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Muhammad in The Bible by Dr.

Jamal Badawi

In the name of Almighty God, the Merciful, the Compa ionate !Tho e who follow the Apo tle, the unlettered "rophet, whom they find mentioned in their own #cripture , in the Torah and the Go pel$% &'uran ()*+(, Tran .) -u uf Ali.

23. authoritati&e because an objecti&e stud$ of the #ur’an clearl$ shows its di&ine ori in.rophet Muhammad! This also necessitates belie&in in the hol$ boo%s re&ealed to those prophets in the ori inal forms of their re&elation.ho 'receded him as an e-'ression of love and res'ect for them.. Lord and Sustainer of the Universe. 3126..13*.18. Creator.'rabic)! +o addition* deletion* or interpolation found its wa$ into the #ur’an! "or Muslims* the #ur’an is the onl$ remainin authoritative and authentic re&elation a&ailable to man%ind.. 3 9n the /ur0an. +ro'het )uhammad .145. b) that Muslims reject the Bible in total and accept no sin le word of it! "or Muslims the #ur’an is the last but not the only hol$ boo% re&ealed b$ 'llah to man%ind throu h (is messen ers!) It is* howe&er* the only hol$ boo% which remained intact from the time of its re&elation until the present time! +ot onl$ is the full text of the #ur’an a&ailable* but it is also a&ailable in the full and exact form as uttered b$ . 1 . . the term is not sub$ect to !ender %male or female& or to 'lurality. “ ( the #ur’an 3:14) This emphasi5es two main aspects of the #ur’an: a) The #ur’an confirms those teachin s or passa es of pre&ious scriptures which remained intact!3 Allah in Arabic means The One and Only God. 17126.. * +eace and blessin! are sent u'on +ro'het )uhammad and to all 'ro'hets and ..rophet Muhammad . **152. and authentic because of the conclusi&e e&idence that it remained intact and was transmitted to us as it was re&ealed without bein mixed with human and philosophical ideas and doctrines! 's such* Muslims do not need an$ other scriptures to base their faith on* either in full or in part! /n the other hand* it is erroneous to thin% that Muslims reject the Bible in toto and do not accept a sin le passa e of it! There are at least two reasons for this: a) /ne of the main articles of faith in Islam is the belief in all prophets and messen ers sent before the ad&ent of the last of them* .0 b) 'ccordin to the #ur’an all prophets were Muslims .peace be upon him) at the time of its re&elation and in the ori inal lan ua e in which it was re&ealed . 6 See for e-am'le. The /ur0an *1*23.1.118.4./eference to the Bible Is it justifiable for Muslims to quote the Bible or quote from it? There appears to be two common and extreme misconceptions about the Muslims’ attitudes towards the Bible: a) that Muslims base their faith in full or in part on the Bible.i!e! those who consciousl$ and lo&in l$ submitted to the will of 'llah)* what the$ tau ht was nothin but earlier &ersions of Islam . 621*8. confirming whatever Scripture was before it..conscious and lo&in submission to 'llah) and their sincere followers were Muslims as well! 1 The fact that the transmission of earlier re&elations* prior to the #ur’an suffered from inaccuracies and misinterpretations does not justif$ a total and cate orical rejection of such scriptures! There are bound to be some passa es and portions of the Bible whose essence* if not wordin * need not be rejected b$ Muslims! Criterion of Acceptance 2hat is the Muslim basis or criterion for acceptin or not acceptin from the Bible? The #ur’an itself pro&ides such criterion: portions or passa es “And unto you have We revealed the Scripture with the truth.&# See also 3142.. the /ur0an . 154. and a watch over it . See also the /ur0an *11. 151. .48. . a befittin! and consistent em'hasis on the transcendence and (ivine )a$esty of the Creator.1. 26. 51. *11*2. . Unlike the n!lish term "God#. 1.as directed to invite the 9sraelites1 :Say1 +roduce the Torah and read it %unto us& if you are truthful %The /ur0an .

the .&en in its present form.hich is decreed for mankind . See also /ur0an 1*1111. # $srael% the &ord our 'od is one &ord( . *311. )e will ma.rophet who can neither read nor write.hich . *128.6411*.Mar% )-:-8) ' Muslim who reads this passa e in the #ur’an can find no objection to its essence! 'fter all the #ur’an confirms: “Say )e is Allaah.171.*161. On the confirmation in the /ur0an of 'revious revelations . 171.e read1 "And this /ur0an is not such as could ever be invented in des'ite of Allah< but it is a confirmation of that . and help him.passa e) indicates that the characteristics as well as the teachin of that >'postle* the unlettered .31.The #ur’an ))-:)) If* howe&er* a Muslim reads in the Bible . 4 .rophet Muhammad? that the Bible did contain prophecies The ori inal re&elations i&en to prophets in the past contained a complete and clear profile of the ad&ent of . and honor him. 0en those who believe in him.5. from the Lord of the =orlds# . the *ne and *nly ('od+( . )e will en-oin on them that which is right and forbid them that which is wrong. whom they will find described in the "orah and the 'ospel which are with them+.418*. "he first of all commandments is hear. and follow the light which is sent down with him1 they are the successful. Therein is no doubt . and an e-'osition of that .9od)! :i%ewise if the Bible .rophet Muhammad! .b) The #ur’an is the last* complete* authoritati&e and authentic re&elation! It is the final arbiter and the onl$ criterion to correct an$ inaccurac$ or misinterpretation which mi ht ha&e occurred in the transmission of scriptures! It helps in disco&erin human additions to or interpolations of pre&ious re&elations* e&en as it re&eals possible deletions which mi ht ha&e ta%en place throu h the centuries prior to its re&elation .s) the Bible still contains se&eral such prophecies as will be shown in the forthcomin chapters! It is useful* howe&er* to start off b$ documentin the abo&e statement! a) <escribin true belie&ers* the #ur’an states: “"hose who follow the messenger.or other scriptures) contains apparent prophecies about the ad&ent of .641.7.the #ur’an)! Indeed one of the names of the #ur’an is al-Fur an .e lawfu/ for them all good things and prohibit for them only the foul% and he will relieve them of their burden and the fetters that they used to wear.1.rophet? were mentioned in the >Torah? and the >9ospel?! See for e-am'le the /ur0an *1123.( ("he 2ur3an 41/54+.as before it.or other pre&ious scriptures for that matter) accusations of major moral sins le&ied a ainst reat prophets or doctrines which are totall$ ne ated in the #ur’an* the Muslim accepts onl$ the #ur’anic &ersion as the ori inal unadulterated truth* re&ealed b$ 'llah . This =a$ah .the criterion which distin uishes between ri ht and wron * truth and falsehood)! It follows therefore that a Muslim has no reason to reject the essence of an$ passa e in the Bible if such a passa e is confirmed b$ the #ur’an! 6 "or example* we read in the +ew Testament a reiteration of one of the Ten 7ommandments: “And !esus answered him.85.rophet Muhammad* and if the #ur’an confirms that fact* then there is nothin unusual or objectionable in referrin to such prophecies! 'ur0anic /eference to "rophecie Is there an$ conclusi&e #ur’anic basis for claimin about the ad&ent of ..81.

