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‫‪  ‬‬

‫ﺍا ﺬﻭوﺭر ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﻒ‬
‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻱي ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق ﻭوﺳﻂ‪  ‬‬
‫ﺗﻴﻤﻮﺭر ﻮﺭرﺍاﻥن‬

‫‪Legal Roots of Economic‬‬
‫‪Underdevelopment in the Middle east‬‬
‫‪Timur Kuran‬‬
‫ﺃأﺳﺘﺎﺫذ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد ﻭوﺍاﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡم ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺪﺭرﺍاﺳﺎﺕت ﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺩدﻭوﻙك‪  .‬‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺸﺆﻭوﻥن ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻕق ﻭوﺳﻂ‪  .‬‬
‫ﻌﺘ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻤﺎﺀء ﺍاﻟ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺇإﻟ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﻮﻥن ﻣﺠﺎﻝل ‪  ‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎﺗﻪﮫ‪  :‬ﺳﻼﻡم ﻭوﺣﺐ ﺍاﻟ ﻭوﺓة‪  ..‬ﺍاﳌﺂﺯزﻕق ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺟ ﺎﺕت‪  ‬ﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ؛ ﻓ ﺍاﻕق ﺍاﻟﻘﺪﻳﻢ‪  ..‬ﻛﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺃأﺩدﺕت ﺍاﻟﺸﺮ ﻌﺔ ﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺇإ ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق ﻭوﺳﻂ؛ ﺍا ﻴﺎﺓة ﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭو ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﺇإﺳﻄﻨﺒﻮﻝل ﺇإﺑﺎﻥن ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺴﺎ ﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‪  ..‬ﳌﺤﺎﺕت ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﻼﺕت ﺍاﳌﺤﺎﻛﻢ )ﺗﺤﺮ ﺮ‪ ،‬ﻋﺸﺮﺓة ﺃأﺟﺰﺍاﺀء(‪  .‬ﻭو ﻌﻤﻞ ﻮﺭرﺍاﻥن ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻋ ﻣﺸﺮﻭوﻉع ﻛﺘﺎﺏب‬

‫ﻳ ﻨﺎﻭوﻝل ﺗﺄﺛ ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻋ‬

‫ﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻧﻤﺎﻁط ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق ﻭوﺳﻂ‪  .‬‬

‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ‪  :‬ﻋ ﺍا ﺎﺭرﺱس‪  ‬‬
‫‪  ‬‬
‫‪6‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﻟﻐﺎﺯز ﺍاﻟﺼﻌﺒﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﻳﺼﺎﺩدﻓ ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﺮﺃأ ﺗﺎﺭر ﺦ ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪   :‬ﺍاﻟﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺳﻘﻂ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق‬
‫ﻭوﺳﻂ‬

‫ﺎﻭو ﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﺨﻠﻒ‬

‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻱي؛ ﻓﺈﺫذﺍا ﺭرﺟﻌﻨﺎ ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻧﺠﺪ‬

‫ﻭوﺭرﻭو ﻴ ﻥن ﻭو ﻢ‬

‫ﻣﻨﺪ ﺸﻮﻥن ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺍاﻕق ﺍاﻟﻜ ﻯى )ﺍاﻟﺒﺎﺯزﺍاﺭرﺍاﺕت(‪  ‬ﺍاﻟ ﺍاﺷ ﺮﺕت ﺎ ﺬﻩ ﺍاﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜ ﻢ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻠﻘﻮﺍا ﺑﺎﻻ ﺇإ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣ ﺎ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ‪  ‬ﺍاﻟ ﺎﻧﺖ ﺴ ﻨﺪ ﻋ ﺳﻼﻡم ﻧﻮ ٍﺍاﺡح ﻣ ﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻮﺩدﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍاﻟ ﻭوﺓة‪   .‬ﻭو ﺃأﻭوﺍاﺧﺮ ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن ﺍاﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺍاﺷﺘﺪ ﺃأﺯزﺭر ﺍاﻟﺜﻮﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻐﺮﺏب ﻓﺒﺪﺃأ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق ﻭوﺳﻂ ﺗﻈ ﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪﮫ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﺍاﻟ ﺴ ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺣﻴ ﺎ ﺎﻧﺖ ﺃأﻭوﺭرﻭو ﺎ ﺍاﻟﻐﺮ ﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻤﻮ ﺑﻮﺗ ﺓة ﺃأﺳﺮﻉع‬
‫ﺑﻜﺜ ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺗﻮﺳﻌﺖ ﺍاﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓة ﺍاﻟ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﺑ ﻥن ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﻮ ﻥن ﺍاﳌﻌ ﺸﻴ ﻥن‬

