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DECEMBER 2008 Volume LXXIV No.



eizing the Opportunities 530  S Address by RICHARD MCCORMACK, Vice Chairman, Merrill Lynch, former
Undersecretary of State for Economic Affairs, and G-7 Sherpa for President George H.W. Bush

The Constitution  534  Address by RICHARD J. HARDY, Professor and Chair of the Department of Political
Science at Western Illinois University

limate Change Adaptation 547  C Address by JUDITH RODIN, President of the Rockefeller Foundation Identify, Interrogate, Innovate  553  Address by LAUREN ZALAZNICK, President of Women and Lifestyle Entertainment
Networks, NBC Universal

orking Together 557  W Address by ANNE-IMELDA M. RADICE, Director of the U.S. Institute of Museum and
Library Services

eneric Medicines 559  G Address by ALEX M. AZAR II, Senior Vice President of Corporate Affairs and
Communications, Eli Lilly and Company

Speech of the Month
Education’s Role  563  Address by BEVERLY K. EAKMAN, author, columnist and lecturer

THE BESt tHOUGHtS OF tHE BESt MINDS ON CURRENt NAtIONAL QUEStIONS Impartial • Constructive • Authentic



Seizing the Opportunities
Address by RICHARD MCCORMACK, Vice Chairman, Merrill Lynch, former Undersecretary of State for Economic Affairs, and G-7 Sherpa for President George H.W. Bush Delivered to 2008 Taiwan Business Alliance Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, October 6, 2008


feel deeply honored to be with you today, and to participate in this important conference with the distinguished President and Vice President of Taiwan, and this audience of successful achievers. We have just heard a remarkable representation from Vice President Siew about Taiwan’s vision for overcoming the challenges presented by the global financial strains, and for regaining Taiwan’s productivity-driven growth and competitiveness. There are tremendous opportunities for Taiwan, her people, and investors in the decade ahead as this vision is gradually realized and global economic conditions normalize. Taiwan is a very important trading partner of the United States. Hundreds of American companies have successfully invested here, directly or indirectly, over the years. Some of our companies have been here for decades, represented by people in this audience. Today, because I have been involved in the management of a number of past financial crises while serving in the American Government and the International Monetary Fund, I have been asked by the conference organizers to say a few words about the latest global financial crisis, the roots and causes of this crisis, the strategies in place to address the global financial strains, the lessons learned, and the prospects ahead for the global economy.

roots of the present crisis go back to l997 and the Asian financial crisis. When banks and markets collapsed throughout Asia in l997, the American government, decided to stimulate its own economy to help to address the deflation in global net demand that was created by the implosion in Asia. The American central bank slashed interest rates, which gradually fuelled a liquiditydriven boom in technology investment and provided increased global net demand. This was the right decision, but by holding interest

Two months ago, the annual report of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in Basil, Switzerland, stated that the financial crisis facing the globe was the most dangerous since the end of the second world war, and that we were rapidly approaching a tipping points in the crisis. As you know, the BIS is where central bankers meet privately to consider global financial and economic problems. So, when this alarming report appeared, governments everywhere took immediate notice. The BIS report, however, was only the latest in a series of warnings that had been voiced in public and in private by increasingly alarmed officials, such as Governor Gramlich in the U.S. Federal Reserve. Some of these concerns appeared in a book I helped write while serving at CSIS, a public policy institute in Washington, D.C. (International Financial Architecture: G7, IMF , BIS, Debtors and Creditors - Palgrave Macmillan, 2005) It is important to understand that some of the

3 Crisis Background

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richard MccorMacK
rates too low for too long and providing too much credit at too low a cost, a dangerous bubble in equity markets was triggered. The bubble burst in 2001, erasing nearly 7 trillion dollars in equity values in the U.S. alone. By holding interest rates too low for too long, it turned a good idea into a bad idea. When the bubble burst, the leadership of the American central bank decided to create a smaller bubble, a housing bubble, to fill part of the gaping economic hole created by the collapse of the first bubble and to help lift the country from a threatened recession. Again, that was probably the right decision, but again, by holding interest rates too low for too long, it turned a good idea into a very bad idea, and housing prices rose 130 percent between 200l and 2006. The Federal Reserve and other supervisory bodies, despite the concerns of individual officials, also failed to stop the dangerous practices that were developing in the mortgage markets, believing that the markets would police themselves. The problem was complicated by the global current accounts imbalances that gradually developed. These came partly as a consequence of U.S. consumer demand that was created in part by the soaring value of real estate. Consumers began borrowing large amounts of money from their home equity, and spending it, often recklessly. The country as a whole began to develop titanic and sustained current account deficits. Eventually, this process produced the greatest transfer of wealth in the history of the planet, as trillions of dollars of trade deficits mounted for the U.S. It was clearly unsustainable, but the continuing market demand encouraged excessive investment in export industries all over the world. This resulted in gradually weakening profits from many of these industries through cut-throat competition among themselves. In some countries, huge trade surpluses began to appear, creating difficulties in managing monetary policy, since the excess dollars had to be bought up by the central bank in local currency. This resulted in very low interest rates, excess capacity, bubbles in stock and real estate markets, and gradually increasing inflationary pressures. Fuelled by titanic monetary stimulus, global economic growth began to explode upward, eventually reaching 5.2 percent on an annual basis. At this point, more than two years ago, some leading central bankers in Asia grew alarmed and began warning privately that the natural resource base to supply the global economy at a 5.2 percent growth pace did not exist. There wasn’t enough oil, coal, copper, and other resources to sustain this growth without triggering shortages and inflation. These voices urged squeezing liquidity to bring down global growth to 3.5 per cent, where gradually the global economy could accumulate the necessary quantities of

oil and other materials at a reasonable non-inflationary price to keep the global growth sustainable. About this time, the IMF began warning that risk was not being priced into the cost of money. Bonds were being sold without regard to traditional risk premiums, even in countries with bad political and economic histories. Houses were being sold to people at prices they could not afford and were being financed by mortgage companies that quickly passed on the risky mortgages and bonds to others through complicated derivative packages. These, in turn, were sold throughout the world to people and institutions happy to purchase such leveraged and profitable investments. This was also the case for some banks that were not able to make much profit on traditional loans in an environment of very low interest rates. Thus, they were looking for other ways to improve their profitability. Elaborate credit derivatives were deployed to deal with potential default risk. These insurance policies, which were purchased or issued by banks and other investors and financial institutions, rose at an explosive pace to nearly 70 trillion dollars in notional value. Concerns began to mount in Central Banks about the stability of some of this insurance in a potentially chaotic future financial environment. Crash efforts, led by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, were mounted to bring order to this process. Some reforms were instituted. However, more and more financial business was established on shorter and shorter credit terms, with investors believing that they would be able to disengage themselves if the financial environment were to become dangerous. Nearly three years ago, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York warned of a potential future rush by nervous investors to the exit during a crisis, which, in turn, could produce a fatal shortage of market liquidity. Markets paid little attention to this warning, which was repeated several times by Mr. Geithner. All these conditions of easy money, lax supervision, and the complacency brought about by a multi-year period of ever-increasing wealth, prosperity, profits, leverage, and growth, produced the greatest credit boom and asset inflation in history. Last August, Mr. Geithner’s concern about a rush by investors to the exit, suddenly materialized. Housing prices began falling and those holding the derivative paper based on housing mortgages panicked. Much of the global banking system simply froze, with nobody knowing who had the bad paper, who had the good paper, and who might go suddenly bankrupt; creditors were left holding the bag. Central banks backed by governments rushed into the credit vacuum, provided a safety net for imperiled financial institutions with loans in unprecedented amounts to keep them afloat. These institutions included Fanny Mae, Freddy Mac, and a number of other critical
december 2008

pieces of the American mortgage and banking structure. Other banks in Europe were merged with the help of governments or nationalized. Such ad hoc measures were temporarily effective in stabilizing the financial system until three weeks ago, when, after a frantic weekend in New York’s Federal Reserve building, efforts to find a solution to Lehman Brothers fell apart and a decision was made by the American Government not to rescue it from bankruptcy. The Lehman bankruptcy triggered a panic among surviving financial institutions, and runs began on even very solid banks in many parts of the world. Money market funds, which were supposedly safe and conservatively managed and which provided more than three trillion dollars worth of credit, experienced withdrawals. Rumors, some true, some false, some malicious, added fuel to the global financial crisis. Authorities all over the world realized that the financial system itself was gravely imperiled and that major new steps were required. They could no longer rely on piecemeal efforts to address the liquidity problems of individual financial institutions. Something much more massive and fundamental was required. This resulted in the rapid creation of a 700 billion dollar bailout fund proposal to address the uncertainty in the financial system over the value of derivative products. But, because of the lack of confidence among lawmakers in the Bush Administration and on Wall Street, the initial effort failed in Congress. However, Treasury was able to provide guarantees through the exchange stabilization fund it controls to insure money market depositors against loss. After a week of frantic negotiation and persuasion, the bailout bill in modified form was passed by a reluctant Congress. In the meantime, the American central bank supplied hundreds of billions of dollars of loans to other Central Banks worldwide to help provide liquidity. European and Asian leaders undertook their own measures to stabilize a number of their banks, while considering other broader measures. The question now is how the financial crisis will evolve from this point onward. Because housing prices rose much faster than income levels in a number of countries, including the U.S., it is likely that housing prices will continue to decline in the year or two ahead. It is also clear that consumer credit has tightened considerably. The fear generated by President Bush’s necessary speeches to the nation warning that the economy itself was in peril, will not help consumer sentiment in the months ahead. Commodity prices will fall as demand falls. There will be a general unwinding of asset inflation, and this will impact some emerging markets. Thus, there is likely to be a slowdown in global
VSOTD.COM 3 Future Prospects

growth around the world in the year or two ahead. Markets of all kinds will have to clear. This is a recognized part of the business cycle. As this market correction unfolds, it is important for people and investors to keep a number of considerations in mind. During the last fifty years, there has been a steady rise in living standards around the world. This has been driven by vast improvements in the access of billions of people to education, capital, markets, and technology. The short word for this is globalization. This process has been driven by productivity, and it is not going to end. It has produced too much good for too many people for it to be allowed to end. During this period, we have had a number of corrections, but they have all proved temporary, some very short indeed. But the long wave of gradually increasing global prosperity is the really important consideration as we contemplate our future and that of our children. The challenge for global leaders now is to do what is necessary to make sure that the necessary market correction is as orderly as possible. That will involve a number of steps. 1) Governments must and will continue measures to stabilize the financial system. They are aware that Austria’s Creditanstalt banking collapse in the l930s triggered a domino-like process involving other banks around the world. Governments cannot and will not risk repeating that. So, the first priority must be to stabilize banks and financial institutions. There will continue to be headline events that will require attention by authorities. Whatever it may cost, firm official stabilizing action is cheap by comparison to the chaotic alternatives. Moral hazard issues can be addressed later, in part, by enhanced supervision of banks and, in part, by subsequently modifying general banking deposit guarantees when they are no longer required to provide confidence. 2) The second thing Governments must do is to make the financial system safer. That means less leverage, more transparency and standardization in derivative products, larger capital bases, and a more effective supervisory process. This is widely understood. It is important that the details of this process be carefully worked out so we don’t kill the vitality of the financial system. This is what happened in the l930s, when, after the crash, banks became so conservative in their lending that nobody was able to borrow money unless they didn’t need it. This prevented growth and innovation and prolonged the depression. We don’t want to cripple the financial system while trying to save it. 3) Central Banks, in my view, must never again be blind to the dangers of asset inflations, looking only at core inflation, however they may define it. Inflation

4) We must make sure that the global trading system remains global. One of the most critical tasks of central banks is to not wait so long to change policies that deflation or inflation has deeply imbedded itself in the economy. it can lead to global imbalances. Remember the slogan of Warren Buffett. are more sustainable and better in the long-term. He is now pouring billions of dollars from the funds he controls into temporarily distressed assets. President Ma’s new administration has outlined a promising new development strategy for Taiwan. We know that there is such a thing as the business cycle and we know that. and new ideas. lead to military blocs and sow the seeds of future conflicts generations from now. I remember Prime Minister Thatcher at the Houston G-7 Economic Summit of 1990 warning the other leaders that regional trading blocs could eventually lead to regional political blocs. but also caused the recession to turn into a long and painful depression by excessive monetary conservatism. and ordinary basements from innovative individuals and groups all over the world. if half the global economy is depending excessively on export-led growth. it is a sustainable process. It is already clear that Central Banks are playing a highly constructive role in the management of the present crisis. By the same token. business cycles turn back up. with each nation carefully tailoring its policies to evolving local conditions. could also lead to political radicalism in some parts of the world. This is what happened in the l930s. These could. and thousands of other developments pour out of laboratories. housing. This mistake will not be repeated. And we know they will not stop. Governments also need to consider the dilemmas posed by export-led economies. at some point in a year or two. At some point. And keep your faith in the future. He is fond of saying. something that is needed at this stage in the global economy. energies by governments have been focused on strengthening and expanding regional trading blocks. It is up to us to seize these opportunities. unstable currencies. “When others are greedy. All of us need to encourage responsibility in our political processes by active personal involvement. The inclusion of hundreds of millions of new people in the pool of the educated that we are now seeing worldwide will add to the sum of human inventions and to human prosperity and welfare. These open trade opportunities for those inside the new blocs. Keep up the good work. such as the EU. capital. when bad monetary policies not only caused the preceding boom. I am sure others will follow his path. I was pleased to see this concept deeply imbedded in President Ma’s growth plan. However. while possibly more difficult to achieve than strategies for export-led growth. revolutionary new approaches to pollution abatement. America’s most famous and most successful long-term investor. Each of you in your own way is contributing to this incredible process by providing jobs. universities. to avoid unnecessary currency instabilities. If just a small part of the global economy is driven by export-led growth. When others are fearful. We cannot predict exactly what these will be. Finally. and various Asian counterparts. Who would have imagined that the giant Microsoft would be such a powerful economic driver when we were concerned about the problems of America’s rust belt in the l980s? Nanotechnologies.richard MccorMacK targeting that ignores asset inflations will cause us to repeat the dotcom. a coordinated monetary policy adjustment is likely. and by not expecting instant miracles from political leadership when facing difficult problems. in turn. I become fearful. 5) The inevitable temporary unemployment that will grow out of the consumer recession. Thank you. as was the case in the last century. As it is implemented. we must be alert to opportunities to fold regional trading blocks into a global framework through the WTO in the decades ahead. We just know that they happen every decade in response to challenges and opportunities. asset deflation. ugly domestic political problems. and credit crisis. But. NAFTA. Economic strategies for more domestic-led demand. The world has learned an immense amount about how to manage economic crises since the 1930s. In recent years. competitive devaluations. it will create new investment opportunities for many of the people in this room. december 2008 . and eventually protectionism.” Good advice from a very wise and successful investor. These problems need to be avoided. and commodity asset bubbles that are an underlying cause of much of our present misery. I become greedy. 533 6) We need to retain our optimism as we look to the future. businesses. water shortage mitigations. the FTA. support of good people in politics. are these regional blocs a good long-term substitute for a more global trading system? In my view. You in this room are among the drivers of the global economy. And we have every reason for optimism. public health improvements. I look forward to seeing his infrastructure projects materialize for the benefit of his nation. 7) We also know that technology produces new opportunities and whole new business models every decade. we also know that at some point inflation pressures could turn into even more dangerous deflation pressures.

religion and 3 Purpose VSOTD. Associate Provost Dallinger. September 25. Second. right here on this campus. Dean Levi. It is a distinct honor to have my name associated with the great John Hallwas. and the masterpiece that they created reflects the wisdom of the classics. are offered in the spirit of that law. This lecture. I sought a topic that would highlight the importance of a liberal arts education—the heart of any great university. Karen Mann (2005). Linda. and the most prolific writer our university has ever produced. the great students at Western Illinois University—good evening and thanks for attending the 2008 Hallwas Lecture. Miracles do happen. raconteur. staff. we started our married life together in a two-room apartment in East Village. historian. or receiving the Presidential Medal of Freedom.” There are many interrelated factors that drew me to this particular title and topic.534 VITAL SPEECHES OF THE DAY The Constitution ITS FATE DEPENDS ON CIVIC LEADERS Address by RICHARD J. Forty years ago. Senator Robert Byrd of West Virginia secured passage of a law that requires all educational institutions receiving federal funding to honor our Constitution annually on or near its birthday. John Wooden immediately fired back: “Young man. They have set our academic bar very high. Hallwas. scholar. and who truly thought that professors wore mortarboards to class…would be standing here today. I am grateful to Western Illinois University and the myriad opportunities it has provided and continues to provide me. the Constitution is solid rock upon which our Republic is built. Provost Thomas. HARDY. ethnicity. Thank you. I am equally privileged to have my name associated with the previous Hallwas Lecturers—John Hallwas (2003). Tracy Knight (2006) and Alvin Goldfarb (2007). most importantly. civic leader. Who could have imagined that the frightened. the reporter was surprised by Coach Wooden’s immediate retort. or any number of notable accolades. Charles Leonard. we come in many packages. Charles Helm (2004). a young sports reporter interviewed legendary basketball coach John Wooden.COM . 2008 M any years ago. and always a teacher. First. alums and outstanding students. It makes me feel more important than I really am. Macomb. I would not be here today. September 17. Western Illinois University. I too am most proud of the fact that I am a teacher—a teacher at my beloved alma mater. Second. a true Renaissance man—a gifted teacher. Dr. plus copies of the U. educators who challenged and inspired me in countless ways. The seeds of this fascination were sewn several decades ago by several fine political science professors at Western—Don Marshall. Professor and Chair of the Department of Political Science at Western Illinois University Delivered to John Hallwas Liberal Arts Lecture at Western Illinois University. She alone knows the financial struggles and the great sacrifices we made to get me through college. Coach?”. alums and. colleagues. First and foremost. Western! A great deal of thought went into selecting the topic of tonight’s lecture—“The Constitution—Its Fate Depends On Civic Leaders. and encouragement.S. great typing skills. let alone compete in the classroom…who had never seen a real-life Ph. Distinguished members of the Hallwas Lecture Committee. married student housing. you ask me why I teach? Where else could you find such splendid company?” That is exactly how I feel tonight. fellow faculty. Dr. As will be noted shortly. delivering the Hallwas Lecture on the 50th anniversary of our college. the topic comports nicely with our Constitution Day celebration. The reporter asked Coach Wooden to identify his single greatest accomplishment. Finally.S. and Mrs. the subject of constitutional law has long intrigued me. Illinois. in 2005 U. As quick as a hiccup. As you may know. Among our body politic are people of virtually every nationality. Thank you.D. Anticipating that Coach Wooden might mention his ten NCAA basketball championships at UCLA. And just look around—where else could I find such splendid company? It doesn’t get any better than this! President Goldfarb. Third. or being the first person inducted into college basketball’s Hall of Fame as both a player and a coach. I want to recognize and thank my dear wife. “I am most proud of the fact I am first. Simmons. awestruck teenager who first walked through Sherman Hall so many decades ago…that first-generation college student who wondered if he could pay for his education. I was blessed to have some truly outstanding professors. and David Frier. Without her unwavering support. And I am equally blessed to work with such fine administrators. We Americans are a diverse group of people.” When the puzzled reporter asked. “Why would you say that. Thank you for the wonderful introduction and kind words. Constitution ancillary materials. the Framers of the Constitution were well grounded in the liberal arts. foremost. Linda. and over the years I have continued to study the Constitution and develop a variety of public law courses. In actuality. Members of the Board of Trustees. Coach Wooden blurted. nobody accomplishes anything significant without a support cast.

much attention has been given to the delegates’ race. There were some notable exceptions. nearly 30 of the 55 delegates were college graduates. When we speak of liberal arts.. Beard and the Constitution. exclaiming its lofty purpose (“We. Each of the states. In 1787. Brown (Charles A.S. The Articles’ problems were manifold. “I cannot live without books (1815). There were 54 Protestants and one Roman Catholic. and favor its own citizens. the delegates were highly educated. Each state could coin its own money. And.” Jefferson. or the lower division of the liberal arts. contains 7. represented the states’ weak attempt to establish a national government. astronomy and music. While we often have profound disagreements over politics. logic and rhetoric. or Forrest McDonald (We the People. such as George Washington who only had about five years of formal schooling.. including amendments. Given the glaring weaknesses of the Articles. The document next contains seven “Articles. which included arithmetic. Indeed. was the higher division of the liberal arts. As a whole. Ironically. philosophy and language. However. Most received formal schooling or private tutoring in Latin or Greek. save Rhode Island. Our Constitution is now 219 years old. Recall Jefferson’s later quip. Let us highlight some of the Constitution’s most striking features. Most of the 55 delegates had considerable political experience. the Preamble has never been used as the basis for any Supreme Court ruling. functioning framework upon which our government is built. Hamilton. like everything else in America. of course. our Constitution remains a durable. the People of the United States. nation-state constitution in operation today. with an average of 43 years. and the legislative branch was powerless to collect taxes—thus we had no effective army or navy to protect the people and our economic interests. you are to form your own opinions on the topic. The document is remarkably parsimonious. one aspect of our Framers that is often overlooked is their solid grounding in the liberal arts. Viewing the Founders through today’s lenses. I believe. it is quite understandable why many Americans fixate on the demographic characteristics of the Founders and why some critics label them exclusionary elitists. The classical education of the period emphasized seven liberal arts—known as the “trivium” and the “quadrivium. three were medical doctors. such as history. meaning the place where three roads meet). the Constitutional Convention. 1913). Delegates ranged in age from 26 (Jonathan Dayton of New Jersey) to 81 3 Overview of the Constitution 535 (the venerable Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania). hardy culture. Constitution. Beard (An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution. The 13 states retained their own sovereignty. music and lifestyles. the proverbial glue that holds us together as a nation. examine how it has changed. sent delegates to the convention. and most had served in their respective state legislatures.” or content subdivisions. Madison. do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America”). two were college presidents. the Constitution. George Washington. impose restrictions on trade. Eight were signers of the Declaration of Independence. we are referring to a body of knowledge that pertains to general cultural concerns. It is the oldest. The “quadrivium” (Latin. only 55 ever attended the convention. but he too valued books and was familiar with some of the classics. religion. despite its longevity and brevity. the judicial branch’s jurisdiction was limited to prize and piracy cases. It is. six had served as state governors. Yet. Had you read today’s Chicago Tribune’s sports section. Framers gathered in Philadelphia’s Independence Hall ostensibly for the “sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation. and most were relatively quite wealthy. 1976). and speculate about its future. Tonight. Indeed. religion and economic status. Nearly all began their education in the home. There is clear evidence that most of our early leaders were avid readers. and. written. Thirty-two of the 55 delegates were attorneys. eight were merchants. art. and just 27 Amendments or formal alterations (the first ten of which came with the Bill of Rights and just 17 since 1791). Excluding the Founders’ signatures. you would have read more words than are contained in the U. about two dozen owned slaves. Naturally. 1956).” The Articles of Confederation. Whether or not our Founders were truly representatives of the people or had the willingness to put the public interest above private interests has long been the subject of debate. arguably the richest delegate was the presiding officer. learning to read Biblical passages. Robert E. The national government had no executive branch. demonstrate its flexibility. negotiate treaties. All were white males. meaning where four roads join). as opposed to technical training or learning a trade. 44 served in the Continental Congress. and many attended college.606 words. created in 1781.richard J. let us briefly turn attention to the Founders.” a short introduction. the entire document. geometry. Although some 73 delegates were named. consisted of grammar. Adams and other contemporaries frequently december 2008 3 Influence of Liberal Arts .” The “trivium” (Latin. It contains a “Preamble. witness the provocative writings of Charles A. it is easy to see that the Delegates quickly dismissed the Articles and moved to craft a new national government. and just 39 signed the completed document. we nevertheless have at least one thing in common—The Constitution of the United States.

