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SWEDISH GRAMMAR

EDW.
J.

VICKNER

A

BRIEF

SWEDISH GRAMMAR
BY

EDW.

J.

VICKNER, M.

A.,

PH. D.

PROFESSOR OP SCANDINAVIAN LANGUAGES,
UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON

REVISED EDITION

ROCK ISLAND,
1914

ILL.

AUGUSTAN A BOOK CONCERN

COPYKIGHT, 1912, BY AUGUSTANA BOOK CONCERN.

COPYRIGHT, 1914,

BY

AUGUSTANA BOOK CONCERN.

ROCK ISLAND,

ILL.

AUOU6TAN4 BOOK CONCERN, PRINTERS AND BINDERS.

It lays no claim to be a compendium of all forms and usages of either the spoken or written language. and be hoped that less form irksome to the of exercise will prove student than the more interesting and form that consists of de- tached sentences. to make the vocabularies unusually voluminous. able attention to idiomatic expressions. moreover. The cause and aim of this book is to present in a clear and concise way the commonplace facts and principles of the Swedish language.PREFACE. facilitates a m-ethod which the author . The fact that each lesson thus contains words which are associated with one another in common an acquisition of conuse will undoubtedly encourage This form of nected phrases rather than mere words. exercise. The introduction of Swedish into numerous high schools and universities in this country has created a demand for a book which speaking students not only assist the exclusively Englishto attain a fair reading and speaking knowledge of modern Swedish but which may also meet the demand of American born students of Swedish descent may more complete knowledge of the lanThe consideration that the majority of the students who will use his book are already more or less conversant with Swedish has led the author to make the lessons longer and the exercises rather more advanced than is the case in most beginners' books. and to devote considerdesire to gain a who guage of their fathers. The this exercises have been to made continuous wherever it is to it was found practicable do so.

a correct Swedish pronunciation and especially a mastery of the musical . and the Swedish portion of the exercise thoroughly practiced. brevity. which is one of the peculiarities of Swedish. transla- tion of the English portion. Moreover. treatment of pronunciation and accent. During the first hour the gram- matical part should be thoroughly discussed. the author would. The value of the conversational method cannot be overestimated. the second hour should be devoted to a rapid review.IV from his experience in the class room has found of great value for the attainment of a correct pronunciation and fluency. may The perliaps evoke criticism by reason of its limitations of space in an elementary book forbid The booJc is chiefly entering into minute details. In the method employed the teacher will naturally be guided by his own judgment and the character of his class. and to conversation. which in all languages and especially in Swedish constitute one of the chief difficulties which confront the learner. suggest that two hours be devoted to each lesson. The* conversational exercises are not intended to be exliaustive but suggestive for further drill. intended for class use and much is therefore left to the instructor to supplement. however. lends itself to conversaThe vocabulary has been carefully selected from the language of everyday life and the phrases of the Swedish exercises are of a colloquial and idiomatic charfeels confident that his grammar tional practice. The author's especially the musical. that of requiring the student to reproduce the The author contents of the exercises in his own words. the teacher supplementing the examples given as illustrations. acter. Unusually ample space has been accorded the treatment of the prepositions.

VlCKNER. University of Minnesota. for much valuable advice and encouragement. A. Augustana College. Rock Island. Stomberg. for his extremely valuable services in revising the manuscript. or intonation. and to Professor Jules Mauritzson.accent. . E. In conclusion the author acknowledge his indebtedness to Professor A. can be acquired only by constant desires to imitation and practice. J.

.

Definite Articles: III. tive. Verb: Third Conjugation Pronouns: Personal The Verb: Future and Future Perfect IndicaPronouns: Reflexive. Accentuation Capitalization 1 The Vowels. XII.. THE PARTS OP SPEECH. 25 29 Third Declension V. The XI. XIII. The Consonants. Second Conjugation Inflection of Nouns: Fourth Declension jectives: Ad43 Indefinite Declension Nouns: Fifth Declension Adjectives: Definite Declension Use of Prepositive Definite Article 49 55 62 IX.. Genders Articles Verbs 15 20 II.CONTENTS. Unreal Conditions Possessive Pronouns and Adjectives Position of 67 73 79 86 Adverbs . Imperative The Verb: Fourth Conjugation The Verb: Subjunctive The Verb: .. XIV. Nouns: Irregularities in Declension Declension of Proper Names Genitive Case X. ORTHOGRAPHY AND PRONUNCIATION.Irregularities. PART I. VIII. XV. PAGE The Alphabet Pronunciation: Quantity... Prepositive. 1 12 13 Punctuation Syllabication 14 PART II. VII. LESSON I. The Verb: First Conjugation 33 38 VI. Postpositive. Inflection of Nouns: First and Second Declen- sion IV. 92 .

Expressions of date and Cardinals time Uses Prepositions: Uses Prepositions: Uses Prepositions: Uses Adverbs: Uses Prepositions: 193 201 208 214 220 226 233 239 XXXIV. Reflexive Verbs 137 144 Modal Auxiliaries Modal Auxiliaries 150 Indefinite 157 163 In- Indefinite Tenses of Indicative. XXXVI. XXXIII. The The The The XXV. XXVIII. XXII. measure. XXXVIII. 246 Appendix: Use of the Articles Rules of Gender Notes on Inflection of Nouns Irregularities in Conversational Pronunciation Irregularities in Conversational Gram- mar Strong and Irregular Verbs: Principal Parts 248 253 254 258 280 301 305 Vocabulary : Swedish-English English-Swedish of Subjects Condensed Index Swedish National Songs . XXVII. XVIII. Expres186 sions of time. PAGE 98 The Verb: Passive Voice The Verb: Passive with Auxiliaries: Deponents 105 XIX. Uses of 168 XXIX. XXVI. Verb: Verb: Verb: Verb: Pronouns: Pronouns: The Verb: finitive 123 Pronouns and Adjectives 131 Present and Past Participle Impersonal Verbs. Comparison Adjectives: Comparison Adjectives: 176 Adverbs: Compari181 son XXX. XXIII. XXI. XXXI. Numerals: and Ordinals. XXXVII. XXXII. XVII. Conjunctions: Coordinating Conjunctions: Subordinating Interjections XXXIX.VIII LESSON XVI. Pronouns: Demonstrative The Verb: Verb Compounds Interrogative Pronouns and Adjectives tive Ill 117 XX. and price Numeral Formations. Rela- XXIV. XXXV.

1.BRIEF SWEDISH PART I. GRAMMAR ORTHOGRAPHY AND PRONUNCIATION. The Swedish alphabet NAMES is as follows: CHARACTERS CHARACTERS A E F a ah B b Cc D d e f H I Gg h i J K L 1SI j k 1 Mm n o . The Alphabet.

. . to followed breathe. man . error grdl. honor. to fall. supplemented by such help as may be rendered by the teacher. hence comparisons between Swedish and English are only approximate. to travel hdla. notably in the case of and n: dom. is not doubled kom. virtue. The study of the Gram mar proper should begin as soon as possible. NOTE. Sometimes the long consonant sound in an accented syllable is indicated by a single consonant. come man. The short consonant sound is generally indicated by a single consonant. eld. sirup. cave fel. quarrel dra. m . tall'rik. It must be borne in mind that the sounds of any two languages hardly ever correspond exactly. fire. The quantity of Swedish sounds is either long or short. mor'gon. : : . morning. the long by two or more consonants. QUANTITY. plate. 3. van. to kindle. chapter shall be studied in advance. The 2. m . allt. With a few exceptions at the end of a word or syllable. dygd. especially a double consonant.2 PRONUNCIATION. tanda. In unaccented syllables both the vowel sound (c) and the consonant sound are short: si rap. folia. following rules will serve as a guide in determining the quantity of the vowels: A vowel is long in an accented syllable when (a) followed by a short consonant sound fara. should be made to the discussion of the sounds given below. (b) A vowel is short in an accented syllable when by a long consonant sound: andas. (d) A final accented vowel is always long. 2. For practical purposes the consonants offer no peculiar difficulties as regards length. and constant reference. ' hem. fall. everything. The long and the short vowel sounds are indicated in the same manner in writing. friend. sentence.

(avoid i as two sounds: (a) apThe exact sound is formed by the tongue position for the Swedish long (1) When long. tid. 7. to silver. 3 THE VOWELS. fel. oak. ni. shoe. stirra. ila. you. misfortune. sko. father grad. salt. down. long: min. salt. the. tola. to hurry. -er. a. When grade. long this sound varies between and the sound of o in foreign this o-sound is prolonged fader. : den. i. to celebrate. mine.PRONUNCIATION. to lead. REMARK. with the lips so constricted ("rounded") as to be nearly closed: olycka. vecka. to speak. that. (2) When short it is (a) qualitatively the eld. as when long: hem. and -e is there a tendency towards slurring. ingen. The exact sound is that of the German long e in mehr: ek. no one. (b) like short a (see 11. same fire. mest. week. o has proximately a. like oo in moon. -et. Mister (avoid e as in her). (2) When short it is qualitatively the same as 6. malm. silver. No vowel is silent. in stir). time. error. leda. most. me. . to stare. Avoid a as in fall. (1) : . e. ned. only in the case of e in unaccented endings such as -en. 2) long like i in machine (avoid diphthong) mig. The vowels must receive full and distinct utterance in all positions. sopa. herr. (1) When : when whisper. 4. tacka. 5. viska. the sound of a in far when NOTE. (2) When short like the first a in aha: ore. o. (1) When long this sound is an approximation to the sound of a in day without the vanish. home. to thank. fir a. -el.

duka. rysa. short fall. out. . ut. even. (long) long or short. cabbage. soft. (b) like oo in moon shortened: ost. hope. mjuk. kal. aunt. u. under. ny. if. then pronounce ee in seen. ros. dllon. . body. (1) The sound of long u is produced by the tongue position for Swedish long e (see 5. dizzy. like wound. gold. : short manga. atta. flower moster. kunna. 1) with the lips so extremely constricted (rounded) as to be nearly closed: gul. court. kropp. Robert. yellow. to read dta. ga. It is either Ex. fylla. (2) The sound of short u is more open than that of long u. new. open o (see 7. to be able. (1) : When diphthong) ar. (1) When long approximately like a in care (avoid the diphthong) : dra.4 PRONUNCIATION. fyra. to utter. (2) When acorn. Round the lips as if to pronounce u in rude. 8. long like o in hope (avoid the year. (b) like o in hope (avoid diphthong). : : yttra. a. to sweep. 2) to holla. 10. 11. kol. : . (short) sylt. also. 9. to shudder. jam. to a. hold. 1) hov. to set the table. many. This sound is identical with the Swedish long a (see 10. eight. rose. four. to fill. sara. to eat dven. Y is identical in sound with German u and French u in une. cheese blomma. . coal. honor. lasa. It is approximately that of u in value : (without the introductory consonantal ^/-sound) under. guld. to go. hopp. yr. hem. . y. (2) When short it has two sounds: (a) like the first o in oho! or like o in oil: om.

12. man. and derivation. to hear. rok. current.: and. eye. long and close . long and close . : : NOTE. 6 are called soft vowels. dnder. angel. than. 13. comparative langre. hora. smoke. book. which in English is very often referred to under its German name umlaut. (short) foil. duck. (2) 5 When men. backer. langd. ou in a few eu French words sounds like u short. young. thus. eu. dorr.PRONUNCIATION. fell. It is long or short. 6. still more open. and its deriva. o. lang. y. a are called hard vowels. before r. just. stalla. long and quite open . backer. pi. eye. These exceptions are neither many nor important. This vowel has a tendency to become more open when short and also especially rr . and e. . gdngse. sweet. Prussia. . put. long. i. yngre. tives. pi. There are a few exceptions in words of foreign origin. angel. books. journal' (shurnal') sounds like oi in the word Preussen. oppen. u. in soft (the neuter form of sot) the o is short and slightly open oga. Vowel modification. d. ga. door. The vowels a. bok. comp. over. u like y in a few French words: juste (shyst). sot. is a process of considerable importance in Swedish 14. lang. GENERAL OBSERVATION. A vowel is usually pronounced as it is written. (long) oga. then pronounce the Swedish long e (see 5. fair. to short like e in met: an. ung. Ex. or o to 6. length. occurs in the inflecforms of many words and in derivatives. Ex. to go. long. 1). or Thus a change from a u to y. inflection and a tional to d. open. over. yet. d is identical with German 6 and French Round the lips as if to sound o in so.

except after I and r: gd. to promise. 16. mirror. krig. lova (new). Like English d. and in final positions. o. (1) Like English g in go before the hard a. animal. Is identical in . In accordance with the old orthography / at the end of a syllable or word (except foreign words) has the sound of v and is silent before t. Consonants not discussed here have the same sound as in English. and the consonants. NOTE. (2) Like English y in year (tongue closer to the palate) before the soft vowels e. spegel. to f. neuter gott (new form). 17. cigarf'. and y: (2) Before the hard vowels a. NOTE. 18. chocolate. charming. and before another c or other consonant like English k: Colum- bus. . good. 15. ondt (old form) either silent or . evil . 6 in accented syllables of native words and after I and . gata. cylirider. but is silent before /: t djup. taken. godt (old form) of ond. d. . silfver (old) . fotograf. to hem . street. deep. photog- rapher. o. In the new orthography v has supplanted / everywhere in marking the sound of v: tolv (new). neuter of god. tagit. according to the new orthography (officially adopted in 1906) it is either eliminated or changed to t : ont (new form). y. djur. tolf (old) : silver (new). Where d according it is to the old orthography stands before in the same pronounced like t. sound with English /: frdga. of foreign origin: choklad. power folia. and also before the soft vowels e and i in unaccented endings. NOTE. (1) Like English s before the soft vowels cirkel. to go vowels . c. war. THE CONSONANTS. i. syllable d. twelve. accent'. e. (3) Ch has the sound of sj (26) in a few words charmant. ask kraft. u. a. u.6 PRONUNCIATION. in the middle of a word except where v begins the succeeding member of a compound. i. lofva (old). g.

6) except as stated above: kedja. Has the same sound as in English. where. gest. NOTE. 2. 19. (1) Like English k before consonants and hard vowels. hjdrta. kil. krigsman. jul. vigt (old) . G is not silent before n: gnaga. NOTE 1. s: korg. except in och. . number of loan words of French origin: generos'. i. The silent h before v in the old orthography has been dropped new: hvem. (shasmin'). through. gynna. throat. r: 7 genom.). archives. ball rike. y. chain. G before t. j: h. emblem' (angblame). wrinkled. to call kula. 22. also before e and i in unaccented endings. kar. : . realm rynkig. knife. who. giva. . I. generous. k.PRONUNCIATION. hvar. NOTE. dear. k: vikt (new). Christmas. svalg. jalusi' (shalusi'). In a few French loan words like sj: jasmin' window shade. warrior. now vem. jessamine. . In some words of French origin em is sounded like the Swedish ang: cmballe'ra (angballera. NOTE. chilly. Is strongly aspirated. gnaw. wrap. Like g (18. knd. j. kott. gene'ra. 21. meat. korrige'ra. wheel. to favor. basket. even. K is not silent before n: kniv. and before soft vowels in words of foreign origin kalla. (3) to give. to hold. in the heart. bragt. hel. brought. 20. (2) Like English ch before the soft vowels (e. to correct. dragt (old). emblem. arkiv'. drdkt (new). (3) Double k is written ck. said. kylig. but is silent before holla. pack. and. a. weight. jag. has now generally been replaced by dress. which occurred frequently in the old orthography. Like k before t and occasionally before sagt. wedge. m. (4) Like sj (see below. 26) in a to inconvenience. now var. hjul. knee. jdmn. whole. NOTE. 2) or English consonantal y: jord. earth. gesture.

n. spark. soul skjorta. 25. o. sjunga. to travel. 6) sk has the same sound as sch. and on like the Swedish ang: entusiasm' (angtusiasm). sj. (2) Before the hard vowels (a. In the endings -sion and -ssion the *t and ssi are sounded like sh. to run away. : . . shoe. carriage. rt is not pro- nounced. skal.. sys- ter. song . resa. sounded like the Swedish some words of French origin en ang. cross . n. s. stjarna. to shoot 26. etc. arm. calm. that is. 23. sk. skdl. sun.8 PRONUNCIATION. The uvular r which is is made with the uvula now regarded as permissible. to intend . rl. before r NOTE 2. Is strongly trilled with the tip of the tongue: arm. pente (pangsOi pansy. It must be carefully practiced with the teacher schack. guilt. bord. 24. skyla. chess sjo. fund. sch. table . shirt skjuta. If g and n occurring together belong to the same radical syllable. u. r. hdssja. Ng sounds like English ng in singer. skuld. y. : skold. sister. bdra. reason. 1. separate. shell. a) sk is pronounced like the English sk: skal. to to skilja. Before a vowel these are all pronounced with a sound that resembles English sh but is somewhat rougher. sj. sko. background. star. (1) Before the soft vowels (e. vibrating against the back of the tongue R in the combinations m. shield. ssj. lugn (lungn). cover. murmur drna. NOTE. except at the beginning of a word gnista. bowl. as described in the preceding section (26) skena. d. . the /. i. rs and especially rd and : . kors. away. to carry. . enthusiasm. NOTE 1. 3. . lake sju. s. seven sjdl. In Has the same sound as is in English. they are pronounced with an n before. Observe that the vowels are pronounced distinctly not blurred as in English. . pronounced w-ith the tip of the tongue touching the palate sort. skj. door. 27. to sing. not like ng in finger: Idng. 2. and t become supradental. stj. d. long : gang. bort. vagn (vangn). . hayrack. dorr. fond (f&ngd). Is pronounced like s in so: sol.