‫ﺎﺗ ﻥن ﺍاﳌﻨﻄﻘﺘ ﻥن‪  .‬‬

‫ﺸﻴﻊ ﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩد ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺑﺄﻥن ﺳﻼﻡم ﺃأﺩدﻯى ﺇإ ﺗﺨﻠﻒ ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق ﻭوﺳﻂ ﺴ ﺐ ﺗﺜ ﻴﻄﻪﮫ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﺭرﺓة‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭر ﻋ ﻧﺤﻮ‬
‫‪  ‬‬
‫ﻭو ﺑﺘ ﺎﺭر‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍاﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭر ﺍاﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ﺸ ﺪ ﺑﺄﻥن ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق ﻭوﺳﻂ ﺎﻥن ﺣﻴ ﺎ ﻳﺮﺣﺐ‬
‫ﻣ ﻮﻅظ‪ ،‬ﻓ ﺎﻥن ﺭرﺟﺎﻝل ﻋﻤﺎﻝل‬
‫ﺍاﳌﻼﻳ ﻥن ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﺱس‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق ﻭوﺳﻂ ﻴﻤﻨﻮﻥن ﻋ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍاﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍاﳌﺤﺎﺫذﻳﺔ ﻟﻪﮫ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻧﺘﻘﻞ‬

‫ﺃأﻓﺮ ﻘﻴﺎ ﻭوﺁآﺳﻴﺎ ﺇإ‬

‫ﺳﻼﻡم ﺪﻑف ﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩدﺓة ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺒ ﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭر ﺔ‬

‫ﻟﻺﺳﻼﻡم؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺇإﻥن ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق ﻭوﺳﻂ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻮﺻﺪ ﺃأﺑﻮﺍاﺑﻪﮫ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ‬

‫ﻭوﺟﻪﮫ ﺑﺘ ﺎﺭر‪ ،‬ﻓﺨﻼﻝل ﻟﻔﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﺳﺒﻘﺖ ﺍاﻟﺜﻮﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺎﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﻐﻴ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍا ﺪﻭوﺙث‬

‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻀﺮ ﺒﺔ ﻭو‬

‫ﺍا ﻮﻛﻤﺔ‪  .‬‬

‫ﺃأﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺬﻩ ﺍاﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺗﺘﺨﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍاﻟﻐﺮﺏب ﻓﻠ ﺲ ﺍاﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪﮫ ﺍاﳌﺤﺎﻓﻈﻲ ﺃأﻭو ﻣﻌﺎﺩدﺍاﺓة ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭرﺓة‪ ،‬ﻭوﺇإﻧﻤﺎ ﻮ‬
‫ﻓﺸﻞ ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻓﺎﳌﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭر ﺔ‬

‫ﻊﻋ‬

‫ﺇإﻧﺘﺎﺝج ﻣﺤﻔﺰﺍاﺕت‬

‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد ﺍا ﺎﺹص‪،‬‬

‫ﺑﺘ ﺎﺭر ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق ﻭوﺳﻂ ﺍاﺳﺘﻤﺮﺕت ﺩدﻭوﻥن ﻐﻴ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍاﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭر ﺍاﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﻌﺼﺮ‬

‫ﺍا ﺪﻳﺚ ﻷﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭر ﻭوﺍاﳌﻨﺘﺠ ﻥن ﻭوﺍاﳌﺴ ﺜﻤﺮ ﻦ ﺎﻧﻮﺍا ﻳﻔﺘﻘ ‪  ‬ﺮﻭوﻥن ﺇإ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻐﻴ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﺎﻥن ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻧﻪﮫ ﺃأﻥن ﻳﻀﻊ ﺃأﺳﺲ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد ﺍاﻟﺼﻨﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻀﻤﻨﺖ ﺍاﻟﺜﻮﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋ‬

‫ﺳﺒﺎﺏب ﺍاﻟ ﺗﺪﻓﻌ ﻢ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍاﳌﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺬﻩ ﺍاﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪  .‬‬

‫ﻧﺘﺎﺝج ﺴﻌﺎﺕت ﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻡم ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕت ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓة‪،‬‬