For Locke. courage. nasty. known as “the Friend of the People. Likewise. discover immutable laws. historians and orators they admired included Plato. let alone progress. and apply it to society. The authors of the Anti-Federalists Papers (those who opposed the ratification of the U. George Washington.” Finally. Similarly. As Hobbes pessimistically theorized. The Federalist Papers (85 essays authored by Alexander Hamilton-NY. James Madison-VA and John Jay-NY supporting the ratification of the Constitution) were anonymously penned under the name “Publius” (the sage Roman consul. But life in this state of nature was uncertain and chaotic at best.” 3 Natural Rights Philosophy 3 Classical Republicanism VITAL SPEECHES OF THE DAY influenced by the Natural Rights philosophies of Thomas Hobbes.” Under classical republicanism.S. Examples of this classical republican influence upon our early American leaders are legion. Constitution) published under the pseudonyms of Roman heroes. the fundamental right was the right to “life”.” who instituted the popular vote and exempted the poor from taxes). there was nothing in the state of nature to protect their lives or their natural rights to life. To live. deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed…” Locke’s influence was apparent. Among the early Greek philosophers. “The enumeration in this Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 2) Natural Rights Philosophy. The Founders were quite familiar with English philosopher Francis Bacon and his belief in “scientific discovery. integrity. property or liberty.” suggesting to critics that Jefferson did not want common people to get the idea they may be entitled to the Founders’ property). and 3) Judeo-Christian Tenants. and promotes the common good through moral education and the civic virtue of its citizens. Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness…” (Note how Jefferson substituted Locke’s notion of “property” for “Pursuit of Happiness. was often referred to as “America’s Cincinnatus. they agreed to give up complete unbridled freedoms in exchange for civil liberties—liberties within the law.C. but could never relinquish certain natural rights. natural rights included the rights to worship. because it was painfully obvious that he had borrowed from the natural rights theorists. The Founders were quite familiar with ancient Greek and Roman culture and history. And for Rousseau. Perhaps the most revered Roman consul was Cincinnatus. he would likely be charged with plagiarism. Horace and Justinian. many of the Founders had learned to read from Biblical scripture. the Sermon on the Mount. poor. Homer and Polybius. liberty and property without due process. when Jefferson writes about “certain unalienable Rights. The recurring theme among these philosophers was the belief that humans once lived in a “state of nature” where they had complete freedom. When Jefferson states. generosity. Demosthenes. As noted. and other passages that emphasized love. when intellectuals throughout Western culture strove to understand human nature and advance seemingly radical social and political reforms. John Locke and Rousseau. mandating “No person shall be denied the right to life. “God 3 Judeo-Christian Teachings It is plainly evident the Founders were keenly VSOTD. and own property. upon stepping down as President. “Governments were instituted among men. compassion. the Founders were influenced by JudeoChristian teachings. engage human reason. If Thomas Jefferson were alive today. when humans entered into the social compact with the sovereign. For Hobbes. This natural rights philosophy was the cornerstone for The Declaration of Independence in 1776. life in the state of nature was “solitary.” The 9th Amendment to the Constitution also reveals this natural rights influence. the political culture places public interest above private interest.” According to Bacon. responsibility. The Founders were particularly intrigued with the Roman Republic (circa 509 to 27 B. This too was the beginning of the Age of Enlightenment. charity and forgiveness. Plutarch. many colonial colleges required students to translate passages of the Bible into Greek and Latin as a condition of admission. voice their concerns to government. there were several common threads that profoundly influenced their thinking and actions. While the Founders appeared intellectually eclectic. brutish and short. especially John Locke. accountability. honesty.) and the chronicles of Cicero.” According to these theorists. Civic virtue encompassed the essential qualities of fairness. Virgil. moderation and self-control.536 quoted the classics in their political debates and personal correspondence. “Brutus” (Robert Yates-NY) and “Centinel” (Samuel Bryan-PA).COM . Thucydides. Benjamin Franklin spoke of Providence when he noted. They were: 1) Classical Republicanism. the leader who placed public service ahead of personal gain and voluntarily relinquished power to return to his farm. such as “Cato” (George Clinton-NY). the people entered into a compact with the sovereign. Aristotle. that among these are Life. Recall the reference to the Deity in the Declaration of Independence: “…they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights…” The Framers often quoted the Ten Commandments. the Founders were taken by the Greek and Roman philosophy that would later be termed “classical republicanism. Most importantly. it was possible to observe nature. We will see how the 5th and 14th Amendments to the Constitution would substitute this latter phrase. Moreover.

and most members served no more than one or two terms. “In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men. hardy governs the affairs of men. It is Scalia’s contention that without these vital elements all other freedoms would be meaningless. The first Supreme Court consisted of six members. there are 50 states. Illinois.9 billion per day! The national december 2008 3 Changes—Then and Now . As Madison writes in Federalist #51. They respected history. Montesquieu suggested a mixed constitution with built in safeguards 3 Basic Features of the Constitution 537 that would impede any one group from gaining total control of the polity. How do we create a government strong enough to govern the people. but not so strong that it abridges our basic freedoms? How was this to be accomplished? The Framers were practical men who borrowed extensively from a variety of sources. no White House. early state constitutions. Justice Antonin Scalia was a guest in one of my constitutional law classes at the University of Missouri. Most students identified the First Amendment and the freedom of expression. and each had nearly complete freedom to control anything within its borders. It is impossible in this forum to detail the roots of every provision in the Constitution. The Spirit of the Laws (1748). no airplanes. the English Bill of Rights (1689). “The Judicial Power shall be vested in one Supreme Court and such inferior courts as Congress shall from time to time ordain and establish. “All Legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress. There were just 13 states. Justice Scalia acknowledged the importance of each.9 million (about one-third the current population of Illinois).” Under this plan. Suffice it to say. The British Petition of Rights (1628). People of color were not citizens. Of necessity. Today. and the U. and still others concentrated on the 14th Amendment’s due process and equal protection clauses. no computers. and drew heavily upon philosophy and religion. and no Supreme Court Building (indeed it would not be until 1935 that the High Court had its first. Article I provides. Our nation’s capitol was New York City. Senators were selected by their respective state legislatures. “Proclaim Liberty throughout the Land.richard J. This is readily apparent when one examines the content of the Constitution. some identified the 6th Amendment’s right to council. “The Executive Powers shall be vested in a President of the United State…” And. no emails. and our nation in going in debt about $1. You get the idea. were the brainchild of French philosopher Montesquieu. President Washington’s foreign policy was that of isolation as he sought to avoid entangling alliances. Believe it or not. and possesses different legal weapons with which to challenge the other. These concepts. no blackberries…. and in the next place oblige it to control itself. Bushrod.S. population was roughly 3.S. President Washington’s initial administration consisted of just one. The first federal budget was about $1 million. there is clear indication of the Framers belief in a higher power. permanent home). In his classic work. DC. There were no political parties. has served as our nation’s capital since 1800. population is an estimated 310 million. “Ambition must be made to counteract ambition.” stems from the book of Leviticus. He began by asking the students to identify what they considered to be the most important provision in the Constitution. most were considered property. Just consider a few of the changes that have taken place since our Constitution took effect in 1789. each branch is responsible to a different constituency. the chief difficulty lies in this: You must first enable the government to control the governed. indeed.” Article II begins. the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom (1786). others the 4th Amendment’s protection against unreasonable search and seizures. and didn’t render a case for the first three years. a few cited the 2nd Amendment. today) and the entire U.” The embracement of this philosophy in our Constitution is clearly evident. the document is highly eclectic.S. One can find significant trace elements of the Magna Carta (1215). but noted that many world constitutions. The largest city was Philadelphia with about 40. who rode circuit twice a year. Washington. Children had few rights. contain such provisions on paper. A few years back (2001). of course. and even white males had to be 21 and own property to vote. whom he paid him out of his own pocket. Serving in Congress in the early days of our Republic was a great personal sacrifice. Hence. serves a different term.1 trillion. and the aforementioned philosophers. there were no Wal-Marts. women could not vote. part-time person—his nephew. There was no Capitol Building. 1788). no cell phones. the Framers of the Constitutional Convention were well grounded in the liberal arts. The Supreme Court was created with the Federal Judiciary Act of 1789.000 people (the population of Quincy. It took weeks to travel to and from the nation’s capitol. federal government budget is now $3. In sum. It was Justice Scalia’s considered opinion that the most important provisions of our Constitution are those providing for separation of powers and checks and balances. The U.” This is the question that has long perplexed the architects of government and the lovers of liberty alike. The enormity of the task facing the Framers in Philadelphia in the summer of 1787 is perhaps best encapsulated by James Madison in the Federalist #51 (February 6. They were generally well read. even those of totalitarian regimes. Article III stipulates.” The inscription on the Liberty Bell.

Sanford (1857). we would have just over 10. Supreme Court rulings. Three Amendments have been added to overcome controversial U. 2).538 government through the commerce clause. not individuals. When the very first Congress met in New York in March of 1789. Had that passed. “I would rather cut off my right arm than to sign this document as it presently exists. especially in Article I. Indeed. But this did not satisfy the Anti-federalists. For example. only three amendments of the Bill of Rights. Two amendments have been partially incorporated—5th and 8th. Minorities and women are now winning significant electoral victories at all levels of government and are now a vital part of the political landscape. gardeners. emergency powers. it is not a violation of the First Amendment for a private employer to sanction an employee for an untoward remark made on the job. so they included an amending article. in recorded history where Congress ever kept a promise. the role of the Supreme Court. welfare. the Bill of Rights places restrictions on government. health care. Senators have been popularly elected for nearly a century. Approximately. The Founders generally thought there were sufficient protections built into the Constitution. And now if you win a seat in Congress. 1st. government has a presence in every part of the globe. Farmer’s Loan & Trust Company (1895). the 18th (1919). The Bill of Rights. but a department of the federal government! The White House has long been the symbol of the presidency. and most especially the lack of a Bill of Rights.COM 3 Through Formal Amendments VITAL SPEECHES OF THE DAY ratified. But there are still at least two common misperceptions about these amendments. case-by-case basis. and painters. They were the 13th (1865). the original first two amendments did not pass. which repealed the 18th Amendment. bills of attainder).” Fearing that the Constitution would not be VSOTD. New York (1925). among all 27 constitutional amendments. Second. which became known collectively as the Bill of Rights. the U. George Mason of Virginia quipped. calling for prohibition. ratified in 1992. One would be hard pressed to find a single policy area (education. The Framers recognized that the Constitution would require periodic alterations. it requires the consent of both the national and state governments to amend the Constitution.g. I will have more to offer regarding the convention method in just a moment. it’s yours to keep! There was more turnover in the Supreme Soviet than in the U. Sec. .S. custodians. The ink had barely dried on the Constitution in 1787. such as chefs. The states ratified ten. the first ten amendments.S. It would have established one member of Congress for every 30. Congress approved twelve amendments. due to incumbency advantage and partisan gerrymandering. And the U. the Federalists immediately announced plans to accept amendments.S.000 persons. Indeed. etc..S. excluding the residence employees. striking slavery and involuntary servitude. And now in 2008. The President’s staff has now grown to about 450. only a portion of the Bill of Rights today extends protections against state actions. and sent them to the states for ratification. and the 21st (1933). highways.000 members of Congress! That would be like herding cats! And the original second amendment is now the 27th Amendment.) that the federal government does not regulate. Today. Georgia (1793). Sections 9 and 10 (e. The remaining five amendments—2nd. the Federalists agreed to add a Bill of Rights. 34 states). Article V. 14th Amendment (1868) to reverse Dred Scott v. was ratified in 1791. They are: 11th Amendment (1795) to overcome Chisholm v. both formally and informally. Just think. 3rd. when anonymous articles began to appear in newspapers questioning the efficacy and limits of the new government. or by a Constitutional Convention called for by 2/3’s of the state legislatures (today. proscriptions on ex post facto laws. this may be the first time. Among the greatest concerns of these Antifederalists was the Supremacy clause (Art. Beginning with Gitlow v. Supreme Court has gradually expanded the meaning of the 14th Amendment’s “due process” clause to selectively absorb or incorporate portions of the Bill of Rights so that they extend protection against both levels of government— but only on a piecemeal. protect us against state actions. They can be proposed by two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress. and the only time. First. 6. Three Amendments were added to reflect changing social values. Mason and Madison took the lead in sifting and winnowing through the proposals. There are two ways to propose and two ways to ratify amendments. Congress. Interestingly. and grants-in-aid now regulates many areas that were once considered the exclusive preserve of the states. there is only one that restricts individual action—the 13th Amendment. 125 amendments were submitted. The original first amendment did not pass. Ultimately. as opposed to federal governmental actions. public safety. 16th Amendment (1913) to circumvent Pollock v. it could be argued that Illinois is no longer the state of Illinois. Indeed. American stands poised to elect an African American or a woman to the highest offices of our nation! Methods of Constitutional Change Our Constitution has changed in myriad ways. 7th. many overlapped and were poorly worded (there were many “ought nots” in the verbiage). This article is based on the federal principle. 4th and 6th. Political parties have long dominated the nomination and election process. 203 years after it was originally proposed. 9th and 10th—only apply to the federal government.

the Chief Justice? Who will be the next George Washington? Should we require bipartisan representation? How are votes to be cast—apportioned by the states or shall each state get just one vote. and the states generally limited voting to white. The Constitution leaves the question of voter qualifications up to the states. as it was in the 1787 convention? Would it be possible to maintain secrecy like the original december 2008 3 Through Constitutional Convention . Here are some paramount questions. restrict campaign contributions or eliminate my “alma mater. “We think it’s a good idea if we were elected by the people rather than being hand picked by our good old boy network back home in the state legislatures”? Maybe they said: “Here’s a good idea. he seeks to impose term limits on members of Congress. Nobody said it was easy. Senators. male property owners over 21 years of age. Of course. But how do you think those changes occurred? Do you think that a group of men sat there in Congress and said. a former President. banning poll taxes in federal elections. by the voters? How many delegates will each state be entitled to have—equal numbers or members equal to the number of Senators and Representatives each state has in Congress? Who will preside over this new constitutional convention—a present leader of Congress. 23rd (1961). Among the most thoughtful suggestions to amend the U. allowing the residents of Washington. three electoral votes. As just noted. And there have been six amendments that have expanded the franchise.” Perchance they said. Article V also allows us to amend the Constitution through a constitutional convention when petitioned to do so by two-thirds of the state legislatures (now 34).S.” If you believe that.richard J. Did you know that there have been over 500 proposed amendments to change or eliminate the Electoral College? Recent polls suggest that over 70 percent of Americans favor the popular election of the President. Sims (1964). And the most recent was in the 1990s when we fell just two states short of petitioning Congress to convene a constitutional convention for the purpose of establishing an amendment to require a balanced federal budget.000 constitutional amendments proposed over the years. It took a very well organized progressive movement. and 25th (1967) establishing procedures for dealing with presidential disability and vacancies. 24th (1964). Senators. The Framers did not provide us with a great deal of detail with respect to the notion of a constitution convention. telescoping the period between the election and convening of government. Let us consider this prospect for a moment. all of our amendments have been proposed initially by state legislatures. How will delegates be selected—by state legislatures. I have summarized his 23 suggestions for amending the Constitution in the handout. but there have been more than 300 attempts to call for another convention. to change the way we elect U. hardy Four Amendments have altered the method of selecting the President: the 12th (1804). a state governor. There have been over 11. who possess great passion. 17th (1913). DC. “Wouldn’t it be great if we gave women the right vote?” Or perhaps they said. And it took social protest and a peace movement on college campuses to secure 18 year-olds the right to vote. who understand the art of politics. Senators—now that might 539 be a way to enforce term limits! Other proposals may strike a harmonious chord. Senator Everett Dirksen (RIL) we came within two states of calling a constitutional convention in the late 1960s in reaction to Reynolds v. but on only two occasions have we come close to securing the necessary two-thirds requirement. calling for the popular election of U. such as the amendments to limit congressional terms. “We really need to give teenagers the right to vote. one vote” principle. distinguished professor of political science at the University of Virginia.” or selecting Presidents by lot from a list of retiring U.S. Among other things. a Supreme Court decision that ordered the upper houses of state legislatures to redraw their districts to comport with the “one person. allowing those over 18 years old the right to vote. Thus far. you would believe that a pencil only has one end.S. granting the franchise to women. But through the amendment process. It took a Civil War to secure the 15th Amendment. with great civic leaders. Constitution have been offered by Dr. 19th (1920).S. and are willing to make great sacrifices to achieve great things. You can find a few of those proposals listed in the handout. enlarge the size of House. and require a balanced federal budget. there are lots of people with seemingly great ideas who have attempted to create constitutional amendments. 22nd (1951). It is painfully obvious that our suffrage was quite limited in the early days of our Republic. Senate and Supreme Court. and over half have been since 1970. lets give people of color the right to vote. requiring electors to cast separate ballots for President and Vice President.S. Some might seem a bit odd. we have added the 15th (1870). But to accomplish any of these. and 26th (1971). 20th (1933) or “lame duck” amendment. But it is possible if you have the right civic leaders—leaders. term limits for the President. such as amendments to outlaw dueling. Larry Sabato. Led by U. renaming our country to “The United States of the World. he is proposing another constitutional convention. ban wealthy people from financing their own campaigns. extending suffrage to men of color. by Congress. plus an additional hundred years of struggle and uncommon civic leadership to secure the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 to enable people of color the right to vote. are driven by principles.” the Electoral College.

Which current provisions of the Constitution would emerge undisturbed—the Establishment Clause.. Likewise. 1974). VSOTD. The role of the courts was always thought to be to interpret the law. While the seeds of judicial review could be found in British legal history (e. The people of this primitive tribe had never been exposed to the ways of the modern world. often without full hearings or complete public scrutiny. Here the justices are called upon to decide cases our Framers could never have envisioned—cases relating to wiretapping. Its rulings not only interpret the Constitution. U.. the logical place to begin is the landmark case of Marbury v. and had never seen a gun.S. but for all practical purposes this power seems to have been transferred to the President. Most Congress members now engage in the practice of “earmarking” funds for pet projects. superior to any congressional enactment. Indeed. Supreme Court? Nearly every Friday or Thursday. William Patterson in Van Horne’s Lessee v.S. a power that historically belonged only to the judicial branch.S. Thus.. Up to that point. The U. The Supreme Court also recognizes the President’s authority to remove the people whom he appoints. Presidents have withheld sensitive information from Congress in the name of separation of powers. the Free Exercise Clause.S. Our Constitution also has been altered through custom and usage. the Takings Clause. Dorrance. The meeting is held in complete secrecy as they gather around a large wooden table. Pink. perhaps most importantly. the President or the actions of state or local governments unconstitutional. the United State Supreme Court has claimed the power of “judicial review”—the authority to declare acts of Congress. U. Madison (1803) when Chief Justice John Marshall declared the Constitution to be a fundamental document. Lee Bailey was correct when he quipped that the Bill of Rights would not even get out of a Congressional Committee today. “The United States has been in only five declared wars out of the more than 150 in which we have fought. lived in grass huts.g. 1926). v. After several hours of incantations and gyrations around the skull. Lord Coke in Bonham’s Case. The Supreme Court’s power is best understood by the “Allegory of the Skull. The act of interpretation is thought to be a judicial act. When the people had a problem. the elders would emerge from the cave and rejoin the tribe to announce the decision of the skull. our nine appointed Supreme Court Justice meet in conference to decide cases. would it be possible to craft a workable document that would satisfy the diverse interests in our American society? And even if a new constitutional convention could reach agreement. the act of declaring something unconstitutional is thought to be a political act. It is understandable why many observers believe the Supreme Court is nothing more than a perpetual constitutional convention. The power to declare war is conferred upon Congress in Article I.. James Otis in Lechmere’s Case. 1937. the Supremacy Clause? Perhaps F .g. DC. automobile searches.” the unwritten rule that requires the President to seek prior approval from the U. 1942). no government of the world had ever permitted such action. Congress has the authority to subpoena witnesses to testify before hearings. or women? Can campus clubs on . It is up to the legislature to revise the law to comport with the fundamental law. campaign finance reform. the High Court has legitimated the President’s power to negotiate “executive agreements” with foreign states without senatorial approval—and these agreements have the same constitutional status as a treaty (see. They wore loincloths. Beginning with George Washington. And on the center of that table is a copy of the Constitution. and any law enacted which runs contrary to the Constitution should be null and void. when Court is in session. 1761) or early appellate court decisions (e. 1610). where they would consult the skull of their founder. Nixon.” And.540 convention or would the media demand embedded reporters? What would prevent a “runaway” convention.” as constitutional for national security but not criminal activities (U.” And. Is this really any different than the U.COM 3 Through Custom and Usage VITAL SPEECHES OF THE DAY 3 Through Supreme Court Rulings Judicial review is.S. U. v. Belmont. outlaw guns within its jurisdiction? Can a private club restrict membership to men. an American invention. Should enemy aliens be afforded the same rights as American citizens? Can Washington. an airplane or a telephone. 1795). but they shape its meaning and direction. the tribal elders would hike up to the sacred cave in the side of the mountain. it was not the role of the judicial branch to order legislative actions or nullify the law. for all intents and purposes. affirmative action. known as “executive privilege. Let us turn our attention to the role of the Supreme Court in interpreting the Constitution. Congress has developed “senatorial courtesy.g. albeit that power is not specified in the Constitution (see.S. Barry Goldwater once quipped. Here are just a few examples. Myers v. recall the purpose of our very first Convention was the “sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation. the proposed amendments or new constitution would have to be ratified by threefourths or 38 states today. speared fish. ate coconuts.S. Supreme Court is among the most powerful political bodies in the world. not to reject it. the American colonial experience (e. Senator(s) of his party before making an appointment from that state. v. The Supreme Court recognizes this practice.” There was a primitive tribe that resided on an isolated island in the Southern Pacific. the 2nd Amendment.

