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TEST PAPER - Microbiology, Disease, Organisms & Antibiotics Marks – 80 Time – !

mins" #"$" Tick t%e rig%t ans&er 'Eac% carry one mark( 1. Microbiology is – a) Study of plants b) Study of animals c( St)*y o+ microorganism d) All of the above. 2. Shape of a cocci will be – a( Ro)n* b) Rod shaped c) Spiral d) oma !. ross infection in hospitals is called as – a) Secondary "nfection b) #atent "nfection c) ommunity Ac$uired "nfection *( ,osocomial -n+ection

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%. hemical substances produced by one species of organism that are capable of suppressing the growth or destroying the other organism are called as – a( b) c) d) Antibiotics Antibacterial Antigens &one of the above

a) Staphylococcus aureus b) Streptococcus pneumonae c( /egionella 0ne)mo0%illa d) -seudomonas . • 7issue concentration or A) also called as 8 6ill Ratio 7 M" 8acterici*al Po&er b) Time De0en*ent 6illing means ..'.ity test" b) (iochemical test c) )rease test d) Staining test *. . A facultative anaerobic organism is an organism3 usually a bacterium – a) b) c) *( -seudomonas aeruginosa 45ram/negative) &ocardia 45ram/positive) Mycobacterium tuberculosis 4acid/fast) Sta0%yloccoc)s. of the time between two dosing internal. a) 5oncentration De0en*ent 6illing means . +hich of the following is atypical bacterium. A laboratory method of determining the susceptibility of antibiotics is called the – a( Sensiti. Aminoglycoside antibiotics such as gentamicin / a) Acts on the cell membrane to cause cell lea0age b( Acts on t%e 10S ribosomes to in%ibit 0rotein synt%esis c) Acts on the bacterial cell wall to inhibit cell wall synthesis d) Acts on 1&A gyrase to inhibit cell replication 2. Esc%eric%ia coli. an* /isteria s0ecies #"2 3ill in t%e blanks 4 ' Eac% blank carry $ mark ( 1. • 79 M" or M( 8 time above the M" or M( should remain longer than %:/ ': .

=iehl – &eelsen stain is used for Acid fast bacteria. 5ram negative bacteria3 however3 ta0e on a 0ink color and are easily distinguishable from the 5ram positives. !. Se0ticaemia is considered a subset of sepsis3 is a serious acute condition. even in absence of host defence mechanisms. 2. 8eta-lactamase is a type of en@yme produced by some bacteria that is . 2.at)ral b) Synthetic c) Semi-Synt%etic *. Sepsis is a serious medical condition characterised by a whole/body inflammatory state caused by infection. 7. ommon worldwide3 it is transmitted by ingestion of food or water contaminated with feces from an infected person ?. 8acterial resistance means . 5ram positive cells will incorporate little or no counterstain and will remain bl)e-.iolet in appearance. rapidly progressive. A state of insensitivity or decreased sensitivity to drugs that ordinarily cause growth inhibition or cell death. life-threatening infection.• Post Antibiotic <ffect 8 -ersistant suppression of bacterial growth at least for 1 or 2 hrs. • -ntrinsic resistance • Ac9)ire* resistance '. %. 7ypes of Antibiotics . 7here are of two types resistance. 7yphoid fever3 also 0nown as enteric fever3 is an illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella ty0%i. a) . 7he e>ample is Mycobacteri)m t)berc)losis3 the causative agent of tuberculosis and Mycobacteri)m le0rae3 the causative agent of leprosy.

"t broadens the spectrum of penicillins or cephalosporins by ma0ing it effective against organisms that e>press beta/ lactamase and would normally degrade the antibiotic. Ta. Amo>icillin is a moderate/spectrum antibiotic active against a wide range of 5ram/ positive3 and a limited range of :ram-negati. aureus is a :ram-0ositi. 7he most common type of )7" is a bladder infection which is also often called cystitis. 11.obactam is a compound which inhibits the action of bacterial beta/lactamases.e organisms 1'. 1:. Staph. (acteria can e>change genetic information by Trans*)ction3 Trans+ormation and 5on<)gation.e coccus3 which appears as grape/ li0e clusters when viewed through a microscope and has large3 round3 golden/ yellow colonies3 often with B/hemolysis3 when grown on blood agar plates 1%. . Another 0ind of )7" is a 0idney infection3 0nown as 0yelone0%ritis3 and is much more serious. Aminoglycosi*es are useful primarily in infections involving aerobic3 negative bacteriaAs3 such as -seudomonas3 Acinetobacter3 and <nterobacter. 7he mechanism of action of the macrolides is by inhibition of bacterial Protein synthesis by binding reversibly to the subunit ':S of the bacterial ribosome 12.responsible for their resistance to beta/lactam antibiotics li0e penicillins3 cephalosporins3 cephamycins and carbapenems. "n addition3 some Mycobacteria3 including the bacteria that cause tuberculosis3 are susceptible 1!. 1*.