‫ﻭو ﺎﻧﺖ ﺃأﻭوﺭرﻭو ﺎ ﺍاﻟﻐﺮ ﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻠﺖ ﻓﻌﻼ ﺇإ ﺗﻄﻮ ﺮ ﺍاﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻼﺯزﻣﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓ ﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺸﺎﺭر ﻊ ﺗﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺤﺮ ﻚ ﻣﺪﺧﺮﺍاﺕت ﺑﺄﺭرﻗﺎﻡم ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭوﺻ ﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻘﻴﺪﺓة ﺑﺄﻣﺪ ﻣﺤﺪﻭوﺩد‪   .‬ﻭوﻋ ﺍاﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃأﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﺇإ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺒﺪ ﻴﺎﺕت‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻤﺜﻞ‬

‫ﺍاﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﻛﺒ ﺓة ﺗﺘﻮﻻ ﺎ ﺷﺮ ﺎﺕت ﻏ‬

‫ﺬﻩ ﻣ ﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕت‬

‫ﺫذﻟﻚ ﺍا ﻥن ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺎ ﻛﺒ ﺍا‬
‫‪6‬‬

‫ﻳﻮﻣﻨﺎ ﺬﺍا ﻋ ﺃأ ﺎ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق ‪  ‬ﻭوﺳﻂ‪  .‬ﻭو ﻨﻤﺎ ﺎﻥن ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺴ ﻞ‬

‫ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍاﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﺍا ﺪﻳﺪﺓة ﺴ ﻮﻟﺔ ﺑ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍاﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺃأﺗﺎﺣﺖ ﻟﻠﻐﺮﺏب‬
‫ﺍاﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻡم ﺍاﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕت ﺍا ﺪﻳﺪﺓة ﺑﻜﻔﺎﺀءﺓة ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﻘﻠ ﺎ ﺑﻤﺤﺾ ﺍاﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ؛ ﻓﺴﻮﻕق ﺳ ﻢ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬

‫ﺟﺮﺍاﺀءﺍاﺕت‬

‫ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭر ﺔ ﺍاﳌﻌﻘﺪﺓة‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﳌ ﻦ ﺍاﻟﺴﺎﻧﺪﺓة ﺍاﳌﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭوﺍاﳌﺪﺍاﺭرﺱس ﺍاﻟ ﺗﺘﻮ ﺗﺪﺭر ﺐ ﺍاﳌ ﻨﻴ ﻥن‪  .‬ﻭو ﻨﻤﺎ ﺎﻥن ﺍاﻟﻐﺮﺏب ﻳﺘﻘﺪﻡم ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺎﻥن ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق ﻭوﺳﻂ ﻌﺎ ﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺎﺏب ﺑ ﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﺩدﺭرﺓة ﻋ ﺇإﺳﻨﺎﺩد ﺷﺮ ﺎﺕت ﻛﺒ ﺓة ﺫذﺍاﺕت ﺍاﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍاﺭر ﺔ ﻃﻮ ﻠﺔ‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭوﺣﻠﺖ ﺧﻤﺴﻴ ﻴﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻭوﺍاﳌﺴ ﺜﻤﺮﻭوﻥن‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق ﻭوﺳﻂ ﻻ ﻳﺰﺍاﻟﻮ ‪  ‬ﻥن ﻳﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﻮﻥن‬

‫ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭر ﻭوﺍاﳌﻨﺘﺠ ﻥن ﻋ ﺷﺮﺍا ﺎﺕت ﺇإﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺘﻐ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﺮ ﺒﺎ‪  .‬ﻭوﻋ ﺍاﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃأﻥن ﺍاﻟﺸﺮ ﻌﺔ ﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﺍاﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق ﻭوﺳﻂ ﺣ ﻭوﻗﺖ ﻏ ﻌﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﺩد‬

‫ﻢ ﺃأﻭو ﻣﺪﺓة ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﺍاﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍاﻟﻮﺍاﻗﻊ ﺍاﻟﻌﻤ‬

‫ﺸ ﺇإ ﺃأﻥن ﻋﺪﺩد ﺍاﻟﺸﺮ ﺎﺀء ﺍاﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺴﺎ ﻤﻮﻥن ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺃأﻭو‬

‫ﺑﺮﺃأﺱس ﺍاﳌﺎﻝل ﻟﻢ ﻳ ﻮﻧﻮﺍا ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭوﺯزﻭوﻥن ﺛﻨ ﻥن‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﺩدﺓة‪ ،‬ﻭوﻧﺎﺩدﺭرﺍا ﻣﺎ ﺎﻧﻮﺍا ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭوﺯزﻭوﻥن ﺍاﻟﺴﺘﺔ؛ ‪  ‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺩدﺭرﺟﺖ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﺩدﺓة ﻋ ﺃأﻥن ﺗ ﻮﻥن ﻣﺪﺓة ﺍاﳌﺸﺮﻭوﻉع ﻗﺼ ﺓة ﺟﺪﺍا‪  .‬ﻭوﻟﻢ ﺗﺘﺤﻮﻝل ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﺍاﻛﺔ ﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺇإ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺷﺮ ﺎ ﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﺸﺮ ﻌﺔ ﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﻘ‬
‫‪  ‬‬
‫ﺃأﻱي ﺃأ ﺎ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﻤ ﺎﻧﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭوﺣﻴﺎﺓة ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺎ؛‬