rophet @esus* e&en the name of the lon Aawaited messen er was i&en: 'hmad* which is another name of .rophet Muhammad as depicted in the Bible? That profile includes six crucial elements: • • 5 The linea e of the prophet* (is characteristics* Additional references in the /ur0an include *128 %that the 9sraelites e-'ected a ne. and bringing good tidings of a messenger who will come after me.as revealed to them.rophet Muhammad! /ne such prophec$ is in <euteronom$ )4:)4 to be discussed later! 'nal$sis and reinterpretation of such prophecies should in no wa$ reflect ne ati&el$ on the honoured status of .rophet @esus! This does not constitute a problem for the Muslims! /n the authorit$ of the #ur’an alone* the Muslims accept @esus as a le itimate and major prophet of 'llah! The same was reiterated in the sa$in s of .hat .rophet Muhammad was so clear to man$ @ews and 7hristians amon his contemporaries that man$ of them embraced Islam and accepted him as the fulfillment of numerous Biblical prophecies! . 'n interestin aspect of this =a$ah is that it indicates that in the ori inal re&elation uttered b$ . their sons&< and .rophet @esus were actuall$ fulfilled in .rophet Muhammad! This issue will be further discussed later on! 1ame or #ign 2 Turnin to the Bible* some ma$ hasten to as%: I read the Bible se&eral times* but ne&er saw the name Muhammad! 2hat is the justification for the title >Muhammad in the Bible?? Man$ 7hristian theolo ians find no difficult$ in pointin out what the$ consider as clear prophecies of the ad&ent of @esus! 2here in the /ld Testament does the name @esus appear? +owhere’ The main question is whether or not the profile of >that prophet? to come was materiali5ed* and who fits that profile? The profile of .rophecies were in fact fulfilled in . they say1 "his is mere magic.ers# to the messen!er .rophet @esus . son of 0ary said1 # children of $srael1 &o6 $ am the messenger of Allah unto you. whose name is praised one. confirming that which was (revealed+ before me in the "orah. 2hat then are the elements of the >profile? of .165 %the 'eo'le of the book clearly kne.&er since* there ha&e been man$ others who arri&ed at the same conclusion! "urther questions pertainin to the possible mention of Muhammad’s name will be discussed later! Biblical "rophecie About Je u <oes that pre&ious discussion mean that all prophecies which were belie&ed to ha&e been fulfilled in . 'ro'het to come&< *1164. .ho .b) #uotin the .121 %Allah took covenant of the +ro'hets to believe and render hel' "'ersonally or throu!h their follo. him "truth or 'rofile of +ro'het )uhammad# as they kno. 7et when he has come unto them with clear proofs.rophet @esus in the hearts of Muslims! It is rather a re&elation of the truth which would ha&e been proclaimed b$ @esus himself if he were amon us toda$! Main 3lement in Muhammed0 "rofile.ill come confirmin! . 4 ("he 2ur3an 8/18+.rophet Muhammad! There are* howe&er* se&eral /ld Testament prophecies which were for a lon time misinterpreted so as to appl$ to @esus! Buch prophecies do in fact refer to .peace be upon him)* the #ur’an states: “And when !esus.rophet Muhammad instead? There is no reason to rule out the possibilit$ that some of the /ld Testament .

• • • • I The location from which he was to come* The re&elation which was to be i&en to him* . includin! some of the 9sraelite 'ro'hets.. ven "the friend of God#. The em'hasis in the 'resent conte-t.as blessed by God and throu!h .e thy name great% and thou shalt be a blessing.9enesis )6:))! In the chronolo $ of the Boo% of 9enesis* 9od made an important promise to 'braham* e&en before an$ child was born to him: “And $ will ma. +ro'het Abraham.peace be upon him)* meanin >9od hears?* was i&en b$ the an els . “ ('en.ere blessed %Gen.ill be sho. And $ will bless them that bless thee1 and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed. /919-:+ In a later chapter in the Boo% of 9enesis .hom the families .+ 'nother pleasant surprise was in store for 'braham! In his old a e* his first wife Barah was to bear him another child* Isaac . had a 'oly!amous marria!e and certainly for a !ood cause.9en! -):)C) who subsequentl$ dwelt in the wilderness of >. is on Abraham0s first t.(a ar) to be his wife* in the hope that she ma$ bear a child to 'braham! 8 (a ar did bear 'braham’s first child whose name* Ishmael . 8 9t should be noted that 'oly!amous marria!es .9en! -):-))! Accordin! Genesis *311 +ro'het Abraham %'eace be u'on him& ..rophet 'braham* the patriarch of monotheism! 2hat does his famil$ tree loo% li%e? ' simple loo% at it ma$ help show some of the %e$ fi ures in the 'brahamic famil$ tree! 4 'braham married Barah "rom their union the$ had in their pro en$ the followin prophets: Isaac* @acob* @oseph* Moses* <a&id* Bolomon* and @esus! 'braham married (a ar! "rom their union the$ had in their pro en$ the followin prophets: Ishmael and Muhammad! 'ccordin to the Bible* 'braham was first named to Barah who happened to be a barren woman and bore him no children .ever. . “ ('en. and $ will bless thee.e of thee a great nation.ere not uncommon amon! the 9sraelites. 2 .&ents which were to ta%e place in his lifetime* and The time when he was to come! 4ineage of !That "rophet% "rophet Abraham) Common 5ather @ews* 7hristians* and Muslims claim a common father* . and thou shalt be a father of many nations. my covenant is with thee. 1516&. ho.1*1*. the blessin! of .'D'+? .9en! )6) we are told that Barah a&e 'braham a handmaid .peace be upon him) .as s'ecified both in the /ur0an and the ?ible as .as also married to >eturah after the death of Sarah.hom . and ma.n shortly. behold.ho . /41.9en! -):3)! The Bible tells us that because of jealous$* Barah as%ed her husband 'braham to cast out Ishmael and his mother (a ar .o sons.9en! )6:)))! "or the followin fourteen $ears* Ishmael was 'braham’s onl$ child! 'fter the birth of Ishmael and before the birth of Isaac* 9od’s promise to bless the families of the earth throu h 'braham’s descendants was repeated: “As for me.

(avid and Solomon %'eace be u'on them& . not $ust "kin!#.peace be upon them all)* the last Israelite prophet! )) "ulfillment of 9od’s promise throu h the Israelite branch of 'braham is clearl$ and abundantl$ articulated in the Bible! (ow was that promise fulfilled throu h the Ishmaelite branch of the 'brahamic famil$ tree? /r was it fulfilled at all? /r has it $et to be fulfilled? To start with* 9od does not rene e on (is promises* nor does he for et* them! It is interestin to note that while the Bible contains elaborate details about the Israelite branch* the Ishmaelite branch is &irtuall$ i nored! 2ith the exception of a few references here and there)-* the Bible is &irtuall$ silent on the Ishmaelites! If it is accepted that 9od does not rene e on (is promises .ere both 'ro'hets of God.elve sons of . Aor a further discussion of this Buestion see @amal A.9od’s promise to bless the descendants of 'braham was indeed reali5ed! Throu h 'braham=s second son Isaac came the Israelite prophets* includin @acob* @oseph* Moses* <a&id* Bolomon)C and @esus . 12. 1.hom is ">edar# %Genesis *311.rophet Muhammad* a descendant of 'braham throu h Ishmael! That shift of prophethood and spiritual leadership to the Ishmaelite branch of 'braham’s descendants brou ht to completion the centuriesAold promise of 9od to bless the families of the earth throu h 'braham* the father of monotheism and patriarch re&ered b$ @ews* 7hristians and Muslims! To an$ unbiased mind* the abo&e e&idence alone suffices to show the connection between such reat prophets as 'braham* Isaac* Ishmael* Moses* @esus and Muhammad If such prophecies about the ad&ent of .! .uttin other reasons aside for now* it seems that combination of erroneous notions and misinterpretations are partl$ responsible for this situation! :et’s anal$5e some of these notions! 6b7ection to the Inclu ion of I hmael in God0 Co8enant with Abraham 2ere Ishmael and his descendants excluded from 9od’s promise and co&enant? ' common* $et erroneous* answer to this question is $es! ' number of reasons are i&en: Accordin! to the )uslim belief.rophet Muhammad are that ob&ious* how is it that millions of Bible readers could not come to such a conclusion? . "These key verses are discussed later on. That 9shmael %'eace be u'on him& had t.rophet Muhammad* whose followers constitute nearl$ oneAfifth of the total world population in all corners of the earth! 'fter blessin the descendants of Isaac* the Israelites* for centuries with the spiritual leadership* and after man$ lapses and rebellions a ainst 9od on their part* a final chance was i&en to them throu h the mission of the last Israelite prophet* @esus! 2hen @esus too was rejected* it was now time in 9od’s plan to fulfill (is promise to the Ishmaelite branch as well* the branch which remained obscure until it was made a > reat nation? )0 throu h the mission of the wellA%nown . 17 . Islamic Information Foundation %Aorthcomin! 9nshallah& 1* e.a prerequisite of faith for an$ belie&er in 9od) then we are left with two possibilities: a) that such a promise of blessin which included the Israelites had been fulfilled. S'ecific reference to makin! a "!reat nation# of 9shmael a''ears in Genesis *111.ill be discussed later on.&. 11 The /ur0an makes it clear that @esus . ?ada.i0s @esus in the Qur’an. b& that it is $et to be fulfilled! It is well %nown that out of the descendants of Ishmael came the last reat prophet of monotheism* .as one of the ma$or 'ro'hets of God.. Other mentions of ">edar# .