7his type of resistance is called 5ross Resistance" 1?.1. (road spectrum antibiotics with higher stability against antibiotic hydroly@ing en@yme are suitable for empiric antibiotics.. Dne antimicrobial may be resistant to one particular pathogen E in turn it transfers the resistance to another microorganism which though3 have not been e>posed to that organism gets resistance. E=ten*e* s0ectr)m beta-lactamases 'ES8/s( represents a maCor group of beta/lactamases that have the ability to inactivate beta/lactam antibiotics containing an o>yimino group such as third generation cephalosporins and monobactams. b) ommon organisms that cause )7"s include. 21. 5ive three maCor implications of (acterial Resistance • • • • • • Antibiotic +ail)re Re0eate* in+ections" -ncreasing concentration o+ *r)g" /onger *)ration o+ t%era0y" -ncrease* morbi*ity" -ncrease* mortality" #"!" State &%et%er t%e statement is Tr)e or 3alse 4 a) -rimary infection is the initial infection caused by an organism 4 Tr)e ). <scherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Antibiotics prescribed without doing culture sensitivity is called em0iric therapy. 12. 2:. .4 Tr)e ) c) #atent infection is the hidden infection 4 Tr)e ).

4Tr)e ) #>" Matc% t%e stages o+ -n+ectio)s Disease 4 '! marks( A 1. f) Secondary infection. "ntroduction of microorganisms into the tissues. pneumoniae 4 3alse ). g) B lactams antibiotic inhibits the cell wall synthesis of the bacteria 4 Tr)e ).d) "atrogenic infection is patient induced infection due to therapeutic3 diagnostic3 or investigative procedures 4 3alse ). e) Sub/clinical infection means whose clinical signs and symptoms are clearly visible 4 3alse ). 4Tr)e). h) Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system 4 Tr)e ) i) "n adults3 recently developed Aminoglycosides such as levoflo>acin and mo>iflo>acin are often used to provide empiric coverage for patients with pneumonia due to S. means a host whose resistance is lowered by a pre/e>isting disease3 a new parasite sets up an infection 4usually complicates the disease). . "ncubation 8 a. C) hronic obstructive pulmonary disease 4 D-1)3 is a group of diseases characteri@ed by limitation of airflow in the airway that is not fully reversible.

-rodrome tissues3 and the host recovers. -eriod in which bacteria multiply without causing signs or symptoms of disease. (4. Resolution and identifiable.b ) #"?" Matc% t%e Organisms 4 '> marks( a) b) c) d) e) f) A Staphylococcus. '. <scherichia.a). "nfection '. c. !.2. #"8" Matc% t%e -n+ection &it% t%eir *escri0tion . %. -hase in which non/specific signs and symptoms of disease begin to appear.e). Answers : (1. (5. (2. *. -eriod in which hostFs defense mechanisms overcome and eliminate bacteria from the !. lostridium spp.d ). coli &eisseria meningitidis Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mycoplasma pneumonae 1. d. -eriod in which characteristic signs and symptoms of the disease begin to be specific %. 2.c ). 8 5ram -ositive cocci 5ram &egative cocci Acid Gast (acteria 5ram -ositive bacilli Atypical organism 5ram &egative bacilli Ans&ers 4 4a / $ )3 4b / )3 4c / >) 3 4d / 2 )3 4e / 1 ) 3 4f / !). spp. (3. linical "llness b. e.

. . is inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system 12. -otentially life/threatening nosocomial infection with fever3 bacteremia due to intravascular device. !. 1iffuse3 spreading3 acute inflammation of solid tissues characteri@ed by hyperemia. 1evelops due to ". also 0nown as enteric fever3 is an illness common worldwide3 transmitted by ingestion of food or water contaminated with feces from infected person c) Gebrile &eutropenia d) Sepsis e) <ndocarditis f) Septic arthritis g) Dsteomyelitis h) ellulitis i) "mpetigo C) )7" 0) 7yphoid fever l) Meningitis Ans&ers 4 4a / > )3 4b / $0 )3 4c / $) 3 4d / 8 )3 4e / 2 ) 34f / 1 )34g / @)3 4h / ? )3 4" / )34C / !)340 / $2)34l / $$).I. . 2. 9 !2 D with Absolute &eutrophil ount of 9':: Hcmm 2. 7emp. ?. Main etiologic agent is <scherichia coli in ?:.A a) -neumonia b) Acute &ecroti@ing -ancreatitis 8 1. cases *. Superficial vesiculopustular lesion '. omple> disorder of the e>ocrine pancreas with unclear pathogenic mechanisms3 acute cell inCury3 and systemic inflammatory responses3 11. Acute or chronic inflammatory process of bone and its structures secondary to infection with pyogenic organisms 1:. drug users in patients prosthetic heart valves3 patient presents with sudden heart murmurs3 septic emboli. "nfectious disease of Coints %. Acute infection of the lung -arenchyma 4tissue)3including alveolar spaces and interstitial tissue.

1&A 5yrase E 7opoisomerase "I c. inhibits cell wall synthesis f.a (. '% . 5lycopeptides E (eta/ lactams 2. '. inhibits ':S ribosomes to inhibit protein synthesis b.e (.b (.c (.+( JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ . olistin E -olymycin o/trimo>a@ole ( a. Gluro$uinolones %. '2. affects cell membrane permeability d. '! .#"@ Matc% t%e +ollo&ing Antibiotics &it% t%eir Mo*e o+ Action A 1. inhibits the initiation comple> formation in protein synthesis *. Macrolides !. inhibits bacterial folic acid synthesis e. '' .* (" '> .D>a@olidinones Ans&ers 4 '1.