Like ts before t'a and ie in foreign words: aktie (aktsie). . Exceptions to this rule are the words marskalk. In words in -xion 32. Is pronounced as in English. Before e and i of an ending sk is pronounced like English sk: disken (from disk. distance. z. 33. NOTE t. prefix -\- noun. In Swedish a distinction must be made between the accent-stress and the musical accent.'-sound in pronunciation: nation' (natsjoon') motion' (motsjoon'). portion' (portsjoon'). patient' (patsient. mother. tan'ke. Like English In the ending -tion ti t in is most words. human being. mo'der. noun-\-suffix. to live. on the first r syllable: skol'hus. and mdnniska. pork). v. NOTE. counter) flasket (from flask. it is 1 pronounced like ksj: reflexion (rayflekshoon). thought. or prefix-}verb. . Is always pronounced like English never like English w. have the main stress. o. pasture. thick . w. Compound words of native whether formed of noun-\-noun. and r in dissyllabic words. marshal. Swedish Grammar 2 . sj sounded like (26) : action. prophecy. tar. schoolhouse. share. Always pronounced like s in so: zebra. The accent-stress falls on the root syllable of all simple native words: le'va. av stand. 31. 2. (chock). 34. (saybrah) ACCENTUATION. as a rule. 2. ACCENT-STRESS. 35. Is pronounced like English ch: tjock. also pashent') profeti'a (profetsia). origin. 9 NOTE 1. Simple words. tj. When inserted -tion is preceded by a. x. Compounds. 30.'tjdra (chairah). adjective+adjective. in which sk is pronounced like sj. 1. action : evolution. 29.PRONUNCIATION. 28. . evolution. ha'ge. a t is . generally before the *.

talkative. .is unaccented in though. entle'diga. forsta'. -il. . public. and verbs ending. to please. to admit an' fora. blue and yellow till'sta. prat'sam. 2. last syllable: tryckeri'. garden. -aker. . most words: forta'la. 38. barmhar'tig. bla'gul. -ark. -i. in addition to the a accent on the accent strong secondary principal last member of the compound: skol'hus'. '. fiskeri'. real. and -ic have with a few exceptions the main on the antepenult. 1. school- 37. . offent'lig. to underbut stand. The following words have the main stress (b) on the penult. Compound words have house. manat'lig. trad'gard'. 3. privilege. -ur. -ent.are always unaccented: beha'ga. -essa. -cter. 36. monthly. orderly. doktor'ska. Exceptions. (a) The prefixes be-. are generally accented on the last syllable. eatable. dokto'rer. man'lig. consort. profes'sor. -cum. especially those ending in -ant. fient'lig. slaveri' slavery. stress Nouns ending in -turn. Foreign words. lig. notary. NOTE. -ifl. -ibcl.in -era are accented on the penult. or third syllable from the end: privilc' gium. ordent'lig. e-. dok'tor. Nouns having the endings -tnno. descent. to discharge. hostile. Words of foreign origin tend to retain their original accent. to cite har'komst. -to. -ikcl. char- itable. -isk. prejudice (see 211). Words from the Greek and the Romance languages. manly. Other exceptions will be indicated as they occur. or next to the last syllable: egent'lig. ent-. NOTE -itel. and ge. -ist. ehu'ru. (c) All words ending in -eri have the main stress on the ultima. -al. dt'bar. Foreign words ending in -or shift the accent when suffixes are added : nola'rie. printing fishery. vasent'- essential. or office. gemal'. adjectives ending in -abel. -ik. to slander.10 PRONUNCIATION. fo'r'dom. professo'rer. alSo also the prefix for.

PRONUNCIATION. The grave. accent. tone on the first syllable and the loiv tone on the normal A . Many dissyllabic and polysyllabic words have this accent. or dissyllabic. since they were formerly monosyllabic or have become dissyllabic or polysyllabic by the addition of some ending. from the stress accent is the muThere are two kinds of musical accent in Swedish employed in single words. the following remarks may be useful : or polysyllabic. and the lowest to which it falls the low tone. especially the definite postpositive article. the acute and the grave. is used in words which were originally monosyllables. Although no rules can teach it. The pitch which is usually employed lies midway between these two and may be designated as the 42. of the Swedish This accent is a peculiar feature call the highest pitch to which the unaffected pronunciation the high tone. and constitutes the perhaps greatest difficulty which confronts the foreigner wishing to acquire a correct pronunciation. or monosyllabic. accent belongs in most cases to words which were originally dissyllabic (and Norwegian). n. low tone. Foreign loan words often receive the acute accent since this approximately resembles the musical accent employed by the mcfre important of the European languages. (Signs: I. MUSICAL ACCENT. which is 39. 40. Different approximately identical with the musical accent in English and German. or the monosyllabic and the dissyllabic. The acute. normal word with acute accent has the normal tone). NOTE. 41. 11 sical accent. We may voice rises in tone.

get'- ter-na. the grave accent has the the low tone on the second. accent. -nl REMABK.12 CAPITALIZATION. and the normal tone on -n I n the third. and rises to the normal tone on the second syllable. 45. The word is intonation 43. Ex. (b) In the names : of certain festivals. Capitals are used less frequently in Swedish than in English. . 44. : -nl n ta-la. Ex.: get'-ter. n i n following syllable or syllables. The accent mark used in this book merely indi- cates the syllable to be stressed. Thus Swedish uses a small initial letter in the following cases contrary to English usage In the names of the days of the week and (a) in the names of months: tisdag. i i Ex. be- A word with grave little gins with a tone a may designate as n. Capitalization. which we the voice then glides down to the low tone within the same syllable. In the case of words which do not take the stress accent on the first syllable. april. if dissyllabic. holidays. practically the same as the English. Christmas pask. speaker. : April. regard the stressed syllable as the first in applying these rules. Easter . and times of the year advent. Ex. A word of more than two syllables taking n tone on the first syllable. . producing a slightly broken intonation. to speak. for: n ta'la. This is originally monosyllabic. Advent. below the normal. Tuesday.: ta*la-re. jul.

svedenborgiansk. English. as a rule. Punctuation. hans majestdt. whether independent or dependent. But Swedish punctuation is perhaps closer than ours. but. provided they contain a subject ret. predicate : ringen. Your Majesty (capitalization is The pronoun I (second person optional). 47. so also in expressions Karl den store. Note examples in same in both English reading. Bdsta Herr Professor! Dear Professor: Ers Majestat! 49. Charles the Great. ni (second person singular) and its different cases are often capitalized in letters as a sign of respect. 13 In adjectives and nouns derived from proper (c) names: svensk. Darwinist. Swedenborgian darvinist. inhabitant of Stockholm. In titles of only the first books and headings of chapters word. and . som jag hade pa I fing- har kommit bort. stockholmare. plural) is capitalized. is capitalized. The comma is generally used to set off the different clauses of a sentence. Swedish. 48. The rules of punctuation are nearly the and Swedish. the ring that had on my . 50. His Majesty. and Stilla havet. 46. Personal titles are generally not capitalized except in direct address: herr Svensson. Pacific Ocean.PUNCTUATION. engelsk. OBSERVE. . professor Bjorkman. In compound names like Forenta staterna. the comma especially being used more freely. only the first like word is capitalized. United States.

But sch and sk when used as signs for the are not separated but added to the following vowel mar-schera. are divided according to trdd-gdrd. re-gel.14 SYLLABICATION. the last consonant usually goes with the following vowel: fal-la. ng is added to the preceding vowel unless n and g belong to 53. finger has been lost. : 52. sag mig. fladd-ra. s. tell vad du har laser. their torn. hop-pas. gossen och kan boy reads and the Syllabication. gjort. . Compound words component parts: steeple. flic- me what you syr.?-sound (sh) : different words: hang-a. manuscript. 51. mar-skalk. Id-ra-re. girl sews. ce-der. the have done. vax-a. behind. bak-om. kyrkhand-skrift. A consonant between two vowels. except x in simple words of native origin. goes with the following vowel a-ra. When two or more consonants occur between two vowels. 54. mycket. garden. sjung-a.

beings. feminine. Common gender comprises most names of inanimate objects which are not neuter. . Feminine are generally names of living 57. object or neuter depends variously on terminafew practical rules for determintion or usage. 55. Formerly the distinction between the masculine and feminine genders of inanimate objects 61.PART II. The pro- noun of reference 59. Masculine are generally names of living beings. especially persons. They require as pronoun of reference hon. . of the female sex. The neuter gender requires det as pronoun of reference. Whether the name of an inanimate common A ing neuter nouns will be given in the Appendix but the best plan for the beginner is to associate the indefinite article with every noun he learns. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. of the male sex. 56. masculine. is is den. LESSON Genders. especially persons. The Swedish language has four genders: common. 60. and neuter. 58. I. They require as pronoun of reference han.

It hangs on the wall in the bedroom. and the independent or prepositive definite article. which stands before the noun and is used only when the noun is qualified by an adjective. THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE. and common nouns will be referred to as gender is not deemed necessary to denote whether a noun is masculine. article. strictly observed now it is almost entirely discarded except in some dialects. The tendency is to extend the province Thus we find that names of the common gender. of animals. feminine. which is appended to the noun. feminine.16 ARTICLES. even the higher. are generally regarded as common and referred to with the pronoun den. nouna. . . 57. 63. Vad blev det av den lilla vita duvan? What became of the little white dove? Hon flog sin vag. and 58 will enable the student to THE 62. It flew was more away. It Masculine. The distinction is avoided by employing den as pronoun of reference for either. nouns ending in -a with plural in -or are often feminine even when they denote inanimate objects or living beings of either sex: Var dr klockan? Where Hon hanger pa vdggen i sangkamis the clock? maren. when no reference is had to sex. distinction whenever necessary. The indefinite article which is equivalent to the English indefinite article a or an has two forms : (1) En. articles: There are three the indefinite the postpositive definite article. which is used before all gender nouns: . NOTE. or commor make such a rules given in 56. ARTICLES. On the contrary.

my friend is a talent: ed teacher. jag har. we had. jag fick svar. jag hade. thou hast (you ni ha(va). (b) 65. as. you have han NOTE. a steamer. which is used before an eye. I I Also in a number of phrases. ett oga. he has The shorter forms of the verb hava have practically supplanted the longer forms. received an answer. du hade ni hade han hade / haden ni hade de hade . 64. As: min van dr larare. a child. jag har have a desire to read. you have du har. en dngare. (2) Ett. 1? en man.han. en drottning. with some important deviations. att ha). I have / haven. PRESENT INDICATIVE. PI. which are limited to the solemn style. IMPERFECT INDICATIVE. The indefinite article corresponds in the main with that of English. The verb att hava (short form. ett barn. but min van dr en begavad larare. Sg. vi ha(va). vi hade.VERBS. etc. to have. I had. they have ni har. It must be omitted (a) Before a predicate noun denoting profession or occupation when not qualified by an adjective. lust att Idsa. my friend is a teacher. all neuter nouns: RULE OP SYNTAX. you have have) de ha(va). etc. a man. we have Sg. PI. har. a queen.

given in the vocabulary In the beginning only the third person singular of the verbs will be this form can be used in all persons and both numbers. vi dr. The plural 7 is archaic except in elevated style. PI. note) (c) . 66. PRESENT INDICATIVE. jag dr. etc. B. 2. Sg. etc. REMARKS ON THE The singular du is used in very familiar (a) address. NOTE. / dren. form of address. they are han dr. wherever this is practicable.. stad. used instead of du as the conventional In the plural it has supplanted 1 in and both familiar polite address (see 142 and (b) is Ni The singular of the verb regularly takes the place of the plural in conversation and has begun to replace the latter in the written language: thus. I am PL du ar. 1. som (wlio) bor liirare. he is IMPERFECT INDICATIVE. in his own words. jag var. ni dro. to be. The student should be required to reproduce the contents of the exercises. ni har. vi har. to intimate friends. you are vi dro. we were. . de voro VERBS. etc. EXERCISE I. are permissible. The verb att vara. N. A. to relatives. and to children. thou art (you are) ni dr. vi voro. we are you are you are de dro.18 ( VEBBS. Karl ar en liten gosse. Han gar i skolan och har en snail TTaii . Sg. I was. du var ni var I voren ni voro han var 67. i en stor 3.

ofta ? 8. N. Vad (what) har han? 4. 5. Ar Karls laxa svar? 7. Answer the following questions in Swedish: 1. is 1. a letter en. 4. 2. Vad ger han Karl ofta? 6. has no Do and did VOCABULARY. or object. She writes a long (langt) letter to a friend." 1 1 a long Swedish present. 4. som ar och kan sin (his) laxa. phrase. 19 svar. far ofta en lang laxa. Vad fragar han Karl B. your (gender form) <lag. Vem (who) ar Karl? 2. mycket 6. a. lives ett brev. Use the simple progressive nor emphatic verb-forms. The teacher should read the English sentences. C. t din. to-day an (neuter) . sions. Mary lives in a large and beautiful city. one. B. The predicate precedes the subject if the clause is introduced by a modifier which may be either adverb. 3. din (your) laxa i Karl svarar: "Ja. Ar hans larare snail? 5.EXERCISE. clause. Var (where) bor han? 3. ett. Only the indefinite gender form of the adjective is given in the first few lessons. 1. thy. The indefinite article before nouns shows whether they are gender nouns or neuter nouns. who is very good. Mary answers her (sin) mother. The students should not be allowed to read the translation from their papers or to translate from their books. jag kan min (my) a laxa. give the class a few seconds for mental translation. She a good girl. a. bor. 2. are not translated in interrogative and negative expresUse the simple present or imperfect. Her (hennes) mother asks her (lienne). and then put the question to the individual student. "I am writing letter to a friend who lives in Stockholm. Vad svarar Karl sin larare ? WRITTEN EXERCISE. Karl iir flitig "Kan du dag?" fragar 1 Karls larare. She has a mother." of the verb. "What are 1 you writing?" 5. N. B.

a friend en Idrare. he hans. Idng. has /ion. DEFINITE ARTICLES. It a. sin Idxa. LESSON The 68. kunna (present kan) skolan. very (much) och. receives en Idxa. or -n. gets. beautiful en van. This article is always used when the noun is definite in sense. my en moder (mor). has the following forms For gender nouns: : Singular: -en. difficult little. ger. her (reflexive) en skola. much.o. know small svdr. kind som. often sin. gives en gosse. Plural: -na (rarely -ne). her (possessive) i. hard.20 en flicka. a teacher IDIOMS: 1. that en stad. a city snail. a mother mycket. . large. great svarar. articles. The postpositive article consists of a letter or syllable suffixed to the noun. and ofto. long vacker. a boy gdr. yes Jean. who. to attend school. good. to (at) school skriver. goes han. his. asks far. a lesson min. 69. 0d i 2. which. her (objective) hennes. writes she henne. stor. a girl flitig. II. his har. diligent frdgar. Ziifen. There are two definite positive and the prepositive. can. a school i skolan. the post- THE POSTPOSITIVE ARTICLE. to know one's lesson. Definite Articles. answers in .

legend. -i EXCEPTIONS. or -r take either -en or -n as postpositive article. bottom. (1) Ex. sockn-en. B. b. sagn-en. blomma-n. EXCEPTIONS. In so doing they drop the e of the ending: Gotten. the parish. 1.DEFINITE ARTICLES. the poet the sun. the victory. 2. the bride sol-en. or -en. . the poets brudar-na. Ex. the village. sommar-en or sommar-n. the summer. the army. Ex. N. in a consonant.: arme-en orarmen. Ex.: or fjaril-n. the bottom. gosse-n. IN THE PLURAL. 70. doctor. Of gender nouns ending in unaccented -en only the following four take the postpositive article. desert. article The postpositive IN THE SINGULAR. and purpur. symmetri-en or symmetri-n. consul. take -n as postpositive article. brud-en. 21 For neuter nouns: Singular : -et. seger-n. . Gender nouns ending in accented -e or take either -en or -n as postpositive article. -er. Ex. or -t. skalder-na. . okn-en. the legend. -en : with gender nouns. bottn-en. the butterfly. or -or and the words konsul. .: fdgel-n. parish. Plural: -na. the girl the flower by-n. . konsul-n. -na (rarely -ne) is used as postpositive article with gender nouns in the plural. the boy flicka-n. Gender nouns ending in unaccented el. Ex. -a. sdgen. the consul. ofcen. purple. (2) doktor-n. skald-en. . is used when the noun ends . the Other words ending in fjaril-en -I. the brides : . the desert. -n : is used when the noun ends in a vowel. socken. the bird. the symmetry.