‫ﺑﺄﻧﻪﮫ‬

‫ﺇإﺫذﺍا ﻣﺎﺕت ﺃأﺣﺪ ﺍاﻟﺸﺮ ﺎﺀء ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍاﻧ ﺎﺀء ﺍاﳌ ﻤﺔ ﺍاﳌﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻋﻠ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺗﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﺃأﺻﻮﻝل ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﺍاﻛﺔ ﻭوﺗﻮﺯز ﻊ‬
‫ﺣﺼﺔ ﺍاﳌﺘﻮ ﻋ ﺍاﻟﻮﺭرﺛﺔ‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭوﻻ ﺷﻚ‬

‫ﺃأﻥن ﺍاﳌﺸﺮﻭوﻉع ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭو ﻲ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺴ ﺐ ﻣﻮﺕت ﺃأﺣﺪ ﺍاﻟﺸﺮ ﺎﺀء ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍاﺳﺘ ﻨﺎﻓﻪﮫ‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺎ ﺍاﻟﺸﺮ ﺎﺀء ﻭوﻭوﺭرﺛﺔ ﺍاﻟﺸﺮ ﻚ ﺍاﳌﺘﻮ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﺭرﺙث ﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺠﻌﻞ ﺫذﻟﻚ ﺃأﻣﺮﺍا‬
‫ﻣﺮ ﺎ؛ ﻓﺒﺤﺴﺐ ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﺁآﻥن ﺍاﻟﻜﺮ ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻮ ﺍاﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏب ﺍاﳌﻘﺪﺱس ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻤ ﻥن‪ ،‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅظ ﺑﺜﻠ ﺍاﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭر‬
‫ﻷﻗﺎﺭرﺏب ﺍاﳌﺘﻮ ‪ ،‬ﺫذ ﻮﺭر‪  ‬ﺍا ﻭوﺇإﻧﺎﺛﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓة ﺗﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﺍاﳌﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻨﺎ‬

‫ﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﺟﻴﺎﻝل‪ ،‬ﻭوﻗﺪ ﺗﺪﺑﺮﺍاﳌﺴ ﺜﻤﺮﻭوﻥن ﺍاﻟﺮ ﺎﺩدﻳﻮﻥن‬

‫ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق ﻭوﺳﻂ ﺃأﻣﺮﺗﻘﻠﻴﺺ ﺧﻄﺮ‬

‫ﻳﻘﺎﻑف ﺍاﳌﺒﻜﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭر ﻊ ﺇإ ﺍا ﺪ ﺩد ﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝل ﺑﻘﺎﺀء ﻋ ﻣﺸﺎﺭر ﻌ ﻢ ﺻﻐ ﺓة ﺍا‬

‫ﻢ ﻭوﻗﺼ ﺓة‬

‫ﻣﺪ‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭوﻟﻘﺪ ﺎﻧﺖ ﺃأﻭوﺭرﻭو ﺎ ﺍاﻟﻐﺮ ﻴﺔ ﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡم ﺍاﻟﻨﻮﻉع ﻧﻔﺴﻪﮫ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﺍاﻛﺔ‬

‫ﺃأﻭوﺍاﺋﻞ ﻟﻔﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏب ﺍاﳌﻘﺪﺱس‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺨﻼﻑف ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﺁآﻥن ﺍاﻟﻜﺮ ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻟﻢ ﻳﺤﺪﺩد ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﻌﻴ ﺎ ﻟﺘﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺭرﺙث‪ ،‬ﻭوﻗﺪ ﺃأﺣﺪﺙث‬
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‫ﺬﺍا ﻣﺮﻓﺮﻗﺎ ﻛﺒ ﺍا ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝل ﺇإﺗﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﻘﺪﺍاﺭرﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﺮﻭوﻧﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍاﻟ ﻭوﺓة ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭر ﺔ ﻋ‬