m'hasis is ours&./.ma0el %Genesis 14113.473.s) of this boo% .e! ! <eut! -):)3A)E)* it is also contrar$ to the moral* humanitarian and uni&ersal nature of 9od’s re&elation cherished b$ an$ belie&er in (im! b) /nl$ Isaac was the son of promise and co&enant! Bometimes reference is made to the followin &erses in the Boo% of 9enesis: “<ut 0y =ovenant will $ establish with $saac( ('en. 16 13 . m'hasis added&. took Ea0!ar her maid. /419+ “For in $saac shall thy seed be called( ('en. 9n other verses 9shmael is called as Abraham0s son "And Ea0!ar bore A0bram a son< and A0bram called his sons0s name. "hey wanted a 'od who would be partial to them. 15 lnterpreter’s Bible. 9sh. *111. /4 It should be noted that 9od does not subscribe to human attitudes of ethnic or racial superiorit$ or exclusi&ism* much less the submer ence of spiritual and human qualities of man%ind because of a certain unfortunate state of bonda e! The fallac$ of Ishmael’s inferior status owin to his mother’s >inferior? social status is not onl$ contrar$ to the @udaic law . . p. m'hasis added. born to Sarah the true wife while $shmael is born of the slave girl. "And Sa0rai. is a descendant of Abraham% but $saac is the child of ultimate promise.el buried himF " %Genesis *318. after A0bram had d.hich Ea0!ar bore.a) Ishmael was not a le itimate son of 'braham! 'ccordin to the commentators of "he $nterpreter3s <ible1 “$shmael. and !ave her to her husband A0bram to be his .# %Genesis 148. volume 2.ife. li.ife. yet it was right that he should be separated from the legitimate son..&en if (a ar was a bondwoman* does that affect the ri hts and pri&ile es of her son Ishmael? The answer can be found in the Bible itself! In (ebrew traditions* the firstborn son was to ha&e double portions of honour* e&en inheritance* and that ri ht could not be chan ed due to the status of his mother! In "he $nterpreter3s <ible. m'hasis added.9enesis) inserted such statements to fa&or his own clan* himself bein an Israelite? According to "he $nterpreter3s <ible1 “0any $sraelites did not want a 'od who would be e ually the 'od of all nations on the earth. of Abraham. m'hasis is ours& "And his sons 90saac and 9sh0ma.elt ten years in the land of Canaan. and so long as it was accepted -ustice demanded that mere favoritism not be allowed to deprive the eldest son of his rights.461. we read the followin commentar$ on <eut! -):)3A)E: “)owever.D 183*. cit. So we read in >eutoronomy of demands for a complete e?termination of all The Interpreter’s Bible. "hough he came of the stoc.e $saac.. '. 9/1/9+ 'n interestin question is raised here: Is it possible that the writer. 14 See for e-am'le Gen. "hey did not want one who would be impartial )oliness. volume 1. the law of the first-born had ancient sanction. A0bram0s . Abin!dom +ress. the !y'tian. C. This ar ument cannot be supported lo icall$* morall$* or e&en on the basis of the a&ailable &ersions of the Bible itself! <id the alle ed state of bonda e of (a ar pre&ent her from bein a le itimate wife of 'braham! 2h$ was she not a >true? wife? 'nd if she were not a >true? wife li%e Barah* what %ind of wife was she? The text of the Bible* not withstandin the possibilities of later insertions or chan es* does not ma%e such a claim! In 9enesis )6:0* (a ar is described as 'braham’s wife /5 If (a ar was a legitimate wife of 'braham* there are no rounds whatsoe&er for questionin the legitimacy of her son Ishmael! Indeed the Bible refers to Ishmael as 'braham’s seed! )6 2ho was the first born child of 'braham! . op.

come do. 12 . but you shall utterly destroy them.as made man#.e him a great nation. the Canaanites. 419+ and as to the carrying out of that in-unction read the harsh sentences of >eut.9en! )E:)and -):)-) are examined within the context of other &erses in the same boo%* it becomes e&ident that the Ishmaelites were included in 9od’s promise and (is co&enant with 'braham: i) 9od’s co&enant with 'braham was made before the latter had an$ children . /@ The possibilit$ of insertions introduced to the supposedl$ >ori inal? text of re&elation is a matter that man$ Biblical scholars readil$ admit* includin those scholars who are earnest belie&ers in 7hristianit$ such as the editors of and contributors to "he $nterpreter3s <ible. all its s'oil. howe&er* does not mean or impl$ the e?clusion of the descendants of Ishmael for ood 2hen these two &erses .9enesis)* Ishmael is also specificall$ blessed and hence is included in 9od’s promise! “.non-$sraelitish peoples of . and hold him in thine hand% for $ will ma.omen and the little ones. offer terms of 'eace to it..9en! -):)0) calls Ishmael 'braham’s seed. it.hich are very far from you.ord. vol. . $shmael+ will $ ma. $ptian? which appears in 9enesis )6:0 in reference to (a ar is suspected to be an insertion and that (a ar was indeed a Bedouin and not an . lift up the lad. The citations referred to read in the ?ible as follo.411.as 'romised . op. the cattle. The ?ible .9en! )-:-A0)! It was reiterated after the birth of Ishmael and before the birth of Isaac . Interpreter’s Bible. but the . “ ('en. 15& the Interpreter’s Bible states that at this 'oint. $ptian woman!-C In addition to such a possibilit$* if not li%elihood* of insertions in 9en! )E:-) and -):)-* the$ do not in themsel&es conclusi&el$ exclude Ishmael from the promise and co&enant of 9od! Both &erses could be understood to refer to the relati&el$ >near? future extendin o&er centuries durin which the co&enant of 9od and the seeds of prophethood were to be mainl$ in the Israelite branch of 'braham’s famil$! Buch limitation. *1 Commentin! on this cha'ter %Gen. but makes . and you defeat them< then you must utterly destroy them< you shall make no covenant . *7 interpreter’s Bible..e a great nation because he is thy seed( ('en.353. 9/1/:+ The abo&e promise was further confirmed a few &erses later: “Arise.ho are found in it shall do forced labor for you and shall serve you. 9/1/@+ It ma$ be noted here that when 9od spea%s of > reatness?* (e does not spea% merel$ of numbers! >9reatness? in (is own criterion is abo&e all founded on faith* spiritual herita e and reli ious leadership! Interpreter’s Bible .# 9bid. '. ii) 2hile 9en! -):).1.ith them. as men under savin! conviction.ill be "God to you and your descendants after you< to 'ossess the land of Canaan for everlastin! 'ossession. of the son of the bondwoman (i.n F and .s1 "And . iii) 's Isaac was blessed in the same boo% .ar a!ainst you . Abraham .indicates that in Isaac shall 'braham’s seed be called* the &er$ followin &erse ./A "or example* the word >. . ?ut if it makes no 'eace . as the Lord your God has commanded#. 1. the Eittites and the Amorites.hich are not cities of the nations here.ith you.hen the Lord your God !ives it into your hand you shall 'ut all its males to the s. %(euteronomy *7117. vol. And if it0s ans. HI99 and HI999. ?ut in the cities of these 'eo'les that the lord your God !ives you for an inheritance you shall save alive nothin! that breathes. thin!s1 to be the father of many nations< that God . cit volume 1.e. you shall take as booty for yourselves< and you shall en$oy the s'oils of your enemies. the Eivites and the @ebusties.hich the Lord your God has !iven you. then you shall besie!e it< and .as also described as "+resent =onder of heavenly truth#.15& 18 9n the introduction to the 9nter'reter0s ?ible. and sho. no mercy to them#. that God is Christ for us men. %(euteronomy 51*& "=hen you dra. near to a city to fi!ht a!ainst it. then all the 'eo'le . 9#1/#-/4.alestine (>eut. Ibid. and for our salvation. '.6!4.9en! )E:1) -). Thus you shall do to all the cities . vol.. 1. p. and everythin! else in the city.er to you is 'eace and it o'ens to you. it is stated1 "F So our editors and contributors ea!erly confess. and the +eriGGites. o'.hen the Lord your God !ives them over to you. '.