. thunder. The postpositive article with neuter nouns. the villages oknar-na. byar-na. IN THE SINGULAR. Ex. . Ex.22 DEFINITE ARTICLES. -na is used as postpositive article in the plural with neuter nouns of the Third Declension. the men. the silk. with neuter nouns of the Fifth Declension. mann-en. Neuter nouns ending in unaccented -el. Ex. the heart.: hjarta-t. dundr-et. Ex. stdllen-a. 72. the sail. eko-t. the is name . - used when the noun ends in an unaccented vowel. the names segl-en. : . the breweries. weapon. the nest . -et is used when the noun ends in a consonant : or in an accented vowel. flickor-na. the girls. namn-et. article. Ex. the deserts. or -er drop the e of the ending on taking the postpositive article. namn-en. the weapon. B. EXCEPTIONS: siden-et. : . IN THE PLURAL. the places bon-a. 2.: segel. the geese. gass-en. N. the sails. Ex. 2. vapen. sail. the birds. loss-en. 71. -en. -a is used as postpositive article in the plural with neuter nouns of the Fourth Declension. : beund- ran. Certain nouns do not take the postpositive Abstract nouns ending in -an. admiration. the echo. parti-et. segl-et. 1. EXCEPTIONS. -en is used as postpositive article in the plural 3. bo-et. dunder. the paper. 1. the thunder.: bryggerier-na. vapn-et. the 1. moss-en. the lice. papper-et. faglar-na. kafeer-na. the nests. Ex. cafes. the mice. the party.

article in the following: ? 2. examination. muse-et. Nu ar han mycket sjuk. But those ending in -eum or -ium drop -um and add -et.) 1ms i stad och har pengar i Hon liar en son. Det tilldar . 3.). gold. . N. 23 in unaccented -en Ex. date genus. museum. iigcr bank gar och i ocksa ett stort (neut. 3. lyckan. Hon man. ar fiirtrafflig. ticle in Contrary to English usage the definite arSwedish is used with generic and abstract nouns. 73. guldet. privilegi-et. som ligger bakom hus Tradgard och frukt . the museum privilegium. som ar atta ar gammal och (5. 2. THE PREPOSITIVE ARTICLE. SINGULAR PLURAL Neuter All Genders Gender Nouns de det used together with the postpositive article when the noun is modified by an adjective. som viixer i den (it). skola 8. sager som ar vacker. . examen. . the privilege. . 1. B. 74. den varma solen. gender. as. happiness.: froken. Ex. museum. RULE OF SYNTAX. Most gender nouns ending (see 70. Foreign nouns ending in -um and -us. life is short but art is long. miss. Hans larare sager. EXERCISE A. att gosse ar snail beso- flitig. livet dr kort. ligger pa kulle som kommer dar. For further disIt is : den cussion see 126. 5.EXERCISE. .: datum. Supply the postpositive Ser ni hus hor dam -i. och doktor ker lionom. men konsten dr Idng. Ex. . young lady. Ex. the warm sun. II. Hon ar mycket rik. 7. . privilege. : .

father frukt (collective). bank alltid. do not (det gor jag icJce). you (formal) fdrtraff'Ug. 6. people dead en fader. 1 I 3. (A. The doctor visits him every day. Vad ligger pa kullen? 4. (A. the man who owns the house on the hill? but I my No. him house en hustru. : 1. one. comes en kulle. day en dam. old en gata. Beratta vad ni vet Ager damen nagot mer (anything else)? om hennes son (Tell what you know about her son). street now when upon ocksa. meets ni. 5. EXERCISE. 6). nar. they. in Swedish 3. 7. en man. and is rich. VOCABULARY. fruit do'd. lady den (pronoun). C. on. also pd. they say little 6. His wife dead and he has a school old. street. six years who attends Now *?& gatan. pronoun). we called at his home. He always salutes me when He is a very kind man. wife ett hus. Kan ni se det? Vem tillhbr det? Ax hon fattig eller rik? Vad vaxer i den? 7. 5. always ftofcom. honom. at home (with the main stress on pa) signifies to pay a visit: ft halsudt pd' hot honom. 3). hemma. Vad 8. visits hdl'sar pd. man moter. excellent nu. Do you know 2. 1 greets en dag. Answer the following questions 2. knows ligger. meet him in the boy. there kommer. Translate : 1. Vad ligger bakom huset? ar er (your) tanke (idea) om frukten? 9. he cannot (Jean haji inte) attend (go) for he ig sick and is at home. father knows him. 4.24 B. *halsar pd' . besoker. behind en tank. det (pronoun) it en doktor. doctor ddr. lies man (indef. gammal. it hill kdnner.

d. money rik. in and postpositive article the plural. belongs to tiger. Plural ending -er. The -no. Inflection of Nouns. is -n in the singular 3 Swedish Grammar .). grows sager. Fourth Declension. These are : 76. which is formed by adding s to the nominative of the indefinite or the definite form : Ex. Without plural ending.). This declension forms its plural by dropping the ending -a of the nominative singular and adding 77. In addition there are some irregular nouns which cannot be classified. FIRST DECLENSION. says till'hdr (35). the boy's book is here. NUMBER. Third Declension. Nouns are changed for case only in the genitive. sees 25 ty (conj. garden varje. For exceptions see 130. flickornas blommor dro vackra. a. First Declension.DECLENSION. Plural ending -ar. Plural ending -or. owns LESSON III. a boy's book. each. rich ser. every vaxer. 75. NOTE. Fifth Declension. Second Declension. -or. pengar (plur. the girls' flowers are beautiful. CASE. for en tradgdrd. gossens bok dr hdr. accordto the manner of forming the nominative plural ing of the indefinite form. There are five declensions.: En gosses bok. Plural ending -n. b.

This declension -ar. slipper. -en. flick-or-na-s formed regularly by the addi(without the apostrophe). postpositive definite article or -n in the singular (72) -na in the plural. story. fagl-ar (81. SECOND DECLENSION. Plur. devil . en fdgel PI. Examples of the Second Declension: en fdgel. also the nouns ros. and a few others. flick-or-na Nom. Example of the First Declension: en flicka. -er is dropped when the ending is added. wave. and o and u in the words afton. vein. Plur. morning. REMABK. a bird. are dropped before the plural ending. . lusta (-ar). rose. 78. INDEFINITE Sg. an evening. 82. 79. The -en The Second Declension comprises: Most (a) monosyllabic gender nouns ending consonant and some ending in a vowel. -ing. dder. en afton. 80. vdg.26 DECLENSION. flick-or-s As the genitive is will be given hereafter. and unaccented -e. en Gen. a boy. toff el. flicka-n-s. Unaccented e in the endings -e. flicka-n. is characterized by the plural is ending 81. kolle'ga (-er). -ning. -ung. INDEFINITE Sing. The First Declension comprises all gender nouns ending in -a.1) fdgl-ar-na . -el. . en tion of -s flicka. a girl. flick-or DEFINITE Sing. -en. -ling. morgon. Unaccented a in the ending -ar. en gosse. -er. 2. -el. desire. 1. evening djavitl. (b) Gender nouns ending in -dom. colleague.1) DEFINITE fdgel-n (73. the nominative form only flicka-s. NOTE final in a -il. Exceptions: histo'ria {-er).

*Xr ute och gar. Sedan gar 2 han en restaurang. b.5) afton-en aftn-ar-na EXERCISE III. man icke? han pa? 9. Supply the postpositive def. blir trott. A. 27 Sg. (alone) ute? 6. 1. the proper plural ending and the postpositive article where there are two dashes : 1. I will take a walk 1 2 with him. och 2 man ej. for he is a kind and interesting man and his company 4. Vem kallar han pa? . nar han blir trott? Varfor arbetar 8. goss-ar (81. nar han ar hungrig? 11. Vad gor herr Brown. en a/ow PI. . 1. 7. Vad hor han pa? 10. satter han sig pa en av 6. Ibland aro bans tvenne dbttrar med honom. ar varm. ar ty det ar helgdag.1) Sg. ser pa matsedel bestaller. dar. Varfor (why) ar det mycket folk ute och gar? 7. - och flick som leka 3 hb'r pa fagl som sjunga. Exercise I. takes a walk. Vadr 3. He comes often me and me if . J See note 3 In conversation the singular is used with a plural subject. in Swedish van? 4. . 2) gosse-n (72) goss-ar-na(-ne) (73. When the weather is fine (vackert} I answer yes. I have a friend to whose name asks is 2. 3. 2. i Nar han 5. name of) er Hurudant ar vadret? 5. Answer 2. Herr Brown ar ute och gar 1 skiner och luft . Vart gar han. ty han ar hungrig. aftn-ar (81. 8. Ar herr Yad gb'r herr Brown ensam Yad Brown? : heter (is the 3. 4. och till Han ser pa goss . ser Vad (som heter) Brown. Sometimes when there is always agreeable (angenamt).EXERCISE. Han satter sig kallar pa vaktmastar och vid ett bord. article where there is one dash. en gosse PI. B. vackert. C. parken. is out walking. mycket Det ar mycket arbetar soff . sol folk pa gat 4.

-ar.) sig (reflexive pronoun). Jag Tieter Karl. air tvenne. thereupon (adv. daughter ei. en vdrld (mute IDIOMS: 1. . to sit down. company sometimes tillsammans. with (adv. of fare (ett) vdder. -or. waiter varm. at.) (prep. warm by weather 1). after (conj. orders med. two en vakt'mdstare. 37). a restaurant. -ar. -or. 3 There is and there are are gd ut och gd. share en dotter. 5. girl folk (collective). plays luft. att gd ut och gd. sjunger. shines en soffa. journey . att sdtta sig. seat. not en flicka. to take a walk. bench sdtter. -ar. Mister hungrig.). part. interesting tired kallar pd. a). fill trans- lated VOCABULARY. itself. -or. sings skiner. tells. Ex.) en park. sofa. 3. people ett folk. are hungry (kungriga) we eat together in (pa) 2 See note 1. arbetar. the verb being singular in either case.) if (conj. intressant'. -sedlar. boy en helgdag.). hungry ibland' (adv. I. seats. himself a people herself. park en restaurang' restaurant en resa. sets ett sdllskap. fdglar. about (prep. He often tells of When we 1 (sina) travels in different (olika) parts of the world.). world 2. along l)erdt'tar (36. relates bestal'ler ett bord. a). dottrar. om. en matsedel bill vid. -ar. together tro'tt. by det ar. sedan. (35.28 arc 3 VOCABULARY. A. works (36. table en del. my name is Carl. calls leker. holiday herr. -ar. we go 2 to a park and sit of the seats. bird en gosse. . streets many people in the down (sdtta oss) on one his 6. themselves en fdgel.

-um. 29 LESSON Inflection of IV. -skap. This declension contains: (a) A large number of monosyllabic gender nouns. en nota'rie. -het. -st. (b) Gender nouns of more than one syllable ending in -ad. a son. en bok PI. -t. -ium. 84. an event. en son PI. few neuter monosyllables. and a few others. a book. a notary. en son. -na for either in the plural. -e'um. -else. -e. Some nouns ending in unaccented -e. DEFINITE bild-en bild-er-na bild-er Sg. a doctor en nation. a building. A 85. (c) Most gender nouns of foreign origin. especially derivatives ending in -d. THIRD DECLENSION. Nouns (Continued). -on. a nation. -ndr. Examples of gender nouns of the Third Declension: en bild. en bild PI. bock-er son-en son-er-na bok-en bock-er-na . NOTE.DECLENSION. en bok. en neger. -nad. plural. en doktor. The nouns of this declension take -er in the The postpositive article is -en or -n for gender nouns and -et or -t for neuter nouns in the 83. take -r in the plural. almost exclusively of foreign origin. singular. son-er Sg. INDEFINITE Sg. . (d) (e) Neuter nouns of more than one syllable ending in -eri'. -i. en byggnad. en hdndelse. a picture. a negro.

nut. natt. Loan words in -or which in the singular have the accent on the syllable preceding -or shift the accent to the syllable containing -or in the plural: pro- the acute. soner. root. and a few others the final consonant is doubled. stripe . Give the plural of the words enumerated above (according to 14). Some monosyllables take Ex. a printing office. -er Gender nouns in unaccented fable. en nation' PL nation-er NOTE. In addition those given in the paradigms we may note: and. professo'rer. ett tryckeri' PL tryckeri-er DEFINITE tryckeri-et tryckeri-er-na muse'um PL muse-er Sg. . en nota'rie notarie-r neger-n negr-er-na notarie-n notarie-r-na Sg. hand. and drop the e of the ending before the plural ending: fabel. rot. fabler. stader. (a) A few monosyllables change the root vowel (14). a museum. ett muse'um. fiber. stdng. 4. -el (73. hand. dean. ending: dekanus. bilder. The def. book and a doubling of the final consonant. 86. brim. (acute accent) : strand. shore . there is both a change of root vowel fot. 3. The ending -us in words of Latin origin is dropped before the plural dekan-er. INDEFINITE Sg. strand. 2.30 Sg. byggnad PL byggnad-er Sg. pole. (grave accent) : the grave accent in the plural while others take son. fibrer. fibre. night . en doktor PL doktor'-er Sg. foot (b) In bok. ett muse-et muse-er-na drp the ending -urn upon NOTE. en kandelse PL hdndelse-r Sg. bild. duck. Foreign words ending in -eum and -turn taking the definite article and the plural ending. (c) In not. 1). art. en DECLENSION. fes'sor. goat. . stranderj stad. get. . clension: Examples of neuter nouns of the Third Deett tryckeri'. 5. is -n. rand. en neger byggnad-en byggnad-er-na hdndelse-n hdndelse-r-na PL negr-er PL Sg. to doktor-n doktor' -er-na nation-en nation-er-na 1.

. 6. skog . lege president. vackert landskap? 2. Vad gora bonderna hela dagen? dens vanstra strand? 7. Vad this ser ni pa hojderna pa hill flo- D. ket intressanta. ett tryckeri) bryggen. en rektor. Supply (at article. pa vilka bond bo. Pa hb'jd flod och i sina tradgard (genpa 6. . hus och ligga akr .. . a brewery. only) . a col2. Translate: see a very 1. also icke detta (this) se the missing ending. a cafe. a firebrand (also conflagration. en pastor. Man ser . Huru manga stader kan ni se? 4.) the indefinite article en. ett semina'rium. Vad flyter floden igenom (through) ? 3. flod. or Ar ). the definite postending of the plural or both (at. Answer in Swedish: 1. a seminary. . a muscle. park . singular and plural: (like en doktor) en professor. (Like ett museum] ett (Like en neger) en muskel. C. Dessa aro gard . a share. arbeta hela sina (these) (their) fait (the whole) dag pa 5. De aro mycitive. both sides there (omit) are heights and in the background beautiful (vackert) . sing. (Like en stad) en and.. nomi- native and genitive cases. (Like en hdndelse) en fo'reteelse.) vanstra strand ligga tva ruin slatt . man mycket pa en gang. 31 EXERCISE IV. positive (at 1. en ok' tie. def. Vad aro punkterna langt borta? 6. Omkring Punkt stad . tva stad kyrk och dal . 3. 1.. (like ett kafe. . vackra genom ang . ) B. On landscape. en brand. A. en strand. a duck. . Har kan som flyter med 3. Hurudant (how) ar land- skapet? 2.EXEECISE. a phenomenon. a shore. From (denna) you can (kan man) 2. a pastor. som gat . ett: the . Decline in the indefinite and definite form. berg man ser langt borta pa 4. Vad ser ni i dessa (these) stader? 5. 5.

farmer en by. factory river en tavla. VOCABULARY. -er. by. picture fiyter. we shall visit (besoka vi) the museum to-morrow. -ar. meadow Jag tycker om att Idsa. exports morgon. picture frdmmande. -er. farmhouse hdr. smokestack en strand. to look at. 2. off en kyrka. one time. flod. artist IDIOMS: 1. 4. dot en ruin. day en dal. Two rivers flow through the vallarge (stora) forests. -er. -er. strdnder. . from ett fait. i gar. 3. to-morrow en punkt. att se pa. -er. forest en sliitt. They belong to a large factory where they (man) manufacture steam engines. -ar. away en bonde. foreign frdn. lander. at once. manufactures two genom (igenom) through en gang. to the left en dker. once en gdrd. -er. a field gallery tillverkar. of. mountain (pi. riverside en en fabriJc'. -ar. yesterday. church en bakgrund. bor background berg. valley exporte'rar. -ar. 9. dkrar. 6. i dag. The city to ley and by these (dessa) rivers lie cities. bo). artists. flows ett tavelgalleri. -ar. -or. i country landscape borta. av. -ar. 3. -or. bonder. here en hojd. I like to read. ett landskap. chimney. ett from. field en dngmaskin. the left has two gallery. painting. lives ett land. 5. -ar. height. ruin en skog. plain en skorsten. bank. hill en konstndr.32 VOCABULARY. -er. yard. peasant. -er. 4. -er. left till vdnster. Do you see the smokestacks on the left side of the river 8. point. pd en gdng. likes vdnster. 7. steam engine en dng. museums and I like to see a famous (beromt) picture paintings of famous (beromda) If you wish ? (vill). tvd. to-day. village en dag. tycker om'. These (dessa) steam engines are exported (translate: one exports) to foreign countries. -er.

-aden in the archaic second pers. The supine has been evolved from form of the past participle and is used together with the auxiliary verb hava to form the compound perfect tenses. There are four conjugations in Swedish. Second. -ar in the singular of the present indicative. -ade in both numbers of the imperf. Verbs belonging to the First. -ande in the pres.FIRST CONJUGATION. REMARK. plur. -en in the archaic second person plur. ind. THE 90. A certain number of verbs vacillating between different conjugations are called irregular verbs. ind. 33 LESSON 87. 88. The Verb. -at in the supine. V. participle. pres. the neuter 92. and Third Conjugations (also called weak verbs) form their imperfect by adding an ending to the unchanged root. -ad in the gender -at in the form of the past participle. pres. ha's This conjugation the following endings: -a in the infinitive. ind. Verbs of the Fourth Conjugation (also called strong verbs) form their imperfect by changing the vowel of the root. SUPINE. 91. without any added ending. used as an adjective and also with the auxiliary . -a elsewhere in the plur. neuter form of the past participle. 89. it is THE PAST PARTICIPLE is a verbal adjective. FIRST CONJUGATION.