‫ﺟﻴﺎﻝل‪  .‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺕت ﺎ ﺍاﻟﺜﻮﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺃأﻭوﻻ‪ ،‬ﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﺭرﺙث ﺴ ﻨﺪ ﺇإ ﺣﻖ ﺍاﻟﺒ ﻮﺭرﺓة‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍاﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍاﻟ ‪  ‬‬
‫ﻓﺤ ﻥن ﻳﻤﻮﺕت ﺭرﺟﻞ ﻋﻤﺎﻝل ﺗﺬ ﺐ ﻣﻤﺘﻠ ﺎﺗﻪﮫ ﺇإ ﺍاﺑﻨﻪﮫ ﻛ ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻗﺪ ﺃأﺩدﻯى ﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩد ﻋ‬
‫ﺇإ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﺧﻄﺮ‬

‫ﺎﺀء ﺍاﳌﺒﻜﺮ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﺍا ﺎﺕت ﻷﻥن ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺴ ﻞ‬

‫ﺬﻩ ﺍاﳌﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ‬

‫ﺬﻩ ﺍا ﺎﻟﺔ ﺇإﻋﺎﺩدﺓة ﺗﺄﺳ ﺲ ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﺍاﻛﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪  .‬‬
‫ﺇإﻥن ﺍاﻟﻔﺮﻭوﻕق ﺑ ﻥن ﺗﺮﺗ ﺒﺎﺕت ﺭرﺙث‬

‫ﺍاﳌﻨﻄﻘﺘ ﻥن ﺎﻥن ﻟ ﺎ ﺗﺄﺛ ﺍاﺕت ﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻋ ﺗﻄﻮﺭر ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت‬

‫ﺑﻤﺮﻭوﺭرﺍاﻟﻮﻗﺖ؛ ﻓﻔﻲ ﺃأﻭوﺭرﻭو ﺎ ﺍاﻟ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﺖ ﻓ ﺎ ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﻭوﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﻋ‬

‫ﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍاﺭر ﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺯزﺕت ﺿﻐﻮﻁط‬

‫ﻌﺖ ﻋ ﺍاﺑﺘ ﺎﺭرﺃأﺷ ﺎﻝل ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃأﻛ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕت ﺍاﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭر ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺃأﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﻣﺤﺎﺳ ﻴﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭوﺷﺮ ﺎﺕت ﻣﺴﺎ ﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻣﺼﺎﺭرﻑف ﻭوﺃأﺳﻮﺍاﻕق ﺃأﺳ ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭو‬

‫ﺎﻓﺔ ﻌ‬

‫ﺸﺆﻭوﻥن ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭر ﻭوﻣﻌﺎ ﺔ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕت‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺘﻮﺍاﺻﻞ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺘ ﺴﻴﻖ ﺍاﻟ ﺑﺪﺃأﺕت ﺑﺎﻟ ﻭوﺯز ﺴ ﺐ ﺍاﺭرﺗﻔﺎﻉع ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯى ﺍاﻟ ﺸﺎﻁط ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭرﻱي‪  .  ‬ﺃأﻣﺎ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق‬

‫ﻭوﺳﻂ ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﺙث ﺃأﻣﺜﺎﻝل ﺬﻩ ﺑﺘ ﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﻷﻧﻪﮫ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺃأﺣﺪ ﺸﻌﺮﺑﺎ ﺎﺟﺔ ﺇإﻟ ﺎ‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭوﻟ ﺬﺍا ﻧﺮﻯى ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق ﻭوﺳﻂ ﻭوﻗﺪ ﺃأﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﺘﺨﻠﻔﺎ ﻻ ﻟ ﺀء ﺇإﻻ ﻷﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺍاﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺟﻌﻠﺖ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍاﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻡم ﺷ ﺎﻝل ﺍا ﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻟﺘﻀﺎﻓﺮ ﻣﺴﺎ ﻤﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭوﺭرﺃأﺱس ﺍاﳌﺎﻝل‪   .‬ﻭوﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﺮﻯى‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻐﺮﺏب ﻗﺪ ﺃأ ﺸﺄ ﺍاﳌﺸﺮﻭوﻋﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟ ﺗﻮﻇﻒ ﻻﻑف ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠ ﻥن ﻭوﻣﺎﻟ ﻲ ﺳ ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﺮﻯى ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق‬
‫ﻭوﺳﻂ ﻭو ﻮ ﻳﻔﺘﻘﺮﺇإ ﺍاﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻼﺯزﻣﺔ ﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻐﺮﺏب‬