paran)* more specificall$ to Ma%%ah . “ 2hen (a ar ran out of water* she started to hasten between two little hills called 'sABafa and 'lAMarwah in search of water or for an$ passin tra&eler! 'fter she hastened se&en times without success* she returned to chec% on her bab$ . ' 353 %see footnote K*7&. This reference is not only to 9srael but also to the 9shmaelites.rophet 'braham recei&ed instruction from 9od to ta%e (a ar and her bab$ Ishmael to a specified barren and lifeless place in 'rabia . ho. An interestin! Buestion on the above citation.led!ed.“ . '.Ishmael) who was cr$in and %ic%in the round with his heels! In this moment of despair and apparent certain death* a sprin of water suddenl$ ushed forth from under Ishmael’s feet! That well later came to be %nown as the well of Fam5am! Bince water is the most crucial element in desert life* some interpreter’s Bible.6. 1.1.romise must be one or the other: Isaac or Ishmael! This is t$picall$ expressed in a statement li%e the followin : “$shmael is set aside as the inheritor of the =ovenant. "he fact that the (supposed+ elder son of Abraham did not become the heir of the divine . /8+.413& is1 =hy are the editors referrin! to 9shmael as the "su''osed# elder son of Abraham . that in some 'laces.hom the documents had claimed as descendants of Abraham.en Away2 If Muslims too belie&e that (a ar* .. less biased statements . 9bid. and feed them with fruits1 So they may give than. the 9nter'reter0s ?ible.ards the 9shmaelites< a continuation of the same bias that the editors of the Interpreter’s Bible did not seem e-cited about in Iol. it is stated1 "God0s first 'romise is that Abraham shall be the father of a multitude of nations. The )uslim version of the settlement of Ea!ar and 9shmael %+& in "+aran# is not 'rom'ted by Sarah0s $ealousy.ill be discussed later on.. 9bid.hen the ?ible itself 'resents it as a "fact#J =hat room for "su''osition# is thereJ One =onders . )e will not suffer us to be lost. the domites and the nations . all of . . # &ord. and in B by her e?pulsion with the child (9/1A-9/+.Mecca)! In the #ur’an* 'braham is quoted: “*ur &ord6 $ have made some of my offspring to dwell in a valley without cultivation by thy sacred house% in order. %Iol. '. Aor e-am'le on the commentary on Gen.romise is accounted for in !9 by )agar3s f/ight before the child3s birth (=h.hose e'onymouse ancestors are listed in *31*.'braham’s wife) and her son Ishmael were settled in a different location* what is their &ersion of the stor$? 'nd how does that &ersion compare to the Biblical &ersion? The Muslim Version23 .1. vol.hether this is an e-am'le of ne!ative attitudes to.. voL1.413.s.c) The Bon of .especiall$ if that fli ht was prompted b$ the jealous$ and mistreatment of Barah)? iii) 2hat t$pe of di&ine justice . that they may establish prayer1 So fill the hearts of some among men with love towards them.The #ur’an )1:0E) 2hen 'braham be an to lea&e (a ar and Ishmael alone in such barren wilderness* (a ar cried to him: >2here are $ou lea&in us?? The question was repeated three times but no answer was i&en b$ 'braham! (a ar then as%ed: “>id 'od ordain you to do thisC( 'braham said: “7es. This . m'hasis added. 99 /ne ma$ inquire at this point: i) 2h$ should there be onl$ one child as the heir of the di&ine promise? 2h$ not both sons in &iew of the e&idence discussed alread$? ii) 2hat t$pe of di&ine justice punishes an innocent child because of his mother’s fli ht before he was e&en born . 9t should be ackno.ever. 1516. ** *.ere made. m'hasis added. '478.( In complete faith and trust on 9od she responded “"hen.or e&en common sense) is that which punishes an innocent child because he and his mother were >expelled? to satisf$ Barah’s e o and bless her jealous$? 2as Barah dictatin her desires to 9od* too? 9hy 9ere I hmael and :agar Ta.

isdom and sanctify1 Aor you are the e-alted in )i!ht.rophet Muhammad! :i%ewise* the 2ell of Fam5am which miraculousl$ ushed forth from under bab$ Ishmael’s feet is still ushin with water until this time! (undreds of thousands of pil rims to Ma%%ah . *6 . *3 See Genesis *118.ho shall rehearse your si!ns to them and instruct them in scri'ture and .Mecca)! 7enturies later* out of the descendants of Ishmael came the last prophet of 9od* . *4 Genesis *1112 *5 Genesis *11*1 *2 Genesis *311.pil rima e) performed b$ innumerable pil rims e&er$ $ear! This rite is actuall$ performed partl$ in commemoration of (a ar’s search for water and it dates bac% to Ishmael* lon before the ad&ent of . 9t is interestin! to note that 9slam reBuires the )uslim to establish re!ular 'rayers at least five times a day.ith Genesis 1*1.alestine and dwelt in the wilderness . A more e-'licit 'rayer of Abraham is the follo.Mecca) some fi&e centuries after the mission of the last Israelite prophet @esus! It is interestin to note that until the present time* the hills of 'sABafa and 'lAMarwah are still easil$ identifiable! Indeed* hastenin between these two hills is part of the annual rites of hajj .in!1 "Our LordL Send amon! them an A'ostle of their o. ii) That (a ar ran out of water and was worried about the life of her son Ishmael. "O my LordL )ake me one .*1. for I will ma%e him a reat nation?! -6 Ishmael dwelt in the wilderness of >.aran?-E! (e be ot twel&e sons one of whom was named >Gedar?-4 Similarities Between the Two Versions (ow does this tradition compare with the Muslim &ersion? There appear to be at least three similarities between the two &ersions: i) That (a ar and Ishmael were ta%en awa$ from . ach of these 'rayers includes invocation of blessin!s u'on Abraham and his descendants.recentl$ about two million) drin% from it annuall$ and man$ others drin% from it $ear round! The Biblical Version25 Barah* 'braham’s first wife was jealous of (a ar and her son Ishmael! Bhe did not want Ishmael to inherit with her son Isaac as Ishmael was the son of the >bondwoman?! Bhe was particularl$ an r$ because of what she considered as moc%er$ on the part of Ishmael toward his $oun er brother Isaac while the$ were pla$in to ether! This incident too% place after Isaac was weaned! 'braham obe$ed his wife Barah whose demand of castin out the >bondwoman? and her son was blessed b$ 9od who told 'braham to >hear%en unto her &oice?! /ne mornin 'braham rose up* a&e pro&isions and water to his wife (a ar and put her child Ishmael upon her shoulder* and left them in the wilderness of Beer Bheba in southern .of .aran).ho establishes 'rayer and also %raise such& amon! my offs'rin!1 Our LordL and acce't my 'rayer.n. %Com'are . the =ise.# %The /ur0an *11*8&.&. iii) That* unexpectedl$* she had access to water which she a&e to her son to sa&e his life! This .alestine! 2hen (a ar ran out of water* she could not stand sittin there and watchin her child die! 'n an el appeared before her and showed her a sprin of water of which she went and brou ht drin% to the lad! The an el further told her >'rise* lift up the lad and hold him in thine hand.rophet Muhammad -1 who was born in Ma%%ah .Bedouins be an to settle around the well* raduall$ rowin into the most important cit$ in 'rabia* Ma%%ah .# %The /ur0an 16167&. .as the divine res'onse to Abraham0s 'rayer.

Differences Between the Two Versions 'ccordin to the Muslim &ersion: (a ar and Ishmael were ta%en awa$ because of a specific di&ine instruction i&en to 'braham as part of the di&ine plan! 2hen the time came* prophethood was to shift from the Israelites to the Ishmaelites* after the rejection of the last Israelite prophet* @esus* b$ the Israelites! (a ar and Ishmael were ta%en to the wilderness of 'rabia* specificall$ to Ma%%ah .Mecca) and not to Beet Bheba! This incident too% place before the birth of Isaac and not after* when Ishmael was a bab$* which is a further confirmation of the real reason for (a ar and Ishmael’s apparent exile as stated in the first difference! Analysis of Differences Is reconciliation of these differences possible? :et’s focus on the last difference* namel$ did this incident ta%e place before or after Isaac’s birth? If we were to accept the Biblical &ersion* we would encounter a number of inconsistencies and contradictions! It is abundantl$ clear from the stor$ in 9en! -):)1A)8 that Ishmael was a little bab$ at the time! "ollowin is the documentation of this statement: 'ccordin to 9en! )6:)6 'braham was 46 $ears old when Ishmael was born! 'nd accordin to 9en! -):3 'braham was one hundred $ears old when Isaac was born! It follows that Ishmael was alread$ fourteen $ears old when his $oun er brother Isaac was born! 'ccordin to 9en! -):)1A)8* the incident too% place after Isaac was weaned! Biblical scholars tell us that >the child was weaned about the a e of three?! It follows that when (a ar and Ishmael were ta%en awa$ Ishmael was a full rown teena er se&enteen $ears old! The profile of Ishmael in 9en! -):)1A)8* howe&er* is that of a small bab$ and not of a teena er! 2h$? "irst: 'ccordin to "he $nterpreter3s <ible. the ori inal (ebrew for 9en! -):)1 was >!!! and put the child upon her shoulder?! The same readin is rendered in the Devised Standard Bdition of the Bible! (ow would a mother carr$ a se&enteen $ear old teena er >upon her shoulder?? 7ertainl$ he was stron enou h to carr$ his motherH Ishmael must ha&e been a bab$H Becond: In 9en! -):)3 we are told that (a ar >cast? the child under one of the shrubs* ' ain* accordin to this Biblical text Ishmael must ha&e been a bab$ and not a teena er! Third: In 9en! -):)6 we are told that (a ar sat awa$ so that she ma$ not see the death of the child before her own e$es! Is that a profile of a hus%$ se&enteen $ear old teena er who probabl$ was capable of bein worried about his mother d$in before his e$es? /r is it ob&iousl$ a profile of a small helpless bab$ or at most a small child? "ourth: 'ccordin to 9en! -):)E* the an els told (a ar >arise* lift up the lad?! Is a se&enteen $ear old $oun man a proper object to be >lifted up? b$ a woman? /r is that a reference to a small child or a bab$? .

Ibid.7 interpreter’s Bible. m'hasis added. Ishmael was a bab$ and Isaac was not born $et when this incident too% place! This coherence and consistenc$ are confirmed b$ centuriesAold traditions and e&en actual locations in Ma%%ah .. It is notable that the descendant of Ishmael* .The #ur’an) could clear! The Islamic &ersion of the stor$ is full$ consistent and coherent from ' to F. p.* interpreter’s Bible.616. . "hrough it a man3s life was lin.1 Interpreter’s Bible. vol. .9en! )6:)A)6) and concludes >the inclusion in 9enesis of both stories so nearl$ ali%e and $et sufficiently different to be inconsistent. 1.Mecca) where (a ar and Ishmael settled! This clearl$ implies that the real reason behind their settlement in 'rabia . Ibid. pure and simple! It ma$ be rele&ant to indicate that this issue is not the onl$ instance of inconsistenc$ in respect to Ishmael’s stor$! "he $nterpreter3s <ible compares the stor$ of (a ar and Ishmael in 9en! -):)1A)8 with that in an earlier chapter . *11 "=here he is# is an allusion to the site of the . p."ifth: In 9en! -):)8* we are told that (a ar went to fill the bottle with water >and i&e the lad a drin%?! /ne would expect a stron $oun man of se&enteen to o and brin water to his mother instead!-8 The abo&e anal$sis leads to the ine&itable conclusion that while the Bible contains some truths as explained earlier* there is also e&idence of human additions* deletions* and interpolations which onl$ a subsequent authentic re&elation . Ibid. 9t is noted that the most sacred . from a Christian 'ers'ective is made in the commentary on Genesis Ch.&en without this blood relationship* which is undisputed* the more important relationship with 'braham is the relationship of faith in 9od’s words: An interestin! and relevant comment.# 9nter'reter0s ?ible. '. .rophet Muhammad* as well as his followers remain until toda$ faithful to this co&enant! 7ircumcision is required of e&er$ male Muslim! Isin "he $nterpreter3s <ible3s wordin * doesn’t that mean that this was 9od’s >si n and seal? that the $shmaelites were also part of 9od’s co&enant in &iew of their commitment to purif$ their belief from all forms of pol$theism and to restore the pure and true monotheism of their randfather 'braham? 're the$ not closer to the 'brahamic co&enant than those who sou ht excuses not to practice circumcision? Burel$ man$ nations on earth were blessed throu h 'braham! Those closest to 'braham* to the purit$ and uni&ersal scope of the monotheism he tau ht and to the >si n and seal? of his co&enant with 9od are presentl$ found amon the followers of Ishmael’s notable descendant Muhammad! ..ell. p..ed with a great fellowship whose dignity was its high consciousness that it must fulfill the purposes of 'od. is one of many instances of the reluctance of the compilers to sacrifice an$ of the traditions which has become established in Israel?0C! The #ymbol of God0 Co8enant with I hmael and hi De cendant 'ccordin to 9en! )E:)CA)1* circumcision was re arded as a s$mbol of the co&enant with 9od and a si n of purification from pol$theism! The si nificance of circumcision is further reiterated b$ 7hristian Biblical scholars who indicate that it is not merel$ an external act: “"his was )is own sign and seal that $srael was a chosen people. *8 .8.. Cit.61".s'ot amon! the 9smaelite is the . 4..ell mentioned in I.ell of MamGam in )akkah %)ecca&.(:/ This picture is completed b$ referrin to 9en! )E:-0A-E in which we are told that 'braham too% Ishmael and all those males born in his household and circumcised them! 7ommentin on this* "he $nterpreter3s <ible admits that the Ishmaelites and other descendants of 'braham were “somehow participating in the Abrahamic covenant(:9.18 a sacred s'ot amon! the 9shmaelites.6!4. o'.aran) was not the dictation* jealous$* e o or sense of racial superiorit$ on the part of Barah! It was rather 9od’s plan.