(a) The simple tense in Swedish expresses also the progressive and emphatic forms of English thus. jag kallar=I call. (b) Likewise the interrogative and negative uses of do. to become. 94. am calling. to verbs bliva and varda. to call. do you call ? I do not call.- ] I ] I tbb rhar kallat \hade kallat han} han} .. to have. 93. kallar ni? jag kallar inte. etc. did call. Examples Sg. (a) The verb att kalla. lade=I called. jag : PERFECT INDICATIVE PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE jag dit ft/(/ du . jag kal. was calling. \ ni k aUade . ni kallar \ du I. jag] du I. The pluperfect indicative is formed by combining the supine with the imperfect of hava. PRESENT INDICATIVE IMPERFECT INDICATIVE Sg.34 FIRST CONJUGATION. jag] Sg. han\ hanj PL vi kalla I kallen ni kalla de kalla PL vi kallade I kalladen ni kallade de kallade (b) The perfect indicative is formed by combining the supine with the present indicative of hava. are expressed in the Swedish by the simple form: as. do call. pound passive of transitive verbs form the com- (see 188).

gnola. hum. The present perfect and pluperfect of the verbs hava (ha). to be. . to have. 35 kallat kallat vi ha kallat I han 2 kallat ni ha kallat de ha kallat 1 2 hade haden ni hade de hade vi I kallat kallat J Also hava. vara. (b) . n ^ mar vant . o. as skala.FIRST CONJUGATION. Also haven. To this conjugation belong: (a) Almost in a a. amuse. to peel. u. to rule korrige'ra. to correct. as.. . to 96. PRESENT PERFECT Sg. svartna (from by svart) to grow black vidga (from vid) to widen gronska (from gron) to grow green. as. to shout. to woo. . skria. (d) All verbs having a vowel before the infinitive ending -a. m PI. han] vi han} ha haft han haft ni ha haft de ha haft I ha varit han varit ni ha varit vi I de ha . Almost all verbs derived from other words means of a consonantal ending as. PI. fria. \ 95. . . all weak verbs the stem of which ends consonant and contains one of the hard vowels to scrub a. (c) All verbs ending in -e'ra. skura. to mala. rege'ra. du L - mar . to paint. . . roa. .. haft du I.

Vi samtal om vara plan (plur. Vad samtalade ni om? 6. svar 2 han. for att (in order to} studera tyska och franska.) (supine). han. "Till Frankrike och b'nsk (supine) dessa (these} land.. 2. Var . ty en resa utrikes kost amnar du att resa?" frag svar "jag spar (pres. du . (in} mi. Vad hemma? gjorde (did} ni nyligen (recently} ? 2. jag 1 jag 1 du [." 8. .) (impf. Nar han 3.) han hade vil med att och insig (supine) pa soff 1. Stress on pa. varit han] vi hade varit I haden varit ni hade varit de hade varit vi hade haft I haden haft ni hade haft de hade haft EXERCISE V.36 EXERCISE.) (several) ganger pa dorr den. Supply the proper endings of the verbs gar hals (impf. 4. 5.) jag pa 1 as well as the postpositive definite article and plural ending. .) ett par for framtid . borja 7. Notice the inverted order. nj made haft han} PI. "Jag har lange att tillbringa ett par ar i (had 1 to} lana 2 mig ett paraply. ett om han amn 2 foretaga den resa utrikes. A. om ar". PLUPERFECT Sg.) pengar jag. frag (impf. somn (plur. I . innan han oppn 3. [. Tyskland". Oppnade han genast? 4. j . knack flera Jag (impf. B. hos min van Lindgren.) 2 (pres. 6. n^ made . 1. sa att (so that} han maste honom. som han sa lange hade planer (supine). timm och jag "Ja.) (impf. Han ursakt (impf. Varfor drojde det sa lange (why did it take sucJi a long time}.. "Vart mycket.). innan han oppnade dorren? 5. Nar jag var hos 2 det att regna.

1. home of. Carl is 3 father intends a very good and industrious boy and his to send him to J Germany to (for att) study German and subject of music. "hade dndrat is the clause 3 hans." 8. Vad gjorde han for att kimna (be able) resa om ett ar? 8. foretager). 7. at the house with. -ar. Invert. "Why?" I asked .). Carl stayed with (hos) me a couple of hours. the infinitive only of the verb being given. for whom his 3 mother had sent to me with flowers. 1 "You are wet. . borja. when the VOCABULARY. Hur lang tid amnade han tillbringa i Frankrike och Tyskland ? 9. French (lartguage) hem (adv. that. "Yes. It was my cousin hurried to the door and opened it. sin is used sig. Vad amnade han gora dar? Yesterday I telephoned to my friend Lindgren and asked him if he intended to stay at home all evening 2. 5. the possessor: han skickade sin son (174). I. door en framtid. . and sign of the in- fo'retaga (sing. at .). "It must (matte) be rainit was my birthday. N. to begin birthday en dorr. and when 1 he went (fjick) home. . 10. to finitive). B. to undertake en fodelsedag. I lent him my umbrella. future fransk. Carl. 4. halvvags. 1 Yesterday somebody (ndgon) knocked at the door." he answered 1 3. He answered that he had intended to (liela kvdllen}. Carl. "it began to rain when I was halfway. but had changed his mind 2 1 "I am not quite well. Weak verbs are designated by the number of the conjugation to which they belong." I said 1 he answered ." ing (93.VOCABULARY. not sin. French f ran ska." 9. 1 attend (att gd pa] a concert. C. 37 amnade ban foretaga sin resa utrikes? 7. I 6. a). -ar. halfway hos (prep. att (conj.

ett par timmar. wet I. I. regna (rengna). . 169). to whet. in a year. II plan to rest to plan vat. to converse onska. plane'ra. The verbs belonging Class to this conjugation are of two classes. to knock en konsert'. a couple of hours. to borrow spend. ett par. krona. to telephone I.. concert kosta. LESSON The Verb VI. timna. rona. -er. tysk. en plan. to intend to to to sam'fala. knacka. To this conjugation the -s.). synas. -ar. this class belong all verbs of stem of which ends in -k. -p. 97. till'bringa. a couple of. umbrella -er. -er. spara. resa. -ar. 2. to Una. I.38 SECOND CONJUGATION. long (en) musik'. to study I. 1. (Continued). -t. I. in a week. German (language) ut'rikes. om mdndag. German tyska. reser). to be well. I. en timme. abroad (also used as an indeclinable adjective) vart. to begin. I. bryna. THE SECOND CONJUGATION. IDIOMS. to experience. to lend. I.. att ma ~bra. to cost stude'ra. to hurry to save I. pass lange (adv. cousin en kvdll. music ett par. I. 3. I. I. skynda. om ett ar. to travel andra. to crown. and the verbs begynna. 7. (also irr. 98. next Monday. evening telefone'ra. whither Vila. skicTca. to seem. hour ett ett couple par timmar. I. I. I. to rain (sg. change wish open to send oppna. a couple of hours paraply'. om en vecka. en kusin'.

99. -a in the plural of the present indicative. -te in the imperfect indicative. To this class belong verbs of the Second Conjugation. att resa. -ande in the present participle. NOTE. The other endings are identical with those of Class 102. 39 These verbs take the following endings: -a in the infinitive. both numbers. 101. reser jag] du n han\ vi bdja I han} vi resa I resen ni resa de resa bdjen ni bdja de bdja IMPERFECT INDICATIVE Sg. jag'} du ni \ jag] du reste ( ni han} han . 100. -d in the gender form of the past participle. PRESENT INDICATIVE Sg. Class II. -t in the gender and neuter forms of the past participle. all other These verbs take : -de in the imperfect indicative. jag] du n PI. I.SECOND CONJUGATION. -er in the singular of the present indicative. to bend. -t in the supine. to travel att bdja. The archaic second plural lists will hereafter for the sake of convenience be disregarded in the of verbal endings. Examples: . both numbers.

according to the new orthography. 6) in the stem and derived from other words by a change from hard to soft vowel: lysa (from ljus. the past participle tand. to crown. full). -d. ORDER OF WORDS. not sdndt. y. I hear. and -t. crown). a. jag hor. PERFECT INDICATIVE har jag har rest. glijmt. to accuse. to gliimde. not giftt. These are tola. not sdndde. not giftte. to fill. but retain the short sound of the vowel: begynna. 1. light). Normal order: First the subject with its modifiers. i. Similarly three verbs ending in -I take no ending. The inverted order . . the verb. forget. sanda. 1. Inverted order: The subject follows the verb.40 PI. Gifta sig. the object and 104. thus. is required: In direct (a) questions: Laste han boken i gar? Did he read the book yesterday? 2. etc. Third. has the imperfect sande. and the past participle gift. other adjuncts of the verb. 2. etc. ORDER OF WORDS. instead of jag gorer. has the imperfect ffifte. no ending- is added in the present indicative. the d and the t are dropped before a d and a t of the ending. jag gor. to grind gala. jag hade bojt. (from krona (from krona. bcgiinte . guilt). fylla (from full. singular thus. verbs having a soft vowel (e. 3. etc. and. to send. PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE etc. Second. instead of jag horer. endure mala. Verbs in double m or n dron one of these consonants before -de. Normal and Inverted. to light. to get married. the stem of a verb of this conjugation ends in -nd or -t preceded by a 'consonant. to begin. -r If the stem of a verb of this class ends in . jag jag hade rest. vi reste I resten ni reste de reste vi bojde I bo j den ni bojde de bojde bojt. If not sandd. skylla skuld. glomma. To the Second Conjugation belong most 103. . NOTE. the supine gift. not giftt. to crow. the supine sant. -le.

Kom A. adverb. Tror 1 (believe) du. till 1. precedes the verb: i gar Idste han boken. plock 9. Nej. for Ja. jag hb'r Ar det nagot (anything) viktigt? en vecka sedan (a week ago). : EXERCISE VI. tyck (ought) ha jag. 10. when he came OBSERVE. the postand the plural endings. (c) In the imperative. ty pastor Strom holl (preached) en ypperlig predikan. to hold. vadr 7. Sa trakigt positive definite article . plur. att ban . tva gang . b). men bar ej honom annu.) sang. att jag promener ut blomm 8.). Har ni varit i kyrk var sa vackert. talade han he spoke to me. 4. (93. Vart for att p). jag bar sok traff honom 3. (you) just come here. Nu behb'v han bar ha goss ty se salt (sold) fabrik . Inversion occasioned by preceding modifiers of the verb occurs only in principal clauses and in dependent clauses introduced by att.a question Impf. of halla. med honom om det. Jag vandr genom skog . att komma hem till middag ? Det 2 tror jag. 6. if the pronoun is expressed du hit bara. gen. . tala amn kopa vagn och nagra par hast Jag tank han ej nagra (any). gatt (gone) ? De ha gatt som han ag till muse (del . phrase or clause. till mig. 3 varit i kyrkan i dag. way 3 of 'asking. ty de bruka forsumma nagot (any) mal. Supply the proper endings of the verbs. 2 Note position of 4 Swedish Grammar . 5.) tavl som de ej i man beromm sa mycket. och horde pa fagl Det var (def. pa (look at) de nya (plur. 'Observe the Swedish del and inverted order. han bar res stad for att traffa nagra (some) van 2. dag? pa landet. Ar herr Quist hemma i dag? Nej. 41 (b) When the object or one of the other adjuncts of the verb.EXERCISE. (neuter). or both. Ni borde en harlig predikan. yesterday he read the book da han kom.

en for'middag. crowded -ar. Vad har han gjort med fabrikerna. to need beromma. 2. som han a'gde? 7. Blomberg. neglect. to use en ef'termiddag. cellent sermon and the church was crowded.42 B. magnificent horse hora. Varfor var han ej ni tala med honom om? 4. 5) which have been praised 1 so highly. 1 Use man with the active. me that he had sold his (sina) two factories. in the afternoon full'paclcad. pa for'middagen. afternoon pd ef'termiddagen. I saw (sag) Mr. behova. Vad 6'nsk amna han kopa hastar och vagnar ? 5. 5. en hast. I thought that he owned only one. 7) into the 6. to hear -ar. Varfor tror ni. Nar hemma? 3. -ar. to praise bruJca. miss forsoka. to listen to . lib. On the way out I met Mr. to try Jidrlig. Varfor kb'p han dem ej nu ? 6. In the forenoon I visited the museum in order (A. I. Quist. Var det mycket folk i kyrkan ? 1. lib. Vem predik att de komma hem till middagen? i kyrkan C. He told country. The two subdivisions of the Second Conjugation will be designated by a and b. 9. in the forenoon forsumma. I. i dag ? 10. Where were you the whole day? (ingen) answered. attends very often. Pastor Strom preached (lioll) an exto look at the new pictures. but you were not at In the afternoon I telephoned twice. Mrs. 1. Blomberg there. B. 4. N. lib. 8. Aro Karl och Gustav hemma ? 8. 7. 2 gar i kyrkan. on the contrary (ddremot). forenoon ho'ra pd. In the afternoon I took a walk (A. VOCABULARY. VOCABULARY. I la. I tried to see home. who seldom attends church 2 10. 10) in church to-day. You ought to have been (A. Answer in Swedish and supply verbal endings. . glorious. but no one 3. i Vem har ni besok dag? 2. 9. you yesterday.

and conj. seldom soka. ago lib. sedan. to preach en predi'kan. yet IDIOMS. -er. meet kopa. hor pd.INFLECTION OF NOUNS buy pa landet. to seek. to think predi'ka. also -en for neuter monosyllables. prep. too bad tror. weighty. relate jag tycker.. speak to trdkig. 106. . at noon mycket. 107. vagn. to take a walk ringa pd' hos. att trdffa (rdka) en person. wagon. important en vdg. since for. FOURTH DECLENSION. Ha. 1. -ar. Jag ser pd.. to ring up sedan (adv. dinner pd middagen. the whole day. I. way ypperlig. to own iinnu.> en sdng. I. This declension contains: (a) A few neuter monosyllables ending in a vowel. but en middag. to wander. road. (ut) to 4. tedious. to (into) the country men. I look at. Nouns (Continued). -n in 105. to see (meet) a person. lib. meal. 2. sad. see. to pick tdnka. listen to. Ha. noon. look for trdffa. twice tycka. Ha. -a in the plural. long ago. Ha. Ha. to think om'tala. definite article is -t or -ei in the singular. The nouns of this declension take The postpositive the plural. hela dagen. highly ett mdl. excellent tiga. goal mota. it seems to me plocka. sermon promene'ra. to meet. believes tvd ganger. I.. tell. unpleasant sd trdkigt. for Idnge sedan. 3 4. LESSON Inflection of VII. song siillan. carriage vandra. I. -ar.). two years ago. -ar. for tvd ar sedan. I. stroll viktig. I.

ett bi. form bi-t. and a THE INDEFINITE DECLENSION. The : Indefinite Declension has the following endings -t in the neuter singular. ett rike PI. see 112. 110. as. 2. konkret. may also have the def. NOTES ON THE SINGULAR. TconTcret. -a (-e. 108. piano-n piano-t piano-n-a bi-et fci-wa (also bi-en) PI. (b) Most neuter nouns of more than one syllable ending in an unaccented vowel. Examples of nouns belonging to the Fourth Declension : ett hjdrta. ogon and 6'ron. sing. etc. salt. likewise foreign adjectives ending in -t: absolut neuter. The adjectives have an indefinite declension. ett hjarta hjarta-n Sg. Declension of Adjectives. ett bi 5i-n The words oga. a piano . bo-t. neuter. 111. neuter. and similar neuter nouns. ear. definite 109. absolut. ett rike. ett piano PI. Adjectives ending in -t preceded by a consonant do not take the ending -t in the neuter. a heart. INDEFINITE Sg. NOTE. salt. a realm. salt. ett piano. 1) in the plural for all genders. ogonen and oronen. 60. eye. and ora. form. a bee. . 1. have the plurals. Sg. generally -e. def. Bf. rike-n PI. DEFINITE hjdrta-t hjarta-n-a rike-t rike-n-a Sg.44 DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. 1.

etc. sant. lat. Adjectives ending in -e (especially present participles) do not change in the neuter: alskande. neuter. ont. one is dropped and the other changed to t : trodd. ripe. form of the neuter. neuter. ddel. trogen. bid. -er eliminate the vowel of these endings when the plural ending. trott. 3. as. -en. 5. ode. ddla. lazy. .INDEFINITE DECLENSION. 112. NOTES ON THE PLURAL. If the adjective ends in a double d. neuter. If the final d is preceded by a consonant it is eliminated: ond. brand. brant. is added: gammal. not used in the indef. gamla. burned. broad. true. neuter. ode. as. left. neuter. fritt. neuter. believed. good. troget. funnen. and also when it -is used predicatively: ett sndll-t barn ar sin moders frojd. 1. bred. blue. brett. desolate. faithful. The adjective is declined in the Indefinite Declension when used attributively with a noun in the indefinite sense. funnet. found. Adjectives ending in an accented vowel add -tt: fri. 4. The is but -e USE OF THE INDEFINITE DECLENSION. free. bldtt. always used when the adjective ends in -ad (past participles of the First Conjugation) and sometimes. neuter. t Adjectives ending in -d preceded by a vowel change d to in accented syllables before the neuter t: god. vanster. loving. 45 2. mogna. Some adjectives are iilskande. a 113. -el. neuter. in unaccented syllables d is dropped: Jcallad. 6. Adjectives ending in unaccented -en change n to the neuter t. 2. plural generally takes the ending -a for all genders. especially in solemn style. barnet ar vac- . neuter. gott. Adjectives ending in a double n drop one n before the neuter t: sann. kaUat. neuter.neuter. called. evil. good child is the joy of its mother. mogen. noble. Adjectives ending in an unaccented -al. 1. old. when the adjective modifies a masculine noun. -a or -e.