‫ﺬﺍا ﺍاﳌﺠﺎﻝل‪  .‬‬

‫ﻭو ﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺇإﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻣ ﻤﺔ ﺃأﺩدﺕت ﺇإ ﺗﺨﻠﻒ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق ‪  ‬ﻭوﺳﻂ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭو ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ )ﺍاﻟﻮﻗﻒ(‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺍاﺳ ﺌﻤﺎﻥن ﻏ ﺷﺮ ﺎ ﻲ ﻳﺆﺳﺴﻪﮫ ﻓﺮﺩد ﻣﺎ ﻐﺮﺽض ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻋ‬
‫ﻧﺤﻮ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻘﻄﻊ‪  .‬ﻭوﻟﻘﺪ ﺎﻥن ﻨﺎﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق ﻭوﺳﻂ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍاﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍا ﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺪﺩد ﻛﺒ ﻣﻦ ﺍا ﺪﻣﺎﺕت‬

‫ﺴﺘﻤﺪ ﺗﻤﻮ ﻠ ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻭوﻗﺎﻑف‪ ،‬ﻭوﻣﻦ ﺿﻤ ﺎ ﻋﺪﺓة ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕت ﺗﺘﻮ ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻤ ﺎ‬

‫ﺃأﻳﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﺬﻩ‪   .‬ﻭو ﺎﻥن ﻓﺮﺍاﺩد ﻳﺰﻭوﺩدﻭوﻥن ﻭوﻗﺎﻑف ﺑﺎﻷﺻﻮﻝل ﺍاﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺴ ﺐ ﺍاﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩد ﺷﺎ ﻊ ﻳﺮﻯى ﺑﺄﻥن ﺗﺤﻮ ﻞ‬
‫ﺻﻮﻝل ﺍاﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺇإ ﺃأﻣﻼﻙك ﻭوﻗﻔﻴﺔ ﻳﻤﻨﺤ ﺎ ﻣ ﺎﻧﺔ ﻣﻘﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻠ ﺎ ﻣﺤﺼﻨﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺍاﳌﺼﺎﺩدﺭرﺓة‪  .‬ﻭو ﺎﻥن‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﳌﺆﺳﺲ ﺍاﻟﻮﻗﻒ ﺃأﻥن ﻌ ﻥن ﻧﻔﺴﻪﮫ ﻣﺘﻮﻟﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪﮫ ﻃﻴﻠﺔ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪﮫ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺬﻩ ﺍاﳌ ﺎﻧﺔ ﺗ ﻴﺢ ﻟﻪﮫ ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ‬

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‫ﺭرﺍاﺗﺐ ﻟﻪﮫ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻌﻴ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠ ﻥن‪ ،‬ﻭوﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺨﻠﻔﻪﮫ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﻋ ﺍاﻟﻮﻗﻒ؛ ﻭوﻗﺪ ﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺍاﳌﺘﻮ‬

‫ﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺬﻩ ﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯزﺍاﺕت‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇإﻥن ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓة ﺎﻧﺖ ﺸﻤﻞ ﺳﻼﻟﺘﻪﮫ ﻣﻊ ﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﺟﻴﺎﻝل‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭوﻋ ﺍاﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺍاﻟﻮﻗﻒ ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﺸﻤﻞ ﺍاﻟﻮﺍاﻗﻒ ﺸ ﻞ ﺧﺎﺹص ﻭوﺍاﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺸ ﻞ ﻋﺎﻡم‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥن‬

‫ﻟﻠﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﻀﺎﺭرﻩ ﺃأﻳﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟ ‪  ‬ﺗﻔﺎﻗﻤﺖ ﻋ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺧﻄ ﺑﻤﺮﻭوﺭر ﺍاﻟﻮﻗﺖ؛ ﻓﻤﻔ ﻮﻡم ﺍاﻟﻮﻗﻒ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺃأﻥن‬
‫ﻳﺘﺼﻒ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﻪﮫ ﻭوﻭوﻇﺎﺋﻔﻪﮫ ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻐ ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻟ ﺬﺍا ﻓﺈﻥن ﻐ ﺍاﻟﻈﺮﻭوﻑف ﻣﻊ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍاﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﺟﻌﻠﺖ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻔﻌﺘﻪﮫ ﺗﺘﻀﺎﺀءﻝل ﺷ ﺌﺎ ﻓﺸ ﺌﺎ؛ ﻭو ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻧ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻓ ﻤﺎ ﺑﺪﺃأﺕت ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﺍاﺕت‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻐﺮ ﻴﺔ ﺇإﻋﺎﺩدﺓة ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﺭرﺩد ﻐﺮﺽض ﺍاﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝل ﺍاﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕت ﺍا ﺪﻳﺪﺓة‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﺍا ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻮﺍا‬