The Constitution has endured recessions. none of those things are written in the Constitution or on the skull in the cave. The Constitution has likewise survived presidential crises. any significant alteration of the Constitution should redound from a majority of the people through their elected representatives. consider its longevity. and equally compelling reasons why it may not meet the challenges ahead. Kennedy (1963). Second. Garfield (1881). and one monarchy. Hayes over Samuel J. First and foremost. the Constitution has endured great electoral challenges. Headlines might read.” The ongoing polemics over the proper role of the Supreme Court can be traced to the Anti-Federalists and Federalists debate over the ratification of the Constitution. And from 1974 to 1977 our nation had both a President (Gerald R. William McKinley (1898). and Robert Kennedy (1968). “Brutus” (generally thought to be Robert Yates. (1968). NY) argued against placing such immense power in the hands of judges with lifetime appointments. Others believe Supreme Court justices should merely interpret the words of the Constitution and refrain from creating new rights and liberties. hardy public universities use activity fees to promote religion? Does lethal injection constitute “cruel or unusual punishment”? Does a pregnant woman driving alone constitute a car pool? And whenever the decision is reached. and John F . and four assassinations— Abraham Lincoln (1865). 1888 (Benjamin Harrison over Grover Cleveland). He feared the Court would run roughshod over the states. The Constitution has weathered four presidential elections where the candidate who won the most popular votes lost the election. of course. while those who believe in judicial restrain generally applauded the decision.richard J. hundreds of banks closed their doors. 3 Will Our Constitution Last? 3 Reasons for Optimism 541 There are many reasons to be optimistic about our Constitution’s future. depends on many factors. it survived december 2008 . Section 2). These “judicial activists” see the Court as the vanguard to protect civil liberties and minority rights. some 25 years our junior. will scramble to promulgate the Court’s ruling. and roughly 120 of those have constitutions written since 1970. With that backdrop. 2 empires. was ultimately determined by the Supreme Court in Bush v. such as privacy rights or group rights. our Constitution has survived great economic crises. Third. Teapot Dome (Harding) and Watergate (Nixon). There are approximately 190 member states in the United Nations today. Perhaps it all comes down to what Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes said. Martin Luther King.” Sound familiar? But the reality is. which dates to 1814. Today. In Federalist #78 (June 1788). now let us turn to the central question of this lecture: Will our Constitution last? The answer. 1876 (Rutherford B. panics and even the Great Depression of the 1930s—when nearly a quarter of our population was unemployed. “The Constitution Prohibits this or that… Says the High Court. “The Constitution is what a majority of the justices say it is. NY) responded by noting the judicial branch is intended to be the weakest branch of the national government. Ford) and a Vice President (Nelson Rockefeller). They were the elections of 1824 (John Quincy Adams over Andrew Jackson). Think of how many nation-state constitutions have come and gone since 1789. It has withstood assassinations of charismatic American leaders—Malcolm X (1965). how can anybody forget 2000 (George W. and. It survived the presidential election of 1800. Tilden). The second oldest written constitution still in operation is that of Norway. such as the Whiskey Rebellion (1791) and the Dorr Rebellion (1841). members of the Washington press corps. Bush over Al Gore)! The outcome of the 2000 election. From the “judicial restraint” perspective. Consider the great scandals—the Crédit Mobilier (Grant). of course. particularly under the aegis of the supremacy clause (Article I. There are many reasons to believe our Constitution will stand the test of time. France has undergone ten constitutions—5 republics. many of whom are attorneys. James A. 2 dictatorships. this much is clear—our Constitution is a great document that affects nearly every aspect of our lives today. neither of whom was elected by the people! Our Constitution has withstood great social upheavals. And. Gore (2000).” or “The Supreme Court Determines Police Procedures Violate the Constitution. In the Anti-Federalists #78 and #79 (March 1788). there are many who believe the Constitution is a “living document” which affords Supreme Court justices great leeway in interpreting the law to meet the needs of an ever-changing society. Our system has survived two presidential impeachments—Andrew Johnson (1868) and William Jefferson Clinton (1998). Jr. I find it a bit ironic that those who subscribe to judicial activism bitterly disagreed with the decision. But he quickly asserted that a Supreme Court was necessary to check the unauthorized actions of the legislative and executive branches and preserve the people’s rights vested in the Constitution. Whatever side you take on this debate. when it took the House of Representatives 36 ballots to make Thomas Jefferson the President over Aaron Burr. Let us briefly examine some reasons to be optimistic and some reasons to be guarded. And El Salvador has experimented with approximately 36 constitutions over its existence. It managed to survive the economic calamity in the inchoate stages of our Republic when we had no national banking system. and thousands of businesses filed bankruptcy. “Publius” (Alexander Hamilton.

Just try to get it back in. and. from 1500 through 1980. “Civilizations. according to Spengler. sister against sister.. The proverbial toothpaste is out of the tube. as soon as time or accident had removed the artificial supports. More recently. and Paul Kennedy.” And. This autumn phase. According to Kennedy. according to Toynbee. is characterized by the growth VSOTD.” he was actually referring to the U. in distant wars. The victorious legions. A Study of History (1934-1961) chronicled the rise and fall of 26 great civilizations. “But the decline of Rome was the natural and inevitable effect of immoderate greatness.” In his two-volume classic.C. great nations increasingly become involved in global. We now live in the age of chemical. one of the most substantial and controversial historical treatises of modern times. The Decline of the West (1918-1922). but death and taxes. including Iran. the stupendous fabric yielded to the pressure of its own weight.COM 3 Reasons for Pessimism VITAL SPEECHES OF THE DAY of sprawling cities. China and North Korea. As the superpower borrows and runs up significant trade deficits. But there are some reasons to question whether this great document can survive. and finally dissolved.542 the greatest of all challenges. France. According to Toynbee. and. German philosopher and historian Oswald Spengler pessimistically posits that all civilizations inevitably pass through life cycles—from youth through maturity and old age to death. the politics of greed. and afterwards violated the majesty of the purple. Prussian. each of us will experience physical and mental decline. British. and how each could threaten our constitutional republic. So. or Scripture last forever? Certainly. whether or not a civilization declines depends on the quality of its leaders. “nothing in this world is certain. The story of its ruin is simple and obvious. who. and redounded in some 618. Arnold Toynbee. can we draw any parallels between these former great powers and the present-day United States? Consider some external and internal problems facing the United States today. French. come to birth and proceed to grow by successfully responding to successive challenges. Oswald Spengler. They break down and go to pieces if and when a challenge confronts them which they fail to meet. Each work has generated scores of criticism from thoughtful scholars who view the same phenomenon through different lenses. please note. I recognize. Yale professor Paul Kennedy studies the efficacy and limits of nation-states in The Decline and Fall of Great Powers (1987). when Benjamin Franklin quipped. human flesh does not. It was Gibbon’s thesis that the collapse of this great empire was largely the result of overexpansionism and internal corruption. India. the cultural disconnect with the past. Prosperity ripened the principle of decay. Kennedy traces the history of world powers. Is there anything humans build that will not deteriorate with time? Every building. anxious for their personal safety and the public peace. monument or structure will ultimate decay and crumble without constant upkeep and repair. Let us draw upon some students of history— Edward Gibbon. Many states have the capability of developing weapons of mass destruction. military affairs as a way of protecting their interests. Pakistan. English historian Arnold Toynbee’s 12-volume. Greek historian Herodotus. and this includes great world powers. religious and economic challenges. Spanish. including the Hapsburg. I believe. and the loss of common values and goals. the Civil War—the deadliest conflagration that pitted brother against brother. the vigour of the military government was relaxed. In this thoughtprovoking work. were reduced to the base expedient of corrupting the discipline which rendered them alike formidable to their sovereign and to the enemy. first oppressed the freedom of the republic. If we are fortunate to live a long life. observed: “There is nothing permanent except change. and that Western culture had entered the period of decline. But the great cost associated with maintaining military presence places increasing strain on the state’s economy. that these historical theses are not ironclad. of course.S.” In 484 B. The emperors. Constitution. truth. and the Roman world was overwhelmed by a deluge of Barbarians. Consider the ancient Hebrew passage: “And this too shall pass. acquired the vices of strangers and mercenaries. Compounding this is the 3 Weapons of Mass Destruction . by the partial institutions of Constantine.000 deaths. I am equally cognizant of the fact that civilizations and constitutions are not one and the same. I offer the aforementioned examples to demonstrate that change happens. It is Kennedy’s overarching theme that superpowers decline due to military and economic overstretch. that seemingly nothing lasts forever. its influence is weakened and eventually declines. civilizations and nationstates may jettison constitutions without necessarily declining. Hence. Rather. instead of inquiring why the Roman Empire was destroyed. including Russia. British philosopher and historian Edward Gibbon authored the six-volume The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776-1788). bridge. the causes of destruction multiplied with the extent of conquest. At least nine nation-states have tested nuclear weapons. Is there anything that lasts forever? Perhaps love. biological and nuclear weaponry. we should rather be surprised that it had subsisted so long. and Austrian-Hungarian empires.” It is Toynbee’s central thesis that a civilization’s survival depends on the resourcefulness of its leaders to respond successfully to successive cultural.

Our growing national debt should be a major concern. When Social Security came into effect in the mid-to-late 1930s. they enable members of Congress to bring home federal monies to their districts. Things don’t bode well for the U. and that interest was used to fund the recipients.S. the dependency ratio has changed dramatically. education. Our nation’s growing energy crisis further compounds our economic woes. and foreign investors and governments. State and Local Government Securities. The Gross National Debt is what our U. sans the scrutiny of the entire legislative chamber. Many highrisk lenders are on the verge of meltdown. put it even more succinctly: “This Constitution is not a suicide pact” (Terminello v. state and local governments.S. a new moniker for old-fashion pork barrel legislation. Social Security may be a ticking time bomb. due to enlarged coverage and expanded life expectancy. The yearly interest payment on the national debt will soon reach $400 billion—that will exceed what the federal government spends annually on environmental protection. On one of the earliest broadcasts of NBC’s Meet the Press. The ratio of debt to Gross Domestic Product is approaching 37 percent. The United States has just 4. That would be both impractical and would likely violate innocent people’s civil liberties.2 million in just the second quarter of 2008). the U. Among the largest foreign investors are Japan ($590 billion).richard J. We are seeing record defaults on home mortgages (1. This adds up to billions in wasteful spending. indeed.S. thus. Obviously. due largely to the sub-prime lending and ballooning adjustable rate mortgages extended to high-risk borrowers. Yet. and often reward campaign contributors with contracts or projects that help line their pockets.S. committees. that the only way to prevent that would be with a crowbar. the dependency ratio is about 3:1. But earmarks do not follow the typical legislative route. etc. bills must be approved by Congress and be signed by the President. 2008). debt instruments—Treasury Bills. If we can believe the National Debt Clock. And this could have ripple effects— increased interest rates. without the necessary security. The money went into a fund. the life expectancy of the average American was about 61 years. Notes. but today there are an estimated 11. This will ultimately cost taxpayers trillions of dollars. but our current leaders fear adverse political consequences if they attempt to overhaul the system. Savings Bonds. that ration could reach 2:1. In 1996. and efforts are underway to have the federal government bailout Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. By contrast. significantly weaken our Constitution.S. it really does not go into the “lock box. national government owes to creditors. or too weak to maintain its own existence?” U. national debt in 1791 was $75 million. our freedoms would mean nothing. Today. by the time I finish speaking tonight.93 billion a day. and when the post-World War II baby-boomers hit retirement. China ($502 billion). is now running a Social Security surplus. Chicago. U. 1861: “Must a government of necessity be too strong for the liberties of its own people. the highest in nearly 50 years. Today. 1949). something must be done.7 trillion in arrears. the United States is now $9. The number of earmarks has increased at an alarming rate and has doubtlessly contributed to the federal deficit. According to the Constitution. Although the U. and going in debt at the rate of $1.700 earmarks. meaning there were 17 people paying into the system for everyone who took out. Just the interest payments on our national debt constitute the second largest expenditure (19 percent) of the General Fund (the largest is defense spending at 30 percent). Compounding this national debt is the growing use of congressional earmarking. there were less than 300 earmarks. perhaps an increase in criminal activity. and the United Kingdom ($250 billion).S. Supreme Court Justice Robert Jackson. Roughly 40 percent of that debt must go into the Federal Reserve System. An overreaction to perceived threats could.S. Earmarks are pet 3 Economic Concerns 543 projects that are not necessarily of overriding national importance. Perhaps Abraham Lincoln said it best when he addressed Congress on July 4.” but is used to fund the government. loss of urban revenues. can approve them. most people died four years before their Social Security kicked in at age 65.4 percent of the world’s population but consumes december 2008 3 Energy Concerns 3 Home Foreclosures 3 Social Security Concerns . transportation and homeland security combined (Detroit Free Press. host Lawrence Spivak asked guest Bernard Baruch if there was any way to prevent a terrorist from blowing up New York City with an atomic bomb. The remaining 60 percent is owed to private persons (pensions). The challenge for our leaders is how to check the spread of terrorism without diminishing our civil liberties. hardy distinct possibility that terrorists could detonate a bomb in the United States. We are all now painfully aware of the energy crisis at hand. vacant properties. That is. Baruch responded. July 31. The dependency ratio was 17:1. our national debt will have greatly exceeded that figure. which built up interest. the authorities would have to open each and every package. those who hold U. At that time. it was thought to be a hedge for those who retired. now about 78 years. housing market. corporation. a champion of civil liberties.

church. Like a wonderful tossed salad. I am reminded of the commencement address delivered at the University of Missouri by the great humorist and humanitarian. In pondering whether our nation is ascending or declining. The population of the United States has tripled in the past century. In any organization.’” Personally. can undermine our foreign policy interests. “I don’t know how to define public interest. as opposed to pure self-interest. regiment.” The closest anyone has come to defining it. it depends on whether you’ra pourin’ or a drinkin’!” Let us return to the central question of this lecture: Will our Constitution last? Perhaps it depends on our perspective and whether you think we are “poorin’ or drinkin. Leadership is the driving force behind any company. I would like to think we are still pouring. In his book. Bill Cosby. to reconnect with family. al. and achieving. Cosby’s grandmother. The days of $5 per barrel of crude oil are long gone. produces only 33 percent of its daily crude oil needs.COM 3 Social/Cultural Concerns VITAL SPEECHES OF THE DAY to drift apart? Hence. but the question is how we are going to do it. Nigeria and Venezuela. It is the art of inspiring. Approximately one-third of the estimated 300 million Americans are now classified as minorities.. Dr. But I do agree with Professor Arnold Toynbee (Civilization on Trial. Civil Society: The Underpinnings of American Democracy (1999. an elderly woman with just a third grade education. motivating. was my late colleague at the University of Missouri. 67 percent is imported. the professor asked the class to consider whether the glass he was holding was half full or half empty. two nations that are accelerating their demand for oil. Will we be able to come together or will our people continue VSOTD. in my opinion.544 about 25 percent of the world’s oil. “Public interest is what makes young men and women go to war for their country. He said. Cosby told the large assembly of the days when he was a struggling young student at Temple University. The U. mainly from Canada. James D. Aside from the Native Americans. That same survey also indicated only 12 percent ever took the time to contact a public official. be it 3 The Role of Civic Leaders 3 Poorin’ or Drinkin’? . The Council on Foreign Relations’ Task Force warned that our nation’s addiction to oil and our dependency on foreign oil are undercutting our economy and national security. I believe O’Connell’s observation is particularly relevant to American democracy. Mexico. Fiorina. and I believe it to be fairly accurate. Transitions are not easy. school. agency or nation. Immigration has often come in large waves of people from particular parts of the world. Brian O’Connell notes. and educational curriculum. But how do you define public good? To borrow a phrase from Justice Potter Stewart. Morris P . And civic leaders are those who are motivated by the public good. then asked his grandmother what she thought. “That’s easy.” I recall a public opinion survey some years ago that indicated that only 19 percent of all Americans ever attend a public meeting. 2004. Iran and Venezuela. ours is a nation of immigrants. but I know what it is when I see it. 1948) that our fate will depend upon the ability of our leaders to meet successive challenges. to seek freedom.). and Samuel P. Perhaps this is accurate. voter registration. 79). We nearly all agree on that. Huntington’s Who Are We?: The Challenge to America’s National Identity. In 2006. Saudi Arabia. and with that often comes cultural clashes. Professor Lloyd Manning Wells. It is now obvious the United States must increase domestic production of oil and transition into the use of alternate sources of energy. et. That weekend Bill pondered the question. such as Russian. and roughly 45 percent of all American children under the age of 5 are minorities. Leadership is the ability to influence the behavior of individuals in a group or organization in order to achieve some common goal. and old men and women plant trees. Bill. and each significant influx brings temporary social and cultural conflicts. firm.S. to secure a quality education.g. quickly responded. But here is what friend once told me. People seek to join us for many reasons—to gain political asylum. Hunter’s The Cultural Wars: The Struggle to Define America. union. our polity is composed of people from every part of the globe. immigration. such as a PTA meeting or city council meeting. and. “the history of other democracies teaches us that the greatest threat often comes from within…” and that “many of the threats to our civil society relate to misunderstanding of what it is and its relevance to the functions and preservation of democracy” (p. We are now witnessing a very significant change. especially with China and India.’s Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized America. to seek riches. and only about ten percent of the citizens ever contributed to a political campaign. Our nation is becoming more and more diverse. We appear deeply divided over issues relating to religion. At the close of class on a Friday afternoon. 1992. But the leaders I am talking about are civic leaders. there are reasons to be both optimistic and pessimistic about the future of our Constitution and the Republic it creates. He has a political science professor that frequently asked rhetorical questions. The report further warns that energy suppliers. Perhaps the current red state-blue state voting pattern is a manifestation of this growing rift. 2004). Much has been written about the growing cultural divide (e. most importantly.

and respect for your fellow citizens. integrity. however. Sojourner Truth. As Carl Sandburg notes. hardy a school. Teddy Roosevelt. they met other critics who said. Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Once again. “Politics is the conduct december 2008 3 Politics 3 Principles . to look to the future---it is the hallmark of all great civic leaders.” According to the story. In his last public address (April 11. “Look at that lazy old man riding. they are going to break the donkey’s back. according to Aesop. Of course. Most people see politics as something sordid. tonight. And that person can be you. But the most successful ones are those who admit to their errors in judgment. considering what people have said about politics over the years. etc. corrupt. c) be effective politicians. These are the citizens who read the newspapers. And this is understandable. It is not always easy to hold firm to your core values. your glasses. faculty lounges. are innovators. Every great idea. No matter what you do. to breathe life into an organization. Roughly five percent of the people follow each and every thing that goes on in the organization. and must be. or around the water cooler and solve the world’s problems every day. So the man and the boy mounted the donkey and continued their trek. the audio visual equipment. all civic leaders make mistakes. is hypocrisy. the Boy and the Donkey. They soon encountered other critics--”Look at the old man and little boy. park the cars. the old man got on the donkey and let the little boy lead. they don’t make statues to honor critics: that is reserved for real leaders who are not afraid to take action and suffer the critics. the blueprint of our Constitution. The moral of the story is that you cannot please everyone. while that poor old man has to walk. in my opinion. what. Let us look at each element. What Americans don’t tolerate in their civic leaders.richard J.” Believing the critics. and meet in coffee shops. or an activity that good people should avoid. You cannot make everyone like you. I believe I am talking to the top six percent—the civic leaders who can make things happen. “What happened?” Why have my taxes gone up? Why did government do this or that? Well. and d) possess the broad knowledge that a liberal arts education can provide. b) stand firm on principles. We can learn from Aesop’s words. Perhaps the ultimate reason why most people don’t get involved is their fear of what others may think. but waiting around for 100 percent approval before you take action will get you nowhere. while that poor little boy has to walk. Soon they encountered critics along the road who mocked the old man and boy—”Look at that old man and little boy. the old man dismounted and led the donkey as the little boy rode. Jr. The second element of civic leadership is the commitment to principles. set up chairs. and vow not to do it again. in the solitude of his room in Montpelier! Don’t underestimate the importance of vision and imagination. Consider just a few of the digs. But they don’t do anything! And the rest of the people. Building a consensus is one thing. that is. Again.” Thinking the critics were correct. There are common elements that all effective civic leaders must possess. church or civic organization. “Nothing happens unless first a dream. Let’s face it. invention or social movement started in the mind of just one person. clean up. moral or ethical standards. Aesop told the fable of “The Man. And for the most part. nasty. only about one or two percent of the people make things happen. Martin Luther King. etc. The first element of civic leadership is vision. And the most effective leaders. I believe effective civic leaders today must: a) have a vision.—knew that every great movement must be based on principles.” At the end of the story.” The man thought the critics were right. Effective civic leaders are good politicians. an old man and the little boy lived in the mountains. Perhaps the principles most valued are honesty.” Every great leader has a vision of what needs to be done. That’s exactly what James Madison did when he crafted the Virginia Plan. learn from their mistakes. Remember. The man and boy began their long journey by leading the donkey down the twisting pathway. your cell phone. there they are walking when they could be riding that sure-footed donkey. There are roughly another five to six percent who will help you make those things happen.” I believe that all inspiring leaders— Lincoln. what people need to do and in what direction the enterprise must head. These are the people who will help you sell the tickets. Ambrose Bierce once wrote. Anybody can sit on the sidelines and criticize. It is not enough just to envision something. the remaining 76 to 78 percent ask. and set out one morning 3 Action 3 Vision 545 to sell their small donkey in the village below. It takes a real civic leader to take action. the chairs you are sitting on. they encountered other critics--”Look at that lazy little boy riding. follow the news. 1865). It is the leader’s primary responsibility to generate that vision. Abraham Lincoln said. there will be critics. Look at everything in this room—the lights. Americans have the capacity to forgive almost anything if you confess your transgressions and vow not to repeat them. to energize people. inflexible. Civic leadership requires action. “Important principles may. some 26 centuries ago. the old man and little boy carried the donkey to town. people who are unafraid to take risks and willing to roll up their sleeves and tackle difficult tasks.