46 INDEFINITE DECLENSION Karl och Robert dro ftiand Robert Carl are industrious boys. sndll-a barn-s modrar. a good child. 117. ddla namn namn dlskade man man en dlskad moder ett dlskat land dlskade modrar dlskade lander RULES OF SYNTAX. en god flicka Sg. F. 116. ddelt. noble. PARADIGMS WITH NOUNS. PI. good children. Examples of the NEUTER Indefinite Declension: M. 114. gen. en ddel konung en ddel kvinna PI. god PI. the mothers of good children. faithfully. . goda gossar goda flickor barn barn goda ett gott ett ddelt Sg. sndll-a barn. tig-a gossar. the child is pretty. GENDER FORM GENDER FORM NEUTER Sg. en dlskad PI. the indefinite Most descriptive adjectives can be used in form of the neuter singular as adddelt. nobly. ddla konungar ddla kvinnor Sg. ker-t. absolut absolut absoluta trodd trott trodda 115. troget. thus. gott ddel ddelt goda ddla Sg. troget. tro- verbs. gammal gamla onda gammalt ont trogen troget trogna dlskad dlskat dlskade Sg. Sg. en god gosse PI. faithful. the mother of a good child. ond PL PI. F. Adjectives agree with the nouns they qualiin case: ett sndll-t fy in number and gender but not barn. ett sndllt barn-s moder. ddel. M.

11.. pi. Vad talade traffade ni dar? 8. . dar och plock 10. I gar var det men . Pa tillbaka. . Han mannisk . 11. dashes are put even where no B. Det gick (went) is var blank och hard 5. Var aro satena? C. pi. som res (went) till Amerika for tva ar sedan. Var hade han varit? han om? 10. Hurudant var vadret i gar? Huru manga (many) grader 2. Vad gjorde visade termometern under fryspunkten? 5. (noble) 8. Beskriv (describe) skridskobanan ? 7. och (red) mycket (yellow) (sweet). dar ni var i gar? pa kvallen? 6. Vad gjorde ni (did . Vem tillhor tradgarden. Under traden (the trees) aro sate och i gren (def. Var det lugnt (calm) 4. ty var illuminerad. Answer in Swedish: ? 1.) . Skrid(adv. I The weather is believe that the cold to-day.).EXERCISE. som jag kann . thermometer indicates several degrees . en stor musikkar spel . .. do) ni under (during) dagen? 3. Av alia . (def. 2. 7. Apple nagra. 1. . knowledge Xote inverted order..) bygga fagl J (def.) aro och . . A. mannisk is traff 2 jag en gammal van. kail Supply the proper endings : 1. In order to the student's 2 endings are to be supplied. 2. fryspunkt 3. En 2 l haftig bias och termometer . 47 EXERCISE VII.. atskillig grad mycket nordan under (adv. pi.). som i manga hanseende behag min vans tradgard vaxa 2 god apple I gar var 2 jag . hastig (adv. 4*.. 9. but cLar and beautiful. Vem 9. . I . och glad (proper form of munter) styck ak fram och 6. . klar och vacker vis . Amerika.) sina bo test . Hela dag 2 arbet jag trog men pa ypperlig kvallen ak skoban jag skridskor. ar 2 han den hade mycket att saga om forhallande i honom. . men nu har kommit (come) tillbaka.. baste.

hart. band ett 60. below the freezing point. The hard and r-mooth. to build fryspunkt. pa. enjoyment to pick gammal. faithful . branch gul. red hastig. good I wish ice is ex- (invert) to skate a couple (of) hours. of the adjective: is also the gender the adverb. -t. -er. being forhdllande. I. N. illuminated en termome'ter. hard hdftig. ice kail. 9. pleas- human ett noje. mometer en is. There I see a couple (of) old friends. I wish to speak to (vid) them.) -or. I. -n. -t. 2 kno\v. seat hdnseende. soft. -or. troget. 6. respect sot. very all day. skating rink spela. to play (music) hard. -n. rod. and to-night a big baud will 2 1 play in the rink. the latter behaga. merry en musik'kdr. glad. ett -t. 10. piece vehement ett sate. to please blank. Two forms are given and the neuter form. rott. If the ice is 5. ure. in. man. The band plays merry and music pieces. Do you know if the rink is illuminated to-night? Surely (ja visst). 4. yellow rapid violent. nest bygga. en skridsko. 11. -n. -er. many manniska (fern. sweet iUumine'rad. klar. 7. freezing point eti mdnga.48 VOCABULARY 3. VOCABULARY. shiny bldsa. B. condition. -ar. -rar. ' I am tired because I have worked faithfully cellent. -t. relation -t. They have been in America and know the con- to skate rapidly back and forth. -t. -n. smooth. glad glatt. I. to blow munter. I like ditions there. 2) . a Use present tense and invert (104. -t. lib. happy en grad. -n. skate en skridskobana. -t. It is a great pleasure 8. vet. -er. old plocka. ett stycke. amusement. clear Ha. degree en gren. -rat. -ar. 1 -r. merry happy people. ther- cold trogen.

apple IDIOMS: 1. Ha. FIFTH DECLENSION. -n. sheep. . mouse. includes: in -ande (a) All gender NOTE. 49 iidel. (d) The nouns fader. fader. I. or -en for gender nouns and -et for neuter nouns in the singular and -no. of peoples and nouns of foreign origin ending (c) Most neuter nouns ending in a consonant. brother. 'Generally pronounced skrisko. swine. The nouns belonging to this declension take no ending in the plural (cf. man gas. broder.FIFTH DECLENSION. travel ett viider. louse mus. to skate. indicate uka.re. deer. liamr- (b) Names in -er. nouns ending and -are. . The postpositive article is -n. aka skridsko. . and kallare have also the plurals kamr-ar. Nouns (Continued). broder. except those ending in -eum and -ium which belong to the Third Declension. ha. weather show. ride. noble visa. 120. ett apple. in English).. from och tillbaka. . The Fifth Declension Kammare. back and forth. 2. and kallr-ar. LESSON Inflection of VIII. pi. father. (sometimes -ne for masculines in -are) for gender nouns and -en for neuter nouns 119. -t. in the plural. goose lus. man. 118.mma. which modify the vowel in the plural. or.

en ett mu'siker. NOTE. ett modus PL modus *Observe the elimination of the re. en ordforande. 121. Declension of Adjectives (Continued). mossen. Fot has the plural fatter only when signifying a part of the body. article is generally -na even for words like bagare. to distinguish its plural from the plural domarna of dom. Examples of nouns of the Fifth Declen- sion: en bagare. however. . modus. note 4. loss. and a few common words measure as. loss. ett namn.no. a name. a mode. of man. INDEFINITE en Sg. indefinite singular of the we find -e. which is added to the original form (the -e gender form) 123. . en ordforande PL ordforande Sg. c). a baker.50 DEFINITE DECLENSION. THE DEFINITE DECLENSION. en musiker PL musiker Sg. for the def. Such forms as doma- or domrarna from domare. judge. form is used (73. ett DEFINITE bagare-n bagarna (ne)* ordforande-n ordforande-na musiker-n musiker-na namn namn-et PL namn Sg. cf. 2 Words in -us cannot take the postpositive article. . gdssen. bagare PL bagare Sg. namn-en modus 2 modus e of the ending -are. are growing obsolete. . sometimes. lossen. 73. In the Definite Declension the adjective has practically only one ending. The indef. foot turn. mile. gdss. 122. a chair- man. sentence. -a. note 5. The def. moss have the definite forms mannen. moss. The ending takes the place of -a in the following instances: . a musician.' fot. gdss. inch mil. Klein.

the latter expression is emphatic and formal den stor-e mannen means the great man. the noble conduct of the king. the old woman. but den gamla. as. sense of physical largeness. den alskade drottningen. the fine house of my uncle. the old man. . (3) After the possessive and demonstrative adjec- and pronouns as. den gamles hus. as. as. 124. -om. (a) 51 Often in the singular. Stora would here because of its greater commonplaceness convey the when : . After a noun in the genitive. the beloved queen. de rike. NOTE. In expressions of address and in apposition (4) Dear with a personal pronoun. -e (se). as. the adjective then has a genitive in -s: den gamle. Adjectives ending in -a. (c) Always when the adjective ends in -ad. my new gloves. Kdre van! I friend. konungens ddla upptrddande. (b) When the adjective is used as a noun to denote human beings of the male sex. the rich man. den stor-e (never stor-a) Gustav Adolf. min far(2) brors vackra hus. USE OF DEFINITE DECLENSION. the house of the old man.DEFINITE DKCLENSIOX. -s (es) and -tals are indeclinable. the Swedish language (69). den rike mannen. tives . Jag olyckliga manniskal unhappy man. the rich. denne trogne tjdnare. this faithful servant. occasionally in the the adjective modifies a noun denoting plural a person of the male sex den god-a (also god-e) gossen. svenska sprdket. mina nya handskar. The adjective is declined in the Definite Declension when used: (1) Before a noun with the postpositive article.

den flickan. trogn-a trogn-a dlskad-e dlskad-e -en. den gamle. ddl-a(e) PI. de : (small) gossarna. man. form. ett det (wet) faltet. FEM. trogen. before hel. half. whole. positive definite article must also be used. 126. ddl-a ddl-a ddl-a ddl-a Sg. ett -. faithful. The prepositive article is generally employed when the adjective lilla. -el. the beautiful girl. the whole night. A. first thus. den the little girl. thus.52 EXERCISE. (noble) mannen. before superlatives and adjectives self . the NOTE 1. is omitted in a number of set phrases. is the ten most industrious boys. the beautiful. forsta dagen. 125. (respected) ett namnet. den vackr-a barn-et. the old tkona. de tio flitigast-e gossarna. dlskad. de (70) is employed when the noun is qualified pi. dlskad-e PI. ett (wet) fait. MASC. . min faders de (ripe) applena. flickan. dlskad-e NOTE. the day vdnstra sidan. often especially such as serve as of place . . Adjectives ending in unaccented drop the vo\\t-l uf their last syllable before -a or -e of the def. loved. names halv. Examples of the NEUTER Sg. -er Sg. used as a noun. by an adjective or numeral in such a case the post. det. del It . svemka gpr&ket. 'EXERCISE VIII. The prepositive definite article den. Swedish language . THE USE OF THE PREPOSITIVE DEFINITE ARTICLE. de (faithful) lararna. thus.(red) hus. 2. ddl-a (e) PI. noble. (sweet} barn. left side the . trogn-a(e) trogn-a(e) trogn-a trogn-a dlskad-e dlskad-e -al. det sndll-a good child. the hela natten. Supply the proper form of the Swedish equivalents of the adjectives given within parenthesis in the following den (beautiful) hus. det (little) (free) land. Definite Declension: ddel. sjalv.

(he. lange och varfor maste ni . and f. de . fattas er?" fragade har ofta en mycket "Jag jag. ett -. this den skicklige lakaren dr Buren.) . translate of. till Denne 8. Jag maste (had to) vanta en hel timma. Kanner er far dr Buren? 8. Hur lange hade ni promenerat? 6. I gar vaknade jag med en haftig huvudvark. det ar for aptiten. 15. 3. mannen. Da jag kom (came) tillbaka. ty de hade vantat lange. Var ni bra. Var har han sitt Hum Hur mottagningsrum? 9. - B. Vad f attades er ? Vad mor gjorde ni fore frukosotaliga ? ten Varfor voro er far och 5.. "Ar aptiten god eller 14. de -. (sweet) barn (pi. voro 4." 12. 3. 4. den (free one. "Vad den gamle vanlige lakaren. ty det var far. Hans mottagningsrum af manga patienter fore mig." "Hur sover ni?" 16.(ripe [ones]). 2). ar den mycket dalig.(small) barn. haftig hufvudvark".). svarade dalig?" 13. 1. 2. lit. i Answer ? in Swedish : 1. men kunde Pa eftermiddagen gick jag 7. min far och Jag madde mor otaliga. dricka en kopp av det starka kaffet.). innan jag traffade honom.) ni? 7. "Far (may) jag se pa er tunga?" 17. Jag forsokte inte. (att) 6. nar ni vaknade gar ? 2. ett (salt) 53 bad. m. Dessutom (126. 9. 11.. manga koppar kaffe drack (impf. 10. 1 one) ar en gammal van till min ar i det nya huset pa hornet och Kungsgatan Vasagatan.(noble) den (respected) lakare. de (new) lararna. ej ata nagot av den goda maten. "Pa morgonen "Daligt. den (new one) . i "Har har ni ett recept. Jag kladde mig och promenerade i den vackra parken en timme fore frukosten.EXERCISE." ordinerade han rorelse i friska luften Till is sometimes used to express genitive relation . m. inte (did not feel) alls bra och kunde (could) 5. (old [one]. and f. C.

before en huvudvark (no pi. When automobile.54 vanta? 11. VOCABULARY 10. in. en frukost (pron. child not (conj. Vad 1. He came soon in the big red telephone for 4. alls. lilla. Buren. corner before en aptit (no pi. pi. 5. to drink little. fritt. telephone. Dr.) air en lakare. reception room. and he are old friends. and adv. his appetite At (vid) to 1 noon (def. I. to prescribe otdlig. old friend?" 7. anything ordine'ra. King's street dessutom. He came down for (till) breakfast (def. in addition liten.). fruckost). ripe (18. breakfast (en) luft (no pi. -t. new fore (prep. exercise prescribed 1 Have to when in the present it denotes compulsion and imperfect. food mogen. free frisk. which call. VOCABULARY. automobile ett bad.). to lack. impatient . he asked (104.) but could not eat anything (ndgot).) headache ndgot. woke up to-day with a very 3. -er. smd). -ar. -et (def. at all eft horn. inte. well ddlig. fresh. violent headache. dricka (strong verb). fri. and fresh air. 2) my father. innan kldda.). fattas bad. poor (deponent verb).) 2 was very poor and we had the famous old physician. -t. bath ett barn. "What ails you. send. Besides he the other (andra) for the poor appetite. -et. to dress en kopp. is the same 'For with the verbs like ask. Our dear father 6. lib. healthy -t. physician (en) mat (no pi. When he had examined him he wrote he came (sJcrev) two prescriptions. besides. which he bought last year (i fjol). doctor's office ny. Vad fragade den gamle vanlige lakaren er? ordinerade (prescribed) han? old father My 2.) appetite en automobil'. small bra. is expressed by mdste. is rendered efter. 8. write. one for the violent headache. 1) ett mottagningsrum. well. nytt. Z>. -ar. to ail I. cup Kungsgatan.

others (see 85. I. dottrar pi. bonde. peasant. Third. A . to sleep IDIOMS: 1. Often there is also a vowel modification. vtinta. kind to wait skicklig. . and Fifth Declensions modify the root vowel in the plural as. -t. en patient'. pi. -or. . movement. I. see 86. tongue vakna. see 81. notes 1 and 2 and 85. en kopp kaffe. vatt. inte alls. . note 4. so'ner (grave accent). skillful vanlig. prescription ansedd. son. (b) For the elimination of the endings -us and -um after e and i before the plural ending. exercise salt. IRREGULARITIES IN DECLENSION. father. note. -t. and some few nouns of the Third Declension double (d) the last consonant. as. 2. (c) A few nouns of the Second. modrar son. Nouns (Continued). to telephone en tunga. to wake up telefone'ra. pi. daughter. man pi. notes 1 and 2). sova (strong verb). ansett. -er. 55 patient stark. coffee. bonder broder dotter. not at LESSON Inflection of IX. . -r. For the syncopation of the vowel of an un(a) accented ending before the plural ending. pi. man moder.IRREGULAR DECLENSION. a cup of all. brother fader. fader man. salt I. pi. wet friendly. strong ett recept'. mother. Vasagatan. -t. respected en rorelse. 127. broder. Vasa street vdt. pi.

toe. examen. DECLENSION OF PROPER NAMES. a. pi. (f) pi. : faktum. the latter only takes the Mr. goose. fi'ende.56 THE CASES. loss. pi. cow. pi. ko-r sko. fakta. moss. getter not. wife. pi. gas. a few monosyllabic gender nouns end- Some nouns ing in o. ko. goat. Sveriges floder dro vackra. If a title precedes the lish: herr Liners dotter dr hdr. LineVs daughter is here.. CASES. and places take an -s in the genitive ex. cities. mountains. sko-r td. pi. . and some others. countries. nut. klo. rivers. gdss. the objective being identical with the nominative. pi. The nominative and the genitive are the only cases that need to be taken into account in the declension of nouns. enemy. fiende-r claw. of the Third Declension take only -r in the plural. pi. ta-r (g) Many loan words retain their foreign plural pi. the rivers of Sweden are beautiful. I am reading the poetry of Tegner. name. mus. notter (e) So also. hustri(-r pi. backer fot. klo-r hustru.) NOTE. nouns ending in unaccented -e. louse. Ins. bok. . (Exceptions 130. such are. book. 128. pi. pi. f otter get. examina. Names of persons. examination. jag laser Tegners dikter. pi. a. shoe. mouse. fact. o. -* as in Eng- THE 129. pi. pi. as. foot.

The nominative and the objective need no illustration since their functions are the same as in English. or -xt in a common noun ending in an s-sound. (c) In certain expressions names of localities ending in a vowel use a nominative in apposition where other words would require a genitive. Note also the genitive of Jesus. the genitive relation is generally expressed by the prepositions pd and till (rarely av) thus. indefinite and definite. instead of en blixts hastighet. THE GENITIVE. blixtens Cb) In the case of -st. . When several words are used to designate the same (e) person or object. IMPORTANT OBSERVATIONS. as. Uppsala universitet. the life of Christ. vdggarna till ett hus. the univer- sity of Upsala. taket p& ett hus. liv. 131. konungen av Sveriges (also konungens av Sverige) hov. the last word in the group generally takes the -s: Karl den stores rike. singular and plural. as. x. The Swedish Grammar 5 . SYNTAX OF THE CASES. adding only an apostrophe. as. the rapidity of a flash of lightning. the walls of a house. as has been stated before. sometimes by putting the noun in the definite form and suffixing an s. the court of the king of Sweden. The genitive is formed.THE GENITIVE. the Gospel of (a) St. occurs with nouns in -us. Johannes' evangelium. the roof of a house. In regard to the genitive it is of prime importance to notice that the form in -s is employed much more freely in Swedish than in English. 2) in the nominative have their possessive of the same form. by the addition of an -s to the nominative. (d) A Latin genitive in -i Kristi Jesu. hastighet. Proper nouns ending in an s-sound (s. as. John. the realm of Charles the Great. 132. 57 130. the nominative.

this is my sister's hat. tio meter tyg. last fall A of temporal expression with This use of t varas. for tio kronor socker. min mors ligger ddr borta. Blombergs dro sjuka. land till sjoss. a cup of coffee. which. i governing the geni- tive denotes a past period. NOTE. however. the nominative is used en kopp kaffe. are common occurrence. (c) the prepositions till In a few expressions a genitive is used after i and till: gd till sdngs. Somewhat analogous is the use of the geni(b) tive designating the house. is genitive relation rarely expressed by the prepo- sition av. thus impersonal nouns. 134. of. last i hostas. ten crowns' worth of : 1 sugar. to go to bed. detta dr min systers hatt. by water. bordets ben. to or at sea lands. which in English invariably would be construed with of to express the genitive relation. vid mdnadens slut. . in Swedish take -s. at table. : gd Sunday till bords. family. ett kilo smo'r. a kilogram of butter. 133. and nouns of value. After quantitative nouns of measure and weight. last spring. the Blombergs are sick. to sit . ten meters of cloth. the legs of the table. as. or business of somebody: jag bor hos Lindholms. i i sondags. very and till is limited to a few phrases. I live at Lindholm's. down . my mother's lies over there. by . The following uses of the genitive should be noted: The word modified by the genitive is omit(a) ted in expressions like: min klocka dr vackrare an min brors. at the end of the month. my watch is prettier than my brother's.58 THE GENITIVE.

EXERCISE IX. Hur tyck till August Strindberg och Selma Lagerlof. university of Upsala is very old. of Sweden. kryc- kan pa kappen. 5. the cover of the box. love of country. The streets of Berlin. Tyvarr den svensk litteratur sisk Kanner ni till icke. 16.) arbet har 1 jag dikt (pi.EXERCISE. kdrleken till j osier landet. The banks of the Mississippi are beautiful. 2 Put Berlin in apposition with 1. thus. 12. the sight of land. 3. 2 18. The speech of the emperor of Germany. Tegners Fritiofs saga och Eunebergs episk forfattare kanner jag indef. He is at sea. 4. Charles XII. Supply endings where indicated: val ? 2. 7. . The theaters of Paris. 1. The city (of) Berlin . city. 2 ni om Strindberg. jag tyck mycket battre om Selma Lagerlofs bb'cker. B. Where Translate the following sentences and expressions. the author (place author first). 11. 10. sometimes by av. Av de klaslast forfatt (pi. I bought the shoes at Lindwas a pupil of Socrates 1 holm's. 13. translate: one of Socrates' pupils. 14. gen. ar han ej mycket pessimistisk ? 4. He came (kom) last Monda}'. by till The possessive genitive is often expressed (or pa) when the possessor is an inanimate till object: locket ladan.). the crutch of the cane (never hatten till den unge mannen. A. Jo . 17. The of Strindberg. 15. is the leg of the table (in two ways) ? 2. The literature . 59 is 135. The objective genitive often expressed by till. The history of Mr. 8. The books 6. A cup of good coffee. asynen av land. but den unge mannens hati. Lindgren's daughters. My house and my father's. def. the young man's hat). och av Sveriges modern 3. Plato 9. The is roof of the house (in two ways) poor.

Hade ni ej i amnat ga pa teatern gar? Vad D. C. 2. -Jo is *rhe def. Yes. Fausts 10. kanner ni till? Lagerlof an om i Strindberg? 5. 8. Does the No. EXERCISE. sir (min her re) 3. om Selma att 6.) Prance (128). it is Where do you pass your win- Sometimes in Italy and sometimes in one of the 5. 1. wish to buy the works of Topelius (130. I met them at Blomberg's last Have you read Selma Lagerlof's famous (def. Where is to-day's paper (the day's 2 paper ) ? I wish to read the latest (senaste) speech of the king of England. Nej. Williams' mother? his brother's. I like the towns of southern (def. 7. roll i Gb'thes i dram. spela en' i gar kvall? 6. Det var skada. a) parents? 8. I believe. def. spelade nu Gustav land tal? 11. Gustav Adolfs roll? to-night. I What do you wish. spelade 7. Blombergs och vi voro dar. Herr Palme. ty jag amn snb'a. 7. (pi. ty forevar utmarkt. som i mandags spelade Adolfs. Are you acquainted with Francis' (130.60 5. men jag hade hade hb'r att man skulle (would) av Strindbergs dramer. utfb'randet av rollerna). Vilka av de klassiska fb'rfattarna fb'rfattare har ni last? 3. climate of Italy better than that of southern France (than ters? southern France's). 4. form of the adjective used in answering a question containing a is used after a possessive modifier (124. Vilka moderna Varfor tycker ni battre 4. man gar kvall? utfb'rde 1 Hurudan var fore- stallningen? 1. d). gen. men sa borj det att . Var ni ej pa teater att ga. Monday. Conversation.) . negative. Har ni Kan last tidning ni saga om kejsarens av Tyskvad Sokrates' berb'md 3 mig larjunge hette? *Note the inverted order. 6. Charles? i Where are you going am ? going to Sandell's. och vi stallning Roll stann hemma. 9. green house belong to Mr. Vem 2.) utfb'rande var mycket gott (also. note 2).

. epic en roll. Brown. VOCABULARY. to I. poem en dram. stop parents gron. 12.southern in'nehdlla Ilalien jo.. -or. know about ett utforande. -ar. -ar. I. snu'a. see Jidlla). 10. 3 Samt . modern'. Ila. green en gas.en skildring. though rarely used in conversation med. ett brod. description. Sweden sitdra (def. ett -t. (st. -ar. speech. butter en forfat'tare. work en Idrjunge. ett drama (no plur. perform. sleepy en sang. to -ar. giiss. ett tak. portrayal ance (ett) smor. -n. en teater. "Jerusalem" it ? 1). France sen. but have heard contains an excellent portrayal of the peasants of that Sweden. -ar. -ar. Where have you bought the chickens and the geese? 11. v. pessimistic part (acting) Frankrike (neuter). roof to contain number (neuter). -t. tired tyvlirr'. pupil bread Ila. -t. book. -t.). drama episk.VOCABULARY. -n. I What have bought them at Lind's. newspaper trott. Aren't they fine? do you wish. ett arbete. to read en dikt. 61 I Unfortunately not. is interchangeable with och to avoid repetition. classic klimaf. snow to stay. Mr. -t. sir? I wish a cup of strong coffee. -rar. damage Frans. -er. goose heta. young chicken performance . bed ett tal. I believe I am very tired. en kyckling. butter. unfortunately kiinna lib. sleepy. modern en mdndag. execution. lii-sa. Francis en fo'restdllning. late skada. -t. somnig. only). Italy yes (used in answer to a negative question) klassisk. author fo'rdldrar (plural only). could be used here. Sverige (neuter). Monday pessimis'tisk. tteater en tidning. -t. so late last night. to be called stanna. you are went to bed translate: Where do you intend to go to-night f 2 Also tidningen for i dag. climate till'. -er. -ar. with. I and (samt 3 ) bread and Yes. -er.

to sew. a pity. -tt in the neuter form of the past participle -tt (HI. it is pd en konsert. jag m du [. (Continued). stem vowel in the plural of the present indicative. both numbers. \ syr han] han] . belong all weak verbs which end in any other vowel 136. tion : 4). y. which may be considered a slightly modified form of the Second. Examples att tro. a not a. 1. det skada. THIRD CONJUGATION. . -dde in the imperfect indicative. teatern. the singular of the present indicative. -dd in the gender form of the past participle. This conjugation contains comparatively few verbs.62 THIRD CONJUGATION. -ende in the present participle (111. LESSON The Verb X. infinitive. 138. To than -a in the 137. IDIOMS. the Third Conjugation. I >tror du ni 1. fag] Sg. note 7). in the supine. 2. o. -n in the archaic second plural. The Third Conjugation has the following : endings -r in stem vowel in the infinitive : e. to attend the theater. a concert. att ga iir pa. PRESENT INDICATIVE Sg. to believe of verbs of the Third Conjugaatt sy.

etc. Nom. Obj. /tar trott. Masc. Masc.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Personal Pronouns. etc. FIRST PERSON SECOND PERSON THIRD PERSON Masc. etc. PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE. 139. 63 vi 1 ni nro vi ] ni \sy de\ I de\ iron I syn IMPERFECT INDICATIVE. jag 1 jag j. jag Gen. PI. du ni \sydde han\ PI. DECLENSION OF THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. han\ vi ] ni \sydde vi ni ] ttrodde J de / de J trodden I sydden PERFECT INDICATIVE. Fern. jag hade trott. . yagr Tiar ST/if. jag hade sytt. and Fern. } I du ni ttrodde {. and Fern. Neuter Sg. Sg. du (din) dig han hans hon det (min) mig honom hennes dess henne det PI. etc.

REMARKS ON THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. : . I saw him yesterday. For the use of du and ni in address. (a) The personal pronouns with the exception of the third person lack genitive forms these forms are supplied by the possessive adjectives. a. Doctor? to move out into the country. as.: Kommer doktorn night. (c) In conversational language 'en or 'n is sometimes appended to the verb or to the pronoun subject in a question and used as a sort of enclitic pronoun for honom or den. form for the second person occurs in a few Ers Majestat. Ex. Ers excellens. 67. the lady) it is impolite to omit name or title in speaking to persons we know Vill herrn vara sa . Your Majesty. name or is i kvall? Will you come toBut Kommer doktor Lind i kvall? Are you coming to-night. b. The definite form of the title is generally used except when it occurs together with the used in independent construction. likewise also 'et or 't for det and 'no. But a genitive titles. Your Excellency. for henne. or fro'ken (also damen. It is considered more polite in the singular to use the title of the person with or without herr or fru. 140. Doctor? Persons whose titles and names are unknown may be addressed with herrn. Jag sag 'en i gar. . Doctor Lind ? Ndr flyttar ni ut pa landet. Pick du't? Did you get it? 141.64 PERSONAL PRONOUNS. frun. (b) Mig and dig are colloquially pronounced mdj and daj. herr doktor? When are you going Ex. see 142.

8. voro (93. A. sir. 5. ej automobil mera? 11. ej forma henne att aka automobil mera. Vad aka i kolliderade ni med ? 7. EXERCISE X. Varfor bor ni pa landet? 3. Varfb'r besoker (93. och min hustru blev (was) skadad. var villa ligger vid sjostrand . a) vi ute och kb'r nya bil. Conversation. 7. det bero pa olyckan. om ni tyck (pi. Ja. Vag roddbat. G5 god och saga mig. Varfor flyttade ni ut sa sent? 5. och fran dess veranda ha vi en harlig utsikt over sjb'n. men jag kan 8. Var tillbring (impf. som han herr doktor. Vi ha det sa trevligt.) till mitt arbete. 1. 11.) aro fb'rtrafflig och passande for automobilakning. jag maste fly ut i naturen for att hamta nya kraft (pi. forma 1. vid en harlig liten insjo. med en sparvagn. 7ad skedde.EXERCISE. is the pronoun ni with the To combine convenience with politeness one may judiciously intersperse title. b) ni oss aldrig. Var bodde ni i somras? 2. 4. 3. medan vi bo pa landet? 9. Flyttade ni ut tidigt i ar? 4. Supply the endings of the verbs and nouns where indicated. 6. Ni flytt ut ganska sent i ar. The existing objection to this convenient pronoun gradually disappearing. B. Nu ma i hon ypperligt. pa landet som vanligt. where King's Street is? NOTE. 10. herr professor. eller hur? min hustru. Nar sommar komm .) ni era ferier i somras (133. nar ni voro ute och akte ? 6. Hum manga slags (kindi of) batar har ni? Vad passa vagarna for? . Var ligger er villa? Hur har ni det pa landet? 10. Varfor vill fru Ed- strom 9. Har vi ni ej hb'r lamna stad vi kollider om den? Strax innan amna (att) i min . var Kungsgatan ar? Will you kindly tell me. herr doktor? 2. def. Vi ha bade (both) motorbat och segelbat och naturligtvis om att ro. Vi bo c). jag inte att stanna i staden langre.

66
C.
1.

VOCABULARY
Doctor Edstrom and his family lived at a beau2. Their villa is situated last summer.

tiful little lake

(Hgger) at (vid) the lake shore, and from the porch they have a charming view over the lake and its islands. 3. The
doctor does not feel well if he does not spend his (sina) vacation in (pa) the country, 4. Last summer they moved out later than usual, for an accident had occurred to Mrs.

Edstrom.

5.

They were out riding

in their (sin) large
6.

new

automobile and collided with a street car.

Mrs. Edstrom

was seriously injured, and now the doctor cannot make her 7. Haven't you (Ex. X, A, 7) ride in an automobile. heard of that (ddrom) ? I thought you and the doctor were very good friends. 8. I have visited them several
times at
(i)

their
9.

home
Once

in the country; they have such a
I stayed a

pleasant home.

whole week and was out
ocli

rowing and

fishing (ute och rodde

metade) on the lake

every (varje) day.

VOCABULARY.
aldrig,

never

kollide'ra,

I,

to collide

allvarsam, -t, serious en automobil'dkning, automobile riding
bero', III, to

en kraft,

-er,

strength

kora, lib, to drive Idmna, I, to leave
langre, longer,

depend

any longer

en

bil, -ar,

colloquial abbrev.

medan, while
meta,
I,

for automobile

to fish

ferier (always plur.) vacation en motorMt, -ar, motor boat fly, III, to flee ma, III, to feel (well, ill, etc.) en natur', -er, nature flytta, I, to move

forma', III, to be able; to induce or compel

natur'ligtvis, of course

ganska (adv.), quite
Jiamta,
I,

en o'lycka, -or, accident, misfortune
passande, suitable
ro, III, to

to

fetch

handa, lib, to happen, occur en hustru, -r, wife en insjo, -ar, lake

row
-ar,
-ar,

en roddbdt, en segelbut,

rowboat
sailboat

INDICATIVE.
en sjostrand, shore
sjiJstriinder,

07

lake

som

vanligt, as usual
-or,

skadad, -at, injured i somras, last summer en spdrvagn, -ar, street car strax, soon
trevlig,
-t,

en veranda, en villa, -or,

porch
cottage

villa,

dka, Ha, to ride en o, -ar, island

over (prep, and adv.) over,
past

pleasant, agreeable

IDIOMS.
1.

att

vara ute och kora, gd, rida,

etc.,

to

be out

driving,

2. 3.
4.

walking, riding. att gd ut och gd, to take a walk. att ha det trevligt, to have a pleasant
att

home

or time.

md

bra, ilia, to feel well, bad,

ill.

LESSON
The Verb

XI.

(Continued).

FUTURE AND FUTURE PERFECT INDICATIVE. 143. The future indicative is formed by combining the present of the auxiliary skola, shall, which
is

skall (in conversation ska), with the present infin-

and the future perfect by combining the same auxiliary with the perfect infinitive.
itive;

FUTURE INDICATIVE
Sg. jag]

FUTURE PERF.
jag]
17

INDIC.

du

\

i

7,

ni
PI.

fskall

(ska) kalla

,

7

x

T

du

ni
vi

[skall (ska) h akaUat

han]
vi

han]
1

m
de
1.

~\

\skola (ska) kalla
J

ni

I

skola (ska)

de
is

ha
j

kallat

I skolen kalla
NOTE
Pure future

I skolen

ha

kallat

generally expressed either by the present or by the infinitive together with the present of the verb komma, to come (296). 2. The double forms of the English future and future perfect, / shall call,
be calling, and / shall have called, I shall have been calling, are to be rendered by the single forms, jag skall kalla and jag skall ha kallat.
I shall

68

IMPERATIVE.