‫ﺃأﻥن ﺍاﻟﻮﻗﻒ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق ﻭوﺳﻂ ﺃأﺻﺒﺢ ﻋﺎﺟﺰﺍا ﻋﻦ ﺍاﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡم ﺑﻮﻇﻴﻔﺘﻪﮫ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻮﺍاﺭرﺩد ﺍاﻟﻮﻗﻒ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﻘﻠ ﺎ‬
‫ﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺇإ ﺃأﻭوﻗﺎﻑف ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓة؛ ﺃأﻣﺎ ﺍاﻟﻐﺮﺏب ﻓﻘﺪ ﻧﺠﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕت ﺍاﳌﻤﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﻷﻧﻪﮫ ﺍاﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡم ﺃأﺳﻠﻮﺏب‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍاﻟﺸﺮ ﺎ ﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭو ‪  ‬ﻮ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺫذﺍا ﻲ ﺍا ﻮﻛﻤﺔ )ﻭو ﺎﻟﺘﺎ ﻓ ﻮ ﻳﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﻭوﻧﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺍا ﺪﻣﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮ ﺍاﻟﻮﻗﻒ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻤ ﺎ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق ﻭوﺳﻂ‪  .‬ﻭو ﺎﻧﺖ ﺍا ﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕت ﻭوﺭرﻭو ﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻢ ﻋ ﺃأﺳﺎﺱس ﺃأﺳﻠﻮﺏب‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍاﻟﺸﺮ ﺎ ﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃأﻣﺎ ﻣﺜﻴﻼ ﺎ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق ﻭوﺳﻂ )ﺍاﳌﺪﺍاﺭرﺱس( ‪  ‬ﻓ ﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻨﻈﻢ ﻋ ﺃأﺳﺎﺱس ﺃأﺳﻠﻮﺏب‬

‫ﻭوﻗﺎﻑف‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭو ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺑﺪﺃأﺕت ﺩدﻭوﻝل ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق ﻭوﺳﻂ ﺑﺈﻃﻼﻕق ﺇإﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕت ﺪﻑف ﺇإ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺚ‬

‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻱي‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺎﻧﺖ‬

‫ﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕت‪ ،‬ﺑ ﺎﻓﺔ ﺣﺎﻻ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻓﺮﺽض ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪   .‬ﻭو ﻜﺬﺍا ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﻣ ﺍاﻃﻮﺭر ﺔ ﺍاﻟﻌﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭوﺇإﻳﺮﺍاﻥن ﻭوﻣﺼﺮ ﺑﺈ ﺸﺎﺀء ﻗﻮﺍاﻧ ﻥن ﻟﻠﺸﺮ ﺎﺕت ﻭوﺍاﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩد‬
‫ﻭوﺍاﳌﺠﺎﻟﺲ ﺍاﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳﺔ ﻭوﺃأﺳﻮﺍاﻕق ﺳ ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻟﻢ ﺗ ﻠﻒ ﻧﻔﺴ ﺎ ﺣ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺍاﻓﻖ ﺍاﻟﻠﻔﻈﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍاﳌﺒﺎﺩدﺉئ ﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭوﻻﻗﺖ ﺬﻩ ﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕت ﺗﺮﺣﻴﺒﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﺱس ﺍاﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺎﻧﻮﺍا ﻳﻠ ﻣﻮﻥن ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓ ﺬﻩ ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺎﻧﺖ ﺟﺪﻭوﺍا ﺎ‬
‫ﻧﺎ‬

‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺩدﻓﻨﺖ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻏﺒﺎﺭر ﺍاﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻣﻊ ﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻟ ﺎ ﺗﺠﺎﺭرﺏب‬

‫ﺔ ﺳﺎﻟﻒ ﺍاﻟﻌﺼﺮﻭو ﻭوﺍاﻥن‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭوﻻ ﺗﺰﺍاﻝل ﺬﻩ ﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕت ﺍا ﻮ ﺮ ﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺍاﻟﻴﻮﻡم ﺑﻘﺒﻮﻝل ﻭوﺍاﺳﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩدﻳﺔ ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍاﻟﺸﺮ ﻌﺔ ﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ ﻟﻠﺒﻼﺩد‪ ،‬ﺍاﺳﺘﻄﺎﻋﺖ ﺍاﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺃأﻥن ﺴﺘﻮﻋﺐ‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺫذﺍاﺕت ﺍاﳌ ﺸﺄ ﺍاﻟﻐﺮ ﻲ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺇإﻥن ﺍاﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﻮﺭرﺩدﺓة ﺑﺪﺕت ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻟﺔ‬
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‫ﺃأﻋ ﻥن ﺳﻼﻣﻴ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥن ﺑﺄ ﻢ ﻳﺮﻏﺒﻮﻥن ﺑﺈﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍاﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡم ﺟﺘﻤﺎ‬

‫ﺣ‬

‫ﺳﻼﻡم‪  .‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻌﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﺮﻯى ﺍاﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻭو ﻻ ﺗﺰﺍاﻝل ﺗﺮﺯزﺡح‬
‫ﻏﻴﺎﺏب ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺫذﺍاﺕت‬
‫ﻭوﻣﻊ ﺫذﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍاﳌﺎ‬
‫ﺍاﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬

‫ﻋ‬

‫ﺃأﺳﺎﺱس‬

‫ﻇﻞ ﺍاﻟﺘﺨﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍاﻟﺴ ﺐ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬

‫ﻤﻴﺔ ﺍا ﻴﻮ ﺔ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝج ﺍاﻟﺼﻨﺎ ﻭوﺍا ﻴﺎﺓة ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﺍا ﺪﻳﺜﺔ‪  .‬‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎ ﻲ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻕق ﻭوﺳﻂ ﻳﻈﻞ ﺷﺒ ﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺎﺿﺮ؛ ﻓﻤﺸﺎﺭرﻛﺔ ﺬﻩ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺰﺍاﻝل ﻣﺤﺪﻭوﺩدﺓة ﺧﺎﺭرﺝج ﺇإﻃﺎﺭر ﺍاﻟﻨﻔﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻌﻮﺩد ﺃأﺣﺪ ﺃأﺳﺒﺎﺏب ﺫذﻟﻚ ﺇإ ﺃأﻥن‬

‫ﺍاﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩدﺧﻠﺖ ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن ﺍاﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﻦ ﻭو ﺗﻤﺘﻠﻚ ﻗﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕت ﺍاﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻗﺔ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﻴﺎ ﻭوﻻ‬
‫ﺗﻤﺘﻠﻚ ﺍاﻟﻘﺪﺭر ﺍاﻟ ﺎ‬

‫ﺴ ﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺭرﺃأﺱس ﺍاﳌﺎﻝل‪  .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺇإﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﺎﺭر ﺦ ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎ ﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻳﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﺍاﳌﺴﺆﻭوﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺃأﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺍاﳌﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻓ ﺎ‪   .‬ﻭوﻋ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻤﺘﻠﻜﻪﮫ ﺍاﻟﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍاﺭرﺩد‬

‫ﺍاﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪﮫ ﻟﻢ ﺴﺘﻄﻊ ﻟﻌﺐ ﺩدﻭوﺭر ﻭوﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭرﻛﺔ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻏ ﺍاﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇإﻥن ﻣﺠﺮﺩد‬
‫ﻭوﺟﻮﺩدﻩ ﺎﻥن ﺳ ﺒﺎ‬
‫ﺃأﺳﺎ‬

‫ﺇإﻳﻘﺎﻑف ﺗﻄﻮﺭر ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺍاﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕت ﺫذﺍاﺗﻴﺔ ﺍا ﻮﻛﻤﺔ ﺧﺎﺭرﺝج ﺇإﻃﺎﺭر ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﻋﻮﺍاﻣﻞ ﺍاﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍاﳌﺪ ﻲ ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﻱي‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺬﺍا ﻣﻦ ﺳﺒﺎﺏب ﺍاﻟ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺩدﻭوﻝل ﺍاﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺗﺮﺯزﺡح‬

‫ﺗﺤﺖ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺍا ﻜﻢ ﺍاﻟﻔﺮﺩدﻱي ﺍاﳌﺴ ﺒﺪ‪  .‬‬
‫ﺇإﻥن ﺍاﳌﺸ ﻠﺘ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﻠﺘ ﻥن ﻌﺎ ﻲ ﻣ ﻤﺎ ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻕق ﻭوﺳﻂ ﺍاﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ )ﺿﻌﻒ ﺍاﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉع ﺍا ﺎﺹص ﻭوﺿﻌﻒ‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍاﳌﺪ ﻲ(‪  ‬ﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻌﻮﺍاﻗﺐ ﻏ ﺍاﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩدﺓة ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺃأﺧﺬﺕت ﺷ ﻠ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴ ﻲ ﺇإﺑﺎﻥن ﺍاﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭر ﺍاﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ‪  .‬‬

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‫ﺳﻼﻡم‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟ‬