
300
t
319
t
316
t
343
t

375
393
t
410
t

60
60
p 75
75
75

n,o

110
124
131

o

20
20
20

78.20
88.50
x
93.50

234.60
265.30
y
280.50

v

3,600
v
3,850

u
w

32.20
w
27.35

SOURCE: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services.
NOTES: The structure of Medicare has become increasingly complex over the years. This table provides a summary of Medicare cost sharing and premium provisions. It
should be used as an overview and general guide. It is not intended to explain fully all of the provisions or exclusions of the applicable Medicare laws, regulations, and rulings. Original sources of authority should be researched and utilized.
. . . = not applicable.
a.

The deductible and coinsurance amounts begin in January unless otherwise noted. The monthly premium amounts were effective in July through 1983 and in January
for 1984 and succeeding years.

2.60 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.C Medicare: History of Provisions
Table 2.C1—Medicare cost sharing and premium amounts, 1966–2007—Continued
b.

Standard premium rate for voluntary enrollment by certain aged and disabled individuals not otherwise entitled to Hospital Insurance (HI). (Most individuals aged 65
and older and many disabled individuals under age 65 are insured for HI benefits without payment of any premium.) In most (but not all) cases, a surcharge applies for
those beneficiaries who enroll after their initial enrollment period.
c. Most (but not all) services under Part B are subject to the annual deductible and coinsurance percentages shown. Some noteworthy exceptions are footnoted. Noteworthy exceptions in recent years, as of this writing, include (1) clinical lab tests, home health agency services, and certain prescribed preventive care services, which
are not subject to the deductible or coinsurance and for which the beneficiary pays nothing; (2) outpatient psychiatric services, for which the coinsurance is
50 percent; and (3) most services reimbursed under the outpatient hospital prospective payment system, for which the coinsurance percentage varies by service but
currently falls in the range of 20 percent to 50 percent. Original sources of authority, such as the laws, regulations, and rulings for Part B, should be consulted if specific details are required.
d. There are substantial premium and cost-sharing subsidies for Part D beneficiaries who meet certain low-income and limited-resources criteria. Subsidy levels vary on
the basis of dual-eligibility status (that is, coverage by both Medicaid and Medicare), income level, asset level, and institutionalized/noninstitutionalized status. Premiums and cost-sharing amounts for beneficiaries meeting the criteria may be reduced or waived. (The subsidies are financed by certain payments from the general
fund of the U.S. Treasury and from the states.) Original sources of authority, such as the laws, regulations, and rulings for Part D, should be consulted if specific
details are required.
e. Under the standard Part D benefit design, there is an initial deductible. After meeting the deductible, the beneficiary pays 25 percent of the remaining costs until the
initial coverage limit is reached. The beneficiary is then responsible for all costs until the out-of-pocket threshold is reached. (Included in the total out-of-pocket expenditures are the deductible, the 25 percent of costs that is paid by the beneficiary after the deductible is met until the initial coverage limit is reached, and the
100 percent the beneficiary pays for costs above the initial coverage limit. In determining out-of-pocket costs, only those amounts actually paid by the enrollee or
another individual (and not reimbursed through insurance) are counted; the exception to this “true out-of-pocket” provision is cost-sharing assistance from the lowincome subsidies provided under Part D and from State Pharmacy Assistance programs.) For costs thereafter, there is catastrophic coverage that requires enrollees
to pay the greater of 5 percent coinsurance or a small defined copayment amount ($2 in 2006 and $2.15 in 2007 for generic or preferred multisource drugs, and $5.00
in 2006 and $5.35 in 2007 for other drugs). Many Part D plans offer alternative coverage that differs from the standard coverage described above. In fact, the majority
of beneficiaries are not enrolled in the standard benefit design but rather in plans with low or no deductibles, flat payments for covered drugs, and, in some cases, partial coverage in the coverage gap. Covered drugs may vary by plan. Original sources of authority, such as the laws, regulations, and rulings for Part D, should be consulted if more specific details are required.
f. Part D base beneficiary premium. The actual Part D premiums paid by individual beneficiaries equal the base beneficiary premiums adjusted by a number of factors.
Premiums vary significantly from one Part D plan to another and seldom equal the base beneficiary premium. A surcharge for enrollment after an individual’s initial
enrollment period may apply. (Late enrollment penalties do not apply to enrollees who have maintained creditable prescription drug coverage.) Enrollment in Part D is
voluntary.
g. Standard premium rate for voluntary enrollment in Part B. While this will be the amount paid by most Part B beneficiaries, there are three provisions that can alter the
premium rate for certain enrollees. First, in most (but not all) cases, a surcharge applies for those beneficiaries who enroll after their initial enrollment period. Second,
beginning in 2007, beneficiaries whose income is above certain thresholds are required to pay an income-related monthly adjustment amount, in addition to their standard monthly premium; see footnote x. Finally, a “hold-harmless” provision, which prohibits increases in the standard Part B premium from exceeding the dollar
amount of an individual’s Social Security cost-of-living adjustment, lowers the premium rate for certain individuals who have their premiums deducted from their Social
Security checks.
h. Beginning in July 1973 for the disabled.
i. Benefit not provided.
j. Professional inpatient services of pathologists and radiologists not subject to deductible or coinsurance, beginning in April 1968.
k. Beginning in April 1968.
l. Home health services not subject to coinsurance, beginning in January 1973.
m. Standard monthly premiums for July and August 1973 were reduced to $5.80 and $6.10, respectively, by the Cost of Living Council.
n. Home health services not subject to deductible, beginning July 1, 1981.
o. Professional inpatient services of pathologists and radiologists not subject to deductible or coinsurance, beginning in April 1968, but only when physician accepts
assignment.
p. Effective October 1, 1982, professional inpatient services of pathologists and radiologists are subject to deductible and coinsurance.
q. Unlike all other years, the 1989 deductible was applied on an annual, rather than a benefit period, basis. Once the deductible was paid by the beneficiary, Medicare
paid the balance of expenses for covered hospital services, regardless of the number of days of hospitalization (except for psychiatric hospital care, which was still
limited by the 190-day lifetime maximum).
r. The coinsurance amount in 1989 was equal to 20 percent of the estimated national average daily cost of covered skilled nursing facility care, rather than 1/8 of the
inpatient hospital deductible. The beneficiary paid the coinsurance amount for the first 8 days of care in 1989, rather than for days of care 21 to 100 in a benefit period
as in all other years. Skilled nursing facility benefits were available for up to 150 days of care per year in 1989, rather than for up to 100 days of care per benefit period
as in all other years.
s. Includes the standard monthly Part B premium and a supplemental monthly flat premium under the Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act of 1988. Amount shown is for
most Part B enrollees. Residents of Puerto Rico and other territories and commonwealths, as well as persons enrolled in Part B only, paid different supplemental flat
premiums, resulting in a smaller premium than that shown.
t. A reduced premium is available to individuals aged 65 and older who are not otherwise entitled to HI but who have (or who were married to, widowed, or divorced
from a spouse for certain periods of time who has or had) at least 30 quarters of Medicare-covered employment. The reduced premium is $184, $183, $188, $187,
$170, $170, $166, $165, $175, $174, $189, $206, $216, and $226, for 1994 to 2007, respectively.
u. A temporary Medicare-endorsed prescription drug discount card program was offered. For eligible beneficiaries voluntarily enrolling and paying up to $30 annually,
discounts on certain prescription drugs were available, as specified by card sponsors. Under a Transitional Assistance (TA) provision, drug-card eligible beneficiaries
whose incomes did not exceed 135 percent of the federal poverty level and who did not have third-party prescription drug coverage were eligible for (1) financial
assistance of up to $600 per year for purchasing prescription drugs and (2) a subsidized enrollment fee for the discount card. Enrollment began May 2004, discount
availability began June 2004, and the program phases out during 2006, as full Part D becomes available in January 2006.
v. The 2006 out-of-pocket threshold of $3,600 is equivalent to total covered drug costs of $5,100. The 2007 out-of-pocket threshold of $3,850 is equivalent to total covered drug costs of $5,451.25.
w. See footnote f. As of this writing, it is estimated that the average enrollee premium for basic Part D coverage, which reflects the specific plan-by-plan premiums and
the actual number of beneficiaries in each plan, is about $24 in 2006 and will be less than $24 for 2007.
x. See footnote g. The 2007 Part B income-related monthly adjustment amounts and total monthly premium amounts to be paid by beneficiaries, according to income
level and filing status, are shown in the Medicare section of “Program Descriptions and Legislative History” in this Supplement, page 41.
y. Beginning January 2007 for Part B beneficiaries meeting certain income thresholds and thus paying income-related adjustment amounts in addition to their standard
Part B premiums (see footnotes g and x), the government amounts are supposed to be reduced accordingly.
CONTACT: Sol Mussey (410) 786-6386.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.61

2.C Medicaid: History of Provisions
Table 2.C2—Federal medical assistance percentage and enhanced federal medical assistance percentage,
by state or other area, 2005–2007
Federal medical assistance percentage a
State or area

2005

c

2006

d

Enhanced federal medical assistance percentage b
2007

e

2005 c

2006 d

2007 e

Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California

70.83
57.58
67.45
74.75
50.00

69.51
50.16
66.98
73.77
50.00

68.85
51.07
66.47
73.37
50.00

79.58
70.31
77.22
82.33
65.00

78.66
65.11
76.89
81.64
65.00

78.20
65.75
76.53
81.36
65.00

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida

50.00
50.00
50.38
70.00
58.90

50.00
50.00
50.09
70.00
58.89

50.00
50.00
50.00
70.00
58.76

65.00
65.00
65.27
79.00
71.23

65.00
65.00
65.06
79.00
71.22

65.00
65.00
65.00
79.00
71.13

Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana

60.44
58.47
70.62
50.00
62.78

60.60
58.81
69.91
50.00
62.98

61.97
57.55
70.36
50.00
62.61

72.31
70.93
79.43
65.00
73.95

72.42
71.17
78.94
65.00
74.09

73.38
70.29
79.25
65.00
73.83

Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine

63.55
61.01
69.60
71.04
64.89

63.61
60.41
69.26
69.79
62.90

61.98
60.25
69.58
69.69
63.27

74.49
72.71
78.72
79.73
75.42

74.53
72.29
78.48
78.85
74.03

73.39
72.18
78.71
78.78
74.29

Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi

50.00
50.00
56.71
50.00
77.08

50.00
50.00
56.59
50.00
76.00

50.00
50.00
56.38
50.00
75.89

65.00
65.00
69.70
65.00
83.96

65.00
65.00
69.61
65.00
83.20

65.00
65.00
69.47
65.00
83.12

Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

61.15
71.90
59.64
55.90
50.00

61.93
70.54
59.68
54.76
50.00

61.60
69.11
57.93
53.93
50.00

72.81
80.33
71.75
69.13
65.00

73.35
79.38
71.78
68.33
65.00

73.12
78.38
70.55
67.75
65.00

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

50.00
74.30
50.00
63.63
67.49

50.00
71.15
50.00
63.49
65.85

50.00
71.93
50.00
64.52
64.72

65.00
82.01
65.00
74.54
77.24

65.00
79.81
65.00
74.44
76.10

65.00
80.35
65.00
75.16
75.30

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

59.68
70.18
61.12
53.84
55.38

59.88
67.91
61.57
55.05
54.45

59.66
68.14
61.07
54.39
52.35

71.78
79.13
72.78
67.69
68.77

71.92
77.54
73.10
68.54
68.12

71.76
77.70
72.75
68.07
66.65

South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah

69.89
66.03
64.81
60.87
72.14

69.32
65.07
63.99
60.66
70.76

69.54
62.92
63.65
60.78
70.14

78.92
76.22
75.37
72.61
80.50

78.52
75.55
74.79
72.46
79.53

78.68
74.04
74.56
72.55
79.10

Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

60.11
50.00
50.00
74.65
58.31
57.90

58.49
50.00
50.00
72.99
57.65
54.23

58.93
50.00
50.12
72.82
57.47
52.91

72.08
65.00
65.00
82.26
70.82
70.53

70.94
65.00
65.00
81.09
70.36
67.96

71.25
65.00
65.08
80.97
70.23
67.04
(Continued)

2.62 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.C Medicaid: History of Provisions
Table 2.C2—Federal medical assistance percentage and enhanced federal medical assistance percentage,
by state or other area, 2005–2007—Continued
Federal medical assistance percentage a
State or area
Outlying areas
American Samoa
Guam
Northern Mariana Islands
Puerto Rico
Virgin Islands

2005

c

2006

d

Enhanced federal medical assistance percentage b
2007

e

2005 c

2006 d

2007 e

f

f

f

f

f

f

f

f

f

f

f

f

50.00
50.00
f
50.00
f
50.00
f
50.00

50.00
50.00
f
50.00
f
50.00
f
50.00

50.00
50.00
f
50.00
f
50.00
f
50.00

65.00
65.00
f
65.00
f
65.00
f
65.00

65.00
65.00
f
65.00
f
65.00
f
65.00

65.00
65.00
f
65.00
f
65.00
f
65.00

SOURCE: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.
a.

b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Section 1905(b) of the Social Security Act (the Act) specifies the method to be used to compute the federal medical assistance percentage. From this section the following formula is derived: N = 3-year average national per capita personal income; S = 3-year average state per capita personal income. Federal medical assistance
percentage: State share = (S2/N2) x 45 or (45/N2) x S2; Federal share = 100 – state share with 50–83 percent limits.
This is the Title XXI enhanced federal medical assistance percentage rate specified in section 2105(b) of the Act. The enhanced federal medical assistance percentage is limited to no more than 85 percent.
Effective October 1, 2004, through September 30, 2005.
Effective October 1, 2005, through September 30, 2006.
Effective October 1, 2006, through September 30, 2007.
For purposes of section 1118 of the Social Security Act, the federal medical assistance percentage used under titles I, X, XIV, and XVI, and part A of title IV will be
75 percent.

CONTACT: Adelle Simmons (202) 401-6119.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.63

2.F SSA Administrative Data: Offices and Staff
Table 2.F1—Number of SSA offices, 2005
Office

Number

Headquarters (Baltimore, Maryland)
Regional offices a
Field offices b
Level 1
Level 2
Resident stations
Teleservice centers c

1
10
1,318
620
654
44
35

Program service centers d

6

Data operations center e

1

Office of Disability Adjudication and Review
Headquarters (Falls Church, Virginia)
Regional offices
Hearing offices
Satellite offices

1
10
140
4

SOURCES: Social Security Administration, Office of Public Service and Operations Support’s database and Office of Hearings and Appeals Case Control System.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Regional offices are located in Boston, Massachusetts; New York, New York; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Atlanta, Georgia; Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; Kansas
City, Missouri; Denver, Colorado; San Francisco, California; and Seattle, Washington.
In December 1997, the field offices were redesignated as Level 1, 2, or resident stations depending on the characteristics of the facility, service area, and other
conditions.
The New Orleans teleservice center closed in August 2005.
Program service centers are located in Jamaica, New York; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Birmingham, Alabama; Chicago, Illinois; Kansas City, Missouri; and
Richmond, California.
The data operations center is located in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania.

CONTACT: Ron Hippler for SSA data (410) 965-4311 and Amy Prether for Office of Disability Adjudication and Review data (703) 605-7610.

2.64 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.F SSA Administrative Data: Offices and Staff
Table 2.F2—Number of SSA employees and percentage with selected characteristics by grade,
September 30, 2005
Characteristic

All grade levels

GS 1–4

GS 5–8

65,073

576

20,564

GS 9–12

GS 13–15

SES

33,260

9,007

147

Number
Total a

Percentage of total
Women

69.9

69.4

78.5

71.9

52.8

37.4

Minorities
Black
Hispanic
Asian or Pacific Islander
American Indian or Alaska Native

45.4
27.7
12.6
4.0
1.2

63.9
53.1
7.5
3.0
0.3

57.1
34.6
16.6
4.6
1.2

43.9
26.0
12.6
4.1
1.3

28.3
19.0
5.6
2.7
1.0

27.9
19.0
8.2
0
0.7

2.1

6.0

3.6

1.3

0.9

0.7

Severely disabled

SOURCE: Social Security Administration’s Affirmative Employment Plan.
a.

Includes all full-time and part-time permanent employees.

CONTACT: Nelson Izquierdo (410) 965-4364.

Table 2.F3—Number of work years, fiscal years 1995–2005
Year

Full-time permanent staff a

Total work years b

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

62,504
62,133
61,224
59,943
59,752

67,063
66,726
69,378
67,210
66,459

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

60,434
61,490
61,914
63,569
63,186
63,696

65,521
65,562
65,742
65,343
c 66,154
d 68,026

SOURCE: Social Security Administration’s Payroll Reports.
a.
b.
c.
d.

On duty at end of fiscal year; includes seasonal employees.
Includes full-time, part-time, and temporary employees; employees in special programs; and overtime hours worked.
Includes 178 work years for activities related to Medicare Modernization Act.
Includes 1,962 work years for Medicare Modernization Act.

CONTACT: Donna Frocke (410) 965-3094.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.65

2.F SSA Administrative Data: Claims Workloads
Table 2.F4—Number of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance claims, fiscal year 2005 (in thousands)
Workload
Received
Processed a

Total

Worker

Family members
and survivors

3,742.7
3,763.0

2,217.8
2,219.9

1,524.9
1,543.1

SOURCES: Office of Systems’ Integrated Work Measurement System and the Office of Disability Operations, Division of Direct Service Operations Report.
NOTE: Beginning and ending pending totals are no longer reported effective with 2005.
a.

See Table 6.A1 for data on number of awards.

CONTACT: Kelli Fitzgerald (410) 966-8673.

Table 2.F5—Number of Disability Insurance claims, fiscal year 2005 (in thousands)
Workload
Received
Processed a

Total

Worker

Family members
and survivors

2,539.5
2,629.5

2,261.6
2,350.7

277.9
278.8

SOURCES: Office of Systems’ Integrated Work Measurement System and Office of Disability Operations, Division of Direct Service Operations Report.
NOTE: Beginning and ending pending totals are no longer reported effective with 2005.
a.

See Table 6.A1 for data on number of awards.

CONTACT: Kelli Fitzgerald (410) 966-8673.

Table 2.F6—Number of Supplemental Security Income claims, fiscal year 2005 (in thousands)
Workload
Received
Processed a

Total

Aged

Blind or disabled

2,499.4
2,518.5

217.2
215.5

2,282.2
2,303.0

SOURCES: Office of Systems’ Integrated Work Measurement System and Office of Disability Operations, Division of Direct Service Operations Report.
NOTE: Beginning and ending pending totals are no longer reported effective with 2005.
a.

See Table 7.A8 for data on number of awards.

CONTACT: Kelli Fitzgerald (410) 966-8673.

2.66 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

2.F SSA Administrative Data: Service Delivery
Table 2.F7—Accuracy rates and use of 800 telephone number, fiscal years 2001–2005
Item

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

Accuracy rates (percent)
OASI payments
Index of dollar accuracy
Payment review/stewardship results
Excess payments
Underpayments

99.9

a

a

a

a

99.9
99.8

99.9
99.9

99.9
99.9

99.7
99.9

99.5
99.8

91.4

a

a

a

a

93.3
98.8

93.4
98.6

93.9
98.8

93.6
98.7

93.6
98.6

Disability Insurance benefits d
Initial claims
Allowances
Denials
Reconsideration
Reversals of denials
Affirmations of denials

93.9
96.8
92.0
91.0
96.8
89.9

94.2
97.1
92.4
90.5
95.9
89.4

93.3
96.6
91.5
90.9
96.6
89.9

93.7
96.5
92.0
90.6
96.5
89.6

92.0
90.2
93.5
91.1
95.4
90.3

Number of calls received (millions)
Average time calls answered (minutes)

74.8
2.8

67.2
4.2

67.2
4.9

SSI payments
Index of dollar accuracy b
Payment review/stewardship results c
Excess payments
Underpayments

National 800 number network (1-800-772-1213)
62.3
4.7

64.0
3.8

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Office of Finance, Assessment and Management, Office of Central Operations.
a.
b.
c.
d.

OASI and SSI Index of Dollar Accuracy Reviews were terminated in 2003.
Excludes determinations of disability.
Beginning with fiscal year 2001, the SSI payment review/stewardship results are reported as the percentage of payments free of preventable error.
Represents cases free of decisional and documentation errors.

CONTACT: Ron Mihalko (410) 965-0801 or John Hebert (410) 965-3915.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 2.67

2.F SSA Administrative Data: Hearings and Appeals
Table 2.F8—Workload of SSA’s Administrative Law Judges (ALJs), fiscal years 2003–2005
Item

2003

2004

2005 a

975
49
581

944
50
607

986
51
628

Number of ALJs
Average monthly hearing dispositions per ALJ
Average hearings pending per ALJ

SOURCES: Social Security Administration, Office of Disability Adjudication and Review. Actual data from the Key Workload Indicator Report.
NOTE: Data based on Administrative Law Judges’ availability; data exclude Regional Chief ALJs.
a.

Revised data.

CONTACT: Sybil Wolfe (703) 605-8772.

Table 2.F9—Number of hearing receipts, dispositions, and end-of-year pending cases, fiscal years 2004–2005
Hearing receipts
Program
Total
OASI
Disability
DI
SSI
DI and SSI
Medicare (Parts A and B and adversarial)
Black Lung

Hearing dispositions

End-of-year pending cases

2004 a

2005 a

2004

2005 a

2004

2005 a

634,176

652,011

561,461

605,003

664,276

711,284

2,480

2,236

2,350

2,332

3,332

3,365

214,336
155,994
203,802
57,564
0

212,078
158,648
218,959
60,089
0

183,816
142,761
168,452
64,082
0

189,349
141,427
186,251
85,644
0

225,571
181,375
225,323
28,675
0

242,545
198,870
236,384
3,120
0

SOURCES: Social Security Administration, Office of Disability Adjudication and Review. Actual data from the Key Workload Indicator Report.
a.

Revised data.

CONTACT: Sybil Wolfe (703) 605-8772.

Table 2.F11—Number of SSA Appeals Council cases, fiscal years 2003–2005
Cases
Beginning-of-year pending
Receipts
Dispositions
End-of-year pending

2003

2004

2005 a

59,781
92,047
100,750
51,078

51,072
92,540
97,701
45,911

45,911
89,430
94,083
41,258

SOURCES: Social Security Administration, Office of Disability Adjudication and Review. Actual data from the Key Workload Indicator Report.
a.

Revised data.

CONTACT: Sybil Wolfe (703) 605-8772.

2.68 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

Section 3. Social Welfare
and the Economy

Employment and Earnings

3.1

Interprogram Data

3.3

Poverty

3.13

3.B Employment and Earnings
Table 3.B3—Federal minimum wage rates under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 and
average hourly earnings and average weekly hours for production workers in manufacturing,
selected years 1938–2005
Minimum hourly wage for workers
in jobs first covered by—

Production workers
in manufacturing a

1966 and subsequent amendments d
1938 act b
(dollars)

1961 amendments c
(dollars)

Nonfarm
(dollars)

Farm
(dollars)

Average gross
hourly earnings
(dollars)

Average
weekly hours

October 24
1938
1939
1945

0.25
0.30
0.40

...
...
...

...
...
...

...
...
...

0.62
0.63
1.02

35.6
37.7
43.5

January 25, 1950

0.75

...

...

...

1.44

40.5

March 1, 1956

1.00

...

...

...

1.95

40.4

September 3
1961
1963
1964
1965

1.15
1.25
1.25
1.25

1.00
1.00
1.15
1.25

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

2.32
2.46
2.53
2.61

39.8
40.5
40.7
41.2

February 1
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971

1.40
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60

1.40
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60

1.00
1.15
1.30
1.45
1.60

1.00
1.15
1.30
1.30
1.30

2.83
3.01
3.19
3.36
3.57

40.6
40.7
40.6
39.8
39.9

May 1, 1974

2.00

2.00

1.90

1.60

4.42

40.0

January 1
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

2.10
2.30
2.30
2.65
2.90

2.10
2.30
2.30
2.65
2.90

2.00
2.20
2.30
2.65
2.90

1.80
2.00
2.20
2.65
2.90

4.83
5.22
5.68
6.17
6.70

39.5
40.1
40.3
40.4
40.2

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

3.10
3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35

3.10
3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35

3.10
3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35

3.10
3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35

7.27
7.99
8.49
8.83
9.19

39.7
39.8
38.9
40.1
40.7

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35

3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35

3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35

3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35

9.54
9.73
9.91
10.19
10.48

40.5
40.7
41.0
41.1
41.0

April 1
1990 e
1991 e
1992 e
1993 e
1994
1995

3.80
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25

3.80
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25

3.80
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25

3.80
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25

10.83
11.18
11.46
11.74
12.07
12.37

40.8
40.7
41.0
41.4
42.0
41.6

October 1, 1996 e

4.75

4.75

4.75

4.75

12.77

41.6

September 1, 1997 e

5.15

5.15

5.15

5.15

13.17

42.0

Effective date

(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 3.1

3.B Employment and Earnings
Table 3.B3—Federal minimum wage rates under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 and
average hourly earnings and average weekly hours for production workers in manufacturing,
selected years 1938–2005—Continued
Minimum hourly wage for workers
in jobs first covered by—

Production workers
in manufacturing a

1966 and subsequent amendments d
1938 act b
(dollars)

1961 amendments c
(dollars)

Nonfarm
(dollars)

Farm
(dollars)

Average gross
hourly earnings
(dollars)

Average
weekly hours

January 1
1998 e
1999 e

5.15
5.15

5.15
5.15

5.15
5.15

5.15
5.15

13.45
13.85

41.4
41.4

2000 e
2001 e
2002 e
2003 e
2004 e
2005 e

5.15
5.15
5.15
5.15
5.15
5.15

5.15
5.15
5.15
5.15
5.15
5.15

5.15
5.15
5.15
5.15
5.15
5.15

5.15
5.15
5.15
5.15
5.15
5.15

14.32
14.76
15.29
15.74
16.14
16.56

41.3
40.3
40.5
40.4
40.8
40.7

Effective date

SOURCE: Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
NOTE: . . . = not applicable.
a.
b.
c.
d.

e.

For year in which minimum wage rate changes were effective.
The 1938 act was applicable generally to employees engaged in interstate commerce or in the production of goods for interstate commerce.
The 1961 amendments extended coverage primarily to employees in large retail and service trades as well as local transit, construction, and gasoline service station
employees.
The 1966 amendments extended coverage to state and local government employees of hospitals, nursing homes, and schools, and to employees of laundries, dry
cleaners, large hotels and motels, restaurants, and farms. Subsequent amendments extended coverage to the remaining federal, state, and local employees not protected in 1966, to certain workers in retail and service trades previously exempted, and to certain domestic workers in private household employment.
A training wage may be paid for a period of 90 days to an employee who has not attained age 20. The training wage was $3.35 per hour effective April 1, 1990, and
$3.61 per hour effective April 1, 1991, through March 31, 1993. Effective October 1, 1996, the training wage is $4.25 per hour.

CONTACT: Greg Diez (410) 965-0153.

3.2 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

3.C Interprogram Data
Table 3.C3—Contributions to the Social Security and Medicare trust funds, by program and source,
selected years 1965–2005 (in millions of dollars)
Program and source

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

16,017
7,618
7,440
959
...
1,188
564
551
73
...

30,257
14,489
14,204
1,564
...
4,481
2,154
2,117
210
...

56,815
27,184
26,947
2,684
...
7,444
3,562
3,530
352
...

103,456
49,731
49,436
4,289
...
13,255
6,307
6,254
694
...

178,010
83,682
83,400
7,720
3,208
17,204
8,119
8,087
776
222

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

4,880
2,379
2,332
169
...
...
1,096
1,096
...

11,510
5,578
5,530
395
7
...
1,917
1,759
158

23,866
11,591
11,518
739
18
...
3,011
2,707
304

47,173
22,613
22,549
1,970
41
...
5,613
5,105
508

1995

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

453,354
210,659
207,999
22,793
11,903
75,743
35,759
35,312
3,861
811

468,107
215,897
215,039
24,262
12,909
78,202
36,655
36,503
4,114
930

468,574
217,675
216,222
22,179
12,497
78,386
36,962
36,716
3,764
944

486,726
223,311
222,118
26,703
14,593
81,287
37,922
37,720
4,534
1,111

520,706
241,018
239,163
26,682
13,843
87,150
40,929
40,614
4,534
1,073

160,896
71,181
71,181
9,631
1,370
7,533
22,764
19,905
2,859

162,650
71,334
71,334
10,040
1,626
8,316
25,066
21,610
3,456

159,164
69,885
69,885
9,472
1,604
8,318
27,402
23,546
3,856

166,977
72,760
72,760
10,964
1,915
8,577
31,435
26,737
4,699

167,839
72,796
72,796
11,065
2,416
8,765
37,535
31,722
5,813

Social Security trust funds
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance a
Employer
Employee
Self-employed
Taxation of benefits
Disability Insurance a
Employer
Employee
Self-employed
Taxation of benefits

309,906
143,978
143,335
17,103
5,490
54,695
25,665
25,545
3,144
341

432,977
200,431
198,736
22,216
11,594
71,813
33,971
33,701
3,420
721

Medicare trust funds
Hospital Insurance a
Employer
Employee
Self-employed
Voluntarily enrolled b
Taxation of benefits
Supplementary Medical Insurance a,c
Aged
Disabled

103,301
45,839
45,852
6,743
954
3,913
19,717
17,651
2,066

154,520
67,526
67,526
9,299
1,382
8,787
20,556
17,892
2,664

SOURCE: Department of the Treasury.
NOTE: . . . = not applicable.
a.

b.
c.

Totals do not necessarily equal the sum of rounded components. Employment taxes depend on tax rates and, for the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Disability
Insurance Trust Funds, wage bases (taxable maximums). (Beginning in 1994, no wage base applies to Medicare’s Hospital Insurance program.) Employer and
employee contributions differ by estimated amounts of employee tax overpayments and by employee tax on tips.
Beginning in July 1973, aged ineligibles may voluntarily enroll for HI.
Includes premiums paid on behalf of eligibles by state governments under "buy-in" arrangements.

CONTACT: Jeff Kunkel (410) 965-3013.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 3.3

3.C Interprogram Data
Table 3.C4—Average monthly amount of Social Security and selected public assistance programs,
December 1950–2005 (in current and 2005 dollars)
Average monthly Social Security benefit
in current-payment status

Average monthly amount
per recipient under—

Widowed mother or father
and 2 children

Retired workers

Supplemental Security Income b

Temporary Assistance
for Needy Families c

Year

Current
dollars

2005
dollars

Current
dollars

2005
dollars

Current
dollars

2005
dollars

Current
dollars

2005
dollars

Consumer
price index a

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

43.86
42.14
49.25
51.10
59.14

345.27
312.95
363.01
373.85
435.91

93.90
93.80
106.00
111.90
130.50

739.18
696.60
781.30
818.66
961.89

43.05
44.55
48.80
48.90
48.70

338.89
330.85
359.69
357.75
358.96

20.85
22.00
23.45
23.20
23.25

164.13
163.38
172.84
169.73
171.37

25.0
26.5
26.7
26.9
26.7

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

61.90
63.09
64.58
66.35
72.78

454.55
449.86
447.51
451.82
487.18

135.40
141.00
146.30
151.70
170.70

994.28
1,005.39
1,013.80
1,033.03
1,142.64

50.05
53.25
55.50
56.95
56.70

367.53
379.70
384.59
387.81
379.54

23.50
24.80
25.40
26.65
27.30

172.57
176.83
176.01
181.48
182.74

26.8
27.6
28.4
28.9
29.4

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

74.04
75.65
76.19
76.88
77.57

488.96
496.26
493.23
489.64
489.29

188.00
189.30
190.70
192.50
193.40

1,241.56
1,241.81
1,234.53
1,226.02
1,219.91

58.90
57.60
61.55
62.80
63.65

388.98
377.86
398.46
399.97
401.48

28.35
29.45
29.30
29.70
31.50

187.22
193.19
189.68
189.16
198.69

29.8
30.0
30.4
30.9
31.2

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

83.92
84.35
85.37
98.86
100.40

519.35
504.56
495.60
548.05
524.10

219.80
221.90
224.40
257.10
255.80

1,360.27
1,327.35
1,302.71
1,425.28
1,335.32

63.10
68.05
70.15
69.55
73.90

390.51
407.06
407.24
385.56
385.77

32.85
36.25
39.50
44.75
45.15

203.30
216.84
229.31
248.08
235.69

31.8
32.9
33.9
35.5
37.7

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

118.10
132.17
162.35
166.42
188.21

583.97
632.87
751.78
708.91
713.67

291.10
320.00
383.10
391.00
438.40

1,439.41
1,532.26
1,773.98
1,665.56
1,662.37

77.65
77.50
79.95
76.15
91.06

383.96
371.09
370.22
324.38
345.29

50.30
52.30
54.10
56.95
63.37

248.72
250.43
250.51
242.59
240.29

39.8
41.1
42.5
46.2
51.9

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

207.18
224.86
243.00
263.20
294.30

734.65
760.35
770.09
765.11
755.13

468.60
503.40
546.60
591.90
655.00

1,661.63
1,702.22
1,732.22
1,720.62
1,680.63

90.93
94.37
96.62
100.43
122.67

322.43
319.11
306.20
291.94
314.75

69.69
75.20
80.08
83.60
90.34

247.12
254.28
253.78
243.02
231.80

55.5
58.2
62.1
67.7
76.7

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

341.40
385.97
419.30
440.77
460.57

778.53
808.07
845.47
856.30
860.78

759.20
858.00
885.50
923.00
948.30

1,731.29
1,796.32
1,785.52
1,793.15
1,772.32

128.20
137.81
145.69
157.89
157.88

292.35
288.52
293.77
306.74
295.07

97.10
103.15
106.33
109.93
114.72

221.43
215.96
214.40
213.57
214.41

86.3
94.0
97.6
101.3
105.3

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

478.62
488.44
512.65
536.77
566.85

861.78
869.91
874.26
876.65
884.66

981.50
994.00
1,032.30
1,070.40
1,120.04

1,767.24
1,770.31
1,760.46
1,748.17
1,748.01

164.26
173.66
180.64
188.23
198.81

295.76
309.29
308.06
307.42
310.28

118.17
122.09
125.19
130.30
131.89

212.77
217.44
213.50
212.81
205.84

109.3
110.5
115.4
120.5
126.1

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

602.56
629.32
652.64
674.06
697.34

886.28
898.12
905.14
909.84
916.74

1,177.70
1,216.76
1,252.40
1,282.60
1,328.40

1,732.22
1,736.46
1,736.94
1,731.25
1,746.35

212.66
221.30
227.39
236.52
242.54

312.79
315.82
315.37
319.25
318.85

135.96
134.98
132.92
132.87
133.71

199.98
192.63
184.35
179.35
175.78

133.8
137.9
141.9
145.8
149.7

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

719.80
744.96
774.84
779.69
804.30

922.84
924.39
945.37
936.20
940.50

1,365.50
1,450.60
1,502.60
1,537.70
1,590.40

1,750.69
1,799.99
1,833.30
1,846.37
1,859.72

250.65
260.75
268.46
277.45
289.19

321.35
323.55
327.54
333.14
338.16

134.35
133.53
170.71
129.04
133.41

172.25
165.69
208.28
154.94
156.00

153.5
158.6
161.3
163.9
168.3
(Continued)

3.4 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

3.C Interprogram Data
Table 3.C4—Average monthly amount of Social Security and selected public assistance programs,
December 1950–2005 (in current and 2005 dollars)—Continued
Average monthly Social Security benefit
in current-payment status

Average monthly amount
per recipient under—

Widowed mother or father
and 2 children

Retired workers

Supplemental Security Income b

Temporary Assistance
for Needy Families c

Year

Current
dollars

2005
dollars

Current
dollars

2005
dollars

Current
dollars

2005
dollars

Current
dollars

2005
dollars

Consumer
price index a

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

844.48
874.44
895.00
922.08
954.89
1,002.00

955.14
973.91
973.67
984.62
987.51
1,002.00

1,675.40
1,755.10
1,812.10
1,880.97
1,952.80
2,061.30

1,894.94
1,954.75
1,971.37
2,008.55
2,019.50
2,061.30

299.69
314.22
330.04
342.28
350.53
360.25

338.96
349.96
359.05
365.49
362.50
360.25

151.29
155.83
160.09
161.47
165.80
165.50

171.11
173.56
174.16
172.42
171.46
165.50

174.0
176.7
180.9
184.3
190.3
196.8

SOURCES: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record, and the Department of Health and Human Services, 100 percent data.
a.
b.
c.

Data from Bureau of Labor Statistics, consumer price index for all urban consumers (CPI-U) for all items (1982–1984 = 100).
For 1940–1973, data refer to Old-Age Assistance program. Beginning January 1974, the Supplemental Security Income program superseded the Old-Age Assistance
program in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
Effective July 1, 1997, the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant program replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. Beginning in 1997, payments include services.

CONTACT: Stella M. Coleman (410) 965-0157.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 3.5

3.C Interprogram Data
Table 3.C5—Population aged 65 or older receiving Social Security (OASDI) benefits, Supplemental Security
Income (SSI) payments, or both, by state, December 1940–2005, selected years
Population aged 65 or older receiving—
SSI a

OASDI
Number
per 1,000

State rank

Number
per 1,000

State rank

OASDI and SSI,
number per 1,000

OASDI, SSI,
or both,
number per 1,000

1940
1945

7
62

...
...

217
194

...
...

1
5

1950
1955
1960
1965
1970

164
394
616
752
855

...
...
...
...
...

224
179
141
117
104

...
...
...
...
...

1975
1980
1985
1990
1995

904
914
917
924
913

...
...
...
...
...

111
87
71
66
63

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

911
908
901
908
926

...
...
...
...
...

United States
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California

919
929
893
842
920
828

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida

Persons receiving both OASDI
and SSI as a percentage of—
OASDI
beneficiaries

SSI
recipients

223
251

14.3
8.1

0.5
2.6

22
34
41
52
63

366
539
716
817
896

12.6
8.6
6.6
7.0
7.4

9.8
19.2
28.5
44.7
60.4

...
...
...
...
...

78
61
51
46
39

939
941
937
944
937

8.6
6.7
5.5
4.9
4.3

69.5
70.2
71.1
69.2
62.6

57
56
56
55
54

...
...
...
...
...

34
33
32
32
31

934
931
924
932
950

3.7
3.6
3.6
3.5
3.3

59.1
58.4
57.8
57.4
57.0

...
22
39
48
29
50

53
60
67
30
52
131

...
10
6
30
13
1

31
46
40
18
41
67

943
941
921
855
929
896

3.3
4.9
4.5
2.1
4.5
8.0

57.6
75.9
60.1
60.5
79.7
50.9

895
930
939
775
836

38
21
14
51
49

29
26
21
64
45

31
37
41
9
19

17
13
14
37
24

908
944
947
801
859

1.9
1.3
1.5
4.8
2.9

58.3
47.9
65.2
58.0
52.9

Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana

906
879
965
897
943

35
44
1
36
12

59
48
18
37
16

11
15
44
24
49

42
23
14
16
11

923
905
970
918
948

4.6
2.6
1.5
1.8
1.1

70.7
47.3
76.5
43.2
67.6

Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine

947
923
928
869
939

9
28
23
45
16

16
18
66
71
28

48
45
8
4
34

12
12
48
49
23

951
930
944
885
944

1.2
1.3
5.2
5.6
2.4

71.1
63.9
73.3
67.9
79.5

Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi

860
908
947
931
912

47
34
8
19
32

38
56
29
25
89

23
12
32
38
2

18
31
16
12
69

880
933
959
945
929

2.1
3.4
1.7
1.3
7.5

47.3
54.7
57.3
47.7
77.1

Year and state

2005

(Continued)

3.6 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

3.C Interprogram Data
Table 3.C5—Population aged 65 or older receiving Social Security (OASDI) benefits, Supplemental Security
Income (SSI) payments, or both, by state, December 1940–2005, selected years—Continued
Population aged 65 or older receiving—
SSI a

OASDI
Number
per 1,000

State rank

Number
per 1,000

State rank

OASDI and SSI,
number per 1,000

OASDI, SSI,
or both,
number per 1,000

931
936
942
885
950

20
18
13
42
6

26
19
17
31
11

36
43
47
29
51

18
14
11
19
7

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

909
885
868
939
945

33
43
46
15
11

45
66
88
47
20

21
7
3
18
42

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

925
925
950
937
918

27
26
5
17
31

24
34
26
34
48

South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah

926
960
946
889
893

25
3
10
41
40

Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

947
896
918
926
963
955

7
37
30
24
2
4

Year and state
2005 (cont.)
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

Persons receiving both OASDI
and SSI as a percentage of—
OASDI
beneficiaries

SSI
recipients

939
940
947
899
954

1.9
1.5
1.2
2.1
0.8

68.6
75.7
68.7
60.0
65.1

20
46
42
35
15

933
906
916
950
950

2.3
5.2
4.8
3.8
1.5

45.9
69.9
47.7
75.3
71.9

39
26
35
27
14

14
24
16
19
30

935
934
962
950
937

1.5
2.6
1.6
2.0
3.3

58.9
71.9
59.2
56.4
62.0

47
28
48
70
17

17
33
16
5
46

36
19
36
48
9

936
969
957
911
902

3.9
1.9
3.8
5.4
1.0

75.7
65.7
74.4
69.1
52.6

31
41
35
45
22
14

28
22
25
20
40
50

24
25
14
31
14
11

953
912
941
940
971
958

2.6
2.8
1.5
3.3
1.5
1.2

77.9
60.4
39.7
68.8
64.1
80.9

SOURCES: Social Security Administration, Master Beneficiary Record and Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), and the U.S. Census
Bureau, 100 percent data.
NOTE: . . . = not applicable.
a.

For 1940–1973, data refer to the Old-Age Assistance program. Beginning January 1974, the Supplemental Security Income program superseded the Old-Age Assistance program in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

CONTACT: Stella M. Coleman (410) 965-0157.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 3.7

3.C Interprogram Data
Table 3.C6—Number and percentage of Social Security (OASDI) beneficiaries also receiving federally
administered Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments, by type of OASDI benefit and SSI eligibility
category, December 2005
Number receiving SSI
Type of benefit
Total

All OASDI
beneficiaries a

Total

Percentage of all OASDI beneficiaries

Aged

Blind and
disabled

Total

Aged

Blind and
disabled

48,445,900

2,489,920

684,290

1,805,630

5.1

1.4

3.7

Retirement
Workers aged 65 or older
Men
Women
Workers aged 62–64
Men
Women
Wives and husbands
Aged 65 or older
Aged 62–64
Under age 62 with children
Disabled adult children
Aged 65 or older
Aged 18–64
Children under age 18 and students aged 18–19

33,488,350
27,651,170
14,224,360
13,426,810
2,823,760
1,429,990
1,393,770
2,523,910
2,229,000
254,310
40,600
193,040
900
192,140
296,470

1,055,190
783,390
314,410
468,980
42,410
26,740
15,670
131,320
119,600
10,840
880
93,720
340
93,380
4,350

563,970
503,050
196,000
307,050
0
0
0
60,910
60,910
0
0

491,220
280,340
118,410
161,930
42,410
26,740
15,670
70,410
58,690
10,840
880

1.7
1.8
1.4
2.3
0
0
0
2.4
2.7
0
0

1.5
1.0
0.8
1.2
1.5
1.9
1.1
2.8
2.6
4.3
2.2

b

b

b

b

b

b

0
0

93,380
4,350

3.2
2.8
2.2
3.5
1.5
1.9
1.1
5.2
5.4
4.3
2.2
48.5
37.8
48.6
1.5

Survivors
Nondisabled widow(er)s
Aged 65 or older
Aged 60–64
Disabled widow(er)s
Widowed mothers and fathers
Parents
Disabled adult children
Aged 65 or older
Aged 18–64
Children under age 18 and students aged 18–19

6,650,440
4,356,450
3,913,200
443,250
212,220
176,160
1,950
510,930
68,770
442,160
1,392,730

435,930
214,030
207,870
6,160
35,180
4,320
90
159,440
22,400
137,040
22,870

119,350
116,510
116,510
0
0

316,580
97,520
91,360
6,160
35,180

b

b

b

b

2,740
2,740
0
0

Disability
Workers
Men
Women
Wives and husbands
Aged 65 or older
Aged 62–64
Under age 62 with children
Disabled adult children aged 18–64
Children under age 18 and students aged 18–19

8,307,110
6,510,420
3,517,130
2,993,290
157,550
29,210
40,270
88,070
69,880
1,569,260

998,800
889,590
384,830
504,760
10,790
3,600
2,240
4,950
48,100
50,320

970
0
0
0
970
970
0
0
0
0

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Beneficiary Record, 10 percent sample.
NOTE: Social Security is the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program.
a.
b.

Includes special age-72 beneficiaries.
Data not shown to avoid disclosure of information for particular individuals.

CONTACT: Paul Davies (202) 358-6277.

3.8 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

b

b

0
0

48.6
1.5

1.8
2.7
3.0
0
0

4.8
2.2
2.3
1.4
16.6

b

b

156,700
19,660
137,040
22,870

6.6
4.9
5.3
1.4
16.6
2.5
4.6
31.2
32.6
31.0
1.6

997,830
889,590
384,830
504,760
9,820
2,630
2,240
4,950
48,100
50,320

12.0
13.7
10.9
16.9
6.8
12.3
5.6
5.6
68.8
3.2

b

b

0.5
4.0
0
0

30.7
28.6
31.0
1.6

0
0
0
0
0.6
3.3
0
0
0
0

12.0
13.7
10.9
16.9
6.2
9.0
5.6
5.6
68.8
3.2

3.C Interprogram Data
Table 3.C6.1—Number of persons aged 18–64 receiving Social Security (OASDI) benefits or federally
administered Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments based on disability, by type of benefit,
December 1978–2005
OASDI beneficiaries

Blind or disabled SSI recipients

Disabled
adult children
under age 65

Disabled
widow(er)s

Receiving
SSI only

Receiving
both SSI
and OASDI

Total

1,260,981
1,242,904

486,145
483,649

1,244,112
1,229,370
b
1,196,865
b
1,224,130
b
1,276,570

486,735
473,525
458,414
475,644
503,889

b

1,333,116
1,465,540
b
1,488,256
1,544,249
c
1,615,307

546,052
544,918
630,454
658,465
686,619

2,449,897
2,641,524
2,909,997
3,148,413
3,335,255

1,727,540
1,865,810
2,063,503
2,230,479
2,362,051

722,357
775,714
846,494
917,934
973,204

173,024
181,911
187,938
194,181
198,795

3,482,256
3,568,393
3,561,625
3,646,020
3,690,970

2,411,938
2,486,063
2,478,134
2,546,800
2,575,878

1,070,318
1,082,330
1,083,491
1,099,220
1,115,092

201,427
204,243
207,358
209,359
210,735
213,001

3,744,022
3,811,494
3,877,752
3,953,248
4,017,108
4,082,870

2,610,485
2,649,523
2,688,514
2,740,802
2,773,752
2,795,920

1,133,537
1,161,971
1,189,238
1,212,446
1,243,356
1,286,950

Year

Unduplicated
total a

Total

Disabled
workers

1978
1979

4,676,450
4,662,528

3,415,469
3,419,624

2,879,774
2,870,590

405,944
419,201

129,751
129,833

1,747,126
1,726,553

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

4,662,546
4,570,071
4,366,314
4,367,241
4,460,188

3,418,434
3,340,701
3,169,449
3,143,111
3,183,618

2,858,680
2,776,519
2,603,599
2,569,029
2,596,516

432,174
442,592
449,478
462,491
477,951

127,580
121,590
116,372
111,591
109,151

1,730,847
1,702,895
1,655,279
1,699,774
1,780,459

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

4,591,316
4,812,143
4,904,785
5,012,435
5,155,787

3,258,200
3,346,603
3,416,529
3,468,186
3,540,480

2,656,638
2,728,463
2,785,859
2,830,284
2,895,364

494,557
511,166
524,388
534,779
543,486

107,005
106,974
106,282
103,123
101,630

1,879,168
2,010,458
2,118,710
2,202,714
2,301,926

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

5,395,261
5,743,614
6,249,217
6,707,127
7,103,399

3,667,721
3,877,804
4,185,714
4,476,648
4,741,348

3,011,294
3,194,938
3,467,783
3,725,966
3,962,954

555,438
568,377
586,607
603,667
617,718

100,989
114,489
131,324
147,015
160,676

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

7,398,942
7,691,134
7,818,216
8,090,686
8,311,949

4,987,004
5,205,071
5,340,082
5,543,886
5,736,071

4,185,263
4,385,623
4,508,134
4,698,319
4,879,455

628,717
637,537
644,010
651,386
657,821

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

8,519,241
8,799,998
9,118,926
9,510,138
9,792,950
10,094,657

5,908,756
6,150,475
6,430,412
6,769,336
7,019,198
7,298,737

5,042,334
5,274,183
5,543,981
5,873,673
6,116,444
6,385,405

664,995
672,049
679,073
686,304
692,019
700,331

b
b
b

b

b

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Beneficiary Record and Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
a.
b.
c.

Includes persons receiving Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI), SSI, or both.
The number of OASDI disabled adult child beneficiaries aged 18–64 also receiving SSI was estimated on the basis of the number of such beneficiaries aged 18 or
older for the same year and on the comparative size of the two groups at the end of 1988.
December data for OASDI disabled beneficiaries also receiving SSI were not available. Instead, the average of the September 1989 and March 1990 numbers was
used.

CONTACT: Art Kahn (410) 965-0186.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 3.9

3.C Interprogram Data
Table 3.C7a—Number of persons aged 15 or older reporting only one race and having Social Security benefits
or Supplemental Security Income in March 2006, by sex, age, and race, and average annual benefit
in 2005
All persons
Asian

Native Hawaiian
and Other Pacific
Islander

183

940

31

1,641
2,431

75
108

369
571

b

949
643
1,356
1,125

49
31
67
36

98
106
424
313

b

68

210

9

488
802

b

85
125

b

831
198
146
116

b

64
42
34
71

b

9,354

10,336

b

b

7,324

b

Total a

Reporting only
one race

41,364

40,912

35,685

4,072

Male
Female

17,781
23,584

17,561
23,351

15,461
20,224

15–54
55–64
65–74
75 or older

4,912
5,272
15,743
15,437

4,805
5,189
15,594
15,324

3,705
4,407
13,734
13,840

5,215

5,106

3,529

1,290

Male
Female

2,132
3,083

2,089
3,018

1,491
2,038

15–54
55–64
65–74
75 or older

3,074
965
602
574

2,995
948
596
567

2,053
696
406
373

10,732

10,741

10,911

9,406

5,973

5,973

5,976

5,789

Sex and age

White

Black or African
American

American Indian,
Alaska Native

Social Security beneficiaries (thousands)
Total
Sex
b

Age
b
b
b

Supplemental Security Income recipients (thousands)
Total
Sex
b

b

Age
b
b
b

b
b
b

Average annual benefit in 2005 (dollars)
Social Security
Supplemental Security
Income

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, public-use file of the March 2006 Income Supplement.
NOTES: Table includes civilian noninstitutionalized population residing in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
For a discussion of standard errors of estimated numbers and percentages, see U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, Series P-60.
a.
b.

The sum of the individual categories may not equal the total because of independent rounding.
Fewer than 75,000 weighted cases.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

3.10 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

3.C Interprogram Data
Table 3.C7b—Number of persons aged 15 or older reporting one or more races and having Social Security
benefits or Supplemental Security Income in March 2006, by sex, age, and race, and average annual benefit
in 2005
All persons

Sex and age

Total a

Reporting only Reporting two or White alone or in
combination
one race
more races

Black or African American Indian,
American alone
Alaska Native
or in
alone or in Asian alone or in
combination
combination
combination

Native Hawaiian
and Other
Pacific Islander
alone or in
combination

Social Security beneficiaries (thousands)
Total b

41,364

40,912

452

36,087

4,154

564

976

55

Male
Female

17,781
23,584

17,561
23,351

219
233

15,662
20,425

1,671
2,482

263
301

386
589

c

15–54
55–64
65–74
75 or older

4,912
5,272
15,743
15,437

4,805
5,189
15,594
15,324

106
83
149
113

3,794
4,483
13,867
13,943

984
651
1,373
1,146

125
110
195
134

113
107
437
318

c

Total b

5,215

5,106

109

3,617

1,324

156

222

13

Male
Female

2,132
3,083

2,089
3,018

43
66

1,525
2,092

501
823

59
97

91
131

c

15–54
55–64
65–74
75 or older

3,074
965
602
574

2,995
948
596
567

78
17
6
7

2,114
713
412
379

859
200
146
119

102
26
15
13

74
42
34
71

c

10,732

10,741

9,991

10,902

9,402

9,726

10,365

c

5,973

5,973

5,988

5,966

5,826

5,543

7,289

c

Sex
c

Age
c
c
c

Supplemental Security Income recipients (thousands)

Sex
c

Age
c
c
c

Average annual benefit in 2005 (dollars)
Social Security
Supplemental Security
Income

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, public-use file of the March 2006 Income Supplement.
NOTES: Table includes civilian noninstitutionalized population residing in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
For a discussion of standard errors of estimated numbers and percentages, see U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, Series P-60.
"In combination" means in combination with one or more other races.
a.
b.
c.

The sum of the individual categories may not equal the total because of independent rounding.
The sum of the five race groups adds to more than the total because individuals may report more than one race.
Fewer than 75,000 weighted cases.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 3.11

3.C Interprogram Data
Table 3.C8—Number of persons aged 15 or older with Social Security (OASDI) benefits or Supplemental
Security Income (SSI) and number and percentage of Hispanic origin in March 2006, by age and sex, and
average annual benefit in 2005

Age

Hispanic origin as a percentage
of all beneficiaries a

Hispanic origin a (thousands)

All beneficiaries (thousands)
Total

Men

Women

Total

Men

41,364

17,781

23,584

2,509

1,098

1,686
1,278
1,948
5,272
21,015
15,437

778
515
895
2,451
9,569
6,023

907
763
1,053
2,821
11,447
9,414

161
121
147
357
1,336
744

74
55
62
168
597
311

Women

Total

Men

Women

1,411

6.1

6.2

6.0

88
66
85
190
739
434

9.6
9.4
7.5
6.8
6.4
4.8

9.4
10.6
6.9
6.8
6.2
5.2

9.7
8.7
8.0
6.7
6.5
4.6

Social Security beneficiaries
Total, all ages
15–34
35–44
45–54
55–64
65–74
75 or older

Supplemental Security Income recipients
Total, all ages
15–34
35–44
45–54
55–64
65–74
75 or older

5,215

2,132

3,083

749

301

448

14.4

14.1

14.5

1,158
806
1,110
965
1,567
574

581
345
442
398
613
152

577
461
668
567
954
422

122
116
161
125
258
91

66
59
56
52
95
24

56
57
105
72
163
67

10.5
14.4
14.5
12.9
16.5
15.9

11.3
17.2
12.8
13.1
15.5
15.9

9.7
12.4
15.7
12.7
17.1
15.9

10,732
5,973

12,336
6,392

9,523
5,683

...
...

...
...

...
...

Average annual benefit in 2005 (dollars)
Social Security
Supplemental Security Income

9,214
5,693

10,301
5,898

8,368
5,555

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, public-use file of the March 2006 Income Supplement.
NOTES: Table includes civilian noninstitutionalized population residing in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
For a discussion of standard errors of estimated numbers and percentages, see U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, Series P-60.
. . . = not applicable.
a.

Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

3.12 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

3.E Poverty
Table 3.E1—Weighted average poverty thresholds for nonfarm families, by size,
1959–2005 (in dollars)
Families
2 persons

Unrelated individuals
Aged 65
or older

All ages

Householder
under age 65

Householder
7 persons
aged 65 or older 3 persons 4 persons 5 persons 6 persons
or more

Annual
average
CPI a

Year

All ages

Under
age 65

1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

1,467
1,490
1,506
1,519
1,539
1,558

1,503
1,526
1,545
1,562
1,581
1,601

1,397
1,418
1,433
1,451
1,470
1,488

1,894
1,924
1,942
1,962
1,988
2,015

1,952
1,982
2,005
2,027
2,052
2,079

1,761
1,788
1,808
1,828
1,850
1,875

2,324
2,359
2,383
2,412
2,442
2,473

2,973
3,022
3,054
3,089
3,128
3,169

3,506
3,560
3,597
3,639
3,685
3,732

3,944
4,002
4,041
4,088
4,135
4,193

4,849
4,921
4,967
5,032
5,092
5,156

29.2
29.6
29.9
30.3
30.6
31.0

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

1,582
1,628
1,675
1,748
1,840

1,626
1,674
1,722
1,797
1,893

1,512
1,556
1,600
1,667
1,757

2,048
2,107
2,168
2,262
2,383

2,114
2,175
2,238
2,333
2,458

1,906
1,961
2,017
2,102
2,215

2,514
2,588
2,661
2,774
2,924

3,223
3,317
3,410
3,553
3,743

3,797
3,908
4,019
4,188
4,415

4,264
4,388
4,516
4,706
4,958

5,248
5,395
5,550
5,789
6,101

31.5
32.5
33.4
34.8
36.7

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

1,954
2,040
2,109
2,247
2,495

2,010
2,098
2,168
2,307
2,562

1,861
1,940
2,005
2,130
2,364

2,525
2,633
2,724
2,895
3,211

2,604
2,716
2,808
2,984
3,312

2,348
2,448
2,530
2,688
2,982

3,099
3,229
3,339
3,548
3,936

3,968
4,137
4,275
4,540
5,038

4,680
4,880
5,044
5,358
5,950

5,260
5,489
5,673
6,028
6,699

6,468
6,751
6,983
7,435
8,253

38.8
40.5
41.8
44.4
49.3

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

2,724
2,884
3,075
3,311
3,689

2,797
2,959
3,152
3,392
3,778

2,581
2,730
2,906
3,127
3,479

3,506
3,711
3,951
4,249
4,725

3,617
3,826
4,072
4,383
4,878

3,257
3,445
3,666
3,944
4,390

4,293
4,540
4,833
5,201
5,784

5,500
5,815
6,191
6,662
7,412

6,499
6,876
7,320
7,880
8,775

7,316
7,760
8,261
8,891
9,914

9,022
9,588
10,216
11,002
12,280

53.8
56.9
60.6
65.2
72.6

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

4,190
4,620
4,901
5,061
5,278

4,290
4,729
5,019
5,180
5,400

3,949
4,359
4,626
4,775
4,979

5,363
5,917
6,281
6,483
6,762

5,537
6,111
6,487
6,697
6,983

4,983
5,498
5,836
6,023
6,282

6,565
7,250
7,693
7,938
8,277

8,414
9,287
9,862
10,178
10,609

9,966
11,007
11,684
12,049
12,566

11,269
12,449
13,207
13,630
14,207

13,955
...
...
...
...

82.4
90.9
96.5
99.6
103.9

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

5,469
5,572
5,778
6,022
6,310

5,593
5,701
5,909
6,155
6,451

5,156
5,255
5,447
5,674
5,947

6,998
7,138
7,397
7,704
8,076

7,231
7,372
7,641
7,958
8,343

6,503
6,630
6,872
7,157
7,501

8,573
8,737
9,056
9,435
9,885

10,989
11,203
11,611
12,092
12,674

13,007
13,259
13,737
14,304
14,990

14,696
14,986
15,509
16,146
16,921

...
...
...
...
...

107.6
109.6
113.6
118.3
124.0

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

6,652
6,932
7,143
7,363
7,547

6,800
7,086
7,299
7,518
7,710

6,268
6,532
6,729
6,930
7,108

8,509
8,865
9,137
9,414
9,661

8,794
9,165
9,443
9,728
9,976

7,905
8,241
8,487
8,740
8,967

10,419
10,860
11,186
11,522
11,821

13,359
13,924
14,335
14,763
15,141

15,792
16,456
16,952
17,449
17,900

17,839
18,587
19,137
19,718
20,235

...
...
...
...
...

130.7
136.2
140.3
144.5
148.2
(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 3.13

3.E Poverty
Table 3.E1—Weighted average poverty thresholds for nonfarm families, by size,
1959–2005 (in dollars)—Continued
Families
2 persons

Unrelated individuals
Aged 65
or older

All ages

Householder
under age 65

Householder
7 persons
aged 65 or older 3 persons 4 persons 5 persons 6 persons
or more

Annual
average
CPI a

Year

All ages

Under
age 65

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

7,763
7,995
8,183
8,316
8,501

7,929
8,163
8,350
8,480
8,667

7,309
7,525
7,698
7,818
7,990

9,933
10,233
10,473
10,634
10,869

10,259
10,564
10,805
10,972
11,214

9,219
9,491
9,712
9,862
10,075

12,158
12,516
12,802
13,003
13,290

15,569
16,036
16,400
16,660
17,029

18,408
18,952
19,380
19,680
20,127

20,804
21,389
21,886
22,228
22,727

...
...
...
...
...

152.4
156.9
160.5
163.0
166.6

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

8,794
9,039
9,183
9,393
9,645
9,973

8,959
9,214
9,359
9,573
9,827
10,160

8,259
8,494
8,628
8,825
9,060
9,367

11,239
11,569
11,756
12,015
12,334
12,755

11,590
11,920
12,110
12,384
12,714
13,145

10,419
10,715
10,885
11,133
11,430
11,815

13,738
14,128
14,348
14,680
15,067
15,577

17,603
18,104
18,392
18,810
19,307
19,971

20,819
21,405
21,744
22,245
22,831
23,613

23,528
24,195
24,576
25,122
25,788
26,683

...
...
...
...
...
...

172.2
177.1
179.9
184.0
188.9
195.3

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey.
NOTES: . . . = not applicable.
Three technical changes in the definition of poverty are described in "Characteristics of the Population Below the Poverty Level, 1980," U.S. Census Bureau, Current
Population Reports, Series P-60, No. 133: (1) Distinctions based on the sex of the family householder will no longer be made; (2) income thresholds for farm families will
be the same as for nonfarm families of the same size and composition, and (3) the increased sample size will now permit separate poverty income criteria for families of
7, 8, and 9 or more persons. Separate criteria for these family sizes by number of children have been developed by the Social Security Administration for the base year
1978 on the same basis as the original poverty matrix for smaller family sizes, and then updated by means of the all-items consumer price index. The dollar thresholds for
larger families beginning in 1980 are:
Year

a.

7 persons 8 persons

9 persons
or more

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

12,761
14,110
15,036
15,500
16,096

14,199
15,655
16,719
17,170
17,961

16,896
18,572
19,698
20,310
21,247

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

16,656
17,049
17,649
18,232
19,162

18,512
18,791
19,515
20,253
21,328

22,083
22,497
23,105
24,129
25,480

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

20,241
21,058
21,594
22,383
22,923

22,582
23,605
24,053
24,838
25,427

26,848
27,942
28,745
29,529
30,300

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

23,552
24,268
24,802
25,257
25,912

26,237
27,091
27,593
28,166
28,967

31,280
31,971
32,566
33,339
34,417

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

26,754
27,517
28,001
28,544
29,236
30,249

29,701
30,627
30,907
31,589
32,641
33,610

35,060
36,286
37,062
37,656
39,048
40,288

Beginning in January 1978, the Bureau of Labor Statistics introduced a new price index for all urban consumers (CPI-U) for all items (1982–1984 = 100) that forms a
continuous series with the earlier index for urban wage earners and for clerical workers as of December 1977.

CONTACT: Joe Dalaker (301) 763-3213.

3.14 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

3.E Poverty
Table 3.E2—Number and percentage of poor persons, by age, at end of selected years 1959–2004
Age and family status a

1959

1970

1980

1985

1990 b

1995

2000

2003

2004

c

Total population (millions)
All ages
Children under 18 in families—
With male householder d
With female householder
18–54 e
55–64
65 or older
In families
Unrelated individuals
Men
Women

176.5

202.5

225.0

236.6

248.6

263.7

275.9

287.7

290.6

64.0
58.3
5.7
81.0
15.5
15.6
11.9
3.7
1.2
2.5

69.9
60.8
9.0
94.9
18.4
19.3
13.4
5.8
1.4
4.4

62.2
50.6
11.5
116.3
21.7
24.7
16.7
8.0
1.7
6.3

62.0
49.5
12.5
125.2
22.1
27.3
18.4
8.9
2.0
7.0

64.9
49.5
15.4
132.3
21.3
30.1
20.1
10.0
2.3
7.7

70.3
52.1
18.2
140.7
21.1
31.7
21.1
10.6
2.7
7.9

70.6
54.5
16.1
147.4
23.8
33.0
22.3
10.7
2.9
7.8

71.9
54.5
17.4
151.7
28.4
34.7
23.2
11.5
3.3
8.2

72.0
54.2
17.8
152.8
29.5
35.2
23.8
11.4
3.3
8.1

Number poor c (millions)
All ages
Children under 18 in families—
With male householder d
With female householder
18–54 e
55–64
65 or older
In families
Unrelated individuals
Men
Women

39.5

25.3

29.3

33.1

33.6

36.4

31.1

35.8

37.0

17.2
13.1
4.1
13.4
3.3
5.5
3.2
2.3
0.7
1.6

10.5
5.7
4.8
8.2
2.1
4.7
2.0
2.7
0.5
2.2

11.1
5.2
5.9
12.2
2.1
3.9
1.4
2.4
0.4
2.0

12.5
5.8
6.7
14.8
2.3
3.5
1.2
2.3
0.4
1.9

13.3
5.3
8.0
14.6
2.1
3.7
1.2
2.5
0.4
2.1

14.4
5.6
8.9
16.5
2.2
3.3
1.1
2.3
0.4
1.9

11.1
4.9
6.2
14.1
2.2
3.4
1.1
2.2
0.5
1.7

11.7
5.1
6.6
17.6
2.8
3.6
1.4
2.2
0.5
1.7

12.4
5.1
7.3
18.0
2.7
3.5
1.4
2.1
0.5
1.6

Percentage poor c
All ages
Children under 18 in families—
With male householder d
With female householder
18–54 e
55–64
65 or older
In families
Unrelated individuals
Men
Women

22.4

12.6

13.0

14.0

13.5

13.8

11.3

12.5

12.7

26.9
22.4
72.2
16.5
21.5
35.2
26.9
61.9
59.0
63.3

15.0
9.3
53.4
8.7
11.4
24.6
14.7
47.1
38.9
49.7

17.9
10.4
50.8
10.5
9.5
15.7
8.5
30.6
24.4
32.3

20.1
11.7
53.6
11.8
10.5
12.6
6.4
25.6
20.5
27.0

20.5
10.7
52.1
11.0
9.7
12.2
5.9
24.8
17.3
26.9

20.5
10.7
48.6
11.7
10.2
10.5
5.0
21.4
14.3
23.8

15.7
8.9
38.4
9.6
9.4
10.2
5.1
20.8
18.3
21.8

17.1
9.3
38.8
11.3
9.4
10.2
6.2
19.8
16.3
21.1

17.3
9.5
41.1
11.8
9.3
9.8
5.7
18.3
13.7
20.2

SOURCES: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, public-use file of the March 2005 Income Supplement. Data for 1970 and 1975 are based on the 1970
Census of Population controls.
NOTES: Table includes civilian noninstitutionalized population residing in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
For a discussion of standard errors of estimated numbers and percentages, see U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, Series P-60.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Income and poverty status refer to the calendar year shown; family status is as of March of the succeeding year.
Based on revised methodology.
Includes armed forces in the United States living off post or with families on post. Excludes unrelated individuals under age 16.
Includes children in families with both spouses present and in families with male householder with no spouse present.
Includes persons under age 18 listed as unrelated individual, family householder, spouse of householder, or other family member.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 3.15

3.E Poverty
Table 3.E3—Shares of money income from earnings and other sources for aged and nonaged families, 2004
Aged family units

Type of money income
received during year
Number of families and unrelated
individuals (millions)

Individuals aged 65 or
older living alone or
with nonrelatives only
Total Nonpoor
11.4

9.3

Nonaged family units

Multiperson families with
householder
aged 65 or older

Poor a
2.1

Total Nonpoor
12.1

11.3

Individuals under age 65
living alone or
with nonrelatives only

Poor a
0.8

Total Nonpoor
36.7

Multiperson families with
householder under age 65

Poor a

28.8

Total Nonpoor

Poor a

8.0

64.9

57.8

7.1

Percentage receiving income of specified type b
Earnings

15

18

3

43

45

16

81

92

38

93

97

65

Public program payments
Social Security c
Supplemental Security Income
Other public assistance
Other programs d

91
5
1
4

94
2
1
5

79
16
2
2

90
5
3
9

92
4
3
9

61
16
6
3

7
4
9
6

6
2
8
6

12
11
12
3

11
3
11
9

11
3
10
10

11
10
21
7

52

58

24

64

66

29

41

48

15

57

62

15

39

47

7

50

53

12

6

7

3

16

16

15

Other sources
Dividends, interest, rent
Employment-related pensions,
alimony, annuities

Percentage distribution of income, by type
100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Earnings

Total percent

17

18

1

36

36

8

88

89

48

90

90

67

Public program payments
Social Security c
Supplemental Security Income
Other public assistance
Other programs d

47
1
1
1

45

32
1

31
1

2
e

1

2
1

20
15
9
3

e

1

2
1
2
1

2

e

68
11
3
1

2

e

1

83
9
1
1

1
1

1
1

9
6
8
3

12

13

3

12

12

3

4

4

2

3

3

1

21

22

3

19

19

6

3

3

3

3

3

6

15,089

17,728

6,031

35,645

37,831

8,365

24,638

30,576

3,822

56,149

56,568

9,149

Other sources
Dividends, interest, rent
Employment-related pensions,
alimony, annuities
Median income (dollars)

e
e

e

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, public-use file of the March 2005 Income Supplement.
NOTES: Table includes civilian noninstitutionalized population residing in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
For a discussion of standard errors of estimated numbers and percentages, see U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, Series P-60.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Poverty status based on money income of all family members after receipt of Social Security and any other cash transfer payments.
Received by individuals or any family member at any time during 2004. Most individuals or families received more than one type of income during the year.
Social Security may include more than one type of income during the year.
Unemployment insurance, workers’ compensation, or veterans’ payments.
Less than 0.05 percent.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

3.16 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

3.E Poverty
Table 3.E4—Current living arrangements of persons aged 65 or older, by sex and poverty status, March 2005
Population (thousands)
Living arrangement

Percentage distribution

Total

Poor

Nonpoor

35,213

3,457

31,756

11,448
23,765
21,553
2,212
1,006
1,206

2,098
1,358
1,206
153
133
19

9,350
22,406
20,347
2,059
872
1,187

Poor

Nonpoor

Percentage
officially poor

100.0

100.0

100.0

9.8

32.5
67.5
61.2
6.3
2.9
3.4

60.7
39.3
34.9
4.4
3.9
0.6

29.4
70.6
64.1
6.5
2.7
3.7

18.3
5.7
5.6
6.9
13.3
1.6

Total

All persons aged 65 or older
Total
Unrelated individuals
Family members
Householder or spouse
Other relative a
Poor by own income
Not poor by own income

Men
Subtotal
Unrelated individuals
Family members
Householder
Spouse of householder
Other relative a
Poor by own income
Not poor by own income

15,151

1,058

14,092

43.0

30.6

44.4

7.0

3,321
11,830
7,747
3,583
500
211
289

456
602
396
163
43
39
4

2,865
11,228
7,351
3,420
457
172
285

9.4
33.6
22.0
10.2
1.4
0.6
0.8

13.2
17.4
11.5
4.7
1.2
1.1
0.1

9.0
35.4
23.1
10.8
1.4
0.5
0.9

13.7
5.1
5.1
4.5
8.6
18.3
1.5

20,063

2,398

17,664

57.0

69.4

55.6

12.0

8,128
11,935
1,804
2,782
5,638
1,711
795
916

1,642
756
273
133
241
110
95
15

6,485
11,179
1,531
2,649
5,398
1,602
700
902

23.1
33.9
5.1
7.9
16.0
4.9
2.3
2.6

47.5
21.9
7.9
3.8
7.0
3.2
2.7
0.4

20.4
35.2
4.8
8.3
17.0
5.0
2.2
2.8

20.2
6.3
15.1
4.8
4.3
6.4
11.9
1.6

Women
Subtotal
Unrelated individuals
Family members
Householder, no husband present
Householder with husband present
Wife of householder
Other relative a
Poor by own income
Not poor by own income

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, public-use file of the March 2005 Income Supplement.
NOTES: Living arrangements as of March 2005.
Poverty status in 2004 as reflected by income of unrelated individual or family money income for year compared with official poverty income criterion for families of appropriate size and composition.
Table includes civilian noninstitutionalized population residing in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
For a discussion of standard errors of estimated numbers and percentages, see U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, Series P-60.
a.

Aged family members who are neither the family householder nor the spouse of the householder. Official poverty classification is based on combined income of all
related persons living together. Persons in this group are classified here on the basis of official poverty criteria for family income and on a comparison of their own
income with official poverty criteria for elderly persons maintaining their own households. The hidden poor are other relatives in nonpoor households whose own
income is below the official poverty line for unrelated individuals or married couples.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 3.17

3.E Poverty
Table 3.E6—Percentage distribution of aged families receiving Social Security benefits, by share of income
from benefits and race, 2004
Individuals aged 65 or older living alone
or with nonrelatives only
Social Security share of money income
for year a

Total

Nonpoor

Poor

Multiperson families with householder
aged 65 or older
Percent
poor

Total

Nonpoor

Poor

Percent
poor

All races b
Number (thousands)
Percent

11,438
100

9,343
100

2,095
100

...
18

12,486
100

11,584
100

902
100

...
7

9
91
8
17
19
47

6
94
10
21
21
42

21
79
1
3
6
69

44
16
1
3
6
27

10
90
20
24
19
26

8
92
22
26
20
24

40
60
1
2
7
50

28
5
0
1
3
14

9,940
100

8,372
100

1,568
100

...
16

10,664
100

10,108
100

556
100

...
5

8
92
9
18
19
47

5
95
10
21
21
42

21
79
1
3
6
69

43
14
1
3
5
23

9
91
20
25
20
26

7
93
21
27
21
24

40
60
1
2
5
52

24
3
0
0
1
10

1,154
100

737
100

417
100

...
36

990
100

804
100

186
100

...
19

13
87
7
13
15
52

12
88
10
19
19
40

16
84
0
2
7
74

42
35
3
6
18
51

17
83
19
19
14
30

14
86
23
23
15
26

35
65
1
4
13
47

37
15
1
4
17
30

No Social Security benefits
Some Social Security benefits
Less than one-fourth of income
One-fourth to one-half of income
One-half to three-fourths of income
Three-fourths or more of income

White only
Number (thousands)
Percent
No Social Security benefits
Some Social Security benefits
Less than one-fourth of income
One-fourth to one-half of income
One-half to three-fourths of income
Three-fourths or more of income

Black only
Number (thousands)
Percent
No Social Security benefits
Some Social Security benefits
Less than one-fourth of income
One-fourth to one-half of income
One-half to three-fourths of income
Three-fourths or more of income

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, public-use file of the March 2005 Income Supplement.
NOTES: Civilian noninstitutionalized population residing in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
For a discussion of standard errors of estimated numbers and percentages, see Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-60.
. . . = not applicable.
a.
b.

Payments under Social Security program any time in 2004 to any family member as reported in the March 2005 Current Population Survey.
Includes other races.

CONTACT: Alberta Presberry (410) 966-8473.

3.18 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

3.E Poverty
Table 3.E8—Poverty guidelines for families of specified size, 1965–2006 (in dollars)
Date of issuance a

1 person

2 persons

3 persons

4 persons

5 persons

6 persons

7 persons

8 persons

Increment b

December 1965
August 1967
September 1968
September 1969

1,540
1,600
1,600
1,800

1,990
2,000
2,100
2,400

2,440
2,500
2,600
3,000

3,130
3,200
3,300
3,600

3,685
3,800
3,900
4,200

4,135
4,200
4,400
4,800

4,635
4,700
4,900
5,400

5,135
5,300
5,400
6,000

500
500
500
600

December 1970
November 1971
October 1972
March 1973
May 1974

1,900
2,000
2,100
2,200
2,330

2,500
2,600
2,725
2,900
3,070

3,100
3,300
3,450
3,600
3,810

3,800
4,000
4,200
4,300
4,550

4,400
4,700
4,925
5,000
5,290

5,000
5,300
5,550
5,700
6,030

5,600
5,900
6,200
6,400
6,770

6,200
6,500
6,850
7,100
7,510

600
600
650
700
740

March 1975
April 1976
April 1977
April 1978
May 1979

2,590
2,800
2,970
3,140
3,400

3,410
3,700
3,930
4,160
4,500

4,230
4,600
4,890
5,180
5,600

5,050
5,500
5,850
6,200
6,700

5,870
6,400
6,810
7,220
7,800

6,690
7,300
7,770
8,240
8,900

7,510
8,200
8,730
9,260
10,000

8,330
9,100
9,690
10,280
11,100

820
900
960
1,020
1,100

April 1980
March 1981
April 1982
February 1983
February 1984

3,790
4,310
4,680
4,860
4,980

5,010
5,690
6,220
6,540
6,720

6,230
7,070
7,760
8,220
8,460

7,450
8,450
9,300
9,900
10,200

8,670
9,830
10,840
11,580
11,940

9,890
11,210
12,380
13,260
13,680

11,110
12,590
13,920
14,940
15,420

12,330
13,970
15,460
16,620
17,160

1,220
1,380
1,540
1,680
1,740

March 1985
February 1986
February 1987
February 1988
February 1989

5,250
5,360
5,500
5,770
5,980

7,050
7,240
7,400
7,730
8,020

8,850
9,120
9,300
9,690
10,060

10,650
11,000
11,200
11,650
12,100

12,450
12,880
13,100
13,610
14,140

14,250
14,760
15,000
15,570
16,180

16,050
16,640
16,900
17,530
18,220

17,850
18,520
18,800
19,490
20,260

1,800
1,880
1,900
1,960
2,040

February 1990
February 1991
February 1992
February 1993
February 1994

6,280
6,620
6,810
6,970
7,360

8,420
8,880
9,190
9,430
9,840

10,560
11,140
11,570
11,890
12,320

12,700
13,400
13,950
14,350
14,800

14,840
15,660
16,330
16,810
17,280

16,980
17,920
18,710
19,270
19,760

18,120
20,180
21,090
21,730
22,240

21,260
22,440
23,470
24,190
24,720

2,140
2,260
2,380
2,460
2,480
(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 3.19

3.E Poverty
Table 3.E8—Poverty guidelines for families of specified size, 1965–2006 (in dollars)—Continued
Date of issuance a

1 person

2 persons

3 persons

4 persons

5 persons

6 persons

7 persons

8 persons

Increment b

February 1995
March 1996
March 1997
February 1998
March 1999

7,470
7,740
7,890
8,050
8,240

10,030
10,360
10,610
10,850
11,060

12,590
12,980
13,330
13,650
13,880

15,150
15,600
16,050
16,450
16,700

17,710
18,220
18,770
19,250
19,520

20,270
20,840
21,490
22,050
22,340

22,830
23,460
24,210
24,850
25,160

25,390
26,080
26,960
27,650
27,980

2,560
2,620
2,720
2,800
2,820

February 2000
February 2001
February 2002
February 2003
February 2004

8,350
8,590
8,860
8,980
9,310

11,250
11,610
11,940
12,120
12,490

14,150
14,630
15,020
15,260
15,670

17,050
17,650
18,100
18,400
18,850

19,950
20,670
21,180
21,540
22,030

22,850
23,690
24,260
24,680
25,210

25,750
26,710
27,340
27,820
28,390

28,650
29,730
30,420
30,960
31,570

2,900
3,020
3,080
3,140
3,180

February 2005
February 2006

9,570
9,800

12,830
13,200

16,090
16,600

19,350
20,000

22,610
23,400

25,870
26,800

29,130
30,200

32,390
33,600

3,260
3,400

SOURCE: Department of Health and Human Services, Federal Register, vol. 71, no. 15 (January 24, 2006), pp. 3848–3894.
NOTES: Except for Alaska and Hawaii. Guidelines for Alaska and Hawaii since 1980 are:
Alaska

Hawaii

Year

1 person

Increment

1 person

Increment

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

4,760
5,410
5,870
6,080
6,240

1,520
1,720
1,920
2,100
2,170

4,370
4,980
5,390
5,600
5,730

1,400
1,580
1,770
1,930
2,000

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

6,560
6,700
6,860
7,210
7,480

2,250
2,350
2,380
2,450
2,550

6,040
6,170
6,310
6,650
6,870

2,070
2,160
2,190
2,250
2,350

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

7,840
8,290
8,500
8,700
9,200

2,680
2,820
2,980
3,080
3,100

7,230
7,610
7,830
8,040
8,470

2,460
2,600
2,740
2,820
2,850

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

9,340
9,660
9,870
10,070
10,320

3,200
3,280
3,400
3,500
3,520

8,610
8,910
9,070
9,260
9,490

2,940
3,010
3,130
3,220
3,240

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

10,430
10,730
11,080
11,210
11,630

3,630
3,780
3,850
3,930
3,980

9,590
9,890
10,200
10,330
10,700

3,340
3,470
3,540
3,610
3,660

2005
2006

11,950
12,250

4,080
4,250

11,010
11,270

3,750
3,910

Separate figures for Alaska and Hawaii reflect Office of Economic Opportunity administrative practice beginning in the 1966–1970 period. The U.S. Census Bureau, producer of the primary version of the poverty measure (the poverty thresholds), does not produce separate figures for Alaska and Hawaii.
Before 1983, the guidelines shown are for nonfarm families only.
a.
b.

The guidelines are effective from the date of issuance (unless otherwise specified by a particular program using them).
Add this amount for each additional family member. Before 1973, increments between some of the smaller family sizes differed from the increment shown in the table.
Beginning in 1973, the increment has been the same for all family sizes in each year’s set of guidelines.

CONTACT: Gordon Fisher (202) 690-7507.

3.20 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

Section 4. Old-Age,
Survivors, and
Disability Insurance

Trust Funds

4.1

Covered Workers

4.12

Insured Workers

4.36

4.A OASDI: Trust Funds
Table 4.A1—Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, selected years 1937–2005 (in millions of dollars)
Receipts

Expenditures

Income
from
taxation
of benefits

Net
interest b

Payments
from the
general
fund of the
Treasury c

Assets

Total

Benefit
payments d

Administrative
expenses

Transfers to
Railroad
Retirement
program

Net
increase
during year

Amount
at end
of year

Year

Total

Net
contributions a

1937
1938
1939
1940

767
375
607
368

765
360
580
325

...
...
...
...

2
15
27
43

...
...
...
...

1
10
14
62

1
10
14
35

...
...
...
26

...
...
...
...

766
366
592
306

766
1,132
1,724
2,031

1945
1950
1955
1960

1,420
2,928
6,167
11,382

1,285
2,667
5,713
10,866

...
...
...
...

134
257
454
516

...
4
...
...

304
1,022
5,079
11,198

274
961
4,968
10,677

30
61
119
203

...
...
-7
318

1,116
1,905
1,087
184

7,121
13,721
21,663
20,324

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

16,610
21,302
24,034
25,040
29,554

16,017
20,580
23,138
23,719
27,947

...
...
...
...
...

593
644
818
939
1,165

...
78
78
382
442

17,501
18,967
20,382
23,557
25,176

16,737
18,267
19,468
22,643
24,210

328
256
406
476
474

436
444
508
438
491

-890
2,335
3,652
1,483
4,378

18,235
20,570
24,222
25,704
30,082

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

32,220
35,877
40,050
48,344
54,688

30,256
33,723
37,781
45,975
52,081

...
...
...
...
...

1,515
1,667
1,794
1,928
2,159

449
488
475
442
447

29,848
34,542
38,522
47,175
53,397

28,798
33,414
37,124
45,745
51,623

471
514
674
647
865

579
613
724
783
909

2,371
1,335
1,528
1,169
1,291

32,454
33,789
35,318
36,487
37,777

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

59,605
66,276
72,412
78,094
90,274

56,816
63,362
69,572
75,471
87,919

...
...
...
...
...

2,364
2,301
2,227
2,008
1,797

425
614
613
615
557

60,395
67,876
75,309
83,064
93,133

58,517
65,705
73,121
80,361
90,573

896
959
981
1,115
1,113

982
1,212
1,208
1,589
1,448

-790
-1,600
-2,897
-4,971
-2,860

36,987
35,388
32,491
27,520
24,660

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

105,841
125,361
125,198
150,584
169,328

103,456
122,627
123,673
138,337
164,122

...
...
...
...
2,835

1,845
2,060
845
6,706
2,266

540
675
680
5,541
105

107,678
126,695
142,119
152,999
161,883

105,083
123,803
138,806
149,221
157,841

1,154
1,307
1,519
1,528
1,638

1,442
1,585
1,793
2,251
2,404

-1,837
-1,334
e 598
-2,416
7,445

22,823
21,490
22,088
19,672
27,117

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

184,239
197,393
210,736
240,770
264,653

176,958
190,741
202,735
229,775
250,195

3,208
3,424
3,257
3,384
2,439

1,871
3,069
4,690
7,568
11,985

2,203
160
55
43
34

171,150
181,000
187,668
200,020
212,489

167,248
176,813
183,587
195,454
207,971

1,592
1,601
1,524
1,776
1,673

2,310
2,585
2,557
2,790
2,845

e

8,725
3,239
23,068
40,750
52,164

35,842
39,081
62,149
102,899
155,063

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

286,653
299,286
311,162
323,277
328,271

267,530
272,574
280,992
290,905
293,323

4,848
5,864
5,852
5,335
4,995

16,363
20,829
24,303
27,027
29,946

-2,089
19
14
10
7

227,519
245,634
259,861
273,104
284,133

222,987
240,467
254,883
267,755
279,068

1,563
1,792
1,830
1,996
1,645

2,969
3,375
3,148
3,353
3,420

59,134
53,652
51,301
50,173
44,138

214,197
267,849
319,150
369,322
413,460

e

(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 4.1

4.A OASDI: Trust Funds
Table 4.A1—Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, selected years 1937–2005 (in millions of dollars)—Continued
Receipts

Expenditures

Income
from
taxation
of benefits

Net
interest b

Payments
from the
general
fund of the
Treasury c

Year

Total

Net
contributions a

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

342,801
363,741
397,169
424,848
457,040

304,620
321,557
349,946
371,207
396,352

5,490
6,471
7,426
9,149
10,899

32,820
35,706
39,795
44,491
49,788

-129
7
2
1

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

490,513
518,100
539,706
543,811
566,338
604,335

421,391
441,460
455,199
456,077
472,758
506,863

11,594
11,903
12,909
12,497
14,593
13,843

57,529
64,737
71,184
75,237
78,986
83,979

...
...
414
...
1
-350

f

Assets

Total

Benefit
payments d

Administrative
expenses

Transfers to
Railroad
Retirement
program

Net
increase
during year

Amount
at end
of year

297,760
308,217
322,073
332,324
339,874

291,630
302,861
316,257
326,762
334,383

2,077
1,802
2,128
1,899
1,809

4,052
3,554
3,688
3,662
3,681

45,041
55,524
75,096
92,524
117,167

458,502
514,026
589,121
681,645
798,812

358,339
377,546
393,749
405,978
421,047
441,920

352,652
372,312
388,119
399,845
415,034
435,383

2,149
1,961
2,137
2,553
2,384
2,957

3,538
3,273
3,493
3,580
3,628
3,579

132,174
140,554
145,957
137,833
145,292
162,415

930,986
1,071,540
1,217,497
1,355,330
1,500,622
1,663,037

SOURCE: Department of the Treasury.
NOTES: Data for all years can be found at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/OACT/STATS/table4a1.html.
. . . = not applicable.
a.
b.

c.

d.
e.
f.

Beginning in 1983, includes transfers from the general fund of the Treasury representing contributions that would have been paid on deemed wage credits for military
service in 1957–2001, if such credits were considered to be covered wages.
Net interest includes net profits or losses on marketable investments. Beginning in 1967, administrative expenses are charged to the trust fund on an estimated basis,
with a final adjustment, including interest, made in the following fiscal year. The amounts of these interest adjustments are included in net interest. Beginning in
October 1973, the figures shown include relatively small amounts of gifts to the fund. Figures for 1983–1986 reflect payments from a borrowing trust fund to a lending
trust fund for interest on amounts owed under the interfund borrowing provisions. During 1983–1990, interest paid from the trust fund to the general fund of the Treasury on advance tax transfers is reflected. The amount shown for 1985 includes an interest adjustment of $88 million on unnegotiated checks issued before
April 1985.
Includes payments (1) in 1947–1951 and in 1966 and later, for costs of noncontributory wage credits for military service performed before 1957; (2) in 1971–1982, for
costs of deemed wage credits for military service performed after 1956; and (3) in 1968 and later, for costs of benefits to certain uninsured persons who attained
age 72 before 1968.
Beginning in 1966, includes payments for vocational rehabilitation services furnished to disabled persons receiving benefits because of their disabilities. Beginning in
1983, amounts are reduced by amount of reimbursement for unnegotiated benefit checks.
Amount equals total receipts less total expenditures, plus amounts borrowed or less amounts repaid under interfund borrowing provisions.
Between -$500,000 and $500,000.

CONTACT: Jeff Kunkel (410) 965-3013.

4.2 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

4.A OASDI: Trust Funds
Table 4.A2—Disability Insurance, 1957–2005 (in millions of dollars)
Receipts

Expenditures

Income
from
taxation
of benefits

Net
interest b

Payments
from the
general
fund of the
Treasury c

Assets

Total

Benefit
payments d

Administrative
expenses

Transfers to
Railroad
Retirement
program

Net
increase
during year

Amount
at end
of year

Year

Total

Net
contributions a

1957
1958
1959

709
991
931

702
966
891

...
...
...

7
25
40

...
...
...

59
261
485

57
249
457

3
12
50

...
...
-22

649
729
447

649
1,379
1,825

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

1,063
1,104
1,114
1,165
1,218

1,010
1,038
1,046
1,099
1,154

...
...
...
...
...

53
66
68
66
64

...
...
...
...
...

600
956
1,183
1,297
1,407

568
887
1,105
1,210
1,309

36
64
66
68
79

-5
5
11
20
19

464
148
-69
-133
-188

2,289
2,437
2,368
2,235
2,047

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

1,247
2,079
2,379
3,454
3,792

1,188
2,006
2,286
3,316
3,599

...
...
...
...
...

59
58
78
106
177

...
16
16
32
16

1,687
1,947
2,089
2,458
2,716

1,573
1,784
1,950
2,311
2,557

90
137
109
127
138

24
25
31
20
21

-440
133
290
996
1,075

1,606
1,739
2,029
3,025
4,100

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

4,774
5,031
5,572
6,443
7,378

4,481
4,620
5,107
5,932
6,826

...
...
...
...
...

277
361
414
458
500

16
50
51
52
52

3,259
4,000
4,759
5,973
7,196

3,085
3,783
4,502
5,764
6,957

164
205
233
190
217

10
13
24
20
22

1,514
1,031
813
470
182

5,614
6,645
7,457
7,927
8,109

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

8,035
8,757
9,570
13,810
15,590

7,444
8,233
9,138
13,413
15,114

...
...
...
...
...

502
422
304
256
358

90
103
128
142
118

8,790
10,366
11,945
12,954
14,186

8,505
10,055
11,547
12,599
13,786

256
285
399
325
371

29
26
30
30

-754
-1,609
-2,375
856
1,404

7,354
5,745
3,370
4,226
5,630

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

13,871
17,078
22,715
20,682
17,309

13,255
16,738
21,995
17,991
15,945

...
...
...
...
190

485
172
546
1,569
1,174

130
168
174
1,121
...

15,872
17,658
17,992
18,177
18,546

15,515
17,192
17,376
17,524
17,898

368
436
590
625
626

-12
29
26
28
22

-2,001
-580
f -358
2,505
-1,237

3,629
3,049
2,691
5,195
3,959

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

19,301
19,439
20,303
22,699
24,795

17,191
18,399
19,691
22,039
23,993

222
238
g
-36
61
95

870
803
648
600
707

1,017
...
...
...
...

19,478
20,522
21,425
22,494
23,753

18,827
19,853
20,519
21,695
22,911

608
600
849
737
754

43
68
57
61
88

f

2,363
1,459
-1,122
206
1,041

6,321
7,780
6,658
6,864
7,905

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

28,791
30,390
31,430
32,301
52,841

28,539
29,137
30,136
31,185
51,373

144
190
232
281
311

883
1,063
1,062
835
1,157

-775
...
...
...
...

25,616
28,571
32,004
35,662
38,879

24,829
27,695
31,112
34,613
37,744

707
794
834
966
1,029

80
82
58
83
106

3,174
1,819
-574
-3,361
13,962

11,079
12,898
12,324
8,963
22,925

e

f

(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 4.3

4.A OASDI: Trust Funds
Table 4.A2—Disability Insurance, 1957–2005 (in millions of dollars)—Continued
Receipts

Expenditures

Income
from
taxation
of benefits

Net
interest b

Payments
from the
general
fund of the
Treasury c

Assets

Total

Benefit
payments d

Administrative
expenses

Transfers to
Railroad
Retirement
program

Net
increase
during year

Amount
at end
of year

Year

Total

Net
contributions a

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

56,696
60,710
60,499
64,357
69,541

54,401
57,325
56,037
58,966
63,203

341
373
470
558
661

2,158
3,012
3,992
4,832
5,677

-203
...
...
...
...

42,055
45,351
47,034
49,931
53,035

40,923
44,189
45,695
48,207
51,381

1,064
1,160
1,280
1,567
1,519

68
2
59
157
135

14,641
15,359
13,465
14,425
16,507

37,566
52,924
66,389
80,815
97,321

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

77,920
83,903
87,379
88,074
91,380
97,423

71,093
74,933
77,272
77,442
80,281
86,077

721
811
930
944
1,111
1,073

6,942
8,158
9,178
9,689
9,988
10,273

-836
...
...
...
0
0

56,782
61,369
67,905
73,108
80,597
88,018

54,983
59,618
65,702
70,933
78,229
85,365

1,639
1,741
2,049
2,008
2,152
2,315

159
10
154
167
215
338

21,138
22,534
19,475
14,966
10,783
9,405

118,459
140,993
160,468
175,434
186,217
195,623

SOURCE: Department of the Treasury.
NOTE: . . . = not applicable.
a.
b.

c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

Beginning in 1983, includes transfers from the general fund of the Treasury representing contributions that would have been paid on deemed wage credits for military
service in 1957–2001, if such credits were considered to be covered wages.
Net interest includes net profits or losses on marketable investments. Beginning in 1967, administrative expenses are charged to the trust fund on an estimated basis,
with a final adjustment, including interest, made in the following fiscal year. The amounts of these interest adjustments are included in net interest. Beginning in
July 1974, the figures shown include relatively small amounts of gifts to the fund. Figures for 1983–1986 reflect payments from a borrowing trust fund to a lending trust
fund for interest on amounts owed under the interfund borrowing provisions. During 1983–1990, interest paid from the trust fund to the general fund of the Treasury on
advance tax transfers is reflected. The amount shown for 1985 includes an interest adjustment of $14.8 million on unnegotiated checks issued before April 1985.
Includes payments (1) in 1966 and later, for costs of noncontributory wage credits for military service performed before 1957; and (2) in 1971–1982, for costs of
deemed wage credits for military service performed after 1956.
Beginning in 1966, includes payments for vocational rehabilitation services furnished to disabled persons receiving benefits because of their disabilities. Beginning in
1983, amounts are reduced by amount of reimbursement for unnegotiated benefit checks.
Between -$500,000 and $500,000.
Amount equals total receipts less total expenditures, less amounts loaned or plus amounts repaid under interfund borrowing provisions.
Reflects $195 million in transfers from the DI trust fund to the general fund of the Treasury to correct estimated amounts transferred for calendar years 1984 and
1985.

CONTACT: Jeff Kunkel (410) 965-3013.

4.4 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

4.A OASDI: Trust Funds
Table 4.A3—Combined OASI and DI, 1957–2005 (in millions of dollars)
Receipts

Expenditures

Income
from
taxation
of benefits

Net
interest b

Payments
from the
general
fund of the
Treasury c

Assets

Total

Benefit
payments d

Administrative
expenses

Transfers to
Railroad
Retirement
program

Net
increase
during year

Amount
at end
of year

Year

Total

Net
contributions a

1957
1958
1959

8,090
9,108
9,516

7,527
8,531
8,943

...
...
...

563
577
572

...
...
...

7,567
8,907
10,793

7,404
8,576
10,298

164
207
234

-2
124
260

523
201
-1,277

23,042
23,243
21,966

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

12,445
12,937
13,699
16,227
17,476

11,876
12,323
13,105
15,640
16,843

...
...
...
...
...

569
614
594
587
633

...
...
...
...
...

11,798
13,388
15,156
16,217
17,020

11,245
12,749
14,461
15,427
16,223

240
303
322
348
375

314
337
372
442
422

647
-451
-1,457
10
456

22,613
22,162
20,705
20,715
21,172

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

17,857
23,381
26,413
28,493
33,346

17,205
22,585
25,424
27,034
31,546

...
...
...
...
...

651
702
896
1,045
1,342

...
94
94
414
458

19,187
20,913
22,471
26,015
27,892

18,311
20,051
21,417
24,954
26,767

418
393
515
603
612

459
469
539
458
513

-1,331
2,467
3,942
2,479
5,453

19,841
22,308
26,250
28,729
34,182

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

36,993
40,908
45,622
54,787
62,066

34,737
38,343
42,888
51,907
58,907

...
...
...
...
...

1,791
2,027
2,208
2,386
2,660

465
538
526
494
499

33,108
38,542
43,281
53,148
60,593

31,884
37,197
41,625
51,508
58,581

635
719
907
837
1,082

589
626
749
802
931

3,886
2,366
2,341
1,639
1,472

38,068
40,434
42,775
44,414
45,886

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

67,640
75,034
81,982
91,903
105,864

64,259
71,595
78,710
88,883
103,034

...
...
...
...
...

2,866
2,722
2,531
2,264
2,155

515
717
741
757
675

69,184
78,242
87,254
96,018
107,320

67,022
75,759
84,667
92,960
104,359

1,152
1,244
1,379
1,440
1,483

1,010
1,239
1,208
1,618
1,477

-1,544
-3,209
-5,272
-4,115
-1,456

44,342
41,133
35,861
31,746
30,291

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

119,712
142,438
147,913
171,266
186,637

116,711
139,364
145,667
156,328
180,067

...
...
...
...
3,025

2,330
2,231
1,391
8,276
3,440

670
843
854
6,662
105

123,550
144,352
160,111
171,177
180,429

120,598
140,995
156,182
166,745
175,739

1,522
1,743
2,109
2,153
2,264

1,430
1,614
1,820
2,279
2,426

-3,838
-1,914
e 239
89
6,208

26,453
24,539
24,778
24,867
31,075

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

203,540
216,833
231,039
263,469
289,448

194,149
209,140
222,425
251,814
274,189

3,430
3,662
3,221
3,445
2,534

2,741
3,871
5,338
8,168
12,692

3,220
160
55
43
34

190,628
201,522
209,093
222,514
236,242

186,075
196,667
204,106
217,149
230,882

2,200
2,202
2,373
2,513
2,427

2,353
2,653
2,614
2,851
2,934

11,088
4,698
21,946
40,955
53,206

42,163
46,861
68,807
109,762
162,968

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

315,443
329,676
342,591
355,578
381,111

296,070
301,711
311,128
322,090
344,695

4,992
6,054
6,084
5,616
5,306

17,245
21,892
25,365
27,862
31,103

-2,864
19
14
10
7

253,135
274,205
291,865
308,766
323,011

247,816
268,162
285,995
302,368
316,812

2,270
2,587
2,664
2,963
2,674

3,049
3,457
3,206
3,435
3,526

62,309
55,471
50,726
46,812
58,100

225,277
280,747
331,473
378,285
436,385

e

e

(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 4.5

4.A OASDI: Trust Funds
Table 4.A3—Combined OASI and DI, 1957–2005 (in millions of dollars)—Continued
Receipts

Expenditures

Income
from
taxation
of benefits

Net
interest b

Payments
from the
general
fund of the
Treasury c

Year

Total

Net
contributions a

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

399,497
424,451
457,668
489,204
526,582

359,021
378,881
405,984
430,174
459,556

5,831
6,844
7,896
9,707
11,559

34,977
38,718
43,787
49,323
55,466

-332
7
2
1

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

568,433
602,003
627,085
631,886
657,718
701,758

492,484
516,393
532,471
533,519
553,040
592,940

12,314
12,715
13,839
13,441
15,703
14,916

64,471
72,895
80,362
84,926
88,974
94,252

-836
...
414
...
1
-350

f

Assets

Total

Benefit
payments d

Administrative
expenses

Transfers to
Railroad
Retirement
program

Net
increase
during year

Amount
at end
of year

339,815
353,569
369,108
382,255
392,908

332,554
347,050
361,952
374,969
385,765

3,141
2,962
3,409
3,467
3,328

4,120
3,556
3,747
3,819
3,816

59,683
70,883
88,560
106,950
133,673

496,068
566,950
655,510
762,460
896,133

415,121
438,916
461,653
479,086
501,644
529,938

407,635
431,931
453,821
470,778
493,263
520,748

3,788
3,702
4,185
4,562
4,536
5,272

3,698
3,283
3,647
3,747
3,844
3,917

153,312
163,088
165,432
152,799
156,075
171,821

1,049,445
1,212,533
1,377,965
1,530,764
1,686,839
1,858,660

SOURCE: Department of the Treasury.
NOTE: . . . = not applicable.
a.
b.

c.

d.
e.
f.

Beginning in 1983, includes transfers from the general fund of the Treasury representing contributions that would have been paid on deemed wage credits for military
service in 1957–2001, if such credits were considered to be covered wages.
Net interest includes net profits or losses on marketable investments. Beginning in 1967, administrative expenses are charged to the trust fund on an estimated basis,
with a final adjustment, including interest, made in the following fiscal year. The amounts of these interest adjustments are included in net interest. Beginning in
October 1973, the figures shown include relatively small amounts of gifts to the fund. Figures for 1983–1986 reflect payments from a borrowing trust fund to a lending
trust fund for interest on amounts owed under the interfund borrowing provisions. During 1983–1990, interest paid from the trust fund to the general fund of the Treasury on advance tax transfers is reflected. The amount shown for 1985 includes an interest adjustment of $102.8 million on unnegotiated checks issued before
April 1985.
Includes payments (1) in 1947–1951 and in 1966 and later, for costs of noncontributory wage credits for military service performed before 1957; (2) in 1971–1982, for
costs of deemed wage credits for military service performed after 1956; and (3) in 1968 and later, for costs of benefits to certain uninsured persons who attained
age 72 before 1968.
Beginning in 1966, includes payments for vocational rehabilitation services furnished to disabled persons receiving benefits because of their disabilities. Beginning in
1983, amounts are reduced by amount of reimbursement for unnegotiated benefit checks.
Amount equals total receipts less total expenditures, plus amounts borrowed or less amounts repaid under interfund borrowing provisions.
Between -$500,000 and $500,000.

CONTACT: Jeff Kunkel (410) 965-3013.

4.6 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

4.A OASDI: Trust Funds
Table 4.A4—Total annual benefits paid, by type of benefit and trust fund, and as a percentage of personal
income, selected years 1937–2005 (in millions of dollars)
Cash benefits a

Rehabilitation services b

Service benefits

Total benefits
as a percentage
of personal
Personal
income
income c

Year

Total
benefits

Old-Age and
Survivors
Insurance d

1937
1938
1939

1
10
14

1
10
14

...
...
...

...
...
...

...
...
...

...
...
...

...
...
...

74,100
68,400
72,900

1940
1945
1950
1955

35
274
961
4,968

35
274
961
4,968

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

78,500
171,700
229,000
316,100

0.2
0.4
1.6

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

11,245
12,749
14,461
15,427
16,223

10,677
11,862
13,356
14,217
14,914

568
887
1,105
1,210
1,309

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

411,500
429,000
456,700
479,600
514,600

2.7
3.0
3.2
3.2
3.2

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

18,311
21,070
25,967
30,651
33,371

16,737
18,267
19,468
22,642
24,209

1,573
1,781
1,939
2,294
2,542

...
891
3,353
4,179
4,739

...
128
1,197
1,518
1,865

...

1
1

...
3
11
16
15

555,700
603,900
648,300
712,000
778,500

3.3
3.5
4.0
4.3
4.3

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

38,982
45,065
50,269
61,091
70,996

28,796
33,413
37,122
45,741
51,618

3,067
3,758
4,473
5,718
6,903

5,124
5,751
6,318
7,057
9,099

1,975
2,117
2,325
2,526
3,318

2
2
2
3
5

18
24
29
46
54

838,800
903,500
992,700
1,110,700
1,222,600

4.6
5.0
5.1
5.5
5.8

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

82,611
94,180
106,443
117,894
133,691

58,509
65,699
73,113
80,352
90,556

8,414
9,966
11,463
12,513
13,708

11,315
13,340
15,737
17,682
20,623

4,273
5,080
6,038
7,252
8,708

9
6
8
9
18

91
89
84
86
78

1,335,000
1,474,800
1,633,200
1,837,700
2,062,200

6.2
6.4
6.5
6.4
6.5

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

156,298
184,450
207,268
224,524
238,682

105,074
123,795
138,800
149,502
157,862

15,437
17,199
17,338
17,530
17,900

25,064
30,342
35,631
39,337
43,257

10,635
13,113
15,455
18,106
19,661

8
8
6
6

78
-8
38
42
1

2,307,900
2,591,300
2,775,300
2,960,700
3,289,500

6.8
7.1
7.5
7.6
7.3

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

256,723
272,698
284,487
303,717
329,193

167,360
176,845
183,644
195,522
207,977

18,836
19,847
20,512
21,692
22,873

47,580
49,758
49,496
52,517
60,011

22,947
26,239
30,820
33,970
38,294

f

f

...
...
...
...

9
16
16
38

3,526,700
3,722,400
3,947,400
4,253,700
4,587,800

7.3
7.3
7.2
7.1
7.2

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

356,536
386,912
419,325
449,896
478,775

222,993
240,436
254,939
267,804
279,118

24,803
27,662
31,091
34,598
37,717

66,239
71,549
83,895
93,487
103,282

42,468
47,229
49,367
53,979
58,618

...
...
...
...
...

32
36
33
28
40

4,878,600
5,051,000
5,362,000
5,558,500
5,842,500

7.3
7.7
7.8
8.1
8.2

Disability
Insurance

Supplementary
Hospital
Medical
Insurance
Insurance

Old-Age and
Survivors
Insurance

Disability
Insurance

f
f

f

e
e
e
e

(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 4.7

4.A OASDI: Trust Funds
Table 4.A4—Total annual benefits paid, by type of benefit and trust fund, and as a percentage of personal
income, selected years 1937–2005 (in millions of dollars)—Continued
Cash benefits a

Rehabilitation services b

Service benefits

Total benefits
as a percentage
of personal
Personal
income
income c

Year

Total
benefits

Old-Age and
Survivors
Insurance d

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

513,959
544,350
572,542
585,156
595,326

291,682
302,914
316,311
326,817
334,437

40,898
44,174
45,659
48,173
51,331

116,368
128,632
137,762
133,990
128,766

64,972
68,598
72,757
76,125
80,724

...
...
...
...
...

39
31
53
51
68

6,152,300
6,520,600
6,915,100
7,423,000
7,802,400

8.4
8.3
8.3
7.9
7.6

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

625,060
672,853
714,804
746,756
795,868
850,058

352,706
372,370
388,170
399,892
415,082
435,373

54,938
59,577
65,645
70,906
78,202
85,394

128,458
141,183
149,944
152,084
167,554
180,013

88,893
99,663
110,969
123,825
134,978
149,228

...
...
...
3
3
58

63
60
75
47
49
-9

8,429,700
8,724,100
8,881,900
9,169,100
9,713,300
10,238,200

7.4
7.7
8.0
8.1
8.2
8.3

Disability
Insurance

Supplementary
Hospital
Medical
Insurance
Insurance

Old-Age and
Survivors
Insurance

Disability
Insurance

SOURCES: Department of the Treasury and Bureau of Economic Analysis.
NOTE: . . . = not applicable.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Unnegotiated checks not deducted.
Vocational rehabilitation services to disabled workers and disabled children under the 1965 Amendments to the Social Security Act and to disabled widow(er)s under
the 1967 Amendments to the Social Security Act.
Figures subject to revision.
For 1937–1939, refunds and lump-sum death payments under the Social Security Act of 1935.
Less than 0.05 percent.
Between -$500,000 and $500,000.

CONTACT: Jeff Kunkel (410) 965-3013.

4.8 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

4.A OASDI: Trust Funds
Table 4.A5—Total annual benefits paid from OASI trust fund, by type of benefit, selected years 1937–2005
(in millions of dollars)
Retired-worker and dependents benefits

Survivors benefits

Wives
and
husbands

Children

Children

Widowed
mothers and
fathers

Widow(er)s a

Parents

Special age-72
beneficiaries

Lump-sum
death
payments

...
...
...

...
...
...

1
10
14

Year

Total

Retired
workers

1937
1938
1939

1
10
14

...
...
...

...
...
...

...
...
...

...
...
...

...
...
...

...
...
...

1940
1945
1950

35
274
961

15
126
557

2
21
88

b

3
52
135

2
27
49

b

b

2
6

20
89

1
3

...
...
...

9
26
33

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

4,968
5,715
7,347
8,327
9,842

3,253
3,793
4,888
5,567
6,548

466
536
756
851
982

29
33
43
56
77

532
581
651
720
855

163
177
198
223
263

396
469
653
757
921

16
17
19
20
25

...
...
...
...
...

113
109
139
133
171

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

10,677
11,862
13,356
14,217
14,914

7,053
7,802
8,813
9,391
9,854

1,051
1,124
1,216
1,258
1,277

92
106
134
146
150

945
1,080
1,171
1,222
1,275

286
316
336
348
354

1,057
1,232
1,470
1,612
1,754

28
31
34
34
33

...
...
...
...
...

164
171
183
206
216

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

16,737
18,267
19,468
22,642
24,209

10,984
11,727
12,372
14,278
15,385

1,383
1,429
1,456
1,673
1,750

175
216
221
253
260

1,515
1,812
1,855
2,207
2,322

388
415
420
478
490

2,041
2,351
2,545
3,117
3,371

35
35
34
37
36

...
44
313
330
303

217
237
252
269
291

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

28,796
33,413
37,122
45,741
51,618

18,438
21,544
24,143
29,336
33,369

2,029
2,323
2,532
3,000
3,309

303
352
382
457
533

2,760
3,168
3,433
4,002
4,399

574
630
679
801
898

4,055
4,763
5,326
7,505
8,497

39
41
43
48
49

305
285
263
264
237

294
306
320
329
327

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

58,509
65,699
73,113
80,352
90,556

38,079
43,083
48,186
53,255
60,379

3,719
4,117
4,559
4,983
5,554

634
736
830
921
1,014

4,888
5,336
5,759
6,093
6,608

1,009
1,113
1,191
1,284
1,409

9,597
10,757
12,068
13,278
15,071

50
51
52
51
52

196
174
157
142
128

337
332
312
344
340

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

105,074
123,795
138,800
149,502
157,862

70,358
83,614
95,123
103,578
109,957

6,405
7,543
8,539
9,328
9,860

1,142
1,321
1,223
1,143
1,135

7,389
8,307
8,204
7,911
7,775

1,572
1,760
1,861
1,771
1,474

17,638
20,749
23,488
25,425
27,325

55
58
59
56
53

119
110
100
85
71

394
332
203
205
212

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

167,360
176,845
183,644
195,522
207,977

116,823
123,584
128,513
136,987
146,027

10,517
11,152
11,598
12,292
13,054

1,140
1,166
1,183
1,219
1,249

7,762
7,843
7,846
8,120
8,254

1,474
1,457
1,388
1,392
1,401

29,330
31,345
32,833
35,233
37,723

51
48
44
43
41

57
47
36
29
21

207
203
203
208
206

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

222,993
240,436
254,939
267,804
279,118

156,756
169,142
179,372
188,440
196,400

13,953
14,986
15,810
16,356
16,854

1,316
1,405
1,494
1,563
1,637

8,564
9,022
9,431
9,897
10,293

1,437
1,490
1,521
1,547
1,551

40,705
44,139
47,060
49,746
52,124

39
38
37
36
34

16
12
9
6
4

206
202
206
214
220
(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 4.9

4.A OASDI: Trust Funds
Table 4.A5—Total annual benefits paid from OASI trust fund, by type of benefit, selected years 1937–2005
(in millions of dollars)—Continued
Retired-worker and dependents benefits

Survivors benefits

Wives
and
husbands

Children

Children

Widowed
mothers and
fathers

Year

Total

Retired
workers

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

291,682
302,914
316,311
326,817
334,437

205,315
213,423
223,554
232,324
238,478

17,348
17,715
18,154
18,395
18,415

1,715
1,799
1,882
1,940
1,992

10,717
11,217
11,660
11,936
12,125

1,573
1,486
1,466
1,435
1,415

54,761
57,025
59,349
60,540
61,769

32
31
30
29
27

3
1
1

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

352,706
372,370
388,170
399,892
415,082
435,373

253,542
268,976
281,624
291,518
304,261
321,706

18,969
19,491
19,884
19,951
20,164
20,500

2,133
2,332
2,475
2,583
2,714
2,888

12,532
13,134
13,690
14,072
14,538
15,103

1,406
1,441
1,476
1,486
1,515
1,535

63,884
66,758
68,782
70,052
71,660
73,411

26
26
25
24
24
24

b

Widow(er)s

a

Parents

Special age-72
beneficiaries

b
b

b
b
b
b
b

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Beneficiary Record, 100 percent data.
NOTES: Amounts by type of benefit are estimated. Unnegotiated checks are not deducted. Totals do not necessarily equal the sum of rounded components.
. . . = not applicable.
a.
b.

Aged widow(er)s and disabled widow(er)s.
Less than $500,000.

CONTACT: Jeff Kunkel (410) 965-3013.

4.10 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

Lump-sum
death
payments
218
218
216
218
216
214
212
213
206
205
206

4.A OASDI: Trust Funds
Table 4.A6—Total annual benefits paid from DI trust fund, by type of benefit, 1957–2005 (in millions of dollars)
Year

Total

Disabled workers

Wives and husbands

Children

1957
1958
1959

57
249
457

57
246
390

...
1
29

...
1
38

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

568
887
1,105
1,210
1,309

489
724
888
965
1,044

32
54
68
73
79

48
109
149
172
186

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

1,573
1,781
1,939
2,294
2,542

1,246
1,394
1,519
1,804
2,014

95
108
113
131
139

232
280
307
360
389

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

3,067
3,758
4,473
5,718
6,903

2,448
3,028
3,626
4,676
5,662

165
192
224
281
320

454
539
623
760
920

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

8,414
9,966
11,463
12,513
13,708

6,908
8,190
9,456
10,315
11,333

385
447
505
541
581

1,121
1,328
1,503
1,657
1,794

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

15,437
17,199
17,338
17,530
17,900

12,816
14,379
14,811
15,196
15,623

638
684
652
607
536

1,983
2,136
1,875
1,728
1,741

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

18,836
19,847
20,512
21,692
22,873

16,483
17,409
18,053
19,165
20,314

545
547
532
529
523

1,809
1,890
1,926
1,999
2,036

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

24,803
27,662
31,091
34,598
37,717

22,113
24,738
27,856
30,913
33,711

531
550
572
572
579

2,159
2,374
2,663
3,112
3,428

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

40,898
44,174
45,659
48,173
51,331

36,610
39,625
41,083
43,467
46,459

577
515
479
457
433

3,711
4,034
4,098
4,249
4,439

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

54,938
59,577
65,645
70,906
78,202
85,394

49,848
54,244
59,886
64,811
71,685
78,381

421
416
423
431
455
483

4,670
4,917
5,337
5,664
6,062
6,531

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Beneficiary Record, 100 percent data.
NOTES: Amounts by type of benefit are estimated. Unnegotiated checks are not deducted. Totals do not necessarily equal the sum of rounded components.
. . . = not applicable.
CONTACT: Jeff Kunkel (410) 965-3013.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 4.11

4.B OASDI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B1—Number of workers with taxable earnings, amount of earnings, and Social Security numbers
issued, selected years 1937–2005
Number a (thousands)

Earnings
Reported taxable a

New
entrants
into
covered
employment c

Total in
covered
employment d
(millions of
dollars)

Amount
(millions of
dollars)

Percentage
of total

Total
earnings d

Reported
taxable

Social
Security
numbers
issued b
(thousands)

Average per worker (dollars)

Year

Total

With
maximum
earnings

1937
1940
1945

32,900
35,390
46,390

1,031
1,196
6,361

32,900
4,430
3,480

32,200
35,700
71,600

29,620
32,970
62,950

92.0
92.4
87.9

979
1,009
1,543

900
932
1,357

37,139
5,227
3,321

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

48,280
58,120
59,580
60,840
59,610

13,936
14,270
16,606
19,013
18,866

2,520
6,000
3,500
3,090
2,360

109,800
148,900
159,900
173,000
171,900

87,500
120,770
128,640
135,870
133,520

79.7
81.1
80.5
78.5
77.7

2,274
2,562
2,684
2,844
2,884

1,812
2,078
2,159
2,233
2,240

2,891
4,927
4,363
3,464
2,743

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

65,200
67,610
70,590
69,770
71,700

16,704
19,236
21,095
21,328
19,112

4,760
3,660
3,380
2,450
3,180

196,100
216,800
233,900
236,500
255,000

157,540
170,720
181,380
180,720
202,310

80.3
78.8
77.5
76.4
79.3

3,008
3,207
3,314
3,390
3,556

2,416
2,525
2,569
2,590
2,822

4,323
4,376
3,639
2,290
3,388

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

72,530
72,820
74,280
75,540
77,430

20,310
21,265
23,154
24,570
26,717

3,130
2,990
3,360
3,520
3,890

265,200
270,700
289,000
302,300
324,500

207,000
209,640
219,050
225,550
236,390

78.1
77.4
75.8
74.6
72.8

3,656
3,717
3,891
4,002
4,191

2,854
2,879
2,949
2,986
3,053

3,415
3,370
4,519
8,617
5,623

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

80,680
84,600
87,040
89,380
92,060

29,136
20,498
22,948
19,120
22,577

4,620
5,080
4,530
4,830
5,160

351,700
390,700
422,300
460,000
502,800

250,730
312,540
329,960
375,840
402,550

71.3
80.0
78.1
81.7
80.1

4,359
4,618
4,852
5,147
5,462

3,108
3,694
3,791
4,205
4,373

6,131
6,506
5,920
5,862
6,289

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

93,090
93,340
96,240
99,830
101,330

24,224
26,404
24,074
20,250
15,310

4,440
4,470
5,150
5,670
4,940

531,600
559,700
617,900
686,700
746,700

415,600
426,960
484,110
561,850
636,760

78.2
76.3
78.3
81.8
85.3

5,711
5,996
6,420
6,879
7,369

4,464
4,574
5,030
5,628
6,284

6,132
6,401
9,564
10,038
7,998

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

100,200
102,600
105,800
110,600
112,700

15,070
15,330
15,700
17,050
11,236

4,120
4,700
5,070
5,460
4,883

787,600
874,700
960,100
1,092,600
1,222,200

664,660
737,700
816,550
915,600
1,067,000

84.4
84.3
85.0
83.8
87.3

7,860
8,525
9,075
9,879
10,845

6,633
7,190
7,718
8,278
9,468

8,164
9,043
7,724
5,260
5,213

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

113,000
113,000
111,800
112,100
116,300

9,903
8,594
7,929
7,044
7,421

4,243
4,090
3,408
3,914
4,743

1,328,800
1,450,900
1,516,600
1,615,200
1,800,800

1,180,700
1,294,100
1,365,300
1,454,100
1,608,800

88.9
89.2
90.0
90.0
89.3

11,759
12,840
13,565
14,409
15,484

10,449
11,452
12,212
12,971
13,833

5,984
5,581
5,362
6,699
5,980

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

119,800
122,900
125,600
129,600
131,700

7,766
7,624
7,735
8,483
8,110

4,756
4,641
4,956
5,489
4,856

1,936,800
2,081,800
2,237,000
2,432,800
2,578,700

1,722,600
1,844,400
1,960,000
2,088,400
2,239,500

88.9
88.6
87.6
85.8
86.8

16,167
16,939
17,811
18,772
19,580

14,379
15,007
15,605
16,114
17,005

5,720
5,711
11,621
11,370
8,049

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

133,600
133,000
134,000
136,100
138,200

7,575
7,483
7,667
7,617
7,518

4,012
3,541
3,918
4,204
4,591

2,703,800
2,760,500
2,917,800
3,022,900
3,197,000

2,358,000
2,422,500
2,532,900
2,636,100
2,785,200

87.2
87.8
86.8
87.2
87.1

20,238
20,756
21,775
22,211
23,133

17,650
18,214
18,902
19,369
20,153

9,054
7,509
6,819
5,893
5,816
(Continued)

4.12 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

4.B OASDI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B1—Number of workers with taxable earnings, amount of earnings, and Social Security numbers
issued, selected years 1937–2005—Continued
Number a (thousands)

Earnings
Reported taxable a

New
entrants
into
covered
employment c

Total in
covered
employment d
(millions of
dollars)

Amount
(millions of
dollars)

Percentage
of total

Total
earnings d

Reported
taxable

Social
Security
numbers
issued b
(thousands)

Average per worker (dollars)

Year

Total

With
maximum
earnings

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

141,000
143,400
146,145
148,786
151,333

8,191
8,682
9,022
9,372
9,209

4,621
4,620
4,710
4,904
4,966

3,401,800
3,587,600
3,858,721
4,172,641
4,467,110

2,919,100
3,073,500
3,285,000
3,524,900
3,749,600

85.8
85.7
85.1
84.5
83.9

24,126
25,018
26,403
28,045
29,518

20,703
21,433
22,478
23,691
24,777

5,465
5,533
5,413
5,288
5,306

2000
2001
2002 e
2003 e
2004 f
2005 g

154,732
155,416
154,818
154,946
156,986
159,703

9,556
9,213
8,411
8,516
9,248
--

5,014
4,425
4,199
4,115
4,496
--

4,819,870
4,919,536
4,931,173
5,059,415
5,356,056
5,678,634

4,008,500
4,167,900
4,248,400
4,363,900
4,543,173
4,769,020

83.2
84.7
86.2
86.3
84.8
84.0

31,150
31,654
31,851
32,653
34,118
35,557

25,906
26,818
27,441
28,164
28,940
29,862

5,476
5,883
5,699
5,372
6,065
5,280

SOURCES: Social Security Administration, Master Earnings File, 1 percent sample; Bureau of Economic Analysis; Bureau of Labor Statistics.
NOTE: -- = not available.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

Relates to wage and salary workers from 1937 to 1950. Beginning in 1951, includes self-employment. See Table 2.A3 for annual maximum taxable earnings.
Excludes railroad account numbers. Since program began, 430.8 million Social Security numbers have been issued. Some individuals have been issued more than
one number.
Workers reported with first taxable earnings under program in specified year. From 1937 to 2004, 322.3 million different persons reported with taxable earnings.
Total wages, including estimated amounts above taxable limit, from 1937 to 1950. Beginning in 1951, also includes reported total net earnings of self-employed persons.
Preliminary data.
Taxable earnings are preliminary estimates based on Social Security data; employment data are preliminary estimates based on data from Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Preliminary estimates based on data from Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Bureau of Economic Analysis.

CONTACT: Greg Diez (410) 965-0153 or William Kearns (410) 965-6750.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 4.13

4.B OASDI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B2—Number with taxable earnings and amount of earnings, by type of earnings,
1951–2005
Wage and salary
Number a
(thousands)

Year

Wage and
Selfsalary employed

Reported taxable

Self-employed
Average per worker
(dollars)

Total in
covered
employment b
(millions of
dollars)

Amount d
(millions of
dollars)

Percentage
of total
wages

Total
wages b

Reported
taxable d

Reported taxable
Total in
covered
employment c Amount d
Percentage
(millions of (millions
of total selfdollars) of dollars) employment

Average per worker
(dollars)

Total
earnings c

Reported
taxable d

1951
1952
1953
1954

54,630
56,060
57,220
55,940

4,190
4,240
4,340
4,350

132,500
143,500
156,000
155,100

111,250
118,880
125,840
123,410

84.0
82.8
80.7
79.6

2,425
2,560
2,726
2,773

2,036
2,121
2,199
2,206

16,400
16,400
17,000
16,800

9,520
9,760
10,030
10,110

58.0
59.5
59.0
60.2

3,914
3,868
3,917
3,862

2,272
2,302
2,311
2,324

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

59,560
61,560
64,730
64,040
66,000

6,810
7,390
7,150
7,130
7,060

171,600
188,500
205,500
208,000
225,100

141,810
153,010
163,990
163,140
183,620

82.6
81.2
79.8
78.4
81.6

2,881
3,062
3,175
3,248
3,411

2,381
2,486
2,533
2,547
2,782

24,500
28,300
28,400
28,500
29,900

15,730
17,710
17,390
17,580
18,690

64.2
62.6
61.2
61.7
62.5

3,598
3,829
3,972
3,997
4,235

2,310
2,396
2,432
2,466
2,647

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

66,980
67,360
68,890
70,310
72,230

6,870
6,790
6,720
6,590
6,480

236,000
240,700
257,700
270,600
290,900

188,580
190,850
200,130
206,840
217,430

79.9
79.3
77.7
76.4
74.7

3,523
3,573
3,741
3,849
4,027

2,815
2,833
2,905
2,942
3,010

29,200
30,000
31,300
31,700
33,600

18,420
18,790
18,920
18,710
18,960

63.1
62.6
60.4
59.0
56.4

4,250
4,418
4,658
4,810
5,185

2,681
2,767
2,815
2,839
2,926

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

75,430
79,460
82,020
84,470
87,200

6,550
6,630
6,470
6,570
6,350

311,400
346,700
377,500
413,600
455,700

230,830
287,860
305,670
348,500
375,010

74.1
83.0
81.0
84.3
82.3

4,128
4,363
4,603
4,896
5,226

3,060
3,623
3,727
4,126
4,301

40,300
44,000
44,800
46,400
47,100

19,900
24,680
24,290
27,340
27,540

49.4
56.1
54.2
58.9
58.5

6,153
6,637
6,924
7,062
7,417

3,038
3,722
3,754
4,161
4,337

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

88,180
88,460
91,220
94,610
96,190

6,270
6,290
6,600
7,100
7,040

483,600
509,000
563,300
624,400
681,600

388,680
399,550
452,050
523,450
594,400

80.4
78.5
80.3
83.8
87.2

5,484
5,754
6,175
6,600
7,086

4,408
4,517
4,956
5,533
6,179

48,000
50,700
54,600
62,300
65,200

26,920
27,410
32,060
38,400
42,360

56.1
54.1
58.7
61.6
65.0

7,656
8,060
8,273
8,775
9,261

4,293
4,358
4,858
5,408
6,017

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

94,900
97,230
100,450
104,810
106,900

7,000
7,400
7,480
8,040
8,200

717,200
797,200
879,500
998,900
1,122,000

621,100
689,200
763,600
856,100
997,500

86.6
86.4
86.8
85.7
88.9

7,557
8,199
8,935
9,531
10,496

6,545
7,088
7,602
8,168
9,331

70,400
76,800
80,600
93,700
100,200

43,560
48,500
52,950
59,500
69,500

61.9
63.2
65.7
63.5
69.4

10,057
10,378
10,775
11,654
12,220

6,223
6,554
7,079
7,400
8,476

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

107,200
107,300
105,800
105,900
109,900

8,200
8,250
8,550
9,200
9,900

1,231,000
1,352,000
1,418,000
1,502,000
1,671,500

1,109,000
1,220,000
1,290,000
1,369,000
1,515,000

90.1
90.2
91.0
91.1
90.6

11,483
12,600
13,403
14,183
15,209

10,345
11,370
12,193
12,927
13,785

97,800
98,900
98,600
113,200
129,300

71,700
74,100
75,300
85,100
93,800

73.3
74.9
76.4
75.2
72.5

11,927
11,988
11,532
12,304
13,061

8,744
8,982
8,807
9,250
9,475

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

113,100
115,900
118,200
122,100
123,900

10,600
11,200
12,000
12,400
12,900

1,794,500
1,921,000
2,057,100
2,224,700
2,367,800

1,621,000
1,730,800
1,835,100
1,952,000
2,096,000

90.3
90.1
89.2
87.7
88.5

15,866
16,575
17,404
18,220
19,111

14,332
14,934
15,525
15,987
16,917

142,300
160,800
179,900
208,100
210,900

101,600
113,600
124,900
136,400
143,500

71.4
70.6
69.4
65.5
68.0

13,425
14,357
14,992
16,782
16,349

9,585
10,143
10,408
11,000
11,124

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

126,100
125,200
126,000
128,100
130,100

12,500
12,800
13,100
13,200
13,300

2,510,000
2,565,000
2,711,000
2,808,900
2,964,100

2,222,000
2,283,000
2,386,000
2,483,400
2,624,500

88.5
89.0
88.0
88.4
88.5

19,905
20,487
21,516
21,927
22,783

17,621
18,235
18,937
19,386
20,173

193,800
195,500
206,800
214,000
232,900

136,000
139,500
146,600
152,700
160,700

70.2
71.4
71.0
71.4
69.0

15,504
15,273
15,786
16,212
17,511

10,880
10,898
11,214
11,568
12,083

(Continued)

4.14 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

4.B OASDI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B2—Number with taxable earnings and amount of earnings, by type of earnings,
1951–2005—Continued
Wage and salary
Number a
(thousands)

Year

Wage and
Selfsalary employed

Reported taxable

Self-employed
Average per worker
(dollars)

Total in
covered
employment b
(millions of
dollars)

Amount d
(millions of
dollars)

Percentage
of total
wages

Total
wages b

Reported
taxable d

Reported taxable
Total in
covered
employment c Amount d
Percentage
(millions of (millions
of total selfdollars) of dollars) employment

Average per worker
(dollars)

Total
earnings c

Reported
taxable d

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

132,800
135,100
137,765
140,386
142,703

13,500
13,900
14,020
14,230
14,500

3,159,100
3,331,900
3,586,721
3,882,341
4,159,210

2,754,300
2,901,700
3,104,300
3,333,700
3,547,300

87.2
87.1
86.5
85.9
85.3

23,788
24,662
26,035
27,655
29,146

20,740
21,478
22,533
23,747
24,858

242,700
255,700
272,000
290,300
307,900

164,800
171,800
180,700
191,200
202,300

67.9
67.2
66.4
65.9
65.7

17,978
18,396
19,401
20,401
21,234

12,207
12,360
12,889
13,436
13,952

2000
2001
2002 e
2003 e
2004 f
2005 g

146,097
146,596
145,808
145,586
147,416
150,100

14,675
14,930
15,180
15,700
16,170
16,239

4,494,170
4,586,990
4,592,861
4,706,897
4,980,122
5,281,993

3,798,400
3,950,100
4,022,000
4,125,800
4,292,500
4,507,200

84.5
86.1
87.6
87.7
86.2
85.3

30,762
31,290
31,499
32,331
33,783
35,190

25,999
26,945
27,584
28,339
29,118
30,028

325,700
332,546
338,312
352,518
375,934
396,641

210,100
217,800
226,400
238,100
250,673
261,820

64.5
65.5
66.9
67.5
66.7
66.0

22,194
22,274
22,287
22,453
23,249
24,425

14,317
14,588
14,914
15,166
15,502
16,123

SOURCES: Social Security Administration, Master Earnings File, 1 percent sample; Bureau of Economic Analysis; Bureau of Labor Statistics.
NOTE: See Table 4.B1 for wage and salary data before 1951.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

Represents total number in specified type of employment. Persons with both types of covered employment during the year are included in each type.
Total wages, including estimated amounts above the taxable limit.
Reported self-employment net earnings.
See Table 2.A3 for annual maximum taxable earnings.
Preliminary data.
Taxable earnings are preliminary estimates based on Social Security data; employment data are preliminary estimates based on data from Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Preliminary estimates based on data from Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Bureau of Economic Analysis.

CONTACT: Greg Diez (410) 965-0153 or William Kearns (410) 965-6750.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 4.15

4.B OASDI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B3—Number of workers and median annual earnings, by type of earnings and sex, selected years
1937–2004
All workers a

Self-employed b

Wage and salary

Year

Total

Men

Women

Subtotal

1937
1940
1945
1950
1955

32,900
35,390
46,390
48,280
65,200

23,810
25,570
28,820
32,620
43,140

9,090
9,820
17,570
15,660
22,060

32,900
35,390
46,390
48,280
59,560

1960
1965
1970
1975
1980

72,530
80,680
93,090
100,200
113,000

47,900
51,990
57,330
59,520
64,288

24,630
28,690
35,760
40,680
48,712

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

119,800
122,900
125,600
129,600
131,700

66,113
67,412
68,591
70,596
71,517

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

133,600
133,000
134,000
136,100
138,200

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002 c
2003 c
2004 c

Men

Women

Subtotal

Men

Women

23,810
25,570
28,820
32,620
38,240

9,090
9,820
17,570
15,660
21,320

...
...
...
...
6,810

...
...
...
...
5,980

...
...
...
...
830

66,980
75,430
88,180
94,900
107,200

43,100
47,500
53,180
55,140
59,751

23,880
27,930
35,000
39,760
47,449

6,870
6,550
6,270
7,000
8,200

5,990
5,640
5,370
5,790
6,407

880
910
900
1,210
1,793

53,687
55,488
57,009
59,004
60,183

113,100
115,900
118,200
122,100
123,900

61,285
62,398
63,306
65,270
66,105

51,815
53,502
54,894
56,830
57,795

10,600
11,200
12,000
12,400
12,900

7,623
7,932
8,450
8,630
8,842

2,977
3,268
3,550
3,770
4,058

72,291
71,787
72,016
73,154
73,989

61,309
61,213
61,984
62,946
64,211

126,100
125,200
126,000
128,100
130,100

67,064
66,406
66,543
67,673
68,481

59,036
58,794
59,457
60,427
61,619

12,500
12,800
13,100
13,200
13,300

8,526
8,669
8,797
8,840
8,840

3,974
4,131
4,303
4,360
4,460

141,000
143,400
146,145
148,786
151,333

75,444
76,241
77,498
78,671
80,042

65,556
67,158
68,647
70,115
71,291

132,800
135,100
137,765
140,386
142,703

69,900
70,670
71,910
73,111
74,376

62,900
64,429
65,855
67,275
68,327

13,500
13,900
14,020
14,230
14,500

8,908
9,074
9,078
9,108
9,224

4,592
4,826
4,942
5,122
5,276

154,732
155,416
154,818
154,946
156,986

81,654
82,006
81,511
81,391
82,288

73,078
73,410
73,307
73,555
74,698

146,097
146,596
145,808
145,586
147,416

76,033
76,303
75,712
75,444
76,288

70,064
70,293
70,096
70,142
71,128

14,675
14,930
15,180
15,700
16,170

9,277
9,354
9,544
9,640
9,803

5,398
5,576
5,636
6,060
6,367

Number (thousands)

(Continued)

4.16 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

4.B OASDI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B3—Number of workers and median annual earnings, by type of earnings and sex, selected years
1937–2004—Continued
All workers a
Year

Total

Men

Self-employed b

Wage and salary
Women

Subtotal

Men

Median earnings

d

Women

Subtotal

Men

Women

(dollars)

1937
1940
1945
1950
1955

761
746
1,159
1,926
2,438

945
935
1,654
2,532
3,315

484
472
770
1,124
1,351

761
746
1,159
1,926
2,383

945
935
1,654
2,532
3,348

484
472
770
1,124
1,338

...
...
...
...
2,397

...
...
...
...
2,550

...
...
...
...
1,552

1960
1965
1970
1975
1980

2,894
3,414
4,375
5,803
8,549

3,879
4,685
6,180
8,250
11,963

1,679
1,984
2,735
3,730
6,012

2,833
3,319
4,317
5,790
8,612

3,875
4,630
6,173
8,315
12,166

1,676
1,979
2,770
3,794
6,106

2,903
3,858
5,104
6,700
8,699

3,129
4,242
5,683
7,846
10,572

1,695
1,898
2,360
3,113
4,133

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

11,265
11,831
12,327
12,825
13,314

14,959
15,579
16,073
16,613
17,014

8,293
8,796
9,261
9,753
10,265

11,638
12,064
12,576
13,086
13,762

15,706
16,025
16,559
17,055
17,800

8,525
9,019
9,500
9,992
10,577

9,877
10,424
10,886
11,478
11,602

12,301
12,908
13,401
14,090
14,538

5,529
6,152
6,573
7,036
7,010

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

13,898
14,278
14,739
15,000
15,560

17,582
17,765
18,208
18,430
19,249

10,837
11,369
11,842
12,093
12,422

14,432
14,859
15,386
15,665
16,010

18,483
18,730
19,292
19,516
19,969

11,199
11,767
12,268
12,546
12,807

11,220
11,125
11,392
11,595
12,051

14,097
13,703
13,966
14,128
14,737

6,898
7,186
7,452
7,720
8,002

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

16,108
16,712
17,562
18,513
19,265

19,907
20,779
21,814
23,028
23,927

12,897
13,335
14,043
14,834
15,465

16,618
17,256
18,127
19,103
19,885

20,672
21,591
22,693
23,920
24,839

13,296
13,763
14,482
15,290
15,938

12,198
12,481
12,910
13,462
14,051

14,931
15,300
15,911
16,565
17,338

8,301
8,628
8,944
9,365
9,784

2000
2001
2002 c
2003 c
2004 c

20,225
20,905
21,194
21,622
22,308

25,032
25,643
25,767
26,197
27,043

16,287
17,037
17,463
17,865
18,414

20,885
21,629
21,986
22,477
23,176

25,999
26,647
26,890
27,364
28,218

16,801
17,595
18,086
18,507
19,106

14,927
15,010
15,456
14,344
14,452

18,538
18,681
19,487
17,823
17,988

10,270
10,470
10,692
10,629
10,915

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Earnings File, 1 percent sample.
NOTE: . . . = not applicable.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Workers with earnings in both wage and salary employment and self-employment are counted in each type of employment but only once in the total.
Not covered before 1951.
Preliminary data.
For all workers, medians relate to combined earnings from wage and salary employment and self-employment. For all wage and salary workers, medians relate to
wages and salaries only.

CONTACT: Greg Diez (410) 965-0153 or William Kearns (410) 965-6750.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 4.17

4.B OASDI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B4—Percentage of workers with earnings below annual maximum taxable, by sex,
selected years 1937–2004
All workers a

All self-employed workers

Year

Total

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

Annual maximum
taxable earnings (dollars)

1937
1940
1945

96.9
96.6
86.3

95.8
95.4
78.6

99.7
99.7
98.9

...
...
...

...
...
...

...
...
...

3,000
3,000
3,000

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

71.1
75.5
72.1
68.8
68.4

59.9
64.6
60.0
55.5
55.4

94.6
96.7
95.4
93.8
93.0

...
65.4
64.1
62.9
62.6

...
62.6
61.2
59.5
58.8

...
83.3
83.5
83.1
82.8

3,000
3,600
3,600
3,600
3,600

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

74.4
71.6
70.1
69.4
73.3

63.4
59.7
58.7
58.4
62.7

95.9
94.5
93.1
91.8
94.3

74.0
71.2
69.6
68.8
72.0

72.3
69.1
67.2
66.3
69.6

86.3
86.0
85.5
85.7
88.0

4,200
4,200
4,200
4,200
4,800

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

72.0
70.8
68.8
67.5
65.5

60.9
59.6
57.1
55.5
53.1

93.5
92.4
91.1
90.0
88.5

71.6
70.3
67.9
66.3
63.8

69.2
67.8
65.3
63.4
60.5

87.7
86.9
85.3
85.3
84.4

4,800
4,800
4,800
4,800
4,800

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

63.9
75.8
73.6
78.6
75.5

51.0
64.4
61.5
68.0
62.8

87.3
95.6
94.2
96.3
96.0

59.5
68.3
66.7
70.3
68.3

55.8
65.0
63.2
67.2
65.0

82.5
88.4
87.5
89.7
89.1

4,800
6,600
6,600
7,800
7,800

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

74.0
71.7
75.0
79.7
84.9

61.8
59.1
62.9
68.9
76.2

93.5
91.7
93.9
96.2
97.8

67.8
66.7
68.8
71.1
75.7

64.3
63.3
65.0
67.4
72.1

88.3
86.2
89.7
91.0
94.0

7,800
7,800
9,000
10,800
13,200

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

84.9
85.1
85.2
84.6
90.0

76.4
76.3
76.3
75.4
83.6

97.5
97.5
97.5
97.1
98.6

77.8
78.6
79.3
79.3
84.3

74.4
75.1
75.8
75.6
81.3

93.9
94.3
94.1
94.0
95.9

14,100
15,300
16,500
17,700
22,900

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

91.2
92.4
92.9
93.7
93.6

85.5
87.4
88.3
89.6
89.4

98.8
99.0
98.9
99.0
98.9

86.9
89.4
91.0
92.0
91.8

84.2
87.1
88.8
90.0
89.7

96.6
97.2
97.7
97.7
97.6

25,900
29,700
32,400
35,700
37,800

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

93.5
93.8
93.9
93.5
93.8

89.3
89.7
89.9
89.4
90.1

98.8
98.7
98.6
98.3
98.3

92.0
92.3
92.5
91.7
92.4

89.8
90.2
90.4
89.4
90.1

97.5
97.5
97.5
97.1
97.3

39,600
42,000
43,800
45,000
48,000

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

94.3
94.4
94.3
94.4
94.6

90.9
91.1
91.0
91.3
91.4

98.4
98.3
98.1
98.1
98.1

93.3
93.6
93.6
93.7
93.9

91.3
91.6
91.7
91.9
92.0

97.7
97.7
97.6
97.4
97.5

51,300
53,400
55,500
57,600
60,600
(Continued)

4.18 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

4.B OASDI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B4—Percentage of workers with earnings below annual maximum taxable, by sex,
selected years 1937–2004—Continued
All workers a

All self-employed workers

Year

Total

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

Annual maximum
taxable earnings (dollars)

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

94.2
93.9
93.8
93.7
93.9

91.0
90.6
90.5
90.3
90.7

97.9
97.7
97.6
97.5
97.5

93.9
93.9
93.8
94.0
94.2

92.0
92.0
91.9
92.2
92.3

97.5
97.4
97.3
97.3
97.4

61,200
62,700
65,400
68,400
72,600

2000
2001
2002 b
2003 b
2004 b

93.8
94.1
94.6
94.5
94.1

90.6
91.0
91.8
91.8
91.3

97.4
97.5
97.7
97.5
97.3

92.5
93.0
91.1
95.0
95.0

90.1
90.8
88.0
93.4
93.3

96.6
96.8
96.3
97.6
97.6

76,200
80,400
84,900
87,000
87,900

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Earnings File, 1 percent sample.
NOTE: . . . = not applicable.
a.
b.

From 1937 to 1950, relates to wage and salary workers. Beginning in 1951, includes self-employed workers.
Preliminary data.

CONTACT: Greg Diez (410) 965-0153 or William Kearns (410) 965-6750.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 4.19

4.B OASDI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B5—Number of workers, by sex and age, selected years 1937–2004 (in thousands)
Year

Total,
all ages

Under
20

20–24

25–29

30–34

35–39

40–44

1937
1940
1945
1950
1955
1960
1965

32,900
35,390
46,390
48,280
65,200
72,530
80,680

3,277
2,963
6,313
4,469
5,410
6,328
8,556

6,302
6,481
5,908
7,057
7,065
8,749
11,066

5,480
5,794
5,571
6,732
7,499
7,461
8,261

4,413
4,904
5,495
5,991
7,801
7,812
7,488

3,688
3,930
5,288
5,609
7,458
8,301
8,120

3,055
3,342
4,623
5,016
7,222
7,938
8,550

1970
1975
1980
1985
1990

93,090
100,200
113,000
119,800
133,600

10,790
11,939
12,372
10,685
10,907

14,945
16,419
18,403
17,727
16,760

10,587
13,852
16,464
18,012
18,701

8,492
10,304
14,184
16,193
18,696

8,028
8,644
10,982
14,276
17,008

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

141,000
143,400
146,145
148,786
151,333

10,832
11,156
11,402
11,904
12,241

15,465
15,251
15,486
15,712
16,106

17,078
17,184
17,156
17,010
16,754

18,692
18,389
18,033
17,694
17,517

2000
2001
2002 b
2003 b
2004 b

154,732
155,416
154,818
154,946
156,985

12,413
11,753
11,039
10,521
10,604

16,703
16,981
17,011
17,090
17,342

16,438
16,081
15,949
15,953
16,308

17,715
17,688
17,340
16,982
16,680

45–49

70–71

72 or
older

97
451
975
979
2,091
1,989
2,027

...
106
214
210
537
419
424

...
152
333
306
734
912
943

2,692
2,543
2,632
2,726
2,854

2,362
2,139
2,292
2,206
2,687

475
444
491
489
605

1,003
951
1,046
1,097
1,362

2,440
2,520
2,569
2,687
2,759

2,777
2,804
2,902
2,991
3,087

2,836
2,863
2,913
2,970
3,013

699
698
731
753
771

1,704
1,772
1,865
1,932
1,962

9,681
10,288
10,928
11,408
12,011

2,876
2,989
3,262
3,515
3,490

3,243
3,331
3,427
3,565
3,894

3,159
3,230
3,298
3,428
3,594

829
828
812
823
852

2,083
2,107
2,150
2,205
2,286

50–54

55–59

60–61

62–64

65–69

2,580
2,706
4,061
4,076
6,507
7,432
7,936

1,918
2,147
3,275
3,375
5,299
6,448
7,163

1,308
1,488
2,577
2,597
4,261
4,996
5,931

384
437
831
811
1,423
1,643
1,943

398
494
926
1,052
1,893
2,102
2,272

a

8,539
7,997
9,003
10,961
14,984

8,647
8,157
7,961
8,713
11,119

7,700
7,896
7,768
7,435
8,533

6,594
6,626
7,076
6,870
6,928

2,236
2,289
2,326
2,410
2,454

18,760
19,026
19,279
19,366
19,407

16,918
17,481
17,964
18,393
18,769

14,622
15,108
15,369
15,763
16,318

10,510
11,205
12,023
12,662
13,297

7,667
7,942
8,453
8,947
9,332

19,245
18,783
18,095
17,564
17,333

19,199
19,336
19,202
19,105
19,017

16,990
17,449
17,688
17,917
18,195

14,156
14,571
14,618
14,870
15,379

All workers

Men
a

1937
1940
1945
1950
1955
1960
1965

23,810
25,570
28,820
32,620
43,140
47,900
51,990

2,020
1,821
3,343
2,530
3,026
3,748
5,206

4,021
4,072
2,296
4,215
3,980
5,455
6,731

3,797
4,028
3,054
4,497
5,019
5,148
5,574

3,237
3,545
3,502
4,135
5,345
5,464
5,153

3,775
2,922
3,486
3,889
5,035
5,591
5,416

2,387
2,550
3,150
3,419
4,846
5,188
5,464

2,091
2,151
2,840
2,827
4,327
4,818
5,002

1,606
1,770
2,409
2,417
3,595
4,183
4,536

1,110
1,265
1,984
1,951
2,995
3,336
3,803

330
373
664
635
1,012
1,125
1,274

351
434
765
843
1,387
1,480
1,519

85
403
838
815
1,566
1,392
1,359

...
96
189
181
414
293
280

...
140
300
266
593
697
673

1970
1975
1980
1985
1990

57,330
59,520
64,288
66,114
72,292

6,308
6,635
6,620
5,547
5,690

8,639
9,122
9,971
9,432
8,835

6,760
8,245
9,278
9,870
10,131

5,564
6,440
8,206
9,066
10,251

5,126
5,311
6,372
7,920
9,216

5,287
4,831
5,178
6,050
7,977

5,242
4,891
4,590
4,838
5,976

4,671
4,729
4,516
4,186
4,651

4,084
4,023
4,152
3,932
3,857

1,392
1,418
1,391
1,408
1,381

1,730
1,595
1,597
1,593
1,619

1,522
1,352
1,411
1,297
1,526

321
285
309
289
358

684
643
697
686
823

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

75,443
76,241
77,498
78,671
80,042

5,590
5,672
5,823
6,068
6,251

8,069
7,876
7,943
8,029
8,238

9,097
9,074
9,017
8,895
8,774

10,146
9,935
9,697
9,472
9,415

10,106
10,198
10,280
10,345
10,376

8,966
9,240
9,498
9,684
9,880

7,663
7,873
7,997
8,196
8,480

5,620
5,963
6,376
6,673
6,977

4,193
4,307
4,578
4,835
5,028

1,374
1,416
1,423
1,476
1,520

1,547
1,569
1,641
1,690
1,734

1,614
1,629
1,650
1,688
1,713

405
403
433
444
454

1,053
1,086
1,141
1,177
1,200

2000
2001
2002 b
2003 b
2004 b

81,654
82,006
81,511
81,390
82,288

6,323
5,944
5,560
5,251
5,255

8,544
8,689
8,688
8,725
8,868

8,573
8,422
8,293
8,283
8,456

9,492
9,460
9,277
9,041
8,856

10,285
10,063
9,703
9,444
9,292

10,102
10,191
10,103
10,065
10,028

8,838
9,106
9,233
9,305
9,443

7,365
7,566
7,570
7,681
7,933

5,184
5,488
5,793
5,994
6,270

1,588
1,630
1,764
1,899
1,879

1,796
1,847
1,887
1,950
2,111

1,805
1,848
1,881
1,942
2,030

488
477
461
482
495

1,271
1,275
1,299
1,329
1,371

(Continued)

4.20 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

4.B OASDI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B5—Number of workers, by sex and age, selected years 1937–2004 (in thousands)—Continued
Year

Total,
all ages

Under
20

20–24

25–29

30–34

35–39

40–44

1937
1940
1945
1950
1955
1960
1965

9,090
9,820
17,570
15,660
22,060
24,630
28,690

1,257
1,142
2,970
1,939
2,384
2,580
3,350

2,281
2,409
3,612
2,842
3,085
3,294
4,335

1,683
1,766
2,517
2,235
2,480
2,313
2,687

1,176
1,359
1,993
1,856
2,456
2,348
2,335

913
1,008
1,802
1,720
2,423
2,710
2,704

668
792
1,473
1,597
2,376
2,750
3,086

1970
1975
1980
1985
1990

35,760
40,680
48,712
53,686
61,309

4,482
5,304
5,752
5,138
5,217

6,306
7,297
8,432
8,295
7,925

3,827
5,607
7,186
8,142
8,570

2,928
3,864
5,978
7,127
8,445

2,902
3,333
4,610
6,356
7,792

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

65,557
67,158
68,647
70,115
71,291

5,241
5,483
5,579
5,837
5,990

7,396
7,375
7,543
7,683
7,868

7,981
8,110
8,139
8,115
7,980

8,546
8,454
8,336
8,222
8,102

2000
2001
2002 b
2003 b
2004 b

73,078
73,410
73,306
73,556
74,698

6,089
5,809
5,480
5,270
5,350

8,159
8,293
8,323
8,365
8,474

7,865
7,658
7,656
7,670
7,852

8,224
8,228
8,062
7,941
7,824

45–49

70–71

72 or
older

12
48
137
164
525
597
668

...
10
25
29
123
126
144

...
12
33
40
141
233
270

962
948
1,035
1,233
1,235

840
787
881
909
1,161

154
159
182
200
247

319
308
349
411
540

1,066
1,104
1,146
1,212
1,239

1,230
1,235
1,261
1,302
1,353

1,222
1,234
1,264
1,283
1,299

295
295
298
308
317

651
685
724
755
762

1,288
1,358
1,498
1,615
1,611

1,448
1,484
1,540
1,615
1,783

1,355
1,383
1,417
1,486
1,564

341
351
351
341
357

812
833
851
875
915

50–54

55–59

60–61

62–64

489
555
1,221
1,249
2,180
2,614
2,934

312
377
866
958
1,704
2,265
2,627

198
218
593
646
1,266
1,660
2,128

54
64
167
176
411
518
669

47
60
161
209
506
622
753

3,252
3,166
3,825
4,911
7,007

3,405
3,266
3,371
3,875
5,143

3,029
3,167
3,252
3,249
3,882

2,510
2,603
2,924
2,938
3,071

844
871
935
1,002
1,073

8,654
8,829
8,998
9,021
9,031

7,951
8,241
8,466
8,709
8,889

6,959
7,236
7,372
7,567
7,838

4,891
5,242
5,648
5,989
6,321

3,474
3,634
3,875
4,113
4,304

8,960
8,721
8,393
8,120
8,040

9,097
9,144
9,099
9,040
8,989

8,152
8,344
8,455
8,612
8,752

6,791
7,005
7,048
7,190
7,446

4,497
4,800
5,134
5,414
5,741

65–69

Women
a

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Earnings File, 1 percent sample.
NOTES: Age refers to age attained during year.
. . . = not applicable.
a.
b.

Represents workers attaining age 65 during the year. Workers aged 65 or older were not covered under the program in that year.
Preliminary data.

CONTACT: Greg Diez (410) 965-0153 or William Kearns (410) 965-6750.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 4.21

4.B OASDI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B6—Median earnings of workers, by sex and age, selected years 1937–2004 (in dollars)
Year

Total,
all ages

Under
20

20–24

25–29

30–34

35–39

40–44

1937
1940
1945
1950
1955
1960
1965

761
746
1,159
1,926
2,438
2,894
3,414

170
140
288
385
443
561
613

570
498
669
1,376
1,601
1,917
2,326

829
764
818
1,971
2,689
3,138
3,919

998
934
1,383
2,312
3,173
3,738
4,540

1,061
1,041
1,617
2,456
3,233
3,903
4,747

1,126
1,064
1,842
2,473
3,196
3,891
4,756

1970
1975
1980
1985
1990

4,375
5,803
8,549
11,265
13,898

810
1,070
1,646
1,647
1,937

2,988
4,187
6,205
7,136
8,054

5,334
6,795
9,593
12,453
14,687

6,156
8,249
11,510
14,886
17,482

6,339
8,629
12,540
16,458
19,296

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

16,108
16,712
17,562
18,513
19,265

2,076
2,140
2,310
2,515
2,610

8,392
8,562
9,074
9,763
10,163

16,134
16,664
17,596
18,666
19,563

19,654
20,327
21,261
22,453
23,469

2000
2001
2002 b
2003 b
2004 b

20,225
20,905
21,194
21,622
22,308

2,716
2,718
2,676
2,628
2,695

10,721
10,703
10,346
10,295
10,591

20,597
20,981
20,942
21,038
21,433

24,817
25,601
25,905
26,483
27,309

45–49

70–71

72 or
older

a

512
874
1,482
1,973
1,736
1,590
1,791

...
924
1,341
1,916
1,279
1,140
1,171

...
788
1,307
1,589
1,149
1,252
1,326

5,047
6,620
9,651
11,907
13,021

2,099
2,524
4,451
5,974
6,812

1,578
2,105
3,306
4,330
5,375

1,683
2,137
3,140
3,729
4,536

19,136
19,718
20,514
21,372
22,151

12,961
13,408
14,284
15,229
15,902

7,551
7,692
8,056
8,431
8,935

5,816
6,217
6,387
6,747
6,780

4,681
4,861
5,033
5,302
5,271

26,698
27,685
28,385
29,182
30,427

22,884
23,679
24,483
25,472
26,481

16,499
17,736
18,578
19,368
20,768

9,465
10,556
11,153
11,913
12,553

7,295
7,861
8,196
8,726
9,102

5,376
5,743
5,907
6,110
6,269

50–54

55–59

60–61

62–64

1,121
1,110
2,026
2,517
3,068
3,785
4,665

1,177
1,071
1,874
2,442
2,966
3,643
4,526

1,020
1,018
1,821
2,394
2,728
3,452
4,304

1,010
978
1,782
2,492
2,525
3,166
4,087

927
963
1,739
2,252
2,427
3,052
3,767

6,357
8,725
12,690
16,984
20,664

6,292
8,810
12,784
16,849
20,958

6,105
8,748
12,794
16,528
20,157

5,831
8,299
12,309
15,831
18,584

5,473
7,779
11,606
14,724
17,163

21,629
22,311
23,279
24,345
25,173

23,468
24,116
24,979
25,971
26,788

24,690
25,317
26,264
27,390
28,315

24,090
25,176
26,415
27,609
28,643

21,320
22,083
23,398
24,688
25,577

26,385
27,228
27,728
28,350
29,538

27,814
28,544
28,996
29,511
30,563

29,403
30,128
30,344
30,939
31,966

29,529
30,414
31,010
31,591
32,771

65–69

All workers

Men
1937
1940
1945
1950
1955
1960
1965

945
935
1,654
2,532
3,315
3,879
4,685

174
147
271
402
468
615
710

647
550
422
1,566
1,871
2,116
2,609

1,117
928
813
2,465
3,450
3,942
4,957

1,202
1,143
1,983
2,918
4,079
4,831
6,055

1,286
1,289
2,245
3,102
4,201
5,175
6,481

1,338
1,306
2,405
3,131
4,159
5,167
6,519

1,308
1,320
2,364
3,156
4,005
4,954
6,369

1,232
1,238
2,319
3,018
3,818
4,702
5,921

1,137
1,153
2,170
2,959
3,512
4,416
5,581

1,131
1,088
2,106
2,812
3,201
3,982
4,993

1,008
1,058
2,000
2,618
3,044
3,812
4,784

a

563
950
1,666
2,317
2,164
2,112
2,628

...
917
1,462
2,049
1,498
1,207
1,246

...
899
1,390
1,707
1,292
1,340
1,443

1970
1975
1980
1985
1990

6,180
8,250
11,963
14,959
17,582

930
1,246
1,857
1,771
2,058

3,281
4,870
7,007
8,185
8,945

6,827
8,464
11,880
14,465
16,412

8,131
11,170
15,491
18,642
21,211

8,528
12,131
17,982
22,021
24,424

8,686
12,533
18,720
24,433
27,608

8,735
12,605
18,896
24,385
29,074

8,370
12,270
18,391
23,841
28,027

7,675
11,290
17,585
22,117
25,509

7,051
10,398
15,939
19,953
23,243

6,456
8,700
13,201
16,532
17,408

2,927
2,895
4,902
6,760
7,714

1,662
2,276
3,658
4,977
6,153

1,863
2,371
3,529
4,351
5,129

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

19,907
20,779
21,814
23,028
23,927

2,164
2,234
2,379
2,600
2,718

9,618
9,900
10,356
11,135
11,616

17,810
18,538
19,748
21,040
22,200

23,200
24,024
25,231
26,645
27,805

26,912
27,769
28,874
30,154
31,113

29,732
30,658
31,790
32,996
33,946

32,334
32,850
33,738
34,823
35,717

32,505
33,648
34,890
36,125
36,924

28,260
29,426
31,018
32,577
33,428

24,673
25,177
26,229
27,588
28,382

17,090
17,632
18,159
19,750
20,172

8,133
8,441
8,832
9,286
9,873

6,430
6,715
7,097
7,429
7,323

4,977
5,295
5,300
5,638
5,594

2000
2001
2002 b
2003 b
2004 b

25,032
25,643
25,767
26,197
27,043

2,804
2,788
2,745
2,720
2,778

12,191
12,002
11,555
11,355
11,749

23,403
23,500
23,235
23,355
23,769

29,404
30,130
30,422
30,929
31,975

32,354
33,117
33,667
34,339
35,803

35,218
35,801
36,000
36,598
37,952

36,932
37,426
37,580
38,210
39,653

37,917
38,348
38,293
38,760
40,206

34,717
35,287
35,820
36,472
37,922

28,850
29,886
30,735
31,600
32,900

21,076
21,976
22,844
23,915
25,928

10,487
12,010
12,611
13,417
14,468

7,903
8,566
8,840
9,552
9,855

5,791
6,229
6,420
6,445
6,598

(Continued)

4.22 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

4.B OASDI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B6—Median earnings of workers, by sex and age, selected years 1937–2004 (in dollars)—Continued
Year

Total,
all ages

Under
20

20–24

25–29

30–34

35–39

40–44

1937
1940
1945
1950
1955
1960
1965

484
472
770
1,124
1,351
1,679
1,984

163
127
307
362
408
484
539

477
432
811
1,153
1,312
1,558
1,852

602
530
821
1,158
1,406
1,969
2,067

621
590
871
1,196
1,430
1,718
2,069

609
599
971
1,297
1,586
1,899
2,243

604
596
1,026
1,421
1,706
2,075
2,478

1970
1975
1980
1985
1990

2,735
3,730
6,012
8,293
10,837

675
905
1,451
1,524
1,816

2,538
3,287
5,083
6,063
7,104

3,151
4,800
7,496
10,251
12,677

2,953
4,454
7,649
10,986
13,642

3,210
4,512
7,495
11,169
14,339

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

12,897
13,335
14,043
14,834
15,465

1,991
2,051
2,243
2,435
2,519

7,232
7,383
7,873
8,529
8,928

14,249
14,637
15,238
16,128
16,897

15,853
16,387
17,150
18,133
18,823

2000
2001
2002 b
2003 b
2004 b

16,287
17,037
17,463
17,865
18,414

2,638
2,649
2,613
2,549
2,619

9,454
9,536
9,324
9,345
9,587

17,774
18,341
18,531
18,673
19,047

19,893
20,736
21,207
21,763
22,388

45–49

70–71

72 or
older

a

366
607
832
1,176
1,057
1,142
1,208

...
999
766
1,399
949
1,007
1,054

...
424
928
1,232
802
1,036
1,093

3,236
4,055
6,044
7,728
9,133

1,674
2,189
3,589
4,959
5,888

1,344
1,895
2,853
3,671
4,387

1,375
1,715
2,569
3,067
3,830

14,147
14,670
15,762
16,606
17,168

9,882
10,358
11,003
11,646
12,324

6,910
6,971
7,331
7,619
8,032

5,120
5,605
5,638
5,968
6,245

4,376
4,372
4,687
4,871
4,876

17,993
18,733
19,594
20,518
21,512

12,876
14,055
15,060
15,602
16,683

8,472
9,214
9,767
10,478
10,952

6,459
7,117
7,552
7,965
8,112

4,947
5,200
5,337
5,666
5,881

50–54

55–59

60–61

62–64

589
590
1,018
1,456
1,775
2,205
2,660

576
580
987
1,410
1,768
2,290
2,715

563
562
955
1,416
1,622
2,221
2,764

585
499
946
1,370
1,542
2,040
2,678

582
577
899
1,349
1,445
1,783
2,372

3,498
4,870
7,761
11,163
15,031

3,721
5,168
7,893
11,072
14,920

3,790
5,340
8,079
10,898
14,373

3,747
5,300
7,966
10,714
13,088

3,729
5,020
7,756
10,133
12,194

16,547
17,009
17,801
18,625
19,283

18,068
18,532
19,277
20,046
20,688

18,732
19,496
20,325
21,484
22,265

17,937
18,834
19,989
21,088
22,129

16,030
16,728
17,750
18,656
19,594

20,387
21,114
21,684
22,334
23,181

21,536
22,222
22,775
23,212
24,000

23,202
24,035
24,408
24,957
25,711

23,074
24,149
25,092
25,831
26,652

20,664
21,797
22,849
23,534
24,693

65–69

Women

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Earnings File, 1 percent sample.
NOTES: The amount of median earnings includes estimates above the taxable maximum.
Age refers to age attained during year.
. . . = not applicable.
a.
b.

Earnings of workers attaining age 65 during the year. Workers aged 65 or older not covered under program in that year.
Preliminary data.

CONTACT: Greg Diez (410) 965-0153 or William Kearns (410) 965-6750.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 4.23

4.B OASDI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B7—Number of wage and salary workers, by sex and amount of taxable earnings, 1992–2004
(in thousands)
Workers with earnings below the taxable maximum (by dollar amount of earnings)

Year

Total

1–
999

1,000–
4,999

5,000–
9,999

10,000–
19,999

20,000–
29,999

30,000–
39,999

40,000–
49,999

50,000–
59,999

60,000–
69,999

70,000–
79,999,

80,000–
87,899

Workers
with
maximum
earnings

All wage and salary workers
1992
1993
1994

126,000
128,100
130,100

9,357
9,655
9,591

19,519
19,395
19,403

17,496
17,521
17,273

29,812
29,900
29,903

20,699
21,134
21,482

12,554
12,786
13,230

7,084
7,371
7,709

2,422
3,325
4,310

...
...
277

...
...
...

...
...
...

7,057
7,013
6,921

1995
1996
1997
1998

132,800
135,100
137,765
140,386

9,213
9,161
8,743
8,427

19,355
19,195
18,811
18,402

17,213
16,977
16,853
16,431

30,142
29,832
29,676
29,360

22,097
22,612
23,076
23,586

13,853
14,435
15,243
16,095

8,171
8,706
9,330
10,062

4,662
5,052
5,523
6,008

498
1,053
2,106
3,268

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

7,597
8,077
8,405
8,747

1999
2000
2001
2002 a
2003 a
2004 a

142,703
146,097
146,596
145,807
145,586
147,415

8,260
8,241
8,137
8,166
8,113
8,131

18,162
17,978
17,563
17,351
17,018
16,974

16,261
15,995
15,596
15,387
15,218
14,947

28,975
28,443
27,746
26,890
26,286
25,897

23,861
24,306
23,983
23,487
23,042
22,839

16,763
17,384
17,661
17,606
17,594
17,720

10,546
11,330
11,776
11,855
12,040
12,419

6,456
7,056
7,462
7,664
7,827
8,253

3,974
4,439
4,730
4,959
5,195
5,593

856
1,994
3,151
3,332
3,482
3,781

...
...
177
1,268
1,829
2,220

8,589
8,933
8,614
7,843
7,942
8,640

1992
1993
1994

66,543
67,673
68,481

4,171
4,429
4,350

8,743
8,665
8,548

7,726
7,740
7,546

13,773
13,875
13,836

11,128
11,270
11,360

8,069
8,074
8,211

5,109
5,224
5,372

1,868
2,527
3,243

...
...
222

...
...
...

...
...
...

5,955
5,869
5,794

1995
1996
1997
1998

69,901
70,670
71,910
73,111

4,256
4,177
4,040
3,900

8,510
8,333
8,158
7,964

7,457
7,261
7,154
6,936

13,865
13,491
13,199
12,868

11,653
11,791
11,864
11,947

8,448
8,667
8,957
9,297

5,587
5,838
6,162
6,520

3,444
3,672
3,932
4,199

388
800
1,582
2,406

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

6,292
6,641
6,862
7,074

1999
2000
2001
2002 a
2003 a
2004 a

74,376
76,033
76,303
75,711
75,444
76,287

3,848
3,858
3,851
3,937
3,913
3,893

7,894
7,822
7,754
7,704
7,602
7,534

6,892
6,788
6,693
6,667
6,562
6,505

12,595
12,241
11,985
11,683
11,405
11,225

11,942
11,958
11,629
11,250
11,006
10,798

9,565
9,755
9,763
9,608
9,497
9,436

6,711
7,070
7,170
7,064
7,094
7,233

4,456
4,734
4,907
4,927
4,939
5,127

2,895
3,170
3,268
3,341
3,440
3,671

642
1,474
2,284
2,374
2,438
2,596

...
...
136
939
1,313
1,567

6,936
7,163
6,862
6,218
6,236
6,703

1992
1993
1994

59,457
60,427
61,619

5,186
5,226
5,241

10,776
10,730
10,856

9,770
9,781
9,726

16,039
16,026
16,068

9,571
9,864
10,122

4,485
4,712
5,020

1,975
2,147
2,337

...
...
1,067

...
...
55

...
...
...

...
...
...

1,103
1,144
1,127

1995
1996
1997
1998

62,900
64,429
65,855
67,275

4,957
4,985
4,703
4,527

10,845
10,862
10,653
10,438

9,756
9,716
9,698
9,495

16,277
16,341
16,477
16,492

10,444
10,819
11,212
11,640

5,405
5,768
6,285
6,798

2,584
2,868
3,169
3,541

1,217
1,380
1,591
1,808

110
253
524
862

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

1,305
1,437
1,543
1,673

1999
2000
2001
2002 a
2003 a
2004 a

68,327
70,064
70,293
70,096
70,143
71,128

4,411
4,383
4,286
4,229
4,200
4,238

10,267
10,156
9,809
9,647
9,416
9,440

9,369
9,206
8,903
8,719
8,656
8,443

16,380
16,203
15,761
15,207
14,881
14,672

11,919
12,348
12,354
12,238
12,036
12,041

7,199
7,630
7,898
7,998
8,097
8,283

3,835
4,260
4,606
4,791
4,947
5,186

2,000
2,321
2,555
2,737
2,888
3,126

1,079
1,268
1,462
1,618
1,755
1,922

214
519
867
959
1,044
1,185

...
...
41
329
516
653

1,652
1,770
1,752
1,625
1,707
1,937

Men

Women

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Earnings File, 1 percent sample.
NOTE: . . . = not applicable.
a.

Preliminary data.

CONTACT: Greg Diez (410) 965-0153 or William Kearns (410) 965-6750.

4.24 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

4.B OASDI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B8—Number of self-employed workers, by sex and age, selected years 1951–2004
(in thousands)
Year

Total,
all ages

Under
20

20–24

25–29

30–34

35–39

55–59

60–61

62–64

65–69

70–71

72 or
older

1951
1955
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985

4,190
6,810
6,870
6,550
6,270
7,000
8,200
10,600

6
18
19
31
33
67
78
112

71
114
133
143
159
302
380
527

246
362
305
292
348
581
824
1,099

414
600
560
452
476
679
1,052
1,488

543
757
743
664
581
700
983
1,522

592
865
848
814
729
731
869
1,261

565
874
929
870
808
813
812
1,030

503
790
918
913
837
869
851
930

462
737
846
885
839
823
852
929

164
290
316
328
327
317
307
368

215
441
452
411
407
382
381
434

237
497
414
388
388
393
419
455

55
143
101
92
94
95
112
124

117
322
286
267
244
248
280
321

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

12,500
12,800
13,100
13,200
13,300

152
136
137
131
140

529
521
509
488
473

1,123
1,105
1,093
1,029
989

1,663
1,697
1,678
1,650
1,624

1,854
1,897
1,951
1,956
1,936

1,736
1,818
1,864
1,892
1,945

1,377
1,474
1,589
1,647
1,726

1,113
1,170
1,243
1,325
1,357

980
998
1,018
1,047
1,070

381
388
382
375
375

487
486
484
481
482

567
561
576
589
580

150
158
166
164
164

389
391
410
426
437

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

13,500
13,900
14,020
14,230
14,500

143
147
151
162
171

482
490
498
510
535

1,005
1,036
1,030
1,045
1,040

1,612
1,614
1,548
1,524
1,521

1,960
2,013
1,978
1,963
1,965

1,964
2,035
2,053
2,092
2,088

1,808
1,873
1,874
1,885
1,969

1,393
1,471
1,555
1,616
1,684

1,097
1,144
1,203
1,265
1,322

385
404
402
415
420

467
475
485
493
514

574
575
592
590
595

166
164
169
178
174

445
458
483
492
502

2000
2001
2002 a
2003 a
2004 a

14,675
14,930
15,181
15,700
16,169

173
173
172
173
188

554
598
615
685
725

1,016
1,036
1,040
1,092
1,142

1,495
1,526
1,540
1,599
1,581

1,948
1,907
1,858
1,868
1,876

2,093
2,113
2,136
2,160
2,163

2,014
2,042
2,101
2,132
2,165

1,785
1,825
1,860
1,899
1,966

1,345
1,421
1,531
1,571
1,680

443
457
494
537
535

522
526
548
588
659

591
610
609
654
705

180
178
165
174
186

515
519
513
568
599

1951
1955
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985

3,620
5,980
5,990
5,640
5,370
5,790
6,407
7,623

5
16
16
26
28
57
60
79

61
104
119
127
136
251
305
378

219
335
284
263
306
479
639
782

370
555
515
410
422
564
793
1,060

478
687
678
598
522
584
752
1,058

519
773
757
714
642
619
672
873

479
773
812
759
699
680
641
730

430
679
793
772
712
715
681
674

393
631
709
742
695
672
668
686

139
247
260
272
268
255
244
278

179
373
386
339
324
309
301
328

204
420
348
326
320
326
333
351

47
122
83
75
77
78
92
97

97
265
230
217
201
201
226
249

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

8,525
8,668
8,798
8,840
8,839

103
92
89
89
89

346
341
330
310
309

746
726
714
674
638

1,112
1,109
1,090
1,075
1,053

1,241
1,268
1,289
1,290
1,269

1,148
1,204
1,228
1,241
1,268

914
976
1,041
1,078
1,127

762
793
830
885
890

693
699
706
713
723

270
273
271
261
263

355
350
344
341
333

424
418
427
436
423

116
119
126
125
122

295
299
312
322
331

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

8,908
9,074
9,078
9,109
9,225

97
94
98
98
107

305
306
311
314
319

648
658
638
641
632

1,030
1,021
975
947
948

1,271
1,281
1,245
1,217
1,207

1,281
1,322
1,313
1,326
1,314

1,170
1,200
1,197
1,188
1,240

906
954
997
1,033
1,063

735
754
788
819
844

269
276
275
275
279

325
328
334
338
352

413
415
420
415
415

124
119
122
130
127

335
346
365
368
377

2000
2001
2002 a
2003 a
2004 a

9,277
9,354
9,545
9,639
9,802

106
102
103
107
111

328
345
353
383
391

604
613
596
621
638

913
912
918
929
896

1,193
1,163
1,145
1,121
1,107

1,310
1,320
1,325
1,306
1,282

1,268
1,280
1,341
1,311
1,323

1,128
1,145
1,178
1,176
1,209

856
893
975
976
1,038

294
297
324
339
338

348
349
364
381
424

415
426
426
447
480

130
129
119
125
130

383
379
377
419
437

40–44

45–49

50–54

All self-employed workers

Men

(Continued)

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 4.25

4.B OASDI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B8—Number of self-employed workers, by sex and age, selected years 1951–2004
(in thousands)—Continued
Year

Total,
all ages

Under
20

20–24

25–29

30–34

35–39

40–44

50–54

55–59

60–61

62–64

65–69

70–71

72 or
older

1951
1955
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985

570
830
880
910
900
1,210
1,793
2,977

1
2
3
5
5
10
18
33

10
10
14
16
23
51
75
149

27
27
21
29
42
102
185
317

44
45
45
42
54
115
259
428

65
70
65
66
59
116
231
464

73
92
91
100
87
112
197
388

86
101
117
111
109
133
171
300

73
111
125
141
125
154
170
256

69
106
137
143
144
151
184
243

25
43
56
56
59
62
63
90

36
68
66
72
65
73
80
106

33
77
67
62
68
67
86
104

8
21
18
17
17
17
20
27

20
57
55
50
43
47
54
72

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

3,975
4,131
4,302
4,360
4,460

49
44
48
41
51

183
180
179
178
164

377
378
380
355
352

551
588
588
575
572

613
629
662
666
667

588
614
636
651
677

463
499
548
569
599

350
376
413
440
468

287
299
312
334
346

111
115
110
114
112

132
136
140
140
148

142
143
148
153
157

34
39
39
39
42

94
92
98
104
105

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

4,592
4,826
4,942
5,121
5,276

46
54
54
65
64

177
183
188
196
216

357
377
392
404
408

582
594
572
577
573

689
733
733
746
757

683
713
739
767
773

638
673
676
697
729

487
517
558
583
621

362
390
415
445
478

116
128
128
140
141

142
147
151
155
162

161
160
172
175
180

42
45
47
48
47

109
112
118
124
126

2000
2001
2002 a
2003 a
2004 a

5,398
5,576
5,636
6,061
6,367

68
71
69
66
78

226
253
262
302
334

412
423
444
472
504

582
614
622
671
685

754
744
713
747
770

783
793
812
854
881

747
762
759
821
842

657
680
682
724
757

489
528
556
596
642

148
160
170
199
197

173
177
184
207
235

176
184
182
207
225

50
49
46
49
56

132
139
136
149
162

45–49

Women

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Earnings File, 1 percent sample.
NOTE: Age refers to age attained during year.
a.

Preliminary data.

CONTACT: Greg Diez (410) 965-0153 or William Kearns (410) 965-6750.

4.26 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

4.B OASDI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B9—Number of self-employed workers, by sex and amount of taxable earnings, 1992–2004
(in thousands)
Workers with earnings below taxable maximum (by dollar amount of earnings)

Year

Total

1–
999

1,000–
4,999

5,000–
9,999

10,000–
19,999

20,000–
29,999

30,000–
39,999

40,000–
49,999

50,000–
59,999

60,000–
69,999

70,000–
79,999

80,000–
87,899

Workers
with
maximum
earnings

All self-employed workers
1992
1993
1994
1995

13,100
13,200
13,300
13,500

593
587
551
535

2,927
2,866
2,825
2,781

2,519
2,562
2,510
2,593

2,755
2,776
2,832
2,882

1,576
1,570
1,586
1,604

971
990
1,019
1,044

612
633
645
678

308
388
426
444

...
...
92
116

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

839
828
814
822

1996
1997
1998
1999

13,900
14,020
14,230
14,500

521
522
510
485

2,791
2,716
2,643
2,573

2,667
2,674
2,675
2,688

2,964
2,966
3,011
3,075

1,650
1,669
1,717
1,756

1,092
1,100
1,157
1,191

713
737
777
804

471
489
505
535

176
278
387
384

...
...
...
162

...
...
...
...

853
869
848
848

2000
2001
2002 a
2003 a
2004 a

14,675
14,930
15,180
15,700
16,170

502
497
487
520
544

2,474
2,501
2,481
2,642
2,690

2,618
2,627
2,590
2,809
2,858

3,019
3,123
3,156
3,413
3,546

1,730
1,741
1,693
1,798
1,823

1,189
1,186
1,149
1,226
1,229

811
834
811
880
919

560
584
574
629
654

399
400
407
433
461

269
314
292
322
339

...
82
189
246
297

1,104
1,042
1,351
782
809

Men
1992
1993
1994
1995

8,798
8,840
8,839
8,908

288
291
268
256

1,603
1,559
1,511
1,492

1,606
1,632
1,552
1,581

1,936
1,927
1,958
1,964

1,145
1,141
1,153
1,152

746
760
772
782

485
500
503
521

253
316
340
356

...
...
77
96

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

734
715
705
708

1996
1997
1998
1999

9,074
9,078
9,109
9,225

247
255
247
233

1,468
1,429
1,378
1,336

1,598
1,550
1,518
1,497

1,997
1,980
1,955
1,972

1,176
1,171
1,189
1,202

807
796
831
848

545
559
584
591

367
381
389
409

141
223
309
299

...
...
...
129

...
...
...
...

729
735
710
709

2000
2001
2002 a
2003 a
2004 a

9,280
9,354
9,544
9,639
9,803

238
236
234
251
262

1,285
1,283
1,287
1,373
1,384

1,425
1,428
1,393
1,497
1,502

1,908
1,934
1,932
2,040
2,064

1,159
1,159
1,119
1,183
1,179

830
812
785
830
834

585
596
567
623
638

415
423
418
452
468

304
305
296
318
338

211
247
221
244
252

...
66
149
191
228

920
865
1,142
638
655

Women
1992
1993
1994
1995

4,302
4,360
4,460
4,592

305
296
282
280

1,323
1,308
1,314
1,289

913
930
957
1,012

819
849
873
918

431
429
435
452

225
230
246
261

127
133
142
157

55
73
85
88

...
...
15
20

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

105
113
109
114

1996
1997
1998
1999

4,826
4,942
5,121
5,276

274
267
264
251

1,323
1,287
1,265
1,237

1,069
1,125
1,157
1,191

967
985
1,056
1,103

475
499
528
554

285
303
327
343

168
178
193
212

104
108
116
126

35
55
78
85

...
...
...
33

...
...
...
...

125
134
138
139

2000
2001
2002 a
2003 a
2004 a

5,395
5,576
5,636
6,061
6,367

265
261
252
269
281

1,189
1,218
1,194
1,270
1,306

1,192
1,198
1,197
1,312
1,356

1,111
1,189
1,224
1,373
1,482

570
581
574
615
644

359
374
363
396
395

226
238
245
257
281

145
161
156
177
186

95
95
111
115
123

58
67
71
79
88

...
17
40
55
69

184
177
209
144
155

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Earnings File, 1 percent sample.
NOTES: Taxable earnings consist of self-employment income and taxable wages. See Table 2.A3.
. . . = not applicable.
a.

Preliminary data.

CONTACT: Greg Diez (410) 965-0153 or William Kearns (410) 965-6750.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 4.27

4.B OASDI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B10—Number of workers with Social Security (OASDI) taxable earnings, amount taxable, and
contributions, by state or other area and type of earnings, 2004
Number b
(thousands)

Taxable earnings c
(millions of dollars)

OASDI contributions d
(millions of dollars)

Total

Wage and
salary

Selfemployed

Total

Wage and
salary

Selfemployed

Total

Wage and
salary

Selfemployed

156,986

147,416

16,170

4,543,173

4,292,500

250,673

563,353

532,270

31,083

2,342
382
2,814
1,457
16,940

2,213
361
2,670
1,364
15,507

222
41
253
152
2,197

59,532
10,976
79,916
33,810
536,398

56,632
10,342
76,075
31,946
495,103

2,899
635
3,841
1,864
41,295

7,382
1,361
9,910
4,192
66,513

7,022
1,282
9,433
3,961
61,393

360
79
476
231
5,121

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida

2,401
1,983
507
358
9,120

2,230
1,849
487
343
8,544

294
215
35
28
983

70,544
68,302
15,506
12,734
241,359

66,097
63,570
14,981
12,033
228,927

4,447
4,732
525
701
12,432

8,747
8,469
1,923
1,579
29,928

8,196
7,883
1,858
1,492
28,387

551
587
65
87
1,542

Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana

4,581
715
761
6,627
3,618

4,315
674
717
6,246
3,460

459
68
78
674
304

129,883
20,800
18,635
201,082
99,162

123,407
19,669
17,579
190,789
94,778

6,476
1,131
1,056
10,293
4,384

16,106
2,579
2,311
24,934
12,296

15,302
2,439
2,180
23,658
11,752

803
140
131
1,276
544

Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine

1,732
1,554
2,178
2,142
780

1,619
1,465
2,051
2,008
720

200
163
228
224
96

44,853
42,347
54,542
52,311
19,461

42,124
40,088
51,881
49,374
18,050

2,729
2,259
2,661
2,937
1,411

5,562
5,251
6,763
6,487
2,413

5,223
4,971
6,433
6,122
2,238

338
280
330
364
175

Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi

3,194
3,493
5,490
3,106
1,404

3,037
3,247
5,234
2,939
1,322

284
392
463
314
139

111,335
116,037
163,074
95,280
32,701

106,537
108,717
156,686
90,496
30,863

4,798
7,320
6,388
4,784
1,838

13,806
14,389
20,221
11,815
4,055

13,211
13,481
19,429
11,222
3,827

595
908
792
593
228

Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

3,147
544
1,051
1,185
818

2,970
501
993
1,128
763

309
75
111
95
90

81,818
11,992
27,368
32,224
25,443

77,528
11,023
25,958
30,559
23,836

4,290
968
1,410
1,665
1,607

10,145
1,487
3,394
3,996
3,155

9,613
1,367
3,219
3,789
2,956

532
120
175
206
199

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

4,810
935
10,126
4,596
392

4,551
879
9,454
4,325
366

443
95
1,109
454
47

173,044
23,260
325,153
124,599
9,386

164,497
22,051
307,766
118,002
8,703

8,547
1,208
17,387
6,597
683

21,457
2,884
40,319
15,450
1,164

20,398
2,734
38,163
14,632
1,079

1,060
150
2,156
818
85

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

5,969
1,848
1,925
6,786
625

5,624
1,727
1,806
6,443
593

572
206
199
585
60

160,325
44,736
53,364
200,208
18,899

152,527
42,329
50,225
190,401
17,963

7,798
2,407
3,139
9,807
936

19,880
5,547
6,617
24,826
2,343

18,913
5,249
6,228
23,610
2,227

967
298
389
1,216
116

2,215
482
3,211
10,724
1,240

2,102
449
2,998
9,965
1,187

194
61
364
1,275
107

56,800
11,004
85,053
296,856
31,686

54,117
10,189
79,150
278,653
30,383

2,683
815
5,902
18,203
1,303

7,043
1,365
10,547
36,810
3,929

6,711
1,263
9,815
34,553
3,767

333
101
732
2,257
162

State or area a
All areas
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California

South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah

(Continued)

4.28 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

4.B OASDI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B10—Number of workers with Social Security (OASDI) taxable earnings, amount taxable, and
contributions, by state or other area and type of earnings, 2004—Continued
Number b
(thousands)

Taxable earnings c
(millions of dollars)

OASDI contributions d
(millions of dollars)

State or area a

Total

Wage and
salary

Selfemployed

Total

Wage and
salary

Selfemployed

Total

Wage and
salary

Selfemployed

Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

422
4,271
3,362
894
3,233
315

395
4,062
3,183
847
3,082
297

48
382
303
79
274
35

10,818
137,470
105,138
21,938
93,251
7,870

10,121
131,142
99,852
20,869
89,305
7,374

697
6,328
5,287
1,069
3,946
496

1,341
17,046
13,037
2,720
11,563
976

1,255
16,262
12,382
2,588
11,074
914

86
785
656
133
489
61

1,261

1,188

83

22,477

20,946

1,531

2,787

2,597

190

919

913

8

20,413

20,285

128

2,531

2,515

16

Outlying area
Puerto Rico
Other and unknown

e

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Continuous Work History Sample, 1 percent sample.
NOTE: Data are based on preliminary estimates.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

State designation based primarily on employee end-of-year residence, obtained from employer wage reports filed via magnetic media. State designation based on
location of employer for reports filed via paper.
Workers with earnings in both wage and salary employment and self-employment are counted in each type of employment but only once in the total. National and
state totals and subtotals are unduplicated counts of workers in each type of employment.
Annual maximum taxable earnings for Social Security (OASDI) from a single employer or from self-employment were $87,900 in 2004.
For 2004 earnings, paid at the rate of 6.2 percent of taxable wages by both employees and employers, 6.2 percent of taxable tips by employees, and 12.4 percent of
self-employment income by self-employed workers. Data are unadjusted for multi-employer tax refunds.
Persons employed in American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and Virgin Islands; U.S. citizens employed abroad by U.S. employers; persons employed
on U.S. oceanborne vessels; and workers with unknown residence.

CONTACT: Greg Diez (410) 965-0153 or William Kearns (410) 965-6750.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 4.29

4.B OASDI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B11—Number of workers with Social Security (OASDI) taxable earnings, amount taxable, and
contributions, by type of earnings, selected years 1937–2005
Number a
(thousands)

Taxable earnings b
(millions of dollars)

OASDI contributions c,d
(millions of dollars)

Year

Total

Wage and
salary

Selfemployed

Total

Wage and
salary

Selfemployed

Total

Wage and
salary

Selfemployed

1937
1940
1945

32,900
35,390
46,390

32,900
35,390
46,390

...
...
...

29,620
32,970
62,950

29,620
32,970
62,950

...
...
...

592
659
1,259

592
659
1,259

...
...
...

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

48,280
58,120
59,580
60,840
59,610

48,280
54,630
56,060
57,220
55,940

...
4,190
4,240
4,340
4,350

87,500
120,770
128,640
135,870
133,520

87,500
111,250
118,880
125,840
123,410

...
9,520
9,760
10,030
10,110

2,625
3,552
3,786
4,001
5,240

2,625
3,338
3,566
3,775
4,936

...
214
220
226
303

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

65,200
67,610
70,590
69,770
71,700

59,560
61,560
64,730
64,040
66,000

6,810
7,390
7,150
7,130
7,060

157,540
170,720
181,380
180,720
202,310

141,810
153,010
163,990
163,140
183,620

15,730
17,710
17,390
17,580
18,690

6,144
6,652
7,966
7,935
9,882

5,672
6,120
7,380
7,341
9,181

472
531
587
593
701

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

72,530
72,820
74,280
75,540
77,430

66,980
67,360
68,890
70,310
72,230

6,870
6,790
6,720
6,590
6,480

207,000
209,640
219,050
225,550
236,390

188,580
190,850
200,130
206,840
217,430

18,420
18,790
18,920
18,710
18,960

12,144
12,297
13,397
16,006
16,788

11,315
11,451
12,508
14,996
15,764

829
846
889
1,010
1,024

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

80,680
84,600
87,040
89,380
92,060

75,430
79,460
82,020
84,470
87,200

6,550
6,630
6,470
6,570
6,350

250,730
312,540
329,960
375,800
402,510

230,830
287,860
305,670
348,500
375,010

19,900
24,680
24,290
27,300
27,500

17,810
23,597
25,275
28,069
33,233

16,735
22,165
23,842
26,486
31,501

1,075
1,431
1,433
1,583
1,733

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

93,090
93,340
96,240
99,830
101,330

88,180
88,460
91,220
94,610
96,190

6,270
6,290
6,600
7,100
7,040

415,580
426,950
484,150
561,850
636,800

388,680
399,550
452,050
523,450
594,400

26,900
27,400
32,100
38,400
42,400

34,344
38,649
43,804
53,463
61,814

32,649
36,759
41,589
50,775
58,846

1,695
1,891
2,215
2,688
2,968

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

100,200
102,600
105,800
110,600
112,700

94,900
97,230
100,450
104,810
106,900

7,000
7,400
7,480
8,040
8,200

664,700
737,700
816,600
915,600
1,067,000

621,100
689,200
763,600
856,100
997,500

43,600
48,500
53,000
59,500
69,500

64,541
71,626
79,306
90,691
106,246

61,489
68,231
75,596
86,466
101,346

3,052
3,395
3,710
4,225
4,900

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

113,000
113,000
111,800
112,100
116,300

107,200
107,300
105,800
105,900
109,900

8,200
8,250
8,550
9,200
9,900

1,180,700
1,294,100
1,365,300
1,454,100
1,608,800

1,109,000
1,220,000
1,290,000
1,369,000
1,515,000

71,700
74,100
75,300
85,100
93,800

117,729
136,468
145,382
154,703
183,403

112,674
130,540
139,320
147,852
172,710

5,055
5,928
6,062
6,851
10,693

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

119,800
122,900
125,600
129,600
131,700

113,400
115,900
118,200
122,100
123,900

10,600
11,200
12,000
12,400
12,900

1,722,600
1,844,400
1,960,000
2,088,400
2,239,500

1,621,000
1,730,800
1,835,100
1,952,000
2,096,000

101,600
113,600
124,900
136,400
143,500

196,376
210,262
223,440
253,114
271,427

184,794
197,311
209,201
236,582
254,035

11,582
12,950
14,239
16,532
17,392

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

133,600
133,000
134,000
136,100
138,200

126,100
125,200
126,000
128,100
130,100

12,500
12,800
13,100
13,200
13,300

2,358,000
2,422,500
2,532,900
2,636,100
2,785,200

2,222,000
2,283,000
2,386,000
2,483,400
2,624,500

136,000
139,500
146,900
152,700
160,700

292,392
300,390
314,080
326,876
345,365

275,528
283,092
295,864
307,942
325,438

16,864
17,298
18,216
18,935
19,927
(Continued)

4.30 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

4.B OASDI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B11—Number of workers with Social Security (OASDI) taxable earnings, amount taxable, and
contributions, by type of earnings, selected years 1937–2005—Continued
Number a
(thousands)

Taxable earnings b
(millions of dollars)

OASDI contributions c,d
(millions of dollars)

Year

Total

Wage and
salary

Selfemployed

Total

Wage and
salary

Selfemployed

Total

Wage and
salary

Selfemployed

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

141,000
143,400
146,145
148,786
151,333

132,800
135,100
137,765
140,386
142,703

13,500
13,900
14,020
14,230
14,500

2,919,100
3,073,500
3,285,000
3,524,900
3,749,600

2,754,300
2,901,700
3,104,300
3,333,700
3,547,300

164,800
171,800
180,700
191,200
202,300

361,968
381,114
407,340
437,088
464,950

341,533
359,811
384,933
413,379
439,865

20,435
21,303
22,407
23,709
25,085

2000
2001
2002 e
2003 e
2004 f
2005 g

154,732
155,416
154,818
154,946
156,986
159,703

146,097
146,596
145,808
145,586
147,416
150,100

14,675
14,930
15,180
15,700
16,170
16,239

4,008,500
4,167,900
4,248,400
4,363,900
4,543,173
4,769,020

3,798,400
3,950,100
4,022,000
4,125,800
4,292,500
4,507,200

210,100
217,800
226,400
238,100
250,673
261,820

497,054
516,820
526,802
541,124
563,353
591,358

471,002
489,812
498,728
511,599
532,270
558,893

26,052
27,007
28,074
29,524
31,083
32,466

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Earnings File, 1 percent sample; Bureau of Economic Analysis; Bureau of Labor Statistics.
NOTE: . . . = not applicable.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

Workers with earnings in both wage and salary employment and self-employment are counted in each type of employment but only once in the total.
See Table 2.A3 for annual maximum taxable earnings.
See Table 2.A3 for contribution rates.
Unadjusted for multi-employer tax refunds. Unadjusted for tax credits. See Table 2.A5 for information on tax credits.
Preliminary data.
Taxable earnings are preliminary estimates based on Social Security data; employment data are preliminary estimates based on data from Bureau of Labor Statistics
and the National Income and Product Accounts.
Preliminary estimates based on data from Bureau of Labor Statistics and Bureau of Economic Analysis.

CONTACT: Greg Diez (410) 965-0153 or William Kearns (410) 965-6750.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 4.31

4.B HI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B12—Number of workers with Medicare Part A (HI) taxable earnings, amount taxable, and
contributions, by state or other area and type of earnings, 2004
Number b
(thousands)

Taxable earnings c
(millions of dollars)

HI contributions d
(millions of dollars)

Total

Wage and
salary

Selfemployed

Total

Wage and
salary

Selfemployed

Total

Wage and
salary

Selfemployed

160,657

151,230

16,875

5,560,934

5,185,000

375,934

161,267

150,365

10,902

2,356
410
2,827
1,465
17,759

2,228
389
2,683
1,372
16,360

229
42
267
156
2,291

67,599
14,018
90,785
36,935
715,157

62,630
13,190
85,074
34,668
653,548

4,970
828
5,711
2,267
61,609

1,960
407
2,633
1,071
20,740

1,816
383
2,467
1,005
18,953

144
24
166
66
1,787

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida

2,568
2,024
509
366
9,188

2,405
1,892
489
351
8,614

307
231
36
30
1,021

89,412
102,791
17,564
17,550
293,463

83,110
93,283
16,720
15,677
275,909

6,302
9,508
844
1,873
17,554

2,593
2,981
509
509
8,510

2,410
2,705
485
455
8,001

183
276
24
54
509

Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana

4,688
736
765
6,871
3,637

4,426
696
721
6,500
3,479

479
70
80
708
316

156,138
24,071
20,158
257,420
109,507

146,669
22,564
18,989
241,212
103,529

9,469
1,507
1,169
16,208
5,978

4,528
698
585
7,465
3,176

4,253
654
551
6,995
3,002

275
44
34
470
173

Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine

1,739
1,563
2,230
2,308
810

1,626
1,474
2,105
2,181
753

205
170
236
230
98

48,683
47,850
62,643
64,235
22,931

45,608
44,883
58,507
60,501
21,323

3,075
2,967
4,136
3,735
1,607

1,412
1,388
1,817
1,863
665

1,323
1,302
1,697
1,755
618

89
86
120
108
47

Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi

3,246
3,713
5,518
3,122
1,412

3,090
3,484
5,262
2,955
1,330

303
420
488
329
142

136,750
155,332
186,151
108,721
35,190

128,808
144,531
177,752
102,938
32,884

7,942
10,801
8,399
5,783
2,306

3,966
4,505
5,398
3,153
1,021

3,735
4,191
5,155
2,985
954

230
313
244
168
67

Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

3,215
547
1,057
1,248
829

3,041
505
999
1,194
774

319
76
115
99
95

95,186
13,019
30,545
40,438
30,226

88,818
11,797
28,625
38,008
28,224

6,368
1,222
1,920
2,431
2,002

2,760
378
886
1,173
877

2,576
342
830
1,102
818

185
35
56
70
58

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

4,833
945
10,162
4,613
394

4,573
890
9,487
4,342
369

479
96
1,169
474
48

223,294
25,507
434,971
141,451
10,005

208,020
23,894
395,998
132,553
9,285

15,275
1,613
38,973
8,898
720

6,476
740
12,614
4,102
290

6,033
693
11,484
3,844
269

443
47
1,130
258
21

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

6,443
1,866
1,935
6,831
634

6,127
1,745
1,816
6,488
602

591
211
204
619
63

205,612
49,061
59,344
234,427
22,229

195,373
46,312
55,335
220,216
20,877

10,239
2,749
4,009
14,211
1,352

5,963
1,423
1,721
6,798
645

5,666
1,343
1,605
6,386
605

297
80
116
412
39

2,223
486
3,232
11,268
1,250

2,109
452
3,019
10,529
1,197

201
63
378
1,317
113

62,728
11,870
99,561
368,475
37,078

59,097
10,978
90,211
343,441
34,866

3,631
892
9,350
25,034
2,212

1,819
344
2,887
10,686
1,075

1,714
318
2,616
9,960
1,011

105
26
271
726
64

State or area a
All areas
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California

South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah

(Continued)

4.32 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

4.B HI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B12—Number of workers with Medicare Part A (HI) taxable earnings, amount taxable, and
contributions, by state or other area and type of earnings, 2004—Continued
Number b
(thousands)

Taxable earnings c
(millions of dollars)

HI contributions d
(millions of dollars)

State or area a

Total

Wage and
salary

Selfemployed

Total

Wage and
salary

Selfemployed

Total

Wage and
salary

Selfemployed

Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

424
4,303
3,390
901
3,245
318

397
4,093
3,211
855
3,093
300

49
403
318
80
286
36

11,919
161,025
122,867
23,872
106,101
9,219

11,129
151,344
115,978
22,426
101,266
8,501

790
9,681
6,888
1,446
4,835
719

346
4,670
3,563
692
3,077
267

323
4,389
3,363
650
2,937
247

23
281
200
42
140
21

1,298

1,225

83

24,868

23,108

1,760

721

670

51

938

932

8

24,980

24,815

165

724

720

5

Outlying area
Puerto Rico
Other and unknown

e

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Continuous Work History Sample, 1 percent sample.
NOTE: Data are based on preliminary estimates.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

State designation based primarily on employee end-of-year residence, obtained from employer wage reports filed via magnetic media. State designation based on
location of employer for reports filed via paper.
Workers with earnings in both wage and salary employment and self-employment are counted in each type of employment but only once in the total. National and
state totals and subtotals are unduplicated counts of workers in each type of employment.
No annual maximum taxable earnings amount for Medicare.
For 2004 earnings, paid at the rate of 1.45 percent of taxable wages by both employees and employers, 1.45 percent of taxable tips by employees, and 2.9 percent of
self-employment income by self-employed workers.
Persons employed in American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and Virgin Islands; U.S. citizens employed abroad by U.S. employers; persons employed
on U.S. oceanborne vessels; and workers with unknown residence.

CONTACT: Greg Diez (410) 965-0153 or William Kearns (410) 965-6750.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 4.33

4.B OASDI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B13—Social Security (OASDI) taxable earnings, by sex and age, 2004
Sex

Total,
all ages

Under 20

20–29

4,543,173
2,752,443
1,790,730

44,018
23,300
20,717

625,762
352,734
273,028

30–39

40–49

50–59

60–61

62–64

65–69

70 or older

116,233
73,535
42,698

113,320
72,413
40,907

78,463
51,813
26,650

44,650
30,327
14,323

3
3
2

2
3
2

2
2
1

1
1
1

100
63
37

100
64
36

100
66
34

100
68
32

Social Security (OASDI) taxable earnings (in millions of dollars)
All workers
Men
Women

1,124,685
690,614
434,072

1,366,562
835,700
530,863

1,029,434
621,981
407,453

Percentage distribution, by age
All workers
Men
Women

100
100
100

1
1
1

14
13
15

25
25
24

30
30
30

23
23
23

Percentage distribution, by sex
All workers
Men
Women

100
61
39

100
53
47

100
56
44

100
61
39

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Earnings File, 1 percent sample.
CONTACT: Greg Diez (410) 965-0153 or William Kearns (410) 965-6750.

4.34 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

100
61
39

100
60
40

4.B HI: Covered Workers
Table 4.B14—Medicare Part A (HI) taxable earnings, by sex and age, 2004
Sex

Total,
all ages

Under 20

20–29

5,560,934
3,566,774
1,994,160

44,053
23,299
20,754

653,133
369,166
283,968

30–39

40–49

50–59

60–61

62–64

65–69

70 or older

159,370
112,222
47,148

148,481
103,316
45,165

105,864
76,778
29,087

61,181
45,213
15,968

3
3
2

3
3
2

2
2
1

1
1
1

100
70
30

100
70
30

100
73
27

100
74
26

Medicare Part A (HI) taxable earnings (in millions of dollars)
All workers
Men
Women

1,296,147
818,405
477,742

1,720,090
1,112,875
607,215

1,372,549
905,464
467,085

Percentage distribution, by age
All workers
Men
Women

100
100
100

1
1
1

12
10
14

23
23
24

31
31
30

25
25
23

Percentage distribution, by sex
All workers
Men
Women

100
64
36

100
53
47

100
57
43

100
63
37

100
65
35

100
66
34

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Earnings File, 1 percent sample.
CONTACT: Greg Diez (410) 965-0153 or William Kearns (410) 965-6750.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 4.35

4.C OASDI: Insured Workers
Table 4.C1—Estimated number, by insured status, December 31, 1940–2006 (in millions)
Workers fully insured for retirement benefits, survivor benefits, or both
Not permanently
insured

Workers
insured for
disability benefits

Year

Total

Permanently
insured

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

24.2
25.8
28.1
29.9
31.9

1.1
1.4
1.8
2.3
2.8

23.1
24.4
26.3
27.6
29.1

...
...
...
...
...

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

33.4
35.4
37.3
38.9
40.1

3.4
8.6
11.6
13.2
14.9

30.0
26.8
25.7
25.7
25.2

...
...
...
...
...

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

59.8
62.8
68.2
71.0
70.2

21.0
22.9
25.6
27.7
29.9

38.8
39.9
42.7
43.4
40.4

...
...
...
...
31.9

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

70.5
74.0
76.1
76.5
76.7

32.5
36.1
38.3
40.3
42.2

38.0
38.0
37.9
36.2
34.6

35.4
37.2
38.4
43.4
46.4

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

84.4
88.5
89.8
91.3
92.8

47.6
53.3
54.9
56.6
58.3

36.8
35.3
34.8
34.7
34.5

48.5
50.5
51.5
52.3
53.3

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

94.8
97.2
99.9
102.6
105.7

60.2
61.9
63.3
64.5
66.1

34.6
35.3
36.6
38.1
39.5

55.0
55.7
56.9
70.1
72.4

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

108.4
110.9
113.5
116.9
120.3

67.4
68.6
69.9
71.3
72.8

41.0
42.4
43.7
45.6
47.5

74.5
76.1
77.8
80.4
83.3

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

123.2
126.1
129.1
133.4
137.4

74.4
76.2
78.2
80.4
83.1

48.8
49.9
50.9
53.0
54.3

85.3
87.0
89.3
93.7
98.0

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

140.5
143.0
144.8
146.6
148.3

85.4
88.1
90.8
94.1
96.9

55.0
54.9
54.0
52.5
51.4

100.3
102.6
104.5
105.4
107.1

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

151.0
153.3
155.8
158.3
161.5

100.1
103.4
107.4
110.7
113.7

50.8
49.9
48.3
47.7
47.8

109.6
111.6
113.5
115.7
118.1

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

164.0
165.8
167.4
169.3
170.9

116.4
118.6
121.1
123.7
126.0

47.6
47.2
46.4
45.6
44.9

120.1
121.5
122.9
124.4
126.2
(Continued)

4.36 ♦ Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

4.C OASDI: Insured Workers
Table 4.C1—Estimated number, by insured status, December 31, 1940–2006 (in millions)—Continued
Workers fully insured for retirement benefits, survivor benefits, or both
Not permanently
insured

Workers
insured for
disability benefits

Year

Total

Permanently
insured

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

173.2
175.4
177.9
180.4
182.9

128.4
131.0
133.8
136.4
138.7

44.8
44.4
44.0
44.0
44.3

128.2
130.3
132.4
134.7
137.1

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006

185.5
187.9
189.7
191.5
193.1
195.1
197.1

140.7
142.7
144.5
146.7
148.6
150.6
152.5

44.8
45.2
45.2
44.8
44.4
44.5
44.6

139.5
141.8
142.9
143.9
145.3
147.3
149.1

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Continuous Work History Sample, 1 percent sample.
NOTES: Figures are subject to revision.
. . . = not applicable.
CONTACT: Jeff Kunkel (410) 965-3013.

Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 ♦ 4.37

4.C OASDI: Insured Workers
Table 4.C2—Estimated number, insured status, sex, and age, December 31, 1970–2006, selected years
(in thousands)
Year

Total,
all ages Under 20

20–24

25–29

30–34

35–39

40–44

45–49

50–54

55–59

60–64

65–69

70–74

75 or
older

Fully insured for retirement benefits, survivor benefits, or both
Total
1970
1975
1980
1985

108,415
123,230
140,475
150,955

4,104
5,304
6,558
4,301

14,972
16,938
19,154
17,726

12,704
17,056
19,269
20,773

10,156
12,716
17,201
19,297

9,220
10,148
12,784
17,112

9,686
9,238
10,241
12,777

10,028
9,606
9,211
10,213

9,172
9,719
9,403
9,044

7,925
8,634
9,270
9,018

6,686
7,525
8,244
8,838

5,262
6,227
6,984
7,538

3,798
4,405
5,219
5,915

4,703
5,714
6,937
8,402

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

163,958
165,825
167,446
169,253
170,884

4,805
4,325
3,960
3,743
3,753

16,449
16,436
16,143
15,770
15,242

20,458
19,964
19,388
18,878
18,549

21,102
21,324
21,350
21,399
21,245

19,312
19,794
20,305
20,649
20,984

17,146
17,429
17,758
18,271
18,789

12,713
13,741
14,484
15,209
16,065

10,055
10,481
11,115
11,660
12,153

8,755
8,815
9,005
9,268
9,479

8,728
8,607
8,513
8,535
8,412

8,161
8,123
8,167
8,213
8,143

6,397
6,612
6,765
6,867
7,028

9,878
10,174
10,494
10,792
11,043

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

173,203
175,401
177,864
180,380
182,921

3,983
4,226
4,377
4,641
4,860

14,811
14,586
14,725
15,018
15,399

18,600
18,554
18,432
18,169
17,844

20,848
20,355
19,824
19,372
19,122

21,260
21,439
21,493
21,596
21,489

19,329
19,800
20,313
20,661
21,021

17,027
17,312
17,641
18,146
18,683

12,506
13,532
14,263
14,975
15,811

9,741
10,165
10,790
11,323
11,809

8,513
8,544
8,820
9,093
9,244

8,135
8,098
8,069
7,985
8,025

7,082
7,062
7,097
7,105
7,047

11,368
11,730
12,021
12,298
12,567

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006

185,469
187,894
189,684
191,481
193,068
195,111
197,095

4,930
4,841
4,429
3,961
3,875
3,857
3,869

15,901
16,316
16,568
16,629
16,221
15,947
15,675

17,371
17,151
17,187
17,403
17,625
18,073
18,514

19,211
19,216
19,119
18,865
18,505
18,071
17,764

21,160
20,716
20,200
19,748
19,499
19,492
19,539

21,330
21,563
21,648
21,706
21,630
21,323
20,866

19,215
19,699
20,182
20,566
20,929
21,254
21,478

16,729
17,106
17,401
17,829
18,359
18,900
19,424

12,182
13,067
13,856
14,556
15,355
16,222
16,726

9,533
9,989
10,508
11,148
11,521
11,923
12,622

8,052
8,196
8,353
8,653
8,899
9,148
9,522

7,049
7,009
6,981
6,933
6,992
7,042
7,162

12,806
13,025
13,253
13,485
13,661
13,858
13,934

Male
1970
1975
1980
1985

62,945
69,314
76,637
80,711

2,702
3,210
3,700
2,325

8,563
9,376
10,223
9,402

7,108
9,228
10,198
10,872

5,861
7,153
9,312
10,232

5,431
5,847
7,119
9,229

5,681
5,368
5,788
7,027

5,766
5,543
5,247
5,680

5,297
5,527
5,338
5,074

4,694
4,920
5,213
5,050

3,905
4,279
4,568
4,845

3,025
3,426
3,763
3,992

2,172
2,413
2,752
3,067

2,742
3,024
3,416
3,917

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

86,458
87,217
87,865
88,555
89,232

2,568
2,303
2,077
1,958
1,962

8,653
8,614
8,468
8,246
7,958

10,722
10,467
10,159
9,876
9,688

11,052
11,171
11,185
11,218
11,133

10,177
10,408
10,668
10,831
10,992

9,128
9,215
9,344
9,584
9,842

6,886
7,406
7,757
8,094
8,504

5,518
5,717
6,037
6,299
6,535

4,851
4,876
4,964
5,089
5,174

4,783
4,712
4,661
4,646
4,586

4,336
4,316
4,335
4,331
4,296

3,298
3,409
3,484
3,539
3,618

4,487
4,604
4,726
4,845
4,945

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

90,208
91,121
92,164
93,244
94,342

2,078
2,177
2,255
2,387
2,503

7,680
7,544
7,589
7,707
7,860

9,685
9,634
9,533
9,374
9,175

10,928
10,660
10,363
10,100
9,945

11,121
11,201
11,216
11,264
11,196

10,112
10,350
10,608
10,772
10,940

8,966
9,067
9,202
9,444
9,712 </