ould have sim'ly said "F of the stem of (avid F# (avid. and of the fear of the &ord. the spirit of counsel and might.6 Cotice +aul0s attem't in Acts 1. 9f that 'ro'hecy .rophet Muhammad! II Characteri tic of the Awaited "rophet < A "rophet 4i.<euteronom$ )4:)EA )4)01 Three important elements are included in this prophec$: ' prophet will come from amon the >brethren? of the Israelites.“Abraham was not a !ew or =hristian% but he was true in Faith. unto them all that $ shall command him. and a branch shall grow out of his roots.ould have been more lo!ical to relate @esus to (avid %'eace be u'on them& as did some of the authors of the !os'el callin! @esus the descendant of (avid.9en! -):)0* and )4)! 'n additional confirmation which lea&es no iota of doubt is found in the <oo.ere about @esus %'eace be u'on him& it . . the nearest of . . as are also this apostle (0uhammad+ and those who believe.e unto thee. the spirit of wisdom and understanding.The #ur’an 0:6EA64) 5urther 38idence About the 4ineage of the 4ong<awaited "rophet The fore oin discussion is more than enou h to demonstrate that the ad&ent of . and not his father.descendants of 'braham throu h his first son Ishmael)! 'ccordin to the )ebrew >ictionary of the <ible.“ . >Brethren? is the: Cheyenne.descendants of 'braham throu h his second son Isaac)* are the Ishmaelites .e =nto Mo e In the Boo% of <euteronom$* . .ho . And the Spirit of the &ord shall rest upon him. and will put my words in his mouth% and he shall spea. they have well spo.as a much more 'rominent fi!ure in the Old Testament.en that which they have spo.“ . of $saiah .rophet Muhammad* a descendant of Ishmael* was indeed the fulfillment of the promise made to 'braham and (a ar .7h! )):)A-): “And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of !esse.*.peace be upon him) was quoted as sa$in : “And the &ord said unto me.in to Abraham are those who follow him. among people.( The profile i&en in this chapter is of someone who will be a prophet* a statesmen and a jud e and is of the descendants of >@esse?! 2ho is >@esse?? 'nd who met these descriptions? Bome contend that >@esse? is a reference to <a&id’s father! 'ccordin <iblica. And 'od is the . li.rotector of those who have faith. . :: to Bncyclopedia The onl$ one who came from Ishmael’s >stem? who was a prophet* statesmen and jud e was .1**.. this prophet will be >li%e unto Moses?. #nc$clopaedia Biblica under "Cames#.as neither of the descendants of 9shmael %@esse& nor of the "brethren# of the 9sraelites bein! an 9sraelite himself.nowledge. and bowed his will to 'od3s (was a 0uslim+ and he -oined not gods with 'od. 9t . howe&er* we read: “!esse is contracted from $shmael. to inter'ret this 'ro'hecy as a reference to @esus . the spirit of .en.rophet from among their brethren. Without doubt. 9od will put his words in the mouth of this prophet! :et us loo% closel$ at each of these elements: A "rophet 5rom Among the Brethren of the I raelite 2hen these words were spo%en* the$ were addressed to the Israelites! The most notable >brethren? of Israelites .rophet Moses . $ will raise them up a .

ncounter with enemies (ot pursuit (ot pursuitJBattles +o Bimilar .rophet "orced .b$ most Israelites) .“. crucifixion accordin to 7hristian beliefs and bein raised up to hea&ens without crucifixion accordin to Muslim beliefs* Both Moses and Muhammad were not onl$ prophets and spiritual teachers in the usual sense* but the$ were also >heads of states? whose mission included the establishment of a .rophetJBtatesman .insmen of the $sraelites.rophet @esus does not fit this particular prophec$! "ollowin are the The birth of @esus was unusual! 'ccordin to 7hristian and Muslim beliefs* he was miraculousl$ born of the &ir in Mar$! Both Moses and Muhammad were born in the usual manner! Both Moses and Muhammad were married and be ot children! There is no similar record of marria e and offsprin in the case of @esus! Both Moses and Muhammad died of natural causes and were buried! The end of the mission of @esus on earth was unusual.mi ration .Torah) . “ The Bible refers to the Israelites as the brethren of the Ishmaelites .rophet Muhammad! "ollowin is a comparison between a few crucial characteristics of Moses* Muhammad and @esus which ma$ clarif$ the identit$ of >that prophet? who was to come after Moses: Area of Compari on Mo e Muhammad Je u Birth Isual Isual Isual "amil$ :ife Married* 7hildren Married* 7hildren +o Marria e* or children <eath Isual Isual Inusual 7areer .ersonification of a group of tribes who were regarded as near .in adulthood) To Median To Medinah +one .rophetJBtatesman .e =nto Mo e It is sometimes contended that the prophet li%e unto Moses was @esus! 'fter all both were Israelites and spiritual teachers! 2as this prophec$ reall$ about @esus? To start off* @esus himself was an Israelite* not of the >brethren? of the Israelites! This fact alone suffices to show that this particular prophec$ is not about the comin of @esus but about another prophet >li%e unto Moses?! That prophet could ha&e been none but .e! ! 9en! )6:)-* and 9en! -3:)4)! A "rophet 4i.b$ his people) This table is selfAe&ident! It shows that not onl$ were Moses and Muhammad &er$ much ali%e in man$ respects* but it shows also that .'lA#ur’an) +ature of Teachin s BpiritualJ :e al BpiritualJ:e al Mainl$ Bpiritual 'cceptance of leadership Dejected Dejected then accepted Dejected .ncounter Desults of encounter Moral ph$! &ictor$ Moral ph$sical &ictor$ Moral &ictor$ 2ritin dawn of De&elation In his life time In his lifetime 'fter him .

rophet @esus! Moses left . $pt followin %nowled e of a plot to %ill him and went to Median where he was welcomed and assured b$ @ethro! Muhammad left Ma%%ah .>state? founded on the teachin s of their faith +o such opportunit$ presented itself to .Mecca) followin %nowled e of a plot to %ill him and went to Kathrib which was later called 'lAMadinah . 3115.Mecca)* the center of plottin a ainst him! Impressed with his truthfulness and ma nanimit$* the reat majorit$ of his former enemies chose to become Muslims and were amon his ardent supporters! @esus’ &ictor$ a ainst his enemies was onl$ a moral &ictor$ which did not in&ol&e an immediate militar$ &ictor$ o&er them at the same time.the Israelites)! 2ho was then the >.such as the worship of the olden calf)! 'fter initial resistance* Muhammad was enthusiasticall$ accepted as a prophet and a leader in his lifetime! Intil the end* howe&er* and with the exceptions of a few followers* @esus was rejected b$ his people .the pa an 'rabs) who sou ht to destro$ him and his followers in se&eral battles! +o such encounter was reported in the case of @esus! Indeed he was reported to ha&e commanded Bimon .haraoh’s arm$) who sou ht to destro$ him and his followers in >hot pursuit?! Muhammad encountered his enemies .rophet li%e unto Moses?? God 9ill "ut :i 9ord in the Mouth of that "rophet 9enerall$ spea%in * this description ma$ appl$ to an$ messen er of 9od who is communicatin 9od’s messa e to man%ind! 2hile that messa e ma$ come in >written tablets? as is belie&ed to ha&e been the case with Moses* the specific wordin of the abo&e &erse is a &i&id description of the t$pe of re&elation recei&ed b$ Muhammad! 'n el 9abriel used to come and dictate to him specific portions of the #ur’an which were then repeated b$ .3 )atthe.The #ur’an) were >put into his mouth?! 's the #ur’an itself described: .Medina)! +o similar incident was reported about @esus in his adulthood and after he be an his mission as a prophet! Moses encountered his enemies .eter to put his sword into the sheath when he attempted to defend @esus at the time of his arrest! Moses’ encounter with his enemies ended with a militar$ and moral &ictor$! (is enemies drowned and Moses and his followers were sa&ed! Muhammad’s encounters with his enemies ended with his final militar$ and moral &ictor$ o&er them! (e and his followers reentered Ma%%ah . . The teachin s re&ealed to Moses were a&ailable in a written form in his lifetime! The #ur’an re&ealed to Muhammad was full$ written down in his lifetime and under his super&ision! The teachin s of @esus were not committed to writin in his lifetime! .rophet Muhammad exactl$ as he had heard them! Muhammad’s own thin%in or authorship were not in&ol&ed in an$ wa$ in what he uttered! The words of 9od .&en the earliest 9ospel was written down man$ $ears after him! Inli%e an$ other prophets from the linea e of 'braham* the re&elation i&en to Moses and Muhammad contained comprehensi&e codes of law* in addition to the spiritual and moral elements of their teachin s! The teachin s of @esus were almost entirel$ spiritual! Indeed @esus ne&er claimed to brin a new law* nor e&en to abro ate the existin /ld Testament :aw!03 (e simpl$ added a spiritual and human touch to the concept of law* which b$ his time had been reduced to the le&el of lifeless and at times h$pocritical formalism! >Thin% not that I am come to destro$ the law* or the prophets: I am not come to destro$* but to fulfill?* @esus was quoted as sa$in ! 'fter initial resistance and s%epticism b$ his people* Moses was accepted b$ his people as a prophet and a leader in his lifetime* notwithstandin certain lapses .the .

and $our :ord said !!!)! Btill in other passa es it reads wa $as’aloona%a !!! qul .rophet Muhammad pro&ed to be inaccurate in the least de ree! . but the prophet hath spo.“)e (0uhammad+ does not spea.( . in 0y name.ersia* that the Muslims came out &ictorious* that Buraqah had access to the .&er$ prophec$ he made about the near future at his time did come to pass! .mperor’s crown and actuall$ wore it* can hardl$ be re arded as a coincidence or a selfAfulfillin prophec$! Burel$ the chances are nil that numerous such .In the name of 'llah ..en unto 0y words which he shall spea. how shall we .rophet Muhammad reads: “Dead in the name of your &ord who created .ersian ..rophet Muhammad* there is no other communit$ of belie&ers who starts almost e&er$ action in their dail$ li&es with this formula “$n the Eame of Allah.mperor’s crown and place it o&er his headH +ot onl$ did this prophec$ appear to be a &irtual impossibilit$ when it was made* but its fulfillment was so perfect and complete as if the . “ ("he 2ur3an 5:1:-.C Muhammad) !!! sa$ !!!)! The abo&e anal$sis fits not onl$ <euteronom$ )4:)4* but is also consistent with the subsequent &erses! "or example <euteronom$ )4:)8 reads: “And it shall come to pass. “ It is interestin to note that ))0 out of the ))1 Burahs .chapters) of the #ur’an starts with <ismillahir-rahmanir-raheem . “ ("he 2ur3an A81/+ "ollowin the teachin s of .a man who was about to %ill . It should be noted here that the 'rabic term >'llah? is not onl$ the 'rabic equi&alent of >9od?* but it is also the personal name of 9od! To sa$ >In the +ame of 'llah? is a far clearer fulfillment of the prophec$ >!!! he shall spea% in M$ name? . if the thing follow not nor come to pass. it is no less than a revelation sent down to him.now the word which the &ord hath not spo.rophet Muhammad durin the later’s journe$ to Madinah .inform)! /ther passa es in the #ur’an start with such expressions as wa qala Dabbu%um . $ will re uire it of him.remind)* +abbi’ .en.and the$ as% $ou .en it presumptuously% thou shall not be afraid of him.xamples of these a) The prophec$ that Muslims were to conquer the two >superApowers? of their time. 0ost 0erciful(.enC When a prophet spea. the . that is the thing which the &ord hath not spo.sa$)* Tha%%ir .<euteronom$ )4:)8)* than other common expressions such as >In the name of 9od? or >In the name of the "ather?! ' fair question at this point is this: Bince &irtuall$ an$one can presume to spea% >in the name of 9od?* what criterion should be used to distin uish between a enuine prophet and messen er of 9od and other false prophets who ma$ also presume to spea% in the name of 9od? The answer to this question was clearl$ i&en in the concludin &erses of 7hapter )4 of the Boo% of <euteronom$: “And if thou say in thine heart. that whosoever will not hear.rophet was loo%in e$eAtoAe$e at the scene which too% place $ears after his death! The fact that Buraqah did become a Muslim* li&ed lon enou h to participate in the conquest of . of his own desire.<euteronom$ )4:-)A--) It is a fact that not a sin le prophec$ made b$ .mpire and would actuall$ ha&e access to the .9od)* Most 9racious* Most Merciful)! The &er$ first passa e of the #ur’an re&ealed to .+ +umerous passa es in the #ur’an command Muhammad in such terms as #ul .eth in the name of the &ord. 0ost 'racious.Medina) after the pa ans plotted to %ill him) would become a Muslim* participate in the Muslim arm$ conquerin the .ersian and B$5antine empires! This prophec$ was made when Muslims were so few and wea% that to prophec$ their mere ph$sical sur&i&al would ha&e sounded too hopefulH b) ' prophec$ that Buraqah .

ersian and B$5antine .M! 1): >C 'llahH "or i&e m$ people for the$ do not %now what the$’re doin ? was his utterance! 2hen 'n el 9abriel offered him the chance to retaliate b$ destro$in their cit$* he refused in the hope that out of the descendants of these wic%ed people would come those who would worship 9od* and come the$ didH 'fter this bitter stru le* Muhammad >pre&ailed a ainst his enemies?* established a stron communit$ of belie&ers who indeed >brou ht jud ment to the 9entiles?* especiall$ in the . his uncle 'buATalib* who was instrumental in protectin him from the fur$ of the pa an 'rabs also died! These two tra edies were combined with the fact that his followers constituted onl$ a small persecuted and tortured roup! Inder such tr$in circumstances* Muhammad went to the cit$ of atATaif to in&ite people to Islam and see% their support in his stru le a ainst pa anism! (e was rejected* moc%ed at and stoned to the point of bleedin ! In spite of all this he was ne&er >discoura ed? to use Isaiah’s term .rophet Muhammad* happened b$ accidentH +or can such )CCL accurac$ e&er$ time and at all times emanate from an$ other than a true and enuine prophet usin the criterion stipulated in <euteronom$ )4:-)A--! III 6ther Characteri tic of !That "rophet% 'n equall$ interestin and most re&ealin profile of .M! ))! In comparin the li&es and missions of @esus and Muhammad* it becomes readil$ clear that in the case of @esus he expressed on more than one occasion how disappointed he was in the Israelites’ rejection of him! +or did @esus li&e lon enou h on .rophet Muhammad’s discoura ement e&en in the most critical moments of his mission! In one $ear his belo&ed and supportin wife Ghadijah died followin -3 $ears of successful marria e.iqamah)* nine times a da$ durin the minimum mandator$ pra$ers* se&eral more times if the Muslim performs additional recommended pra$ers .the messen er of 9od)! The #ur’an i&es him this title! <urin his lifetime he was addressed as such b$ his followers! The &oluminous collections of hadith .mpires! Man$ such 9entiles were uided to Islam while others suffered defeats! 's such he was trul$ >a li ht of the 9entiles? of the whole world! .rophet Muhammad since his mission until toda$ is Dasoolullah .prophecies* all in the minutest detail described b$ .M! )0) and shall brin jud ment to the 9entiles .rophet Muhammad is found in the 1.nd chapter of the Boo% of Isaiah! :et us examine some of these characteristics: The /ne in 2hom 9od’s soul deli hts is called the ser&ant of 9od .s )! The most common title of .be$ond the moral &ictor$ which is a common &ictor$ for all prophets)! /n the other hand* we find no trace of .rophet Muhammad’s sa$in s) are narrated t$picall$ in these forms: >I heard the Messen er of 'llah sa$ !!!?* >The Messen er of 'llah said or replied !!!?! (e shall not fail nor be discoura ed till he has set jud ment in the earth .M! )8)! Translated into 'rabic these titles read >'bduhu warusooluhulAMustapha?! Burel$ all prophets were indeed ser&ants* messen ers and elects of 9od! Ket no prophet in histor$ is as uni&ersall$ called b$ these specific titles as is Muhammad! The testimon$ of faith b$ which the person enters into the fold of Islam reads: >I bear witness that there is no deit$ but 'llah and I bear witness that Muhammad is (is ser&ant and messen er!? Mirtuall$ the same formula is repeated fi&e times a da$ durin the call to pra$ers* fi&e times a da$ immediatel$ before the be innin of pra$ers .M! )) and (is Messen er .M! 1)* he shall pre&ail a ainst his enemies .arth to pre&ail o&er his enemies ..M! ))* (is elect .

which we revealed unto you. “ ("he 2ur3an :/1/A+ “Allah loveth not the utterance of harsh speech save by one who has been wronged.rophet Muhammad! The law re&ealed to him spread to all corners of the earth* e&en in man$ remote isles and to the farthest deserts! (e will be sent >to open the blind e$es* to brin out the prisoners from the prison* and them that sit in dar%ness out of the prison house? .( ("he 2ur3an .Isaiah’s time) with a complete and comprehensi&e code of law was .(e shall not cr$* nor lift up* nor cause his &oice to be heard in the street .rophet Muhammad* but it uni uely applied to him as the last messen er and prophet of 9od! Trul$ 9od’s lor$ .rophet Muhammad: “A boo.1/.M! -)! +ot onl$ was this a distinct characteristic and mar% of decenc$ of Muhammad’s* it was indeed the embodiment of the re&elation i&en to him! In the words of the #ur’an: “<e modest in thy bearing and subdue thy voice. worthy of all praise.includin the Israelites) in >another ton ue? Isaiah -4:)))! This explanation seems to fit closel$ with the second half of the same &erse Isaiah 1-:)6) which spea%s of the praise of 9od >from the ends of the earth?! /nl$ in the case of Islam do we find this prophec$ reali5ed in ama5in accurac$! In all ends of the earth* fi&e times e&er$ da$ the praise of 9od and of (is last messen er* Muhammad* is chanted from the minarets of hundreds of thousands* perhaps millions* of mosques around the world! 'dditionall$* frequent praise of 9od and Muhammad b$ millions of de&out Muslims is made on dail$ basis! It is e&en a part of the required fi&e dail$ pra$ers to include the praise of 'braham and his descendants and of Muhammad and his descendants! This is %nown as >'sABalatulA Ibrahimi$$ah?! . in order that you may lead man.The #ur’an )1: l! .re&elation of scriptures) was not i&en and will not be i&en to another prophet after Muhammad* as he is the >seal? of all prophets! It is alread$ about )1CC $ears since Muhammad was sent and the #ur’an was re&ealed to him! Ket we hear of no genuine prophet of the ma nitude and influence on humanit$ to be compared with such fi ures as 'braham* Moses* @esus and Muhammad! +or do we hear about another postA#ur’anic .@+ “"he $sles shall wait for his law.M! )C)! ' new son ma$ be a reference to a new scripture in a lan ua e other that the lan ua e of the Israelite scriptures! This interpretation seems consistent with a more explicit mention of someone who will be spea%in to people .M! E)! Man$ of those who were opposed to the truth and bitterl$ fou ht Muhammad ended up amon the most de&out belie&ers! Their blindness to truth was cured! Those who li&ed in the dar%ness of an unhol$ life came to the li ht of truth completed throu h the mission of Muhammad! +o wonder the #ur’an describes itself as >+ooramAmubeena? or li ht manifest! <escribin the #ur’an* 9od addresses . &o6 the harshest of all voices is the voice of the ass.ness unto light by the leave of their &ord to the way of )im. the e?alted in power.mphasis added) 9od’s lor$ will not be i&en to another .M! 4)! The reatest lor$ a person recei&es from 9od is to be entrusted as (is messen er to man%ind and recei&e (is lorious re&elation! +ot onl$ did this appl$ to .ind out of the depths of dar. “ The onl$ prophet who came* after this prophec$ was made . lor$) or hol$ boo% that has influenced man%ind to such a de ree! Bin unto the :ord a new son * and his praise from the end of the earth !!!.“ .

as described in Isaiah -):)E) ultimatel$ embraced Islam and were embraced b$ it! Indeed the$ had reason to >lift up their &oice?* to >sin ? praise of 9od* and >shout from the top of the mountains?! is that possibl$ a reference to the shoutin of: “)ere $ come (for your service+ # Allah.pil rima e)! The 1-nd chapter of Isaiah is indeed a fascinatin one! It is not a casual or ambi uous reference to that ser&ant and messen er of 9od who was to come centuries later! It is rather a comprehensi&e profile which not onl$ fits .nd chapter of Isaiah lea&es absolutel$ no doubt about the identit$ of >that prophet?: “&et the wilderness of and the cities thereof lip up their voice. Were is no partner besides you(.raise. the villages that Fe3dar does inhabit1 let the inhabitants of the roc.who were of his own clanH)* who were misled b$ their leaders or mi ht$ men . This >shoutin ? is chanted annuall$ b$ multitudes of Muslims from all o&er the world from Mount ='rafat as part of the annual rites of hajj . )ere $ come. Were is nor a partner with 7ou.peace be upon him)! . let them shout from the top of the mountains. “ Isaiah 1-:))) 'ccordin to the Boo% of 9enesis* Ge’dar was the second son of Ishmael .9en! -3:)0)! The best %nown prophet who came from Ishmael’s descendants is Muhammad! (is enemies . Gerily yours is the . )ere $ come. )ere $ come. sing.who settled in Ma%%ah and its en&irons)! Merse )) to the 1. the blessings and sovereignty.rophet Muhammad but fits no one else! 'fter all* the chapter relates this profile to Ge’dar son of Ishmael and no other descendants of Ishmael fits these descriptions but Muhammad .This person to come is connected with the 'rabs* and specificall$ with the descendants of Ishmael .