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From a list of data: add them up and divide by how many there were. From a table: add an extra fx column and times together. Then do Mean=

From a list of data: put them in order and find the middle number. If you are asked to do this from a stem and leaf, it’s probably easier to write all the numbers from the stem and leaf out before trying to find the middle number

If the data is grouped you may need to Also see cumulative frequency for work out the midpoints of each group. medians from grouped data. To do this: add together the top and bottom of the group, press equals, then Mode or Modal Group divide by 2. Or just go halfway if you can From a list of data: which number or spot it. thing comes up the most? From a table: which value or group had the highest frequency. NB It is not the value that appears most in the table!

Largest value – smallest value From a table: largest value in 1st column – smallest value in 1st column

Frequency Polygons
Plot these as coordinates and join them up. If the data is grouped, use the midpoints. If two sets of data are used provide a key

Pie Charts
To find the size of your angles do
Size of angle =


If you are ever asked to compare two sets of data. ALWAYS write e.g. if 24/60 people chose BBC, do 1. a sentence comparing two averages (mean or median will do) Histograms e.g. boys have a higher median Area = frequency than girls. The height of the bars should be the 2. A sentence comparing the ranges frequency density= or IQR e.g. boys have a larger range than girls. NB – sometime you need to work out the scale for
NB – make sure you have actually worked them out somewhere! yourself, always add an extra frequency density column to the table.

g.  Going across at ¼ the total frequency and reading down gives you the LOWER QUARTILE  Going across at ¾ the total frequency and reading down gives the UPPER QUARTILE  UPPER QUART – LOWER QUART is Median is about 5.’s against the top end of each group. count how many When asked to compare times you need to multiply the original Compare the widths of the boxes but amount by the multiplier before you say interquartile range. the median is smaller for the boys .f.g. the reach it.2.2 =7 Some variation in answers is allowed Box and Whisker Plots Compound Interest Create your multiplier by adding the interest rate to 100 before dividing by 100.  Plot these c. E.Cumulative Frequency 1 Cumulative Frequency 2  Add up the frequencies as you go along. interquartile range is larger for the girls Compare the positions of the middle lines e. Upper quartile is 9.2 – 2. 4% interest has multiplier 1. Highest value – top end of whisker To find out how many years it takes to COMPARISONS reach an amount.g. E. Join them up with straight lines. graph should always be increasing  Going across at half the total frequency and reading down gives you the MEDIAN.04. called the INTERQUARTILE RANGE Lower quartile is 2. Then use Plot Smallest value – bottom end of whisker Lower quartile – bottom edge of the box Amount = Median – middle line of box Upper quartile – top edge of the box Where n is the number of years.4.2 so Interquartile range is 9.

this is your c.Straight Line Graphs 1 Most straight line graphs have equation The m is called the gradient and should be the number before the x. another point at (2.g. Straight Line Graphs 2 To find the equation of a line from its graph first locate the point it crosses the y axis. Percentage of a Number Divide by 100 and times. On y axis (0. The c is called the y intercept and is where the line crosses the y axis. Plot your points and join them up. share 80 in the ratio 3:6:1 ADD 3+6+1=10 DIVIDE 80 TIMES 8 Check they all add up to your total and write them in the same order the question asks for. ( ) for for ( ) Avoid minus values for x if you can in case you make a mistake. probability of something not happening = 1-(probability of happening) Expected number of outcomes Simply multiply the probability of the outcome by the number of times you carry out the experiment.4). e. find 65% of 320 Fraction of a Number Divide by denominators then times by the top .g.g.8) so c = 4 =2 So the equation is y=2x+4 Sharing in Ratios e.g. e. To draw a line just find a few points on it by substituting x values into the equation e. Probability All probabilities in a table must add up to 1. Replace your m and c into y=mx+c. Then find another point you can easily read off and use: This is your m.

 When choosing a sample. Add the probabilities of different outcomes together. multiply the sample size by the fraction of those people from the whole population. do they eat at home or at school). Stratified Sampling To work out how many people from a group should be included in your sample. How many 15 yo girls should be sampled in a sample of size 40 from this population boys Girls 14 years 58 107 15 years 72 39 Round to nearest whole number so 6 students Scatter Graphs Points go up – positive correlation Points go down – negative correlation Two way tables When there is a lot of data with two conditions on it (e. tally in the second and frequency in the third. Draw a two way table with totals columns included. Sometimes you don’t need to draw the tree diagram if the events are independent (don’t affect the probability of the other).g. boy or girl. Each set of branches should have probabilities adding up to 1.g. Stem & Leaf Diagrams Remember to include a key!!!! Data Collection Sheet Just a fancy name for a tally table. include options in the first column. make sure it is fair.g.g. . rolling two dice and getting two 4’s. per day)  Questions should not contain opinions and should not be biased. e.Tree Diagrams Multiply along the branches to get probabilities of two things happening. Questionnaires  Usually need non-overlapping options  A time frame in the questions (e. Don’t waste time filling it in. E.