effective civic leaders are skilled politicians who understand and can practice the art of drawing dividing lines. Again. The Constitution is filled with dividing lines. it is essential that today’s civic leaders. in tax schedules. ideologies and philosophical beliefs.” “probable cause. 3 Final Words of Wisdom .” We Americans come in all kinds of packages.546 of public affairs for private advantage.” Politics is the art of drawing dividing lines. economic and political system that only a liberal arts education can bring. Indeed. will be able to balance the two most important struggles we face in our Constitutional democracy—the never-ending struggle between 1) liberty and authority. This is my definition of politics. rather. the world has been filled with lines. Lines are any real or imaginary set of point that people use to distinguish.” And then there was that famous scene in the movie Forrest Gump. Lines can be found on a football field. whether that person is a parent. For want of a rider. and races. but his spine is as crooked as a politician. in all else—diversity. From there on it is up to the people. The study of mathematics and philosophy will VSOTD. For want of a shoe. ethnic heritage. everywhere there are lines. musical tastes. classify or categorize any person. and that politics is really the art of drawing dividing lines. For want of a horse. judge or an elected public official. as opposed to specialized.” Ultimately. from the beginning of time. city limits. experience and knowledge. Understand that it is not a perfect document. but it will take someone educated in the liberal arts and sciences to chart the course. physics and biology will enable us to understand the complexities of our world. the shoe was lost. Learn to appreciate its historical roots and comprehend its words. It allows people the freedom and opportunity to solve their own problems.” John Maxwell writes. Finally. national boundaries. in military ranks. I will leave you with this aphorism offered by the sage Benjamin Franklin. According to Burger: “The Constitution does not solve our problems. “One does not adopt politics as a profession and remain honest. Learning how to use a machine or a computer is important. technical training. the horse was lost. The worst thing a politician can do is draw an artificial line. cultural. History will give us perspectives on our lives. the fate of our Constitution depends on civic leaders. Do not take this great document for granted. The study of chemistry. For want of a nail. And of course. It has been said. Mrs. Lines. Courses in religious studies.S. and one that will allow the opposition to break through the line and redound in uncertainty.” or “ex post facto laws. women studies and AfricanAmerican studies will foster understanding. accountant. The study of English and foreign languages will enable us to communicate more effectively. thing or idea. the liberal arts education teaches us “how” to think. Senator or 18 to vote in federal elections. is often ephemeral. Above. But. a person must be 30 years old to be a U. “In all things essential—unity. it provides an executive to enforce the laws and administer government. “Anybody can steer the ship. The arts and sciences offer us a well-rounded education. Gump. when the doctor told Mrs. innate and universal. such as “cruel or unusual punishment. on a highway. teacher. all. lines. religious convictions.” I believe that any technical expert can carry out day-to-day functions. I believe that Chief Justice Warren Burger best sums up what our Constitution is about. Some of the lines are bright lines that are precisely drawn. preacher. Gump. “Forrest’s legs are fine. or classifications of ideology. Rather than teaching us “what” to think. The liberal arts and sciences provide us with tools to continue learning for a lifetime. coach. Technical training. politicians must look for the natural breaks and seek a proper balance between what most people will consider right or just. identify. and 2) liberty with equality. we are a diverse people. Only civic leaders empowered with education. Line drawing is instinctive. nationalities. but think how quickly machines and computers become obsolete. while critically important to the functioning of our society.” “establishment of religion. we share at least one common thread—our Constitution. the rider was lost.COM 3 Breadth of Knowledge VITAL SPEECHES OF THE DAY sharpen your analytical thinking. The study of psychology will enable us to understand ourselves. and the study of anthropology and sociology will enable us to understand how people act in groups and in society. people of different races. it provides a judicial branch to say what the law means. to be successful. For example.” When the Supreme Court decides what these concepts mean. Aside from our common language. The survival of our Constitution and republic that it spawned will depend upon civic leaders who possess the broad understanding of our highly complex and highly interrelated social. “but it takes a real leader to chart the course. supervisor. the study of politics will teach us to govern and to know where to draw the dividing lines. be grounded in the liberal arts.” New Dealer Louis McHenry Howe quipped. But most of the lines are fuzzy and subject to interpretation. And any person who has the authority and legitimacy to draw a dividing line is a politician. they are drawing dividing lines. politicians must be grounded in principles. it is a political document. one that is perceived to be unfair or unjust. it provides for representatives of the people to help solve problems. like those of our Framers. separate. They are found in all cultures.

they must shift their research focus to its solutions. though. you see.JUdith rodin the battle was lost. to demonstrate that environmental degradation. Almost a tenth of the way through this new century. Thousands of scholars have engaged in an unprecedented research effort that has convinced all but the most recalcitrant skeptics that human activity is causing climate change and that climate change’s effects demand concentrated attention and immediate.8 billion people. My fellow citizens. And finally. up from 30 percent today. climate change. illiteracy has dropped by half worldwide. and it is with us for the long haul. This extraordinary work not only led to a Nobel Peace Prize for former Vice President Al Gore and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. but for humanity’s. And for want of a battle. it is safe to assert that humanity is better off today than it has been at any point in history. robust action. I don’t have to say that the last decade has witnessed something of a bull market for climate science. Ten million children succumb to preventable or treatable december 2008 . First. And I thank you very much! Climate Change Adaptation THE NEXT GREAT CHALLENGE FOR THE DEVELOPING WORLD Address by JUDITH RODIN. Now that scientists have substantiated. you are. and the application of science and technology. February 15. President of the Rockefeller Foundation Delivered to the American Association for the Advancement of Science 2008 Annual Meeting.” In fact. the discovery and development of new fields. because it’s committed to advancing science. In the best tradition of both organizations. nor are they improving equally. You play a vital role in a free society—supporting multidisciplinary efforts both to analyze and assess our world and to actively shape it. We’re beneficiaries of revolutions in health and medicine. We have all heard the rhetoric about governments and multilateral organizations reaching a crossroads. and then explore the role science and technology must play in solving the intersecting climate change and global poverty crises.N. it laid down an incontrovertible scientific basis for the world to understand that climate change is real. Then. In the last three decades. Life expectancy has doubled in a century. More people than ever have a voice in their government. invited me to speak tonight about the Foundation’s commitment to addressing climate change. knowledge and ideas. This weekend’s theme is “science and technology from a global perspective. I’m honored to join you. To begin from a global perspective.P . A just published Brookings report projects that by 2020 the ranks of the world’s middle class will balloon by 1. we are those proverbial horseshoe nails. and strengthen our shared future by restoring ecosystems and expanding social and economic opportunity. A billion people live in abject poverty. 2008 I ’m delighted that David Baltimore and Alice Huang. over the next few minutes. as John [Holdren] phrased it in his presidential address a year ago. the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Fourth Assessment Report of the I.C. we have much to be encouraged by and optimistic about. the kingdom was lost. We share markets and capital. Half of the people on earth live on less than two dollars a day. and profound advances in the physical and social sciences. new techniques. civic leaders one 547 and all. For almost a century. I will complicate this important body of work with the following assertion: unplanned urbanization in the developing world will exacerbate those impacts of climate change which are already experienced by the rural poor. underserved communities to survive the environmental degradation human beings have already caused. and poverty are inextricably connected. The AAAS is exceptional. a Rockefeller Foundation trustee. and dramatically more diverse communities.” So. I believe no less is true for the scientific community. The dilemma. Oh. support the efforts of underdeveloped.C. I am. and together. I will briefly draw from two bodies of scientific knowledge. with neither running water nor enough to eat. roughly equivalent to the average income of two hundred years ago.. and new technologies to stabilize and reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Rockefeller’s words. not only for science’s sake. it is happening now. we can and will make a difference. for “the betterment of mankind. in John D. the Rockefeller Foundation has supported scientific inquiry. Boston. I will talk about the need for new tools. Only three countries of the 102 on the U. that the climate crisis is upon us. I will briefly explain the Rockefeller Foundation’s global perspective. and include an astounding 52 percent of the total population. is that not everyone’s lives are improving fast enough. beyond the shadow of doubt. Human Development Index have seen socioeconomic conditions deteriorate. the kingdom was lost for want of a horseshoe nail. one of the very first summits on the potential impacts of global warming was held in 1976 at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center. Massachusetts.

The entire continent of Africa. Our past emissions will continue warming the air and oceans into the future. technical. Let’s turn. and socially conscious. This clearly poses a major development challenge. stronger storms. As a consequence. then we can stabilize the earth’s climate. And our planet is an especially unequal place because of environmental degradation and climate change. and transformed to work in another. emits less than one-tenth the greenhouse gasses of the United States. innovative. and the deleterious consequences are many—severe and more frequent floods foremost among them. So.C.C. and forests—54 percent in developing countries. It means that the same tools and techniques. support the otherwise imperiled survival of hundreds of millions of people. more equitably. climate change. the I. technology. here’s a proposition to consider: VSOTD. We know “unequivocally. Learning that happens in one place can be universally accessible. and social resources to prepare for and respond to climate risk. fisheries. continuing loss of glaciers and .” in the words of the I. scientific discovery. the same strategies and solutions that work in one place can be transmitted..P . coastal erosion. It means that citizens and governments can redirect the torrent of expanding markets and economies to benefit communities more equitably and to advance the status of individuals left behind. Of course. reaffirmed this past fall. decades of warming are probably inevitable. if it leads to more research funding. globalization.8 degrees Centigrade— especially since the middle of the last century. not barriers. It means that we still face common dangers. crops. anyone. and strengthen opportunity in the process. And if we’re intelligent. Globalization is the foremost driver of change in the world today. if it builds bridges. between policymakers and scholars. Over the last several years. It stated that human actions have degraded ecosystems more drastically in the last fifty years than in all of history. can exploit these sweeping transformations. most of the work in the world.C. audited the world’s peoples and environment. we can harness globalization to benefit more people. What is different today is the scope and scale of our collective actions: in a word. anywhere. pollution in one place affects the environment everywhere else. So. then. if it pivots from proving that climate change is happening toward choosing and charting a way to address it.P. It means the intellectual processes—the methodologies—that enable evolution in one domain can spark innovations that make sense elsewhere. In light of this.P . literally thousands of scientists have proven the case that among the many serious challenges posed by global climate change. Think about this: deforestation currently accounts for roughly the same amount of greenhouse gas emissions as all the cars and trucks in the world. The 700 million rural poor who live on less than a dollar a day are often those most reliant on natural ecosystems and climates for survival and subsistence: clean water for drinking and fishing.C. and woodlands. and ethnicity. we call this smart globalization. livestock.COM VITAL SPEECHES OF THE DAY If our approach to climate change is grounded in the bedrock of science. protected habitat for hunting and grazing. that our world is warming and that the consequences are worsening. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. one of the gravest is inequity. and poverty.C. snow levels are down. but also benefit collectively from new competencies to absorb those risks more equally. Continued degradation also emerges from and contributes to global climate change. funders and researchers. This certainly is not a new idea. translated. in fact. with implications both beneficial and burdensome. often by virtue of gender. And what’s most astounding: given the opportunity. if it promotes smart policies. and communication. race. Up to 70 percent of the poor’s wealth comes from ecosystems. Second. in more places. At the Rockefeller Foundation. and productive soil for agriculture.C. It means that data and discovery aren’t limited to those with laboratory access or library cards. This would be smart globalization indeed. the people who walk with the smallest carbon footprint also lack the financial. responsibly growing the economy to benefit more people. also documented three alarming realities for development efforts.548 diseases every year. the consequences of climate change will be severe: rising sea levels. We can accelerate the pace of progress more equitably in more places. was still performed in fields. Over a trillion dollars cross national borders every day in currency transactions. First. Globalization is propelled by structural transformations in finance. Whether it serves as an engine for good or ill is entirely up to us. sea levels are up. gardens. Human actions—including deforestation and human reliance on fossil fuels— have correlated with both an enormous increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and a rise in average temperatures of 0. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. The I. and it has a number of corollaries. business and community leaders. at the start of the century.400 scientists from 95 countries over a four-year period. more frequent. environmental stresses affect those with the fewest means the most. to the data establishing the connections among environmental degradation. undertaken by 1. IBM predicts that within four years the world’s information base will double in size every eleven hours. diminishing biodiversity. We all understand how a single deed can reverberate in ways we neither anticipate nor are necessarily conscious of.

where over a third of the population lives in drought or drought-prone areas. And third. of the Rocky Mountain Institute. It’s become increasingly clear as we develop this work. and strengthened water and resource management. incidentally. More people live in cities than ever before.JUdith rodin arctic ice. and hasten the exodus to informal. With our partners. wasn’t the only culprit. sprawling development swelled into a perfect storm. and readily available.P . we face another vector of this global challenge at the climate-poverty nexus: accelerating. Indeed. UN-HABITAT projects that within three decades. most located in the developing world. One such weapon—and the strategy most discussed these days—is mitigation. more than 60 percent of the world’s population will live in cities. that if we expect our poverty reduction and agricultural productivity strategies december 2008 . climate change could shorten sub-Saharan Africa’s growing season by several weeks and decrease yields from rain-fed agriculture by as much as half. new techniques for carbon sequestration. unplanned urbanization. Cities have historically been engines of vitality. Poor drainage. An International Livestock Research Institute report suggests that. New York City was the only metropolis with a population greater than 10 million. scenarios suggest we’re headed: average temperature increases far outside the range of variation from the last thousand years and exaggerated “global weirding.N. projects that between 25 and 40 percent of animals in sub-Saharan national parks may become endangered—which.” They suggest that we can choose any seven of fifteen manageable “wedges. access to credit and output markets. a “great migration” of 700 million—and many of these cities are located on flood-prone river deltas and coastlines.” each of which represents a billion tons of carbon.2 billion. urban. In the years since. Let me touch on just one more mitigation option which has particular potential for rural poverty reduction: agriculture and forestry. in the next decade. By 2020. which tends to concentrate poor people in high-risk areas.C. The U. For the most part. The idea is this: the difference between our current rate of emissions and a plateau comprises what they call a “stabilization triangle. improved access to mass transit. a mere two years away. We must decrease them. the planet’s population has tripled.C. where Goldman Sachs projects that 31 rural villagers will move to underdeveloped cities every minute for the next 43 years. climate change will have the greatest effect on the communities who have done the least to cause it. We must take a portfolio approach and develop as many elements as possible. however. The rain. you can see where I. In 1950. the world’s sixth largest city. First a little background. to describe the range of more intense weather events we all experience with greater frequency. forecasts that 50 million people will become environmental refugees. Even just stabilizing emissions poses a significant technological and political challenge. Indeed.C. If our present levels of emissions continue unabated. All of these are important ideas. just to mention a few. isolated action will ease emissions enough. and precipitous urbanization. I returned last Saturday from India. more fertile and better managed soil. the vast majority absorbed in slums. lacking sanitation and clean water. The consequences of climate change in India and around the world are not a far-off prospect. one of every three people will live in near total squalor: packed tightly on ecologically fragile land. and an increase in heat-related diseases like malaria and dengue fever. the world’s total population was 2. they are epicenters of our global climate crisis. salinity in freshwater aquifers. though severe. concentrating in cities. to fill the gap between the two. Within a decade.C. seven metropolitan areas in developing countries will have more than 20 million inhabitants. The 2005 Maharashtra floods in India killed more than a thousand people—most of them slum-dwellers—in and around Mumbai. by the end of this decade. diminish crop yields. Robert Socolow and Stephen Pacala at Princeton have refined one conceptual road-map to the necessary reductions. They’re happening now. squatter-slums. would devastate tourism. When migrants arrive in urban areas they face intensified climate-induced dangers. But we must meet it. If all this were not intractable enough. And we have a spectrum of possible “wedges” from which to choose: efficiency and conservation. In many instances the migratory pattern looks like this: climate change and environmental degradation alter rural agricultural cycles. we’re already building capacity across the entire value chain: better seeds.” the term coined by Hunter Lovins. crossroads of commerce and culture. these are not cities with postcard skylines. The Rockefeller Foundation has partnered with the Gates Foundation to help increase agricultural productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. No single. vulnerable to the effects of extreme weather. affordable clean energy. by 2030. and uncontrolled. But we must do more than just stabilizing emissions. and strategies—if they hope to tame the three-headed hydra of climate risk. Now. techniques. poverty. more than 500 cities will have populations exceeding one million. degraded ecosystems.P. And communities are in critical need of wholesale solutions above and beyond catchments for rainwater and trees to prevent erosion. communities around the world need better 549 weapons—new tools. The I. one of the continent’s largest and fastest growing industries. with enormous growth in Africa and Asia.

” affordable housing. But as the communities affected by climate change shape their preparations for and responses to it. urban infrastructure failures. health. challenging natural environment. First. Third. many of the benefits would not go to governments. But now our scientific efforts must shape and substantiate strategies to help people cope with what’s already happening in addition to focusing on strategies to mitigate future carbon emissions and climate warming. infrastructure investment. the vast majority of whom in Africa are women. climate science has transformed the way we think about our world and our obligations to the future. integrated information about the risks those tools reveal. It includes all the institutions and processes put in place to manage society. early-warning systems. And new research must help illuminate which specific improvements make the most sense in which specific geographies. information. and abiding poverty collide. Currently. We must set a progressive agenda for highlevel science. Effective adaptation will always be locally driven. institutional capacity. communities need institutional infrastructure that’s more agile and more flexible so they can adapt and prepare even more effectively for climate change. among many other elements. integrated systems. and new. and family farms or small businesses. vary from region to region. reforest and restore healthy ecosystems. These can simultaneously fuel the next great wave of economic expansion and dramatically reduce emissions in cities. shoddy planning. expand the use of local climate data in forecasting. and emergency and disaster preparedness. they need access to sound data and solid research. Resilience requires that individuals and communities be empowered to prepare for and respond to crises from the groundup. education. the Rockefeller Foundation also supports efforts to link agronomy and climate science. And in both instances. addressing global poverty and climate change are not necessarily in competition. And the more people who share the risk. But we must also focus on “adaptation. As we see it. connect smallholder farmers with insurance against drought and flooding. So. and promote conservation tillage. in fact. and the best substantiated approaches to minimize them. resilience incorporates five dimensions. mutually reinforcing objectives. Successful approaches may. Whether in Mumbai or on the Mississippi Delta. but directly to smallholder farmers. These same vulnerabilities fester latently in cities around the globe. Successful adaptation strategies are holistic. land-use regulation. infrastructure. When Katrina’s storm surge drowned parts of New Orleans. They integrate urban planning. we also must figure out how to survive it. as some have tried to argue. One potential “smart globalization” idea is this: new policies and improved measurements could enable markets to reward the rural poor for CO2 sequestration and ecosystem repair—for actively participating in mitigation and adaptation. In describing the problem and identifying the impacts. But insurance also encourages individuals to lessen their risks in advance of extreme weather. in turn spurring economic development that benefits their own communities and countries. The constellation of circumstances that aligned in New Orleans is not unique. They need sophisticated measurement VSOTD. however. there is far less attention paid in the scientific and policy communities to adaptation—to the ways we can help people and environments cope with what’s occurred and with what’s coming. The Rockefeller Foundation recently announced a $70 million climate change initiative that concentrates on building resilience to a changing. we also must prepare for the effects of climate change that are already happening. substantial investments in renewable energy and other carbon-neutral technologies. or even neighborhood to neighborhood. But there’s also a crucial role for governments and institutions to play in supporting resilience from the topdown. and initiate policy measures that will increase the climate resilience of African farmers. where there must be lower cost technologies developed for “green. And fifth. increase agro-forestry. but can—and should—be complementary. Basic and applied research is imperative for all five dimensions of resilience. Fourth. Studies affirm that these women are much more likely than men to reinvest that income in nutrition. Infrastructure is more than roads and sewers.COM VITAL SPEECHES OF THE DAY and assessment tools. especially in energy and transportation. I started my remarks by suggesting that we have reached a turning point for climate research. water management.550 to bear fruit. Under such a plan. the lower the cost of coverage. In this instance and countless others. Underserved populations need access to the social and economic security that comes from sharing risk. Second. This would encourage efforts to reduce deforestation. insurance. Similar work is important in urban areas. Neither meteorologists nor climatologists can predict or prepare vulnerable communities for everything. The best way to break one is to bend the other.” Since we’re likely too late to stop the global warming that’s already occurred. city to city. Let me highlight just one area where more research . And we hope families may decide not to live in flood plains if the price of insurance is prohibitive. sound decision-making is reliant upon sound data. improved mass transit. Americans saw first-hand what happens when severe weather.

We also must improve researchers’ abilities to capture high resolution images and data across the electromagnetic spectrum. Currently. medium. and NGOs can make sound judgments in prioritizing their responses. by comparison. And. which may be just the push that developingcountry governments need to recognize and then reconcile with whole communities previously excluded from census data. fourth. four times greater than the W.C.. and natural ecosystems and to provide a basis for measuring and monitoring carbon if emerging economies are going to participate in budding carbon markets. accounts for a mere 4 percent of this increasingly vital study. floods. An obvious priority. more thorough integration of data. We need more diagnostics about which specific communities. usable ways. weather patterns. The Human Development Report also showed that this disparity is mirrored in international scholarship.P. migration. this information is essential for developing countries to manage forests. however. cod stocks would be restored. Similar commitments are on the way. They announced a new agreement between China and Brazil to provide satellite imagery free of charge to African countries. and climate change. You’ve heard the phrase “what matters is measured. Scientists expected that after some furlough period. And we need to triage risks into short. in particular: improved measuring and monitoring. then. When and why this type of tipping point is reached remains an open. a breakthrough in information flow. It’s fascinating: scientific research to date has demonstrated that the earth’s climate system behaves in a “strongly non-linear” fashion. The Netherlands. The Rockefeller Foundation recently commissioned just such an impact study that will gather and organize data across a range of categories—sea levels. many deforestation estimates are only accurate to within plusor-minus 50 percent. This underscores another need as well: high-tech solutions must be reinforced with boots on the ground—traditional data-gathering campaigns. This past November.P . But expanded access to these technologies is not enough. Which brings us to a second priority: integrating existing. the Atlantic cod population collapsed. makes the point.O. Airborne imaging could visualize dense aggregations of the urban poor. and new analytics to understand and anticipate environmental change. we need new analytics that represent and predict the patterns of change—especially since we’re talking about abrupt changes and discontinuities. According to the I. and ecosystems are exposed to which consequences of climate change. I’ll elevate four. storm activity. one-eighth of the minimum level recommended by the World Meteorological Organization. In 1992. and urban expansion.. heat indices. fragmented databases into analytic maps. And many other crucial areas for scientific analysis are unfolding. The ecosystem reached a tipping point and then suffered an abrupt change. for example. Third.C. We clearly need substantial and sustained investment in rapidly evolving technologies like satellite mapping and geographic information systems. december 2008 . if we’re going to anticipate and respond to changes. and health implications—and then link this new research with existing data on patterns of poverty.” Yet. has one site for every 700 kilometers. which 551 can’t be undertaken from space. sixteen years later. and storm data from weather services in meaningful.JUdith rodin is needed to help support resilience: the category of essential diagnostic tools. we have some of the least accurate data about the places that face the most danger. is better measuring and monitoring of geographical areas where climate risk and poverty intersect. and droughts. We must first focus on strengthening the science of observation—improving capabilities to detect risk. Local impact and adaptation models are crucial to complement global climate models. community groups. researchers are finding it difficult to integrate health data from the World Health Organization. Yet. we must apply them to assessments of human vulnerability. an intergovernmental summit.C.C. They will be a boon for poverty alleviation programs in Africa. One example. soil erosion. We often don’t know where thresholds are until we cross them and witness irreversible collapses. but airborne imaging must also be adapted and applied to the growing problems of urban areas. the Group on Earth Observations.’s suggested minimum. Literature on Africa. once we have better organized data. climate data from the I. convened in Cape Town. This year’s UN Human Development Report suggests one of the simplest reasons for this. The African continent has the world’s lowest density of meteorological stations: one site for every 25. after hundreds of years of fishing. and which have also been woefully underfunded in recent years. including urban sprawl as well as deforestation. climate models for subSaharan Africa are currently imprecise because they lack sufficient inputs about storm strength. and longer-term threats so that local decision-makers. Twothirds of all papers published in the two most reputable climate journals focus on Europe and North America. the fisheries remain depleted. So we need more work on comprehensive mapping of data-sets with disparate types of data. But now. for example. vital question for further research. more technically sophisticated vulnerability assessments.M. worldwide.000 kilometers. And we must reduce the costs of their applications so that developing countries can access and apply them in tracking the status of their ecosystems. cities. human. But as they undertake this work. cited in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

despite the high-demand among people in the United States and. data.A. and one one-thousandth—less than $140 million—is devoted to research on climate change adaptation. the need and opportunities for investments in science. But basic and applied research must keep moving forward. and commercializing renewable. one. mayors and governors are stepping up to fill the void. our forbearers joined together and solved the great scientific challenges of their time: inventing penicillin and a vaccine for polio. deprivation. single adaptation initiative. It will engage scientists and scholars. The private sector must play a leading role too. developing. clean energy functions. Funding is also in short supply for the application of adaptation strategies once research clarifies them. We need knowledge-based tactics to halt and hopefully reverse the expansion of deserts into agricultural regions. .S. policymakers and philanthropic leaders in a crosssector effort to help cities and states prepare for the inevitable consequences of climate change and connect underserved communities with green jobs.U. led by Pennsylvania Governor Rendell. will invest in one. the growing body of knowledge about the impact of human behavior on the earth. or both—then the market will establish a value and price for carbon. it will generate dual-benefits: providing revenue and incentives to finance research. and its climate is starting to push political will and even galvanize political courage. As of September. the scientific community tackled an enormous challenge. 2007. and sustainable infrastructure are almost endless. the Rockefeller Foundation just announced our support for a new. And many of them are. Building America’s Future. nonpartisan coalition. was an extraordinary achievement. And we need to integrate urban planning. food.552 Clearly. In fact. and climate science to build safer cities. and innovation. All of these areas are ripe for study. however. single philanthropy. on a remarkable legacy of scientific achievement. the world-over. how to provide energy. We must stabilize earth’s climate. In this vein.S. Insufficient scholarly and practical attention on developing countries’ challenges.. and energy-efficient. This. We must enable and empower millions to lift themselves from dire poverty. the world’s richest countries increased their contribution to the Least Developed Countries Fund for adaptation needs by a mere $43 million. As we speak. summoning the computer age. accomplished in the face of tremendous resistance from an entrenched status-quo. New regional or global carbon markets are one indispensable element of a smart globalization approach that stabilizes and reduces emissions. mass transit. and carves out new paths to social and economic opportunity. and disease. Scholars need resources to understand and better inform the effective implementation of both. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change recently estimated that by 2030 developing countries will face between $28 and $67 billion in adaptation costs each year. restore degraded coastal ecosystems that will protect us from stronger storm surges. and the research strategy is obvious. sociology. In the twentieth-century. We must repair its ecosystems. bringing the total pledged to $163 million. development. only $67 million had been delivered—less than the Rockefeller Foundation. technology. many U.COM VITAL SPEECHES OF THE DAY annually through mandatory measures—achieved through a tax. how to communicate risks effectively so people can mobilize and evacuate when disaster is imminent. Let me close by saying this. We need pioneering knowledge and new fields at the intersections of agronomy. We build. confirming—indisputably—that climate change is caused by humans and that its effects are increasingly harmful for the planet and its inhabitants.A. and climate science for rural areas. and stimulating investment in a clean. If this happens. According to A. California Governor Schwarzenegger. But this requires leadership and political courage from the public sector—something in short-supply in Washington. and water to cities as resources grow scarcer. supports livelihoods. what’s the problem? Insufficient funding for these and other areas of study. Yet.and green-tech economy that we have only begun to imagine. and implementation of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The idea goes like this: if carbon emissions are reduced VSOTD. today. cap-and-trade. affordable homes. as has already occurred in the E. its ecosystems. predict where new diseases will emerge and prevent new pandemics. inquiry. Of that $140 billion. alone. for that matter. Over the last decade. engineering. more multidisciplinary work is essential. We need basic and applied research to show policymakers: how to conserve biodiversity in a less predictable world. None of these objectives is possible without continuing investment. especially those companies discovering. economics. and New York Mayor Bloomberg. Thankfully. In 2007. I spoke earlier about smart globalization. the United States government spends more than $140 billion a year to support research and development. international funding efforts have been insufficient. We must support resilience. how to desalinate aquifers and increase the freshwater supply as sea levels rise. And a persisting false choice: an either/or proposition that pits mitigation against adaptation. less than 2 percent directly supports research on climate change. Others estimate these costs to be even higher. sparking a green revolution that saved a billion lives. So. if the potential is there.

American Express has carefully crafted its brand over a time period lasting more than a century and a half. So many great names. New York. our environmental initiative Green Is Universal. but didn’t? Where was the reverse true. which we acquired only about ten months ago. NBC Universal Delivered to the American Express Consumer Services Group. The DNA of globalization. and our female-focused cross-marketing effort Women@NBCU— our notion of brands has evolved from a straight-ahead idea of a logo and tagline laid over an age and gender demographic into a full lifestyle and behavioral sell. The ugly truth is. But let me say right now—as we all know. Somehow if both the content and the marketing are at their peak. It seems clear that if you’re marketing to a first-time parent. And for financial services—more than for the cable television business—the immediate future is cloudy to say the least. I’m sure you know your own numbers as well as anyone. since I first talked with Nancy about this meeting. what a Bravo ad looks like. We know what a Bravo show looks like. President of Women and Lifestyle Entertainment Networks. techniques. going back around 100 years.laUren ZalaZnicK and mapping the human genome. With my team at NBC Universal—which oversees not just Bravo and Oxygen but also iVillage. Whatever production there was got diverted to the war effort. This is the challenge with which I leave you. Jud. In the twenty-first century. We can and must harness scientific and technological advances to promote resilience and economic development. Some consumer brands folded. and we know who our audience is even as we try to grow it. 553 We can and must be smart about globalization. not least for its excellence in marketing. These two cable brands are having a phenomenal year. and World War II. the brand is bigger than their sum. it is that we will emerge from this recession. produces both unprecedented challenges and the new tools. How about facing into AmEx’s first 50 years—Westward Expansion? The Civil War? The second 50 didn’t get much smoother—World War I … A decade-long nationwide Depression … Oh. Who has survived? Who was expected to. or perhaps I should say the green standard. for example. GE stock has fallen by nearly 30% and American Express … well. which represented— we thought—such strength and endurance. pitch-perfect marketing campaigns. I’ve T read up on what some advertisers have faced. scientists must take on an equally monumental task: designing the intellectual architecture to shelter those with the fewest means from the wrath of a warming world and imperiled environment. it’s an effervescent equation that in our case goes something like “Content Plus Marketing Equals Brand. But some ran ads that said. for inviting me to speak and for sharing key insights into your business in order to help me prepare for today’s remarks.” Through the lens of advertising and customer relations. We’ve been pretty successful in carving out a very distinct identity for Bravo. it doesn’t quite add up. So the work you as marketers are engaged in is more important than ever. Identify. New York. American Express is incredibly meaningful to me as a consumer. October 15.” Since then. Now those are some “headwinds. when sure “goners” came through tough times stronger than ever? Compared to when American Express and General Electric were founded. december 2008 . World War II was a new age in many ways. research shows that advertisers who maintain or increase their spending during a recession grow profits and market share once a recovery is under way. in developing highly effective. Innovate THREE RULES OF BRAND-BUILDING Address by LAUREN ZALAZNICK. if you will. this isn’t an exact science. Interrogate. I hope you’re energized and excited as I am by the prospect of our opportunities. we’ll be there for you. in effect: “I know you can’t buy our product now … but when the war is over. We look at our brand as our identity. now gone or greatly diminished. even—or especially—when the bottom line is challenged. which is truly the gold standard. We’re doing the same thing now with Oxygen. the world has changed significantly over the last few weeks. If there is any positive story to hold on to here. We can and must harness global markets to finance research and discovery and implement solutions that we already know can work. What makes me so convinced of that? Trying to get a handle on the cycles of business ups and downs. today’s talk of “challenges” and “tough times” seems a little meek. I have long admired American Express.” But unlike algebra. 2008 hank you. If one or the other is off. Branding … what is it exactly? It’s a product environment. it’s a deep knowledge of your consumer. strong brands like American Express and General Electric will still be incredibly important and valuable. and also incredibly impressive to me as a fellow business leader and brand-builder. and when we do. and capacities necessary to master them.

advocacy … giving consumers prestige and confidence. AmEx had profits of some $4 billion last year. accountability. My Corporate Card is a MasterCard. I would suggest that there aren’t many major brands in the world that inspire this kind of loyalty from consumers. All the words and phrases that describe your mission – world-class service and personal recognition … access. She definitely needs all the products new parents always did. I believe. and offering that customer prestige within whatever circle or circles he or she moves in. This anecdote is a perfect illustration of the fact that when it comes to luxury brands. we focus on three things: identifying your customer base … listening to your current customers’ needs … and keeping your customer through constant innovation. which are important to me because I have a family of five. And I have to tell you—your customer service folks did a great job. I looked at it. Well. I literally thought to myself. your Gold Card. And the meaning VSOTD. But then I started to have an image. We share an aspirational mission that’s based on listening to. waiting for her husband to come home from work at 6:30 sharp. like Bravo. An image of my wallet without that green card in its accustomed place … and—more disturbing—an image of me. This is where I find parallels between American Express and Bravo. or 44. is not for everyone. We know that she still might be. But we both know that niche can be mass—or at least massively profitable. in particular. NBCU’s cable properties—a collection of highly focused niche networks—contribute more than half of NBCU’s $3. thought about how I used my card—my green card—and frankly. They just wouldn’t really let me off the phone. the meaning of the thing is.” My point is—this decision was not about utility. The foundation of all of that.554 it’s no longer certain that she is 26 years old. can either be a collection of empty words and phrases … or an articulation of principles that are backed up by concrete action and services delivered. You have to identify. I admit. The things are not important. inside a really big industrial and financial company? No matter what. In your case. Knowing your customer means knowing yourself. I’m an American Express card holder. it wasn’t much. For whatever reason. especially since we’re seeing some of them go poof before our eyes. is no longer simply about what age your consumer is but what lifestage they inhabit. my annual renewal notice arrived in the mail. I tried to cancel. caring for. I had been a card member for a helluva long time. Yes. these three principles are imbedded in your own Consumer Services brand promise. Three or four years ago. and caring for your customers. let me share a consumer story with you. You are not MasterCard or Visa. Please join us. So I picked up the phone. It had become part of my identity … my selfdefinition … and I discovered I just was not willing to give that up. The spring I was graduating from college. We. or new card holder increases inside your specific cards—or what today’s economy means for your Corporate Card business. maybe the old idea of who needs your Green Card. Bravo is not NBC or ABC or even TLC or VH1. My own . like you. I told them that it’s not true that there’s “no preset spending limit” and I was annoyed I always had to call when I did have a big purchase to make. what if I get really famous and they call me up to be in one of those fantastic “Member Since” ads! “Lauren Zalaznick … member since 1984! Except she cancelled in 2003. Not about economics or rational decision-making. they are idealistic. I told them I resented my annual fee. like any mission statement. So with that as possibly the longest preamble in my speech-giving history. It was purely about brand identity and brand loyalty. conveyed very powerfully—by the brand environment in which it lives. Americans are not materialistic. interrogate. Certainly not any other financial services firm. Welcome. It means knowing that American Express. listening to. are niche. I told them I never used it. constantly innovating to a relatively upscale and educated customer. and beyond.6 billion in annual profits. and doubt I ever will. I have a different card I use for frequent flyer miles. This is yours. You see. a card simply arrived in the mail. The truth is. what else can I tell you about the incredibly challenging and rewarding work of brandbuilding inside a big media company. I have never even thought about cancelling since then. When the brand promise is supported by the consumer’s experience. We all know that a brand promise. So my AmEx card didn’t get pulled out of my wallet all that often. and innovate. living in a starter house. but she might also be 33.COM VITAL SPEECHES OF THE DAY is conveyed—and in the case of American Express. I can’t begin to know your challenges—call times at your customer call center. is in the relationship you have with your consumers—a relationship that begins with understanding. And the people in this room—and those of you tuned in across the world—you all deserve a ton of credit for building and sustaining this brand and keeping it relevant for every new generation. no longer being a green card member. But I do know that the power of your brand is probably so vast that it’s hard to even quantify or qualify. then over time it becomes the connective tissue between your company and your consumers—an unwritten contract that revolves around ideals and aspirations. but it’s the lifestage that trumps the age. As you may know.

sometimes just living their lives from the outside in. I just can’t stand him … I can’t believe this is happening. are themselves comprised of several “mini-niches”—the “Will & Graces. we hear over and over: “So and so is so mean .” the PTA trend-setters. The lure of the next card color or precious metal keeps the strivers striving. and listen to them … but not too much. is just not Bravo. You make Ellen DeGeneres or Martin Scorsese or a host of others seem a little bit more like us. obviously you deliver on the promises you’ve made. more relatable personalities of some of the other cast members. Instead of taking that particular character off the show or killing an uncomfortable storyline. and if I have enough money to pay the fee. the Metro-competitors. which is a true turn-off. most affluent. That is why when it comes to marketing a niche brand. contribute close to $1 billion of revenue. accomplished lives … Bravo by the type of programming and entertainment experiences we provide. I feel left out. If your focus groups said “I want to be able to sign up for a Titanium card. which we call the Affluencers. Innovation is so important for brands like Bravo and American Express because our core consumers are december 2008 . and in the complex creativity of everyday life. So know who your customer is. you want people who are going to connect with your brand and you have other means to do so. and the On-the-Goes. Iterate. that they deserve something that not everyone else does. People you love to hate—that’s where the fascination and chatter enters in. and. We ground everything we do in reality. to Top Chef. Many customers like feeling exclusive—we’ve told them they’re in the know. To try to bring it home for you—though I am not you. And you have to listen to them. we make sure there’s a good balance between a tough character and the kinder.. You have a system that is really unlike any other—you can’t just sign up for what you have to offer. though it works in plenty of other places. too. And niche brands want to be incredibly popular— popular in the sense of generating buzz and interest that extends far beyond the core circle of members. for the most part. and American Express through your financial products and travel services through a brand environment that has enormous power.. You have to earn it. At Bravo. we listen for an audience that is deeply fascinated by a personality. But let me stress: listening to them doesn’t mean doing what they say. The same must be true for American Express. They’re going to talk to their friends about who should be sent home from Top Chef and who should stay.” That might be true—but that negative response might be exactly what keeps that American Express customer motivated. innovate. I’ll give you one example: Our focus groups for different shows often revolve around our characters who are doing incredibly creative things. So you have to know your audience. in the hopes they’ll get that magic call one day with the offer that money alone just can’t buy. they’re going to widget us. We do a lot of work with focus groups. the smallest in our vast conglomerate. We listen intensely to their feedback. it’s a niche we’re going after. Because you don’t really want everyone to show up. They’re going to be highly engaged. you risk alienating the core members of your club. Sure. a very interesting tension arises: you’re pretending to invite everyone to the party without really doing so. If you get the messaging wrong. But. it means hearing what they say and combining it with your goals. we want the people who are going to do the brand zealot work for us to be passionate about our content. Our target audience. and Twitter about us. Change. Ask. Literally.” So we listen and we definitely hear … but instead of hearing just the negatives and changing our casting or our storylines. So fascinated they couldn’t stop watching. Both of our brands are offering prestige. Most educated. Niche has risks. like me with my classic Green Card. From Jeff Lewis in Flipping Out. And third. most influential. But if we did what they said it would be a disaster. moving up the ladder from Green to Gold to Platinum. That you’ve bored them. They’re going to vote and interact in unprecedented numbers with their cell phones and their remotes. That you’ve 555 remained a little too elusive and exclusive. But we make sure to stay away from the hate to hate. or whether the ante will be “upped” by that piece of Black or Titanium poking out of a smooth leather wallet. and they couldn’t stop talking about it afterwards. They’re going to visit us online. You have made generations of star brand advocates come alive through the pages and on-air spots of your advertising. You have the luxury. you may discover your audience has moved on and passed you by. They’re going to obsess over our house flipper Jeff Lewis’ lips or fall in love with Zoila his housekeeper. or I would say the genius. People you love to love—great. to the women of The Real Housewives. Bravo contains multitudes. so I’m just guessing. of offering the classes of cards that serve different audiences. Facebook us. It’s a substantial and diverse audience that all share a passion for what Bravo does all within a very targeted core. If you do. We’re both offering individuals the opportunity for more confident. I deserve one.laUren ZalaZnicK brands. Friends who go out to dinner wonder whether their Platinum card will be matched by their friend’s. If you’re AmEx. but to paraphrase Walt Whitman. and architecting a plan to stay on course to achieve results. Question. Innovate. That someone just plain outspent you for your customers’ attention.

a strategic goal. they recall ads and think more highly about them. With the right grounding. It demands your loyalty. committed audience—30% of the people who watch Bravo describe it as “their favorite channel”—it isn’t sensory overload. and thus got an organic benefit that is quantifiable and replicatable. We didn’t overpromise before the initiative was ready. Do the things that make more money. and the fact is we now have a new. and people came. which means knowing your customer. and likely from their financial services company. It was a decision we made based on a set of choices of what path to take to keep our customers satisfied. is immediately categorized as a risk. The other thing I hear a lot is surprise that I’ve been able to do so much within the confines of a corporate monolith like NBC Universal. They’re trying to move through life ahead of the pack. that’s an oversimplification. We are not a technology company. I’m decisive. I am extremely risk-adverse. over time. It’s your path to innovation and success. that is clearly not a “risk” that was taken. how much they specifically want to have a voice in telling us who should go and who should stay. high-margin business with huge growth potential that didn’t even exist two years ago. a new person. or you know it will make money but you don’t know how hard it will be to accomplish. I find it funny to hear people describe me as a risktaker. I don’t advocate taking risks. we know we’re fulfilling a need. They don’t stay still. but honestly. In summary … I’m sure I’ve told you what I hope you know already. not to mention GE. Sometimes. We did it for our consumers and our advertising partners. anything that qualifies as a change. should feel like a safety net more than anything else. Do the things that are easier. Whether this means paying bills online or booking your entire vacation online. called it innovation. The toughest job for any executive is to pick which ideas to pursue and which to set aside. So we were pretty confident about the returns. we chose the path of least resistance. The fact is. I do advocate making decisions. they buy new things. Then you can commit some better time and energy to proposals where either you know you can do it but don’t know what the VSOTD. I’m opinionated. you can move quite quickly without being worried about the danger of running off the road. I am not willing to fail. and in fact. If you’re like me. And on that path. yes. But we got precisely the opposite feedback. People assume that being part of a large organization means being bound and gagged by layers of red tape and bureaucracy. But it’s essential to make the right choice of which new idea or which new person. a new product. Your brand promise is a great guide. which is a characteristic of a risk taker. In our world as in yours. This was the case with a new business we developed at Bravo when we decided to allow audiences to vote on our competition shows. it’s a trusted friend delivering cool new advice about a product. or texting to pick the winner of Top Chef. You might bump into them. When you’re programming to a smart. not harder. and backing up the buzz with a product that delivers on . When we first launched the viewer vote initiative. highest return. When upwards of 70% of consumers are engaged in your programming. constantly challenging the status quo. caring for them. if you get the simple yeses and no’s out of the way. painstaking work. I am willing to make that choice. One challenge for all of us is how to pick the big bets. Here’s my take on that.556 themselves innovating and growing. Advertisers who commit to this particular kind of partnership. but a glancing blow will direct you back on the right path. you’ll find that your to-do list is a lot shorter. But once you know where the guardrails are. they experience new things. innovation often means leading the transition from analog to digital. because it was. This can be true if you haven’t taken the time to learn the rules of the organization. On the other hand. Digital opportunities often fall in this area. not entertainment. Because you’re doing something brand new. And they expect new experiences from their entertainment options. we attached a sponsor to it. if you do right by the corporation and it right by you. you work with a bunch of creative people who come up with new ideas all the time. What I’ve found is that anything new. here is some simple advice that is overlooked with frequency. I’m bold. So we went to test whether all this demand for viewers’ attention was sensory overload.COM VITAL SPEECHES OF THE DAY payoff will be. Those guardrails. have brand opinion lift and brand recall stats that are literally at the top of the charts. They travel. It took a lot of resources to develop this and make it happen. That’s not inherently risky. not less. What you don’t want is to hit the guardrail so hard that you bust right through it and do a crash and burn. Pure and simple. A new idea. Of course. virtually any cross-platform messaging in addition to the traditional :30 second spot. But if we’ve done our homework. but we knew how much our customers loved to talk to us. financial service company travel benefits as if your agency account leader wrote the copy themselves. It was a lot of messaging during an already stimulating show in a highly packaged environment. they all fit the brand vision. Your brand is what connects your business to your customers. when they can talk about detailed attributes of hair care products or hybrid SUV features or. So. It’s built up over time and sustained by careful.

” This is all rather straightforward. information vs. it stands on its own in that it does not have a special context. It was also during this time that a former general named Dwight Eisenhower established a very important international component at Columbia University as its president—an approach he would take with him to the december 2008 . radice its promises of prestige and personal growth. But it is an enthusiasm of which I am not ashamed. Nazism.S. I feel these observations have some value within the international general public—the audience that we all seek when we try to create bilateral and multilateral alliances. to increase their reputation.S. September 30. Information Agency at the end of the 1980s. In the 1950s. when push comes to shove. Chairman Cole.” which some of you will. as it did for me on the phone call 557 I mentioned earlier. even through the tough times. At its heart. however. With President Roosevelt came a public attempt to have a bi-partisan cultural diplomacy and the appointment of Nelson Rockefeller as a cultural representative reaching out to Latin and South America. ‘The First Resort of Kings” observations and publications by Dr. James Madison said in Paris on Sept 20. This was the time of the birth of the British Council and the strengthening of the French Ministry of Culture. as its object is to improve the taste of my countrymen. 1785. Institute of Museum and Library Services Delivered to Picturing America symposium at UNESCO. RADICE. It demonstrates the highest quality of scholarship and presentation. It shows different art historical and historical periods of American creativity. But I would recommend. Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin were other practitioners of this form of statecraft. Literature about cultural policy in the international arena is varied.that the citizens of the U. reading Richard Ardt’s book. the Central Intelligence Agency had a well-known role in cultural diplomacy. Cynthia Schneider of Georgetown. Be loyal to your brand and its promises. Why is that important? Allow me to try to answer with some reflections as a person who has observed and participated very modestly in the cultural scene.S. and procure them its praise. Director of the U. The frequent challenges and eventual disbanding of USIA was. Among my responsibilities was “Artistic Ambassadors. As America moved into the 1950s and the horrendous McCarthy debacle. Its educational and aesthetic appeal for an international audience. Dignitaries and Friends. As a practitioner and not an expert. 2008 A mbassador Oliver. privately funded exhibitions of modern art. American cultural diplomacy—and you hear. Words are often parsed in the annals of American Cultural diplomacy. Rockefeller often clashed with other government officials concerned with foreign cultural interests because he unabashedly tied commercial interests with cultural exchanges. Paris. and any and all government reports about various cultural commissions and recommendations. France. To my mind. if you are so inclined. publishing and disseminating materials for use abroad. It is the work of honest chroniclers who tell a story based on art. and when needed. “You see I am an enthusiast on the subject of the arts. however.anne-iMelda M. I am avoidng a definition for now—dates back to the Founders. aesthetics. Thomas Paine. “Modern” cultural diplomacy began as an international partnership to battle the horrors of the Axis. He was brave. culture and propaganda. your customers will be loyal to you. in part. The examples used often depict periods of American History which were challenging and not shining. Working Together OVERCOMING CULTURAL FEAR AND DIFFERENCES Address by ANNE-IMELDA M. We have just heard about a program that I would venture to say will become a gold standard example of what should and can be done in the realm of cultural diplomacy. I must state that I was at the U. I think we would all recognize that cultural diplomacy at this stage was primarily a means for providing information … positive propaganda to battle what was a growing threat to the world. benefit…that we have something to learn. In the interest of full disclosure. based on this battle of nomenclature … and which groups within the governmental structure could get the “objectives”—another laden term—accomplished. to reconcile to them the respect of the world. is an emphasis that success—another subjective term—is based on two-way activity…. And. such entrepreneurial ventures became shining moments. A significant part of recorded history involves functions of various entities … and the juxtaposition of terms like education. Thank you very much. remember with a smile. no doubt.

It was also beginning of the Fulbright Exchange Program—a program the late Senator Fulbright insisted had to remain bi-partisan. lack VSOTD.” VITAL SPEECHES OF THE DAY Neither speech would have been possible without the work of the cultural representatives and organized programs abroad—one of those premier programs being the sharing of American Jazz world wide. the sharing of the American Cultural identity and ideals has often been directly related to the ingenuity of individual attaches and non-governmental participants—those involved in exchanges.” That kind of respect is evident here … with “Picturing America. It captures our hearts and souls. We should not engage in trying to give only quantitative values for why we need to have cultural diplomacy. instant images…usually without context or exchanges on a human level…so now we have a new wall that is more insidious because it wraps around people as well as divides them. We do not have to sacrifice cultural and national identities to understand and enjoy and respect other cultures. Third … We must always recognize that one person can make a difference. etc. fear of cultural difference. When such challenges have retreated so has our unilateral engagement. And we have the birth of the acronyms … bureaus. With that said.558 White House. such as the teaching of English and even formal agreements with our British friends about what kind of English should be taught worldwide (American informal vs. if you will. First … Let us recognize that the most far reaching cultural diplomacy should simply be the sharing of cultural experiences. It unites not divides. We should not have to use official reports that use phrases like. Without getting bogged down in the rhetoric of official statements and agency acronyms and the life-anddeath cycles of government programs. Today. beginning with President John F . We remember the challenge of President Ronald Reagan. Ignorance of others. I would suspect that Louis Armstrong did more for the American image. In the 1950s and 1960s. agencies.S. you fill in the blanks. How many positive human experiences have resulted from this important program? Wonderfully. Second … Let us speak of quality. study groups. technology produces billions of instant reactions. We all remember that day. The Smithsonian Museums. I hold a very small piece of that wall in my hand. The National Endowment for the Arts.” Yes. diplomacy has had many moments like that…we witness one today. The Institute of Museum and Library Services. expertise. Gorbachev. we must show a “decent respect to the opinions of mankind. let us recognize what makes cultural diplomacy work. Our cultural contributions are scattered throughout some excellent agencies including The National Endowment for the Humanities. The National Archives. It represents millions of blows against a hard surface. We also have a government structure without a centralized cultural operation or a minister of culture. Fourth … We must continue to identify with people. tear down this wall. commissions. and funds abroad telling the American story and strengthening relationships. there was a conscious effort to recruit experts and often young scholars. All are defined by initials … too staggering in number to list here. As I left her office she entrusted me with a small piece of the Berlin Wall. departments. As Thomas Jefferson said. It is tiny but powerful. Creativity. adversity. The Library of Congress. not regimes. We must continue to let artists and the arts represent us. There have been coordinated international efforts with particular broad goals. a worldchanging event etched into our consciousness through film footage and photography. She encouraged me to use it as a muse and to even bring here today. When I sought advice about what I should say today I had an extraordinary conversation with the Deputy Librarian of Congress Deanna Marcum.” It is easy for me to hold this piece of the Berlin Wall in my hand. with one song and one smile than…well. “Mr. We remember what led up to it. Today. too many to count. “combat the forces of darkness. How unthinkable that would have been those short decades ago … encased in plastic almost like a religious relic … hatred broken down one little piece at a time. as Wilhelmina Holladay. there is a public document that uses this phrase to justify sending a music group abroad. British formal).COM . and not punish people through ignorance because of unfortunate government structures under which they may live. fear of wars and lack of position are challenges that have always inspired our government to spend more time. Kennedy’s declaration ‘Ich Bin Ein Berliner”—to my mind a fantastic declaration of identification with others from a different culture…that we understood each other as members of the same humanity. and work at The State Department. U. artistic work and goodwill that flows both ways across borders. formally and informally. In the push-pull of program continuation. recently told me is our only salvation. founder of the NMWA. Those were heady times with the likes of a David McCullough or a Paul and Julia Child representing American Culture in far flung outposts.

Thank you. G. To the students here this evening. I often met with my counterparts in the health ministries of other countries. 2008 T hank you. Tonight I want to discuss the balance and interplay of cost control and innovation in health care. So today we celebrate what we hope can be a step forward in creating a new era of respect—the kind Thomas Jefferson referenced. and in the last 30 years. We can see each other through this wall…and perhaps we need to have faith in the humanity that stands across from us: different.S. but they are still increasing faster than inflation — and are still on track to consume 20 percent of U. wellimplemented public policy from both sides — in government and in the private sector. The number of uninsured in the United States is nearly 46 million. Like the others. new treatments have cut the death rate from heart disease by 50 percent. Harris School of Public Policy Studies. Whatever the outcome of the upcoming elections. Chairman. Eli Lilly and Company Delivered to the Annual Mentor Dinner. I have seen the value of well-developed. including Medicare. As Deputy Secretary of Health and Human Services. a narrow focus on costs to the exclusion of innovation would be self-defeating. but 559 maybe not really different at all. But my portfolio also included innovation — most notably. by 2015. and we all have an important stake in the overall direction of our nation’s health care system. We must reach through this wall and continue to share cultures…one on one. improve quality. University of Chicago. the use of medicines has cut in half the number of hospital admissions for 12 major diseases. I oversaw all HHS programs and operations. I’m all for greater efficiency in health care — and there’s plenty of room for improvement — but efficiency alone isn’t going to bridge the yawning gap between our health care demands and budgets. regulation of food and drugs. your chosen field of study could not be more timely. Instead. However. for clarity of vision and quality that stands alone. Although the economic crisis has overshadowed every other issue in the presidential campaign. often at government expense. Mr. Pharmaceuticals provide some striking examples of how innovation can help us break out of the box we’re in: • The power of new cardiovascular medications in the past 30 years to prevent or delay heart disease already has eliminated the need for tens of thousands of costly surgeries and hospitalizations. Madame Ambassador.D. Medicaid. Illinois. As we struggle with the challenges of health care. All the trends that have been driving health care toward a crisis are still headed in the same direction. aZar II of mutual respect are some of the nearly invisible fibers. Chicago. I’d like to discuss with you a policy challenge that’s very dear to my heart.alex M. Health care costs have perhaps moderated a bit. I had to balance the goals of reducing costs and sustaining innovation. and public health. for your leadership and humanity. I want to focus on one critically important aspect of health care reform: How do we balance short-term cost savings with long-term health? Let me share with you my perspective. Senior Vice President of Corporate Affairs and Communications. Unlike my colleagues. medical research. Generic Medicines THE GIFT OF INNOVATION Address by ALEX M. October 14. Again congratulations to you. our leaders will need to craft thoughtful policies to mitigate a range of very serious problems. AZAR II. • Over the last 40 years. • Other medicines have kept thousands of patients with mental illnesses from facing institutional confinement — both medical and correctional — for months or years. In my role at HHS. and allay suffering. I was responsible for the financing and delivery of health care. and vital to all of us — the health and health care of Americans. It’s an honor to speak to this distinguished gathering of the Harris School of Public Policy Studies. health care remains a key concern of voters. As a fellow policy wonk. This broader perspective also helped me appreciate the potential for innovation to reduce costs. we’re left with a zero-sum game of rationing — unless we pursue innovation that changes the whole equation. and for your mentors’ generous contribution of time and expertise to your success and the success of this program.P. I am grateful for the commitment you’ve made to a rigorous academic program in public policy. according to the latest Census report. and I’ll do so in terms of a concrete example — the promotion of december 2008 . and I found that my position was unique. I continue to hope and we all continue to work as individuals to try. The signs are all around us that health care is headed for decisive change. oversight of the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration.

As a result. generic versions can come in and take up to 60–80 percent market share in as little as a few months. it does not restore all of the patent term lost in the lengthy. market research shows that consumers overestimate drugs’ share of health care costs. if all goes well. NIH was part of my portfolio in the government. Consumers’ perceptions. Americans can get access — within . as well as creating a path for generic-like versions of medicines developed through biotechnology. the company has a new medicine that. The story of generic drugs goes back to a bill passed by Congress in 1984.000 Americans work in the biopharmaceutical industry. Innovative medicines were protected in the market by an insurmountable barrier to entry — even after the patent expired. But if generic drugs are the golden egg. Basically.. the private pharmaceutical sector has to be able to finance and recoup an enormous investment in a very risky venture. Pharma companies invest an average of over $1 billion to bring just one new drug to market. Congress brokered a deal between innovative pharmaceutical companies and the incipient generics business. The Hatch-Waxman Act — officially the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984 — was intended to promote generics while maintaining financial incentives for drug innovation. More than 500. are quite different. At the same time. I have seen both sides of this process. Wider use of generic drugs has been one of the few bright spots in health care spending over the past several years. In 2007. three-fourths of consumers think that drugs account for 40 percent or more of health care spending — four times their actual share.S. patentable molecule. Then.560 generic drugs. Prescription drugs account for only 10 cents of every dollar spent on health care in the U. to put together the data package necessary for FDA approval of their new products. Nearly a quarter-century after Hatch-Waxman became law.S. On the other hand. Before 1984. For the system to work.000 a year — with another 2½ million Americans’ jobs dependent on the sector. and a clinical data package that comprises the body of knowledge about the new molecule. when the patent expires. So while Hatch-Waxman makes up some of the time when the patent clock is ticking during the FDA process. But private pharmaceutical companies provide the investment in applied science necessary to translate basic research into medicines that can benefit patients.COM VITAL SPEECHES OF THE DAY innovation assets: a unique. So the way we promote generic use is crucial. because the wrong way could stifle that innovation. 10–15 year drugdevelopment and approval process. Fast-forward to today. Generic drugs can have a significant impact on health care spending – but there’s an upper limit on that impact. One reason is that typical health coverage in the U. requires consumers to pay a bigger part of their drug costs than they pay for other medical treatment. That barrier was the huge investment in clinical trials that potential competitors would have to make. But to make sense of that story. more than twice the total NIH operating budget. U. and this share has remained fairly consistent over time. Hatch-Waxman created the opportunity for generics to win FDA marketing approval by submitting so-called “bioequivalence” studies — showing that their product was the same as the FDAapproved drug — in lieu of prohibitively expensive clinical trials.S. In fact. biopharmaceutical companies invested nearly $59 billion in R&D. and today I work for a company focused on developing new first-in-class or best-in-class pharmaceuticals. pharmaceutical innovation is the goose … and this innovation can have a powerful impact on long-term health care costs and quality. After FDA approval. The biopharmaceutical sector is a prime example of the knowledge-based industries that will drive prosperity and growth in this century. it can market without competition for 12 years or so — although that window of opportunity has been shrinking. we first need to know about how new drugs are developed and how our system promotes development of innovative medicines. The health care proposals of both presidential candidates include promoting increased use of generics.S. however. Here’s how it works: Pharmaceutical research actually creates two VSOTD. Every important new medicine that has been commercialized in our lifetimes … including the examples I cited earlier … depended on the research and development of private-sector pharmaceutical companies. This is the critical period when the company can earn a return on its investment. there were essentially no generic medicines in the U. the United States leads the world in development of new medicines. the Hatch-Waxman law provides for restoration of up to five years of patent term if doing so does not extend the patent term beyond 14 years from the date of FDA approval. Such discoveries often draw on basic science developed by NIH and other governmentbacked researchers. That makes pharmaceutical companies an attractive target in the health care debate. earning on average $72. It’s important to note that Hatch-Waxman only allows half of the time expended on human clinical trials to be eligible for patent term restoration and does not apply to any pre-human clinical trial activities — which today take over four years on average. On the one hand.

As policy makers address the issues in our intellectual property framework. Policy matters. only about one in three new medicines that do reach the market generate enough revenue during their lifetimes to cover the average cost of R&D — let alone secure an appropriate rate of return for shareholders. As a matter of fact. routinely pursue new indications for products already on the market. The pharmaceutical company that initially gains FDA approval for a new drug is responsible for maintaining such information — in particular. Safety is. Obviously. This is an issue I discussed many times with my colleagues. It’s estimated that generics will account for more than two-thirds of all prescriptions written in the U. But we are facing problems in the U. for example. Remember that the FDA approves a medicine only for specific uses. As the costs continue to increase. and decreasing the effective patent life of products. A second problem created by the current patent regime is that it creates disincentives for companies to develop new indications for a medicine that’s going off patent. that the statins may have a role to play in fighting Alzheimer’s disease. pharmaceutical companies are dealing with the loss of patent protection for key products. in fact. The first issue is a shift in balancing the benefits and risks of any particular new medicine. Some medical scientists have theorized. The balance has shifted to the United States. But generic statins cost a few dollars a month and have no market exclusivity. it has dwindled to less than 40 percent. where price controls often have the effect of enforcing higher prices on generics and inhibit the entry of unbranded competitors. Low-price generic drugs that meet critical medical needs will never be available unless innovative medicines are created in the first place. A study by Express Scripts found that just the increase in generic use last year saved $5.. by way of contrast. and we can debate whether the FDA is striking the proper balance between benefit and risk. or indications. But there comes a point in the patent life of a product when such clinical research is no longer economically feasible. on average. But there is no doubt that these requirements are driving up the cost of innovation. dragging out the drug development process. 561 At the same time. This is the context in which policy makers are considering possible changes to the current patent regime. it’s the lowest number of new approvals in any year since 1983 — a quarter-century ago — when aggregate R&D spending in our industry was one-tenth of what it is today. We must find a way to provide a predictable period of market exclusivity after approval. all the medicines that I use are generics. In Europe. they face a dilemma: How do we strike the balance between making low-price generic medicines available today and sustaining robust pharmaceutical innovation for tomorrow? Let’s take a look at the issues: First. There’s actually a third asset – the whole body of information about the use of the product — and that asset grows in value every year the product is on the market. The total value of many medicines actually grows over time as we add to this body of information. of course. on december 2008 . generic prices are generally lower in the United States than in Europe. Another indication of the challenges facing pharmaceutical innovation is that just 19 new medicines were approved last year by the Food and Drug Administration. governments set pharmaceutical prices that often underpay for innovative medicines and overpay for generics.S. contributing to the employment and income I cited a moment ago. delays in the FDA approval process mean that. In fact.2 billion for the 160 million commercially insured Americans. And there is no incentive for generic producers to do this research.S. this could have tremendous benefit for millions of people. Gaining FDA approval for additional indications requires additional costly clinical trials.alex M. Europe used to account for 65 percent of the world’s pharmaceutical innovation back in the 1960s and 1970s. and these problems threaten the viability of pharmaceutical innovation in this country. the FDA is imposing more and more requirements for clinical information — both before and after the approval and launch of a new drug. and the price of generics. $150 billion in annual sales of branded medicines will go generic over the next five years. aZar II a fairly well-defined time period — to low-priced generic versions of innovative medicines developed in the United States. In fact. the evidence suggests that price controls have stifled pharmaceutical innovation in other countries. In addition. a paramount concern. To put this in concrete terms: since pharmaceutical companies typically invest about 18 percent of revenue in R&D. Who could finance the extensive clinical trials necessary to test this potential new indication? Earlier. then this decreased funding for innovation represents the potential loss of as many as 27 new drugs each year — at a time when the FDA is approving only 19! I fear the consequences for human health in the decades ahead as this decreased R&D funding comes home to roost in fewer innovative therapies. this year. by the time a patented molecule gets to market. there is less and less time and ability to recoup the R&D investment. increasing the chances that a new drug will never get to market. I said that pharmaceutical research creates two assets: the molecule and the clinical data package necessary for approval. Today. is around 70 percent lower than that of branded drugs. too. As a result of a growing focus on risk. We do. To put that in perspective.

We need a regime in which the decision to invest in and develop new molecules or indications is made by scientists and doctors rather than patent lawyers. the old adage is that biologics are not a product but a process. we don’t get the benefits to health – and we . And it’s just as important. and it is difficult to determine whether copy versions are as effective — and the potential harm to patients … from even slight variations … can be significant. science-based validation requirements before biosimilar products are approved. In other words: for every year that life expectancy has increased … five months can be attributed to new medicines. In other words. in my view. So it’s vital that any new federal legislation includes rigorous. But no pharmaceutical company can afford to test new indications for a drug that is already generic — or will be soon. regardless of whatever promising signals may be arising from late stage post-marketing surveillance. Congress is now crafting a law that will define the terms under which copied versions of biologics can get approved for marketing without repeating the work done by the innovator to get the original version approved. An adequate data package exclusivity will enable innovators to develop the best biologics. If we’re going to get beyond today’s “health-care crisis” — with its enormous human and financial burdens — then it will depend on continued innovation in pharmaceuticals and across medicine. from an innovation standpoint.COM VITAL SPEECHES OF THE DAY revenue stream from selling a new medicine will be sufficient to pay back its R&D cost. Sometimes they are naturally occurring molecules. Such a regime has already been implemented in Europe. This is the length of time needed to assure that the VSOTD. We have to stop thinking of the health care crisis in terms of a zero-sum cost game in which generics are good and expensive new medicines are bad. and thus promote innovation. Biologics are proteins — big and often very complex molecules. not just the biologics with the best patents … because a great patent does not necessarily make for a great product for patients. 14 years is the maximum patent term available under the Hatch-Waxman Act. and for biologics. education. and we must strike the right balance. but that doesn’t mean that they’re easy to discover or to produce. And what he found was that new drug launches account for 40 percent of the increase in life expectancy. the copied version of the new medicine can get approval with evidence that it is sufficiently bioequivalent to the original. We believe in order to protect the massive investment in R&D for new medicines the effective exclusivity period should be somewhere between 15 and 20 years. to fund additional research to define its fullest and best uses for treating patients. As you will recall. which are developed through chemistry.562 any adverse events associated with the molecule — even when it is produced by generic companies. We should create a mechanism that guarantees “data package exclusivity. a competitor cannot gain approval to market a copied version of a new medicine without independently repeating the R&D needed to establish that the medicine was safe and effective. So. Once the data package exclusivity period ends.. Biologics are hard to manufacture. the results of lost innovation won’t be immediately apparent. The best solution. He controlled for income. a Columbia University economist — Frank Lichtenberg — published a massive analysis of disease data and death rates from 52 countries — rich and poor — and correlated this information with data on the availability of new medicines. what should we do? We need to find a way to promote access to generics and follow-on-biologics while maintaining the ability to innovate. Quite the contrary: Biotech products are often notoriously difficult and sometimes today even impossible to characterize and to replicate — as opposed to traditional small-molecule chemical compounds. A third issue is how to create a regime for streamlined approval of generic-like biological compounds – so-called “follow-on biologics” or “biosimilars. Two bills have been proposed that would provide at least 14 years of data exclusivity for biologics. is to provide intellectual property protection to that second innovation asset — the clinical data package for the molecule. but they will be very real. for a fixed period of time after FDA approval.” This means that.” How this plays out will be a major test of whether innovation can be sustained. both for patented small molecules. and to avoid the current mess of patent litigation that results when the data exclusivity period ends before the key patents on the medicine have expired. Each has a role. while creating a definite timeline for introduction of follow-on biologics — one that would coincide with the expiration of any significant patents that cover the medicine — and I believe that the same principle can be applied to generic versions of small-molecule medicines. If we get it wrong by focusing too much on the costs and risks of new medicines. This approach would provide certainty to potential innovators. and other factors. In fact. it would balance the goals of innovation and cost containment — the holy grail I set out to find at the beginning of my remarks. to preserve incentives for the original developers of biotech products. Which of those medicines that won’t be developed could have treated Alzheimer’s disease or Multiple Sclerosis or cancer? And how do you put a price on that? Without innovation. or large molecules developed through biotech. Let me make one last point on the value of pharmaceutical innovation: In 2005.

Dallas. “Look. Having labored side-by-side with “experts” for the feds some 13 years. Watch patriotism. might be induced to vote Republican. Disinformation is thriving in the nation’s classrooms. including myself in past years. Well. columnist and lecturer Delivered to the 9th Annual Freedom 21 Conference. who has graciously agreed to aid the terminally clumsy with what I’m sure you will find to be some shocking slides. how each state pretends to craft its own ID procedures. The Washington Times recently published an opinion piece by Gary Andres agonizing over election survey statistics. ostensibly by the state. embedded in curriculum. But career bureaucrats view their function quite differently. You are going to see hard evidence that educrats. are applying nitty-gritty labels like “Nazarene” and “Calvinist” to schoolchildren. population. I learned three lessons about government.” You will see documentation of secret videotapes showing in “approved” day care/pre-school settings— which apparently is why government is so hot to get every kid into a state-approved “early childhood program.” You will also see that data is collected from mothers’ records. eaKMan don’t get generics or biosimilars either! Generic medicines are a great legacy of innovative pharma companies. a liberal education establishment can assess and predict just how much of its leftist message. will be sopped up by the pupils. but under the auspices of a federal mandate. december 2008 .S. Texas. which specifies that only those who have ‘earned doctorates in psychology…are qualified to interpret tests. “Evil” would be someone who doesn’t return his Form B. lobbying for decades while illegally retaining a tax-exempt status. Speech of the Month Education’s Role PRELUDE TO MOLDING PUBLIC OPINION Address by BEVERLY K. • It’s more expensive to do things cheaply.” Observe the National Education Association. I will present proof-positive that schools were used as the prototype for data-mining throughout the entire U. look! See our schools turn out little socialists year after year. EAKMAN. then categorizing any firm religious belief as “mental illness. And I’d like to extend my thanks to the previous speaker. He opined that several old conservative standbys seemed to be leaning Democrat. after I picked myself off the floor laughing … I wrote an acerbic response. government is about order versus chaos. have alluded to. Today. I discovered that people outside the Nation’s Capital have the most extraordinary notion that government is about morality: about good versus evil. Great!” Yes. stability versus anarchy. I am going to show you how unique ID numbers are assigned to each child. beginning in their pregnancies. the Times printed that! Most hot-button topics of the day—from global warming to globalization—are first tested in the educational marketplace by psychologists using predictive computer technologies. To them. Notice how steeped they are in psychological queries. 2008 hank you for that gracious introduction. the Bible and ROTC spin down the T proverbial toilet. I want to be sure that you can see particular segments on each zoomed-in. But I want to give you a little background first on how Washington works nowadays. generic versions 563 continue to help patients worldwide. “See how the school curriculum is watered down along with the tests. Read the new school codes. for crying out loud!” I wrote. to help you comprehend more fully what you are going to see. Thoughtful reform of intellectual property protection for pharmaceuticals can help ensure that we will continue to benefit from this legacy. I will show you how government helps ensure—and enforce— the radical changes of ideals and attitudes and thus bring about a universal code of thought that others. July 26. As a civil servant. and • It’s more democratic to do things covertly. Jane. author. which the Times actually printed: “Oh. He capped off his musings by asking where all the conservatives had gone. who are not even supposed to mention religion. would such a caveat be necessary? “So now. like Michigan’s. Watch them compete for pet liberal “causes. with the proper incentive.’ Say what? If the ‘tests’ weren’t covert mental health surveys. then transmits to the federal government for cross-matching with other federal data. Long after patents expire and we’ve recouped our investment in a discovery. while one of the liberal constituencies.beverly K. its state chapters and spin-offs. that • It takes longer to do things quickly.

you find one common thread: Behold! They all went to school! Maybe it was a private school or a parochial school. Homeland Security. Sometimes leftists even masqueraded as supporters of conservative publications and causes. from Christianity to Islam. self-determination. always miraculously “cured” by mental-health professionals. the closet Marxists and fascists mainstreamed themselves and took over the culture—entertainment. oppressive “gotcha”-type mandates that curtail the everyday activities of law-abiding citizens while permitting violent criminals. We lost it in the schools.000—ostensibly to buy phone cards for our troops. has adopted the teachings of the radical left. and Kurt Lewin—which. Even Sen. and he hates our troops. Local police become paralyzed in their attempts to carry out their proper role of public safety and. Quite the contrary. Today. schools. and jealously guarding old ones. advocate for world government and “evolving” interpretations of the Constitution. and the Education Department are just seven agencies infamous for bureaucratic overkill and obfuscation. the Environmental Protection Agency.564 A story in Education Week. the Washington Post.S. the media. religious institutions. is film producer Michael Moore’s brainchild. the Washington Times. judges and attorneys back and back. not theory. Religion is portrayed as a collection of stories for the unenlightened. One can’t survive without it. the pop culture. DC. compliments of the U. Oh. always awash in government freebies. Josef Stalin. just to get their foot in the door: a “wedge” technique. Samuel Francis. back in the 1950s. Radicalization is in both cases due to dependency upon donations—and most of that money now resides in the far left. from its leftwing competitor. That’s the way the game is played in Washington.PG .” Anarcho-tyranny is a campaign of planting deliberately mixed messages. But even the strict. people who still believe in things like national sovereignty. the Internal Revenue Service. But just because the Soviet Union per se fell apart does not mean the whole leftist apparatus broke down. Folks. all doctrines being morally equivalent. Child “protection” agencies. the Drug Enforcement Agency. the public becomes cynical. Eventually. always getting “credit” for good conduct in prison. taxpayer—unless. roving gangs. aggressively soliciting new tasks. When you read biographies of Vladimir Lenin. They’re paid to carry out the policy. or even went broke. our schools never assign—this “wedge” technique becomes familiar. coupled with the imposition of increasingly petty restrictions and intrusive. More likely: a public school. of course. just got a new editor-in-chief. labor unions and. resort to what Dr. until today we have this monstrous behemoth that is out of control. Wicca and Kwanza. for example. activist judges and influential leftist advocates like the ACLU have all taken a shot at us. Each is assigned quotas of one kind or another in order to loosen the purse strings of Congress and curry favor with special interests. the terms “communism” and “fascism” are depicted as passé. Now. The late columnist and author. They are not paid to care if their boss’s policy is wrong. screen writers. it’s our side that’s down to a handful of patriots. illegal aliens and drug-runners to essentially run amok—always out on probation. One of the lone conservative newspapers. instead. despite provocations from totalitarian regimes all around us. But when you follow left-leaning career journalists. MoveOn. Dr. made famous by Bob Hope during his Christmas tours to entertain our troops: Well. Herbert Marcuse. we lost our conservative base way before the 2008 caucuses. it’s a policeman or Hollywood celebrity who’s the victim. the Transportation Security Administration. an influential liberal advocacy group. most importantly. The strait-laced private schools of yore now teach global warming as fact. Venezuela and Bolivia are recent cases in point. The trusty USO. especially as they are volunteers. John Solomon. personal integrity and other things that were “givens” only 50 years ago. The goals of bureaucrats and the goals of elected officials simply don’t mesh. As you know.” as per the headline: Washington Times . financial establishments. parental and property rights. The reason education reform policies fail is that career civil servants stay on through umpteen administrations. traditionalist academy I attended in Washington.PG County takes on cluttered lawns and/or Washington Times . recently applauded the fact that Indiana high-schoolers had pitched in to campaign for Barack Obama during the primaries. Why? Because donations from leftists and liberals buy legitimacy for conservative candidates. Francis calls “purely fictitious functions that will raise revenue. John McCain is accepting funds from leftist icon George Soros via Soros’ Open Society Institute. promote sexual “diversity” and undercut national sovereignty. local law enforcement is demoralized. Long-term ramifications of policy initiatives are left to so-called “bipartisan” advocacy groups and think-tanks.COM VITAL SPEECHES OF THE DAY But it doesn’t stop there. it recently caved to MoveOn. nailed today’s version of the strategy when he coined the term “anarcho-tyranny. Bureaucracies work to increase staffs and budgets. Last June’s Supreme Court decision taking the death penalty off the table for child torture-rapists is typical of this sort of thinking. setting up an eventual police state. of course. which is the professional newspaper of the education establishment. the United Service Organization. After the upheavals of the 60s and’s devious offer of $350. actors. A leftist propaganda machine ends up leaving its socialist footprint.

2008)]. enhances the power of…bureaucrats. will not be “upwardly mobile.” Substitute the words “exploiter classes” with “backbone of society” (that’s the professional. when Christian jewelry and prayers are challenged in schools. surveillance cameras. Supposedly. around 8 p. after being greeted politely by a smiling “Clear®” employee in a lane adjacent to Security. yet. not one resulted in disciplinary measures. coupled to an intensive interview. cost taxpayers a fortune and generate endless appeals. nothing vital was stolen. along with the various political and financial interests that toady to its whims.” and equity equates to decimating the middle class. fear or antipathy” to the screening process itself. and even consent forms for youngsters to fill out (as in the State of Vermont). So the government is complicit in a fraudulent scheme to trick you into paying for a Stasistyle clearance check. The pitch is that for only $128 a year. Marxist-style. this “playing field” means “equity. otherwise it wouldn’t be allowed in the airports. even when summoned by cell phone from panicked drivers on the roadside! Such a nation becomes fertile soil for any charismatic character who promises “change.” all psychologists. a passenger can avoid long security lines by submitting biometric fingerprint and iris data. So.” or to restore order. played out by attorneys who see their role as games of one-upmanship.” Well. you ask? “Behavioral Detection Officers. and the gravest “sin” is leaving a carbon footprint. every weekend. a faith with its own doctrinal “sins. what has evolved here in the United States is a government that exists to protect itself. motorcycle gangs of 15 or so terrorize other drivers by careening in and out of traffic at 120 mph. as described by Samuel Francis. complete with biometric data and extensive interview. [and] the sooner they will resort to extreme forms of struggle…so we [will have an excuse to] arrest them all. who are victimized by thugs whose convictions are overturned on some unfathomable technicality. We forget that Communism and Fascism were. This. with “hightech. Not a single police helicopter or cruiser ever appears.”) In any case. Obviously. unwarranted drug tests at $300 a pop at many doctor’s offices. (VIP . we increasingly hear statements about “leveling the playing field” and “equality of outcomes. bicycle-helmet fines. and still are. where I live. click-it-orticket stops. Let me share a couple of remarks Josef Stalin made to his inner circle during “the Terror” years in Russia. quote. anger. upon receipt of a “Clear®” card (it looks like a credit card). Criminal trials take forever.000 complaints registered against TSA screeners in 2004. complicated recycling rules. All this is the stuff of anarcho-tyranny. and random strip searches by school officials looking for aspirin. Now the TSA is set to station (get this!) some 500 BDO’s at airports by the end of the year. “foster[ing] the illusion that the state is doing its job..” a virtual dissident.” Communism was dedicated to the systematic destruction of social classes and the isolation of dissidents and mavericks. this scam has been approved by Homeland Security. football stadiums. but you and I know that file-copying has become increasingly sophisticated. whiz-bang technologies that Hitler and Mussolini would drool over. Francis put it. but “micro-expressions”—not of suspects. Inc. Meanwhile. get it?)—you discover that.” but none typically protects lawabiding Americans. 1937-39.” Any maverick.” as Dr. Think speed bumps. will not be better off than their parents. now in progress. But along the Beltway surrounding Washington. Never mind that the company already temporarily “lost” a laptop clients’ containing confidential information. and even dismissed as mentally ill. but of anyone in an airport security line who raises an eyebrow in a manner that can be interpreted as. no less. most for provocation. under the watchful eye of the not-so-polite TSA. or independent thinker. of course. arbitrary. to quote Dr. Francis again. “disgust.iii What are BDO’s. in the summers. the slightest detection of negativity on the part of a passenger (called an “allegation of nonphysical interference”) will result in a fine as high as $1. Airport security checks often are conducted by agents in Moslem headdress in an era. of the some 3. already is viewed as a “loner. leash-laws to snag an easy $500.500 and loss of reservation. eaKMan County takes on cluttered lawns (both July 2. when his hit squads worked to outdo even Hitler and his goons. if you prefer). educators and the media leave their socialist footprint—a global. rather than a government that exists to protect you. Here we are. for the most part. Stalin said: “The further we move forward [with the detainment of citizens for minor transgressions]…the more embittered will the remnants of the destroyed exploiter classes become. regardless of how provocative a TSA agent acts. (I call it “Communism in Drag. The new “faith” is global warming (or climate change. you are shuttled through the same line and rigmarole as everybody else.beverly K. The coming generation is the first that. authorizing their own parents to peruse their library records. DC. courthouses and other public places. middle class) and this quote becomes chillingly relevant to us. redistribution-ofwealth alliance from which an extravagantly wealthy december 2008 . who will monitor not just body language. Supposedly. ever-increasing auto inspections. You may already have seen something called the “Clear®” lane at a few airports. politicians. one has passed the background check. But by asking the right questions 565 of the corporation’s representative—it’s a subsidiary of a corporation called Verified Identity Pass.m. In America today.

people who make hundreds of millions per year.’ ‘selfesteem.” Here’s a new generation of targeted indoctrination. not terrorists packing C-4. climate change or gay rights is a career-stopper. that is not such a big deal. this one piloted via the . Nikolai Yezhov commented that “if…an extra thousand people are shot. humiliate and marginalize inconvenient folks without probable cause. yet that same august body already had passed the New Freedom Initiative in 2004.’ ‘conflict resolution. So. than hesitation…. One has already been sexually assaulted there. scapegoat in the trumped-up Valerie Plame non-incident concocted by Democrats. Look how psychology is being used on Americans— from the classroom. How? One method is to use “interactive. but got sabotaged in his efforts. beginning with school children! This raises the specter of another parallel with Communism: the use of psychiatry to punish—”punitive psychiatry. we detain. In the mixed-message department. deportation or killing. ever-anxious to please and earn promotions.566 elite (the Al Gores and Nancy Pelosis. would fall all over themselves “to surpass each other with gigantic numbers of people arrested. an eerie reminder of the coming BDO’s at our nation’s airports. an illegal Mexican drug-runner with a history of bringing marijuana and other illicit drugs into our country. personal popularity (under the cover of teamwork). where she was tortured with cocktails of psychiatric drugs that made her sick. irrespective of their crime or innocence. Moreover.’ ‘diversity. But the action was seen as politically incorrect. you know we are in trouble! Congress pretended to be shocked at the use of unapproved psychotropic drugs and subsequent deaths. to manipulation of the news. “molding public opinion” has become an art form. No wonder today’s schools revolve around psychology and emotionalism: ‘survival and coping skills. despite raising historical sums of grassroots funding for his presidential campaign.” sometimes citing only “the look in their eye” as justification. as in the case of the two Border Patrol Agents. not mere millions) is somehow always exempt.COM VITAL SPEECHES OF THE DAY intimate details about themselves and their families. State governments are in complicity with their federal counterparts at the Department of Education and with pharmaceutical moguls. say. In the Russian provinces. of course. Ron Paul tried to stop this. The whole story eventually came out in some newspapers. whose only “crime” was to temporarily injure. Or Scooter Libby. to those BDO’s in TSA lines. so the two were sued. When smoking becomes less lethal than your government. His regional commissars. in the murder of their daughter. like John & Patsy Ramsey. Leftist curriculum is being packaged for kids—the harder-hitting ones going to those whose “test” scores show they’re not enthusiastically “buying in” to the preferred biases. Larisa Arap. jailed without pardons. another 9/11-style crisis will unleash a frenzy of detainments—against innocent taxpayers packing mouthwash. urging them to reveal VSOTD. such a facility in Russia a couple of years ago. which is another ominous sign. Stalin used to assign quotas—people in need of arrest. While we aren’t actually killing people yet. Take. aimed at mandatory psychological screening on every individual in America.”vii We are dangerously close to this sort of rationalizing.” One brave lady. the drugging of normal. though it was somewhat buried. The lack of well-educated staffers also keeps elected officials from learning the full history of proposed legislation and policy—whether the topic is immigration. fidgety children.. pressured to support causes we don’t believe. incredibly. too. energy or education. students continue to be drugged—and showered with psychological surveys. the government had her incarcerated in one of its infamous psychiatric hospitals.” mass psychological screening and global warming. This makes it risky indeed to be a skeptic on issues critical to government and its favored elites. We are pressured to report on parents and friends. inconvenience. shock treatments. then. then when she still didn’t give in. he was sidelined in televised debates. for example. he still deserved to be heard.” Stalin himself remarked: “Better an innocent head less. No wonder most freshman congressional staffers buy into “Smart Growth. pressuring parents to administer cocktails of mind-altering drugs. not kill. Even those few who suspect the truth (having examined the real technical or scientific evidence) know that to express reservations about. Because she wouldn’t go along with a petty diktat. often ruining their careers and requiring them to pony up huge legal costs to clear their names. schools order honorroll grade-schoolers (as in Arizona) to drop their drawers in humiliating random searches for Motrin hidden in their underpants! It was also revealed last June how the Veterans Administration lures exhausted. and finally escaping. Ignacio Ramos and José Campean. Rep. This makes it easier for heavily financed agitators on the left to sabotage reform measures.’ and. returning veterans into lethal psychotropic drug-testing regimens.’ ‘anger management.. Under such policies. One hook was a stop-smoking campaign. It doesn’t matter whether you like Ron Paul or not. Sometimes we arrest them. Stalin’s chief deputies later conceded this. pressured to seek “counseling” (or “reeducation”) for all kinds of things. earned an award for enduring. Young people entering the job market—especially those becoming aides to legislators on Capitol Hill or in the state legislatures—are too poorly schooled to see these parallels to Marxist regimes. Then. computerbased testing and remediation. JonBenet.

but a psychology perspective (mental health. where I worked. Virtually every federal agency. what kind of entities do you think win “prevention” grants. Terms like “best practices” and “public-private partnerships” are codes for. not just the Education Department. or the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. fronts for the real agenda of power. or constituent letters in the case of legislative aides. or drug abuse. unfortunately. Do you think they really care about trees? Or how about the extremists in the Tucson area who hired some muscle to blow up a McDonalds restaurant to protest the sale of hamburger meat? Do you think they really care . Won’t it be wonderful when…no one can get between that child and that curriculum?” Conservatives missed it! Also missed was the fact that leftists don’t really care about the issues they plea so passionately—single mothers. “prevention. Not a law enforcement perspective. for that matter? Of course not. or the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies. too. or even a scientific perspective. The trainees re-emerge as lobbyists. These offices create annual booklets of grant solicitations aimed at. not a parental perspective. selected recruits got (and still get) an “extreme makeover” as Marxist ideologues. pioneered hardball leftist training centers early on. polar bears. state legislators and lobbyists. and so on have Offices and Bureaus devoted to education. in essence. eradicating its values and infiltrating traditional institutions so that persons of a leftist persuasion are recommended for all manner of staff positions. The Departments of Labor. Understanding these sleights-of-hand is critical if one expects to come to grips with the socialist footprint now being stamped on America’s religious. This Office disseminates booklets every year—holding out the prize of federal dollars to any organization that will create a course or a strategy aimed at. eaKMan 567 about animals—or any kind of life. These are tactics of the left. school superintendents and community “leaders. remember?)—a field overrun. bypassing citizens and state’s rights. not a religious perspective. Far-left mega-organizations. when Dustin Heuston of the World Institute for Computer-Assisted Technology declared: “We’ve been absolutely staggered by realizing that the computer has the capability to act as if it were 10 of the top psychologists working with one student. These are covers. and on and on. fossil fuels. say. has the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Well. Health and Human Services. guess what: No proposal has been seriously considered for at least 15 years that isn’t imbued with a mental “health” perspective. via their National Training Laboratory. like. and to that extent influence the policy decisions of Congress. say. conservatives missed it. like the National Education Association. George Soros’ Open Society Institute. journalistic and educational institutions. they think deserve attention. say. This document from the federally funded Council of Chief State School Officers’ Task Force shows parental views being deliberately pitted against school disinformation campaigns.beverly K. Well. world hunger. etc. Once hired. teen pregnancy. What modern-day leftists do care about is the same thing they cared about in the 1930s and 40s: separating the bourgeoisie (the middle class) from its wallet. Again. Justice. or pollution. Look at the environmental extremists who would start forest fires to protest logging. There. these staffers show their bosses only the research.” The Justice Department. with leftists and get-richquick psychopharmacologists. American jobs. re-packaged and updated for the 21st Century. But this tactic was on the drawing board back in 1984. or the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.” all funded discreetly through second and third parties to deflect attention from the real sources. then? Left-leaning colleges and december 2008 science curriculum so that parents holding actual degrees in disciplines like physics or chemistry won’t interfere in politically charged topics such as global warming. Most people don’t realize this.

psychographics morphed into data-mining. you need to take a hard look at this split exhibit. dozens of really bad ideas become the core around which all curricula and school activities (and even TV sitcoms) revolve. or they accept the applicant. foundations.568 universities. because it exemplifies the outrageous trend of tracking private purchases of everyday items for political purposes.” for short] and forced ‘to adopt highly specific. [b] Comfortable. Recipients of such transmissions include universities. Certain values and concepts are phased out (independence. Now. • There is a secret club at school called the Midnight Artists. “Data-Mining Journals and Books: Using the Science of Networks to Uncover the Structure of the Educational Research Community. As a consequence. in which friendships by gender and race—two fields that are supposed to be serious “no-no’s” in school questionnaires—are tracked and monitored. you can avail yourselves of these if you like. with a secondary list of books that could go into the either-or category. But the point is that all of the questions are essentially knock-offs of marketing surveys: whatwould-you-do-if queries. then a child’s electronic portfolio is “flagged. which I had to split to fit it all on here intact. to ascertain just how much of the malarkey being dished out in the classroom is being absorbed by the student. Today. then discourage him from a degree program that might lead to leadership and influence. for practical purposes—and “loaded. such as the . the University of Delaware is a state college and must admit eligible state applicants. like deciding where to place a new daycare facility or sell a new kind of cereal. All are tax-exempt.COM VITAL SPEECHES OF THE DAY would JOIN THE CLUB when I knew … [a] my best friend had asked me to join. But data-mining actually started in the schools back in early 1980s.” Since 9/11. [d] Very untrue of me.” Names were taken. private universities are under no such constraints. schools have a mechanism that allows the education establishment to track your child’s emerging attitudes and beliefs. personal and political leanings are revealed. They can just turn down your kids based on whatever pupils have already been tricked into divulging on surveys and phony tests at the elementary and secondary levels. One day. and since everything is now computerized. I VSOTD. • You are asked to dinner at the home of a classmate having a religion much different from yours. A 2007 investigation by the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education revealed that “incoming freshmen were required to undergo [psychological] ‘treatment’ by residence hall apparatchiks [known as “R. [b] Mostly true of me. get this? And who analyzed it? Did it actually include more than online purchases from one outlet. as they are inappropriate for mixed company. analyzed. [b] most of the popular students in school were in the club. when it was called psychographics: a combination of socio-economic demographics and consumer trends. [c] Mostly untrue of me. The student checks: [a] Very true of me. that process is complete. Now. Psychographics is essentially a data-gathering strategy to sell products or services. and punitive measures assigned to those who didn’t go along. But prestigious. however. This has facilitated psychological profiling and dossier-building inside and outside the school setting.” They hire professional grant writers who make sure to include trendy buzz-terms like “carbon footprint. [c] Slightly uncomfortable. administrators see the flag and either turn down the application on some pretense. and psychological “fishing expeditions. sexuality…and environmentalism’. excellence. over time. In the process. beginning in 1976 all local. state and federal computers were required to be made compatible for information-sharing. They go out late at night and paint funny sayings and pictures on buildings. family) while others are institutionalized (interdependence. it is just a list of liberal versus conservative books purchased through Amazon. and transmitted. Supposedly. In this situation I would feel: [a] Very comfortable. Krebs.” This professional periodical gives away the connection between data-mining and education right in the title. not enough.” So. functionality. bottom right. To that end. In the back of the room. I have some recent questionnaires from Arizona and Texas schools. Thanks to the federally funded Council of Chief State School Officers. sexual partner). personal data may be “clustered. This sort of information is aligned with data points like this [EXHIBIT B-4/5].’s. Some of you are probably among them. it can be crossmatched. What kind of “tricks” and “phony tests” do I mean? • I often wish I were someone else. But how did the source.” When that child starts applying to colleges. [or] I get upset easily at home. If the answer is.A. [d] Very uncomfortable. [c] my parents would ground me if they found out I joined. the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. confession-style probes.” “unplanned pregnancy. you may recognize all this by another name—data-mining.” and “depression. and think-tanks—the same luminaries that have been spewing leftist claptrap for decades: the Carnegie Foundation. An example of this can be seen in the title of this article from the American Research Education Journal. etc.” as in [EXHIBITS B 3]. Today. The University of Delaware is a poster college for this type of thing. in other words. university-approved views ranging from politics to race. prospective employers and government. parents wake up to a child they no longer know.

Scoring is based upon knee-jerk emotions.” “[L. put it this way: The need for deception in testing sometimes outweighs privacy considerations because there “are occasions in which the test constructor [finds it necessary] to outwit the subject so that he cannot guess what information he is revealing. and technology is now to the point where I such information can follow kids from pre-school through college. a hidden agenda. The question is troubling because The National Longitudinal Study from the National Center for Education Statistics. and it is a fairly easy matter to access them all. not a thoughtful consideration of facts.” In other words. The word “test” is replaced with “assessment” for a reason—because an assessment is not a test. matched against children’s current opinions on school surveys. Richard Wolf. can be powerful determinants of future political behavior. on into the workplace. The parental This is one of those covert. Shepard] reserves test for ‘traditional standardized developmental and pre-academic measures’ and uses the term assessment to refer to more developmentally appropriate procedures for observing and evaluating young children…” • “Assessment is the process of gathering december 2008 . as per these four quotes uncovered from North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. admonished that the effort to capture “noncognitive” [or ‘nonfactual’] details on students’ lives must “avoid the appearance of [being] a national initiative. the famous late behavioral testing pioneer. as per [EXHIBIT C-3].” Ralph Tyler. individual friendships.” Another colleague. Walcott Beatty. • While test and assessment cannot be reliably distinguished technically.” Thus: a backhanded admission that “testing” is actually “profiling. eaKMan 569 information from Amazon. there are plenty of online bookstores.beverly K.A. The result is called a behavioral baseline—retained in databases for posterity. “whiz-bang technologies” that the late Samuel Francis says Hitler and Mussolini would have “drooled over. and his co-writer. clustered by race and gender in the preceding exhibit? Did it include other online book outlets? After all. which is part of the Department of Education lasted from 1988-2000. the difference…is of symbolic importance.

and the legal system really is behind the curve on this. Do you believe that 2 + 2 = 4? Do you believe VSOTD. right now? No. at some point) run for election. insurance and credit companies. Am I saying that every person’s computerized opinions are being tracked. Now the technology has “morphed” again. The idea behind computerized prediction is that we are emotional. We’re in big trouble regardless. “greens.” It can be taken out of context and disseminated any time. It all depends on who needs to know. Teachers obtain useful information about children’s knowledge. Depression Adjective Checklist. movie rentals. without parents’ knowledge or consent beginning about 1980. it’s a mathematical formula that sifts masses of information. or sit on a controversial committee. You and your child have no way of knowing what has been kept. Once computerization became truly practical.” not “anonymous. given various hypothetical scenarios. religious and political affiliations. May 2002 • “An assessment is any systematic procedure for obtaining information from tests and other sources that can be used to draw inferences about characteristics of people. which had already paid her husband. one of the nation’s largest information brokers. or supported in the past. or her. recording and otherwise documenting…” • “Assessment involves the multiple steps of collecting data on a child’s development and learning…” And one more from the NCES Statistical Standards. political strategists. some $3. marketing agencies started hiring statisticians with concurrent degrees in psychology. Bill. Emotional Problems Scale. that left-wing/right-wing exhibit on books from Amazon I showed you. making them more like interrogations than surveys.3 million in consulting fees . Defense Mechanisms Inventory. census data. health. “need to know. Who needs to know? Maybe nobody—unless you (or your children.570 information about children in order to make decisions about their education. predictive tracking and monitoring can be done. and information presumed to be confidential means. today. Schools started interspersing psychological questions within legitimate academic tests. colleges. skills. now.” People didn’t pick up on this ploy until it was too late. and now it doesn’t matter whose hands the technology is in—conservatives. Whether the product being “sold” is coffee. The Smart Money article described how Hillary Clinton’s campaign rented out mailing lists of her donors to InfoUSA.” or a candidate for public office. Of course. The point is.” or leftists. and what has been deleted.COM VITAL SPEECHES OF THE DAY that George Washington was the first President of this country? Do you believe that a republic is superior to a monarchy? Do you believe that someone is following you? Do you believe naughty children need drugs to control behavior? Do you believe you should take a drug if you are discouraged? See how educrats get away interconnecting mental health and academics? It all hinges on the term “belief. a person can change his. hundreds of seemingly unrelated pieces of data that reveal political leanings and parental views are fed into a “predictive” computer algorithm. and progress by observing. or even zero in on someone in particular. etc. hobbies. or even necessary. What’s a predictive computer algorithm? Well. with questions like “What does your urine smell like?” and “What do you hate most about your mother?” Many questions are deliberate Catch-22’s. favorite charities and causes. shopping habits. documenting. The August issue of Smart Money magazine describes how a “new industry of information brokers has sprung up” for the sole purpose of selling data culling according to a client’s needs. insurance and stock and financial records. Marketing moguls have long known that the best predictor of what consumers might buy tomorrow was whatever they bought yesterday—your “purchase history. offend a politically correct group. political experts realized that the same could be said for what a person believes. “Micro-targeting” enables any person or entity to look for particular kinds of individuals. the best predictor of what you (or a voting bloc) will do in the future is whatever you did (or didn’t do) in the past— what you may have believed in the past. objects. title. medical.” and cross-matching public records with private ones—library. and reviewing children’s work over time…” • “Assessment is the process of observing. technically known as “value and lifestyle data. or programs. analyzed and monitored every minute of the day. mind. philanthropies.” Today. impulsive creatures and that the rational mind can be overridden. in legal jargon. then predicts what a person will probably do. Much of this can be found in computerized public records—magazine subscriptions. The “clients” include government. By canvassing for opinions and preferences.” In the late 1970s. “samesex marriage. Computers have been made so adept at cross-matching and linking information.—analysts can micro-target a search: Thus. that special interests are actually enticed to buy your data—pharmaceutical companies. are tapped for a political appointment. that’s not yet economically feasible. liberals. but the information itself can be cut and pasted just like the tape of a film on an editing-room floor. Testing companies borrowed from clinical questionnaires like the Personality Assessment Inventory.

Dept. Nazarene and Pentecostal. so it’s a hard habit to break): Who is approved to score assessments? What did I say in that Letter to the Editor? Yes.” using a restricted electronic code (“Finder”) coupled to. You will find proof of the predictive algorithms I discussed earlier. Once the kid’s statesupplied ID number is in the bag. Now. I picked a state at random.nssrs. “only people with earned doctorates in psychology. The interesting thing about this is the Unique Student Number. and the Social Security number. it’s mighty strange that schools are supposed to label a child with one of some 29 religions. Or some information is technically off-limits.” All right. So brace yourselves. This is called “drill-down. such as weight gain during pregnancy. There is also a section that carries an extra zinger by saying that the information may be used to provide “supplemental services. the difference between. for educators. how do they sort out who got what version? Can someone tell me? That’s right: “Unique-ID”! That proves that there are indeed 712 elements per assessment. remember. pre-natal observations of the mother. so to speak (in this case the Nebraska Department of Education’s “UniquID”). If these suggest “emotional disturbance” or “depression. while you were at the hospital in labor.S.” and “State ID-Search mode. your government was laboring to circumvent the privacy laws. All such “procedures” are written with a word or phrase changed here and there. for that matter. this is a test. Hillary had the gall to sponsor a personal-data-abuse bill. Now. and that it wasn’t their own guys. assigned by the state.” are approved to score or analyze assessments! So the vendor has to hire… who? Yes. But so far. If you get a chance go to the Handbook of the National Center for Education Statistics at www. someone at the other end realized a search was afoot via a “back door” of sorts. said: that sometimes it is important to trick the respondent. so that he doesn’t know how much information he is actually revealing. say. There is an incredibly detailed level of invasiveness. they aren’t even supposed to put up red and green paper at Christmastime. assigned by the Computer specialists then must peel the onion to a deeper level. Ralph Tyler and his colleague. psychologists. so I started saving and printing as fast as I could. resulting in psychiatric drugs will probably be the outcome. it means there is more than one version of an assessment—they’re “micro-targeting. 2008 They even go so far as to have a section entitles “Use of Manipulatives. are going to be cross-matched—in ways that will make your jaw drop. so. One of the entries on the site asks the “number of forms” used in an this is where it starts getting really ugly. Washington working the way it does. as NY Senator. like religious beliefs and some medical records. what does this tell you? That the scheme is a federal initiative! Why? With the Social Security Number. the “Unique-ID. This tells you how much that HIPAA privacy “agreement” you have to sign every time you walk into a new doctor’s office or pick up a december 2008 .beverly K. who aren’t even supposed to know. Another insight I found is a space for the “scoring vendor.” I got into the “Finder” file just before it was closed off. I skipped down to where I saw 571 “Religious Affiliation. Nebraska. What does that signify? Well. Apparently. this is a national initiative. So. or anywhere else. ed.” “Advanced. Now.” as described in. I mean.” remember? That means wording the questions just right. Yet. pre-assigned ID coding. earlier Clinton campaigns. some people move or change names and. gestational age of child at birth.” which is supposed to be off-limits for educators. so I had to skip most of them. behavioral psychologists. folks (I’m a former schoolteacher. updated January 2. It doesn’t stop there.” The state education agency (that’s the state arm of the U. or required: every aspect of a child’s teeth and dental work. In fact. she could be assured that the measure would die quickly. all automated. much less teach. eaKMan and raised millions more. or in a different order. There are three levels of searches: “Simple. which government agencies swear doesn’t exist. so it didn’t matter. the state can transmit to the feds. with the state serving as the “fall guy.nces.” Which brings us to how they find the really difficult stuff on kids and their families the drill-down “Finder” method. Calvinism. there were over 700 data elements. All this brings up covert. it has to be.nde. In other words. all state procedures are virtually identical. for other. are harder to find. I was trying to decide which were most important and suddenly got a “restricted File” popup. to deceive him. of Education) establishes the procedures and pretends to write its “own” training manuals for how to assign a unique identifying number to every student. and birth weight. via its CEO. of course. and legislators and the press fall for it. Ladies. beginning with this website: • STUDENT UNIQUE INDENTIFIER (NDE Uniq ID) Steps to assigning Student Unique ID’s www.” Just like behavioral testing pioneer. but it could have been just about any state—which means. the formulas that will forecast your kids’ probable political behaviors based on the responses he or she provides on assessments and surveys. then counseling services.” The nature of those services include more screening and self-reporting.

with penalties for refusing. Can anybody guess why? Hey! I’m impressed with you guys.572 prescription at the pharmacy is worth. What bar code would that be? Anyone? Yes. rated by psychologists using a Social Rating Scale. Now. Yes. which asks the proctor to input a bar code there. too. but this is typical for both parents. The focus was social skills. Notice the bar code in the bottom right. Can we say zero? I also found a copyright-protected. Then look at the blank box at the top right. The bar code at the VITAL SPEECHES OF THE DAY bottom is the version of the questionnaire itself. The copyright protection notice is a ploy to discourage parents. the final atrocity: What you see here is a father’s questionnaire. they are going to rip the pages apart and send them to the VSOTD. and it’s on every single page of the survey. restricted-use longitudinal data file. Sir: It’s the Unique-ID code.COM .” going back to birth and pre-school. This was evidence of surreptitious data-gathering via an “electronic codebook. the press or legal observers from perusing the file. [EXHIBIT J-1 thru J-6] This is why I said a minute ago that the wise parent will be sure the pre-school or early-childhood program is “approved. “OMB” is a federal code that stands for the Office of Management & Budget.” Notice first the OMB number on the top of this cover sheet [EXHIBIT J-1].

” but “when one examines the questions asked and the scales used. you’ll be penalized for having kids! Could children be removed from homes by overzealous state child protective agencies? Well. “that no child escape inspection. under the quietly passed New Freedom Initiative in 2004 (to screen the entire U. If you recall. or just hope something will turn up. Dr. Emma Goldman. college admission officer or FBI agent. hello! It’s now 2008. state and federal levels. As sure as night . Joseph Glenmullen. Kurt Lewin. like most people imagine. Willard Wirtz. that means just what you think it means—who wrote that “the educational system should be a sieve. should you ever become “difficult” down the road. it’s in the pipeline. Herbert Marcuse. Get in some bureaucratic faces. Most parents themselves couldn’t tell their kids how we got here—via movers and shakers like Brock Chisholm. Antonio Gramsci. folks. Otto Gross.” he said. Neill. So. Young people have no idea how we got re-routed from the Founders’ original ideals. too. you tell me… Quotas. There’s no need for one humungous computer. editor of old American Eugenics Society journal—and yes. via Senate Bill S. Ewen Cameron. dossiers are emerging from dozens of computers at the local. So much for the “anonymous” nature of this survey! Look at these questions. Why isn’t everyone throwing a national hissy fit? Because most people never see this stuff.” “responsiveness. Too bad. G. Erich Fromm. all communicating with one another. testing your “social cues. every one rejected traditional notions about right and wrong. as per EXHIBIT J-7—and hold the threat of child removal over your head.” The dots go back to education.beverly K. so you’d know I didn’t make this up. Every one indicated that religious convictions are a sign of mental illness. and mandatory questionnaires from parents like the one you just saw. Max Eastman. fulfilling the objectives of early leftists like Paul Popenoe. Albert Segal. remember? Increasing child removals means what? Bigger budgets! So. Stanley Hall. parents were to be scrutinized right after schoolchildren. through which all children are passed. It is very desirable.1375. the biggest barf-bagger is J-6: During those “approved” day care settings—obviously the reason they are “approved”—is that someone is videotaping your interactions (see highlighted boxes) with your toddler. Wilhelm Reich. called the “Mothers Act. inflexibility and paranoia. Hardly any school—public or private—covers these influential moguls. here’s another bill that’s fraudulent and violates informed consent. Yet. Harvard Medical School’s dissident psychiatrist. and on and on. signal an audacious overreach by agents of government. These are reduced photos. Suppose a parent’s viewpoints don’t pass muster (whatever that is in 10 years). Archie LaPointe. we’ll get parent-licensing legislation out of this scheme. Well. they have no understanding of what it is they’re fighting! So we have a choice to make. Wilhelm Steckel. A. John Rawlings Rees. There’s nothing to stop transmissions from the dozens of smaller ones “talking” to each other from landing on the desk of a corporate executive.S.” or perceived lack thereof. population for mental illness). probably behind a fake mirror. Chester Pierce. eaKMan 573 follows day.” debated in Congress last spring. along with covert videotapes of parents interacting with their toddlers. But J-5 is the jaw-dropper: “When did you first hold your child?” Followed by multiple choices! But to me. In fact.S. Every one urged inspection of children and parents for signs of dogmatism. Theodor Adorno. warns that the questionnaires slated for the Mothers Act (quote) “may look scientific. The marriage of computerized data-collection and educational indoctrination continues to evolve. december 2008 appropriate behavioral expert for analysis. This provides government child protection agencies with an excuse to label your child with a psychiatric problem or developmental delay. they are utterly subjective measures”—just like the school questionnaires aimed at depression and other psychological issues.

Therefore. we are telling VITAL SPEECHES OF THE DAY our children’s children what it was like to get on an airplane with our luggage and just sit down. Roosevelt’s speech after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. our triumphs and failures as human beings are captured and recorded in our speeches.574 Ronald Reagan noted that: “Freedom is never more than one generation away from VSOTD. to say the Pledge of Allegiance and the Lord’s Prayer in school and not be hassled or sued. 25 Speeches That Changed Our World s a loyal reader of Vital Speeches of the Day.25speeches. Bush’s speech after the terrorism events of 9/11. protected. We have been asked for years to produce a list of the most important speeches that affected our world and changed our lives. Speeches A The Best of That Changed Our World 25 Please go to our Web site at www. It must be fought for. Second. This tells us two things about great speeches.25speeches. the rhetoric used by leaders in the past to justify their actions is the same used by the leaders of today. The first is that their structure is not random: they all share a certain style and formula. he got that one right.COM .” Well. Compare. the style and tone of Franklin D. You can see the similarity in the rhetoric and emotion of the speeches. you know our main objective is to publish and catalogue the greatest speeches of our times. and [passed] on…. So what’s next…or are we’re going to lose it all? Thank you. to speak our peace on political topics and not be sent to mandatory counseling. We didn’t pass it to our children in the and decide for yourselves if these are 25 Speeches That Changed Our World. www. for example. which is possibly the most important lesson we can learn from them.” he said. For instance. Vital Speeches is proud to present our first interactive DVD product: 25 Speeches That Changed Our World. One of the fascinating revelations we discovered during the development of this project was how history continually tends to repeat itself. “or we will spend our sunset years telling our…children’s children what it was like in the United States [when] men were free. with George W. Already.