THE IMPERATIVE.
The imperative is formed by attaching to 144. the stem of the verb the following endings:
SINGULAR
Second Person -a or
NOTE.
gular
;

PLURAL
First Person -om Second Person -en or -n
-a in the second person sin-

all

Only verbs of the First Conjugation take other verbs use the mere stem.

145.

Instead of the form in -om, which

is

exceed-

ingly rare, the imperative of the verb Idta, let, latom, generally shortened to lat, is used with the reflexfirst person plural and This form corresponds exactly to the English imperative with let; thus, Idt(om) oss kalla, let us call.

ive

pronoun

oss, us, of the

the infinitive.

Instead of the second person plural in -en or -n the second person singular, with the pronoun ni understood, is used as an imperative for the second person plural.
146.
NOTE.

The pronouns are generally omitted

in the imperative.

147. The conversational language uses a number of expressions which are more polite than the imperative the most common is vill ni vara sa god, will you be so kind; thus, vill ni vara sa god och komma (will you have the kindness to come), also, var sa god och, etc. or the expression, sa dr ni (du) snail (then you are kind), may be used after the imperative; as, kom, sa dr ni snail (please come), or, kan (can) may be used in a question:
; ;

kan du komma mi?
please.

equivalent

to,

come now,

INFINITIVE.

69

148.
to go.

Examples of the imperative of the verbs
bdja, to bend;
tro,

kalla, to call;

to believe;

ga,

kalla (du, ni), kallom, lat(om) oss kalla, kallen(I) (du, ni), bojom, Idt(om) oss bdja, bbjen(I) bd'j tro (du, ni), lat(om) oss tro, iron (I)

ga
NOTE.

(du, ni),

lat(om) oss ga,

gan
-07*1,

(I)
and

Verbs the stem of which ends in a vowel lack the form in

take -n in the second person plural.

149.
(a)

REMARKS ON THE
The present

INFINITIVE.

-a, but verbs of the Third Conjugation and a few verbs of the Fourth Conjugation the stem of which ends in a vowel take no ending in the infinitive. The sign of the infinitive i? att, to. Ex.: att kalla, att

active infinitive ends in

tro, att ga.

(b)
to

The perfect
ha
;

infinitive is

formed as

in

Engtrott,

lish; thus, att

kallat, to'have called; att

ha

have believed att ha

gdtt, to

have gone.

(c) There is also a future infinitive formed by combining the present infinitive of the auxiliary verb skola, shall, with the infinitive of the verb;
as, att

skola kalla.

This

is

rarely used.

(d) The sign of the infinitive is omitted very much as in English. (Further particulars will be given
later.)

phrase expressing purpose is generally introduced by the preposition for, for; as, jag har rest till Tyskland for att studera tyska dar, I have gone to Germany in order to study Ger(e)

An

infinitive

man

there.

70

EXERCISE.

The
150.

Reflexive Pronoun.

only one distinctively reflexive which is used for all genders and numbers of the third person: himself, herself,
is

There

form, the objective

sig,

itself, themselves; as, han (hon) sdtter sig, seats himself (herself) de sdtta sig, they seat themselves.
;

151.

Elsewhere the objective case of the personal
;

pronouns is used as reflexive; as, jag sdtter mig, I seat myself sdtta oss, we seat ourselves.

m

NOTE

1.

In English the reflexive -self must be distinguished from the em-

This is expressed in Swedish by sjalv; as, jag sjalv, I myself; phatic -self. han har gjort det sjalv, he has done it himself. 2. Sjdlva(e) preceding a noun means even ; as, sjdlva konungen kan inte
.gora det, even the king cannot do
it.

EXERCISE XI.
A.
1.

Om m
mig.

kom med
sag
till
i

2.

onska taga en liten tur pa sjon, barn, sa Ga in till Ostermans pa vagen, Karl, och
lana
. . .

dem,
bat
4.

att jag b'nsk
,

(Iheir) bat.

3.

Hop-

pa nu
.
. .

goss

,

men

forsiktigt, sa att ni ej stjalp

(it).

Vem

skall ro?

Jasa, du Erik, nej, lat Karl

ro, jag tror ej, att det skall bli tungt for

honom, ty sjon Sluta att ro, Karl, och slapp ned ankar 6. Se bara, hur Lat oss nu kasta nt rev fisk det ar har! Karl har redan ett napp pa sin mycket krok. 7. Tycker ni inte, att det ar roligt att meta, nar
ligger

som en
.

spegel.

5.

.

man

far

napp?

8.

Var nu
trad

snail och ro

i

land, sa satta vi

oss under det stor

for att ata var middag.

B. 1. Kara barn, oppna lasebockerna pa sidan tjugu, och lat oss lasa Tegners vackra dikt. 2. Sag mig, Karl, vad den handlar om, ar du snail. 3. Det var alldeles riktigt.
4.

Borja nu och las den hogt och Yar god och ursakta mig, froken

val for oss, Maria.
Forsell, jag

kan

ej

EXERCISE.

?'l

lasa hogt; jag ar forkyld och har ont i halscn. 5. Det var 6. Sna.Ha froken, tillat ilia, da skall lilla Klara lasa den.

mig
7.

att lasa den Det var bra

utantill

;

jag bar lart hela dikten utantill.

gjort, Klara.

Hor nu pa uppmarksamt
8.

allesammans, medan Klara deklamera den for or.
C.
2.

laser.

Sedan

skall jag sjalv

Conversation.

1.

Vad

b'nskar ni
3.

(att)

gora

i

dag?
tungt

Vem

ska vi lana baten av?
4.

Varfor

blir det ej

for Karl att ro?

Vad maste man

gora, innan

man kan

5. Vem av er bar napp borja (att) meta? pa sin krok? 6. Nar ar det roligt att meta? 7. Var skola vi ata var

middag?
Klara
Forsell

8.

Varfor kan Maria
att

ej

lasa hogt?
10.

visat,

hon

ar flitig?

9. Hur har Vad amnar froken

(att)

gora, nar Klara har last dikten?

D. 1. The children wished to go out fishing (ut och meta) yesterday. 2. Since we do not have any boat, we had to (maste vi) borrow one from Osterman's. 3. The
boys
it.

jumped
4.

carefully into the boat in order not to upset
it
5.

1 Carl rowed the whole way , and difficult, for the lake was like a mirror.

was not very

Stop rowing, Carl; and you, Eric, drop the anchor. 6. Let us throw out our lines here, boys, there is (A, 6) plenty of (much) fish
ashore and
breakfast.
children.
sit
8.

here, I think.

you are tired we shall (invert) row 8) under the big tree to eat our Please (B, 2) open the books on page ten,
7.

If

down (A,

9.

Tell me, Carl,
is.

who

beautiful

poem

10.

Quite right,

the author of this (denna) my dear boy. And
for us.
11.

now Clara

will recite the
this, I

poem

When

she has

myself shall declaim it for you. 12. don't you begin, Clara ? Have you not learned it by Why heart? 13. Please excuse me (var god och ursakta mig},

done (gjort)

Miss Forsell.

I tried to learn it

by heart yesterday, but

already erne' dan. -lar. to recite by heart IDIOMS: 2.VOCABULARY. -bocker.). VOCABULARY. -ar. mirror stjiilpa.. wicked. bad. window -t. I. well (often referring to to declaim health) angry I. sluta. I have a sore throat. -t. rolig. en sjo. utantill. cautious to treat about handla om. v. noon. I have a headache (huvudvark. correct ett fonster. attentive (-ly) lara. since en rev. alldeles. hog. Ha. any ond. . -er. Ha. ten -t. is bad(ly). amusing lake to cease forkyld' -kylt. redan. -t. riktig. en fisk. throw en krok. form m is no longer intervocalic. hook kasta. quite. nagot. so. I have caught a cold. sore. I.). ur'sakta. to jump (as adv. -ar. deklame'ra. out *Hela vagen: the prepositive article is i huvudet). Jag ar forkyld. 3. -ar. anchor bara. to learn. I had such a sore throat (sa out i lial14. adv. (irr. bite ndgon. v. it is fun. I. and who. jasa'. to upset saga. fish right. as en spegel. sen). having caught a cold forsik'tig.). too bad that so tio. only bra. entirely allesammans. also -t. heavy trip. turn. could (kunde) not. hoppa. dinner ett napp. Note that long m can be written double only when it and principle causes sometimes a dropping of one vppmarksam. yesterday ilia (adv. som conj. lib. reader en middag. luck uppmarksam. to say til'lata (st. I. Carl.) the window. to permit (rel. like. 1. Det ar roligt. omitted. nummer becomes num-ret in the def. sometimes a doubling : m is here intervocalic. Jag har ont i nalsen.. ont. i I. line -t. all . Please open (var snail och . ett ankare. -ar.). en lasebok. -ar. tung. to en to teach tur. becomes vppmarlcsamma in the plural m This is intervocalic. pronoun. because. or. to excuse lasa upp'. high aloud) gdr.

Examples INFINITIVE : IMPERFECT SO. In these verbs the vowel of the supine and past participle is the same as that of the infinitive and the vowel of the plural of the imperfect the same as that of the singular. to hold holl hollo hallen. that of the supine. 153. (Continued). THE FOURTH CONJUGATION. -et gripa. There is frequently also a change of vowel in the supine and past participle.FOURTH CONJUGATION. Swedish Grammar 6 . 73 LESSON The Verb XII. This conjugation contains all verbs that form their imperfect by means of a change of the vowel of the root without any added tense sign. These verbs are called strong verbs. this conjugation are The first class contains verbs the root of which undergoes but one vowel change. In these the vowel of the supine and the past participle is always different from that of the infinitive the vowel of the plural of the imperfect is in most cases the same as that of the supine. The verbs belonging to divided into two classes. SUPINE PAST PARTICIPLE hallit PL. to seize grep grepo gripit gripen. hdlla. The second class contains verbs the root of which undergoes two vowel changes. 152. in the case of a few verbs like that of the singular of the imperfect and different from . -et 154.

Example INFINITIVE : SUPINE PAST PARTICIPLE .FOURTH CONJUGATION.

. to find. SUPINE PAST PARTICIPLE gripa finna grep II.FOURTH CONJUGATION. seize. IMPERFECT PL. to Fourth Conjugation: PRINCIPAL PARTS. classes of the 75 att gripa. I. fann grepo gripit funno funnit grip en. -et -et funnen. INFINITIVE SG. att finna.

3. Som (as) vi . Han ger sitt handbagage till en barare 1 och gar med mig. stiger ban av taget. In stadsbud porter in hotel called hotellvaktmastare. till Change the present into imperfect in the following: till Min bror skriver ett brev 2. Han 10. funnit. 13. is Det sjunker pa oppna Stockholm called sjb'n. Han kommer pa besb'k hos oss. finnom. 2. Vi ata frukten. jag skall ha gripit. Han blir sjuk. Det ger honom krafter. Present. vi skola ha gripit. som har farit Jag bar brevet pa posten. som vi fa av Karl. Han far svar (64. Nar ban ser mig. Den sjuke gossen ligger till sangs. 12. sover ganska gott. Vi kommo ej till den lilla kvallen. Vart tag gick 3. etc. lat(om) oss finna finnen (I) gripa ha gripit skola gripa finna ha funnit skola finna EXERCISE XII. Future. grip (du. 9. Sg. Vagorna A sla over a skeppet. lat(om)oss gripa gripen (I) INFINITIVES. ni) gripom. 16. funnit. 5. 15. 11. 18. staden forran sent pa ej fort. IMPERATIVE. Sg. ni) PI. haftig storm ntbryter. finn (du. 1. B. 8. Karl ater for mycket. och dessutom stannade det vid alia stationer. ty vi voro forsenade. FUTURE PERFECT.76 EXERCISE. A. Jag gar till stationen for att mb'ta min bror. 1. Perfect. Vi taga en droska och fara Amerika. det ar forsenat. PI. 14. En hem. min far. 6. och vi maste tillkalla lakaren. J 17. 7. b) pa det. Taget ankommer ej forran klockan sex. etc. 4. (neuter).

. The train which I was on did not run 3. 5. In the dining room of the hotel (gen. 11. ? ar taget forsenat? 3. Tror ni. att taget gar fort? vid Alvesta 6. and I believe it stopped at all stations. 9. for I. 5. 10. 77 som ej staden. dar ni brukar taga in? va'cka oss 8. 2. voro trotta. X. it to all 8. natten. Jag kan rekommendera det. and invert. friend of mine (en of mina vanner) had recommended a small hotel which lies near the station. An hour later (scnare) I went bed and slept well until six o'clock in (pa) the morning.I did not come to Vexio before ten o'clock in (pa) the evening. and asked 1 him to show me the way to the hotel. bor (ought] ni ga till detta (this) hotell. herr Arndt? Ar rakningen D. I asked for the bill and it when they (man) found very reasonable. stannar taget Var ligger hotellet. C. begarde vi var rakning. At this hotel one gives (invert) no tips. Nar ni besb'ker staden drickspengar. fara) to Vexio. re.EXERCISE. men vaknade sja'l6. to ask a favor is bedja. 2 Uae iHo. 2. utan gingo direkt till vart 4. 7. 4. i Hur manga minuter morgon? i Nar skall man 7. Vexio is a pleasant little town. Nar komma vi till Stockholm? Tycker ni. 7. Har hog? ni sovit gott natt. Vi sovo utmarkt hela lag nara stationen. is fraga. 3 called me. It is situated by (vid) a lake. Hur manga minuter 4. 1. 6. Nar vi hade atit frukost. va. men maste stiga upp klockan sex for att fara vidaVi hade bett dem vacka oss i tid. *To ask a question 'Use vdcka. Den var ganska resonabel. I did not have time to view the town for I arrived late (sent) and had to leave early in the morning. I gave my hand baggage I to to a porter 5.) had 2 a good supper. besago vi hotell. It is not large but very shall recommend my (mina) friends good (bra). Conversation. A very fast. and I who go (resa. att ni kan vakna sjalv? 9. vi betalade den samt gavo 8. def.

station late stiga. to rise -en. bddo. bar. pi. lib.). rive bedja. N. for. -et. sovo.). sjonk. (bror). ankommo. to ask -en. to carry. rekommende'ra. gick. to gd. se s &9. . gdngen. ankomma. I.dd ~ ett brother to < > > > bdra. bedd. fdtt. -en. reasonable bill broder broder. be situated bega'ra. I la. -en. en rdkning. ftck. ankom. to go (run) ett take tiU'kalla. to pray. tog. -en. -et. buro. -et. -et. burit. foro. post office view bliva. fingo. porter pi. near en post (in this beta'la. to get up -et. to travel. the singular and plural of the imperfect. slog. besedd. to recom- mend en become. hotel legat. stego. -ar. en droska. to lie. to sink sld. dining room en natt. Mg. and the gender and neuter forms of the past participle. farit. to bestf. blevo. belated. supeer. (train) giva (also ge). to wash over receive forrdn (adv. to remain resona'bel. steg. ship en bdrare. blev. when found. bett. skrevo. stiga upp'. to step. to bear . sense no besdg. -or. stigit. to demand pay besett. -en. -et. sjunkit. mail. -et. handbagage (-gash'. slogo.). besdgo. night ntira (adv. to fara. pi. -en. en matsal. the supine. slagit. Of the strong verbs the following parts are given: the infinitive. to drive.). -t. -et. sova. direkt'. -ar. . -en.). -et. hand baggage no to call (in) train . before forse'nad. givit (gett). Sa 9> sett . to see ett skepp. to give en supe. to go fa. gdvo. tip. tagit. supper taga. -t. to ligga. to get. and prep. . bett. bad. -et. to write drickspengar (always tips sjunka. to ar- ett hotell'. blivit. logo. direct (ly) skriva. ankommit. -sett. -et. to rise. skrivit. ett tag. VOCABULARY. to look at. -en. nutter. cab strike sld over. gdtt.78 VOCABULARY. gingo. -er. B. sjonko. I. gav. skrev. to sleep en station'. -en. togo. sov. sovit.

XIII. LESSON REMARK. to wake to break out Ufa. (ir 3. to smile . utbrot. att tro. utbroto. iitit. utbru-viicka (tr. r l ?* matte vara Han] vi 1 matte alska. to be. the compound form with ma. substituting compound PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE. further IDIOMS: 1. 2. ga. . dt. . vi dlske. f ^ han han] PLURAL. 5. The archaic second person plural ends in -en. It is six o'clock. Verbs the infinitive of which ends in any other vowel than a lack the simple present subjunctive. att alska. ^ (ma alska. to believe. . -et. to show the way. NOTE. sons. to mail. to love. -en. vare. matte alska tro [T0 de . 4. . tro ni de vare. is formed by adding -e to the stem. Note the THE SUBJUNCTIVE. att visa vagen. to go std. tit. 79 Ha. These include all verbs of the Third Conjugation and a few others as. to eat vidare. ut'bryta. att bedja att om en sale. v. SINGULAR. etc. to ask for a thing. dto. tendency of forms for the simple subjunctive.SUBJUNCTIVE. 159. Mra (lagga) pd posten. -en.). Much more common is 158. -et. to stand le. Har posten Commit? Has the mail come? Vad (ir Jclockan? What time is it? Klockan sex. The simple present subjunctive of all perexcept the archaic second person plural. \ma vara. ] \ } v ni } matte vara ni de ma alska. Examples of the present subjunctive: att vara. ^}Imd vara.

(3) Compound forms consisting of the imperfect of skall. PI. .80 f SUBJUNCTIVE. NOTE. skulle binda. skulle vara. subjunctive. skulle alska. skulle alska. skulle binda. skulle. . Sg. In verbs of the Fourth Conjugation the simple imperfect subjunctive is formed by changing the ending -o of the plural of the imperfect indicative to -e (the archaic second person plural having the additional ending -n) The vowel of both numbers of the imperfect subjunctive is thus the same as that of the plural of the imperfect indicative. 1 4 varen. man alska. SUPINE PAST PARTICIPLE PL. 161. PI. man vara. IMPERFECT SO. Sg. . to be alska. f 1 1 [ dlsken. (1) IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE. and Third Conjugations the simple imperfect subjunctive is identical with the imperfect indicative. vi alskade. jag bunde. etc. vi bunde. f 1 m&n tro 1 [ mdtten vara mdtten alska matten {ro 160. are of very common occurrence. etc. skulle vara. Second. The singular of the imperfect indicative of the Fourth Conjugation often used instead of the impf. -at PI. -et var voro alskade alskade dlskad. etc. to bind INFINITIVE of the imperfect subjunctive of vara. jag vore. etc. to love. vi vore. binda vara alska band bundo bundit varit dlskat bunden. Examples the verbs binda. Sg. jag alskade. . is (2) In the First. etc. etc.

realizable wish is expressed by the simple (a) present subjunctive. skrivit. such as wish. possibility. etc. or by the compound form with md and matte. etc. SUBJUNCTIVE OF WISH. PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE. The subjunctive which marks in general the absence of direct or is used regularly in statements positive assertion of doubtful reality. skrivit. PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE. or vi skulle ha skrivit USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE. with the perfect infinitive. 163. A confidence in the realization of the wish. jag hade varit. . purpose. or jag skulle ha varit vi hade varit. or matte ha varit. or jag skulle ha skrivit PI. 81 162. tives of the verbs skriva Examples of the perfect and pluperfect subjuncand vara. Sg. jag ma ma or matte ha or matte ha jag vi ma or matte ha varit. Sg. PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE. concession. (a) The perfect subjunctive is formed by combining the present or the imperfect of the auxiliary md with the perfect infinitive. or vi skulle ha varit vi hade skrivit. Classification of uses. etc. PL vi ma etc. request.SUBJUNCTIVE. jag hade skrivit. md implying greater and matte less 164. (b) The pluperfect subjunctive is either identical with the indicative or formed by combining the imperfect of skall. skulle.

a similar wish referring to the past. After a past tense the subjunctive with skulle may be used. The simple imperfect subjunctive may also express a very vivid wish referring to the future: Ack. Matte han vara hdr! Would he were here! Vi matte vdl komma i tid till tdget! I do wish we might come in time for the train. ma or matte Gud giva dig hdlsa! May God give you health. . att jag vore ung igen! Would I were han vore hdr! Would he were ! Hade jag blott vingar! If I only had wings Hade jag blott haft en enda van! Had I only had a single friend! NOTE 1. han skyndade sig. SUBJUNCTIVE OF PURPOSE. aft. om. o. NOTE. sa att han skulle vara fdrdig. also... ! om young again 0. by the pluperfect (b) is A not subjunctive. with the sense of would (that) Closely related to the subjunctive of wish are the subjunctives of purpose and concession. oss. 165. Ex. pa det att.. Ex. he hurried in order that he might be ready." of a command : Gud sade : wish which refers to the present and which at least not immediately realizable is expressed by the simple imperfect subjunctive.. Note the use of ack. The compound subjunctive with ma and matte is used in clauses expressing purpose with the conjunctions att. om del snart vore vdr I O that spring were here! 2. in order that. att han ma (matte) beskydda pray to God that he may protect us. "Let there be light. "Varde Ijus !" The wish may sometimes have the force God said. Ex. Give Gud dig hdlsa. Bed till Gud. sa att.. here ! Ack.82 SUBJUNCTIVE.

sleep he studied Swedish diligently in order that he might speak it fluently. b). det matte vara brevbararen. e) 2. can (ability. . 1 Nagon knackar pa db'rren. of EXERCISE XIII. ia is the same as that of the principal used: herr Vallner or ej hemma. is . Det ma sa vara. that may be fienderna komma. with your help. we shall go whether he comes or not. 2. 83 NOTE 1. now the enemy may come. : begin the work immediately med din hjalp formadde jag nog go'ra det. he has gone Stockholm for att besoka sin sjuka bror. Mr. THE POTENTIAL SUBJUNCTIVE. SUBJUNCTIVE OF CONCESSION. ty han kommer alltid vid derma tid. . sa att han skulle fa sova. whether you wish or not vi skola ga. and kunna. som kommer . The expression vare fig (let it be for itself) has practically become a conjunction meaning whether. vare sig han kommer eller ej. expressed by the subjunctive with Ex. Note the concessive subjunctive in vare sig du vill eller ej. Ex. . att det vore han och att han hade med sig en postanvis2 ning hemifran. possibilty). he asked the children to be quiet in order that he might han studerade svenska flitigt. it must be mother who comes. sa att jag kunde betala min inackordering A. are often used in a purpose clause if permission or ability is implied: han bad barnen vara tysta. . it may possibly be true. is han har at rest till home . Absolute possibility is denoted by kan (sometimes ma).: det kan vara sant. nu ma NOTE.EXERCISE. 1. Concession ma (not matte) : . not 166. The compound subjunctive (sometimes the indicative) of fa. a very vivid probability is denoted by matte: det matte vara mamma. no doubt det kunde vara sant. sa att han skulle kunna tala del flytande. I should be able to do it. If the subject of the purpose clause clause the infinitive with for att (149. perhaps it would be well to 167. indicates or subjuncthe merely possibility that an action may occur. . Jag 6nskar. may (permission). without any reference to kanhdnda vore det sa gott att borja its probability arbetet med detsamma. it might be true. Vallner to Stockholm to visit his sick brother. NOTE. See Senses Modals (255. tive of possibility.

nien jag bar tyvarr inga. to like. If my 2 parents would only send me some money soon so that I could pay (A. 6. 1. 4 164. brevbararen med ett rekommenderat brev. att ban medforde (brought ville 1 4. ne?. Vad ville era foraldrar. subjunctive (like the indicative) . ! ma a. att jag matte 4 resa hem pa till Vem skulle 5 ett 7 7. 1. b. som knackar pa dorren? brevbararen? along) if ran ? ? Varfor formodar (suppose) ni. att ni skulle gora ? 9. 2) my debts. utan ett Matte 4 de ej vara sjuka dar hemma! ha trott det! Min bror Kobert. r 164. att kunde resa med kroner. 3. sa att jag skulder och resa hem. Vore 3 man bara rik och ej en fat- tig studerande! telegrambud. at the door. 4. och nu onska mina foraldrar. 2 innehalla nog pengar. home. som reste Brasilien for att gb'ra 6 sin lycka. I owe both for board and .84 och EXERCISE. Matte 4 det bara kunna betala mina 165. 1. Varfor kunde ni icke resa med detsamma? 10. det Vore du sande dem ett detsamma. det ar inte brevbararen. C. lana ville telegram och bade dem. Jag skulle sa garna 10. Would you go and open? I wish it were (164. note. 2. Conversation. bar kommit tillbaka. att det ar 3. 4. B. 2. 1) the post- man. Nej. for I am entirely without (any). Vad nyheter (news) innehb'll telegrammet? hade er bror rest till Brasilien ? 8. vilja giirna. Somebody must be knocking 2. 2. Varfor 6. ej battre. Vad b'nskar ni. Har kommer vilja lana dig. Ack.om pengar ? 9. om jag bara kande nagon. 164 b. att par dagar. min skolavgift. money order Only a common letter! or a registered letter from I wish that it might contain 1 money. 5. som 2 hundra sa. 5. Vem tror ni det ar. B 167. Vad tjanst hade er kamrat gjort er. T 165. mig jag 1 8. 1. b. Varfor ni garna ha en postanvisning hem- Vad ville ni hellre vara an en f attig studerande ? 7. om ban hade haft pengar? 1 Impf. for I expect a 3.

b. 2) Christmas at home. I. from home en herre. we shall go. kan) say what he will." early that they may 7. -t. Let us hope that it may not rain . Father (min far) writes that brother Robert has returned from Brazil in order to cele- brate (165. 1. to celebrate note 3). 1). Let us study diligently so that our teacher may 3 praise (165) us. quiet.darhemma. The old woman asked me to give D. etc. -arna (def. sow. Be your poor father may sleep (far wish that he might come (164. but whether (166.- praise com. bara. Would that what he says were (164. alldeles. 2. I the good gentleman. to letter carrier mand beromma. The children eat breakfast very be in school on time (i tid). What he says might (167) be true. indie. 6. only befal'la. VOCABULARY. translate two ways: literally and "asked 5 After a verb of command Swedish often uses the modal auxiliary that I". 85 5. (not to be confused with skoltt in its use as an 1 ville. altogether. 7. gentleman . so that We 8. did so and she said. poor impf. 3. inf. But he may (ma. a) . 5 come home (fordrade) that they early. and they promise that they will send money in a few days (om ndgra dagar). to order. at home fattig. tuition. etc. b. for we have no umbrellas. 1). 4. lib. Mother wishes that I too might come (164. they do not obey. 2) true. "May God bless 5. Use the impf.VOCABULARY. skola with the pres. Their father required that he would (skutte) come. If we had only not gone out! But who could believe 9. (see lib. may be used. 2 0m minaforaldrar bara *Pres. 10. 103. entirely en brevbdrare.) . subjunctive of innehalla (164. note) he comes or not. to Jiemifrdn. -ar. her something 4 . 165. auxiliary of the future). Who would (skulle) have believed that he would return so soon. a) home. beromde fira. 6. pi. children.

. . -t. -t. a student to promise telegram . ett . en lycka (no pi. to come. regis- hope en in'ackorde'ring. and past participle in which forms the corresponding hard vowel generally reappears. IRREGULARITIES OF VERBS. happiness lyda. pi. Some verbs of the second class of the Second Conjugation which are derived from other words by means of the suffix -ja drop j in the imperfect. money order -ar. guilty -holl. mit. ndgon. silent }> tjug tyst. -er. en postanvisning.f . en studerande. in debt. usual I. lib. I. . (deponent -ar. valsigna. -halht. kom. -en. kom. also utan (ady prep ^ and CQnj butj without vanlig._t_i Christmas komma. tuition en skuld. cercertainly telegrambud. to rekommende'rad. it is very likely he that LESSON The Verb XIV. 168. en skolavgift. some (one). nagra. to bless IDIOM: Det ar nog han is coming. vara skyldig. poor (in the sense of pitiable) . any. ' board .). en m. (Continued). to contain . tered -rat. enough. . The most common of these verbs are: supine. I.86 hoppas. a few ocksd. I am sure. time ear i y quiet. ett telegram'.31T*. v. som kommer. postal common. -en. debt. -ar. and room (or board only) > boarder -L. immediately nog. . IRREGULAR VERBS.). to obey med detsamma. telegraph messenger en ^^ . -et. some. . guilt skyldig. -er. to owe stackers (indeclinable). . kommo. iova. -et. jul. fortune. . . -hollo. tn'neMlla.

to die fd. to sZ<$. etc. oil sporja. le.. to ask. to dare 1 lagd sade satte 2 sagt satt torts sagd satt tor(e)s tordes (Ill. lagt. 169. to choose. PRESENT IMPERFECT SUPINE PART. to gladden salja. ST. ] bringa. to live lever ligger ser sldr levde Idg ligga.IRREGULAR VERBS. to say sdtta. to go gdr gick komma. "The neuter is gldder saljer skiljer : gladde glatt salde skilde salt skilt gladd said skild smorjer smorde smort smord sporjer sporde sport spord vdljer valde valt vald vanjer glatt. see sag slog to strike . 3). There are besides a small number of verbs which are entirely irregular. gladja. to sell skilja. to do bringar bragte bragt bragt gor gjorde gjort gjord lagger sdger sdtter lade lagt Idgga. satt. bcder. Commonly pronounced sdja. 3). vand etc. PAET. PART. to come kommer heter ler kom hette log heta. learn vdlja. to bring gb'ra. to accustom ^lur. ber bad dor dog fick to get. SUPINE P. elect vanja. to lie se. put toras.lt. The neuter is bragt. 170. vant (Ill. to separate smorja. 2 gladja. PRESENT IMPERFECT su. to lay 2 saga. vande skilt. to ask. pray do. to be called smile leva. Such a change of vowel occurs very common verbs : also in the following INFINITIVE PRESENT IMPERFECT SUPINE P. to grease. INFINITIVE 8? P. to set. receive far gd. The most important of these are: INFINITIVE bedja.

88 INFINITIVE UNREAL CONDITIONS. .

om ban finge tid. om ni hade Det skulle jag visst gora! Om min bror ej hade blivit sjuk sa hastigt. men Karl sade. . signifies to pay a visit. . 7. 9. Om han ej hade salt den. tid. Hade Karl onskat det. sa 7. 3. 6. hon icke vore . sa hade man for sommaren. Karl gatt? gladja dig. sa . Vet du om herr Anderson bar salt sin lilla villa vid Djursholm ? 10. Han talade. 3. om 8. . till Sverige. A. ty batarna aro sa upptagna pa sommaren. 5. sa skulle jag ha hyrt den 12.EXERCISE. 1. Skulle ni gora en resa . 8. Om . det generally comea in expressions of this kind. Jag skulle ha rest till f orkyld. Vad skulle ni gora. with stress on hatsa means to greet. Regnar det i morgon. Om . 1. som sakert skall Jag sag var gamle van Agrell pa gatan i morhade just anlant med londonangaren och sade. . 13. . an han hade betalt for den. som om ban hade gjort goda affarer i England och fortjant mycket pengar. . . Jag bar en nyhet. sa Stockholm. falle? Conversation. 4. . se. first C. . 2 Notice word order. Om jag visste. sa . Hade jag black och penna. Vein 2 valde man i stallet? Det vet jag ej. om bade garna gatt med oss. . . sa ban hade 2. att att ban skulle balsa han it skulle fb'resla herr Lindell. hade jag rest for en manad sedan. 11. att ban snart skulle bli bra. . Han 1 pa hos dig i dag. Ja. sakert valt honom till ordforande i foreningen. Om Det skulle vara mycket 6. tillfalle? 2. ^H'dlsa pa with main stress on pa. sa . om ni hade 3. . till- Varfor reste ni ej for en manad sedan? Var7 Swedish Grammar. 4. . . Senare blir det svart att fa 5. 2. jag inte vore sa trott. Han bar gatt for att kopa morgontidningen. skulle jag losa biljett mi. Vart liar en. som du bad om. det tror jag ej . . 81) EXERCISE XIV. om B. De trevligt. Complete the following by adding a clause expressor conclusion. . condition ing 1. han salde den i gar och rick mer. .

9. 5. I should like 1 to take a trip (B. 7. if 3. 1) to Sweden next summer. Vad vill du. Have you heard whether Mr. *Skvlle garna or skulle tycka om att. which you brought me about Agrell jag). b'nskat det? 1. sell my house. 5 Use the pluperfect subjunctive of 3 leva. You be fine (trevligt). He has been in England ever (anda) since he alive . Bor ban ej pa landet somrarna langre? 9. had he been 5 16. My afraid of 2 the passage. fara. I am glad to hear that. (advantageous) att losa for skulle det vara fordelaktigt biljett aro batarna mest upptagna? 5.att vara radd for. if he had gotten a ticket. you could accompany Would it not me? 4. 2. wife does not dare to go along . have grown accustomed 3 to (vid) the sea. accustomed to. I wish he would call so that we might have a chat. I think (tror 13. made me very happy. 8. The news. 14. om ban hade salt den? 10. . He would have gone a month ago. van vid. We used to be very good friends and I was sure (saker pa) that he would have written me. om ban hade D. but now it looks as if he intended to stay in Sweden. Ska. 'English go must often be translated by resa. Nar tiga (fine) villa vid om ej Djursholm? 8. att Karl skall gora for dig? 6. left Stockholm. Vad har var van Anderson ningen gjort med sin prak- nu? 4. Var har du lagt tid? 7. I should do it if I could only should also of course visit Germany I think you would enjoy yourself very much she I is in Stockholm. Hade man valt honom. Varfor valde man ej Karl till ordi forande klubben? 11. 17. I thought that he had died long ago. Anderson will go 4 ? 11. 10. 12. could not choose a better (bdttre) occasion. I never get (bJir) sea-sick. Yad skulle du ha gjort. 6. *To be afraid of. We and England. Why did he not get a ticket? The boats were all full. 15. If I had money and time I should cer- tainly go with you. To grow accustomed att vanja sig vid.90 EXERCISE.

a morning paper en mdnad. I. sure. certainly just (adv. med -nd. just an. en fore'ning. -t. sudtrevlig. upptagen. VOCABULARY.). fo'resld. occupied. 2. chairman . lib. I am happy (or pleased) Man har valt honom till president. Han ar rddd for spoken. en mor'gontid'ning. in -t. to enjoy oneself very much. sudden ett tillfdlle. certainly hastigt rapid. fine -et. neuter). -er. surely. the place of svdr. he is afraid of ghosts. -arna. -nt. -et. en overresa. London steamer IDIOMS: 1.). -er. -t. -nt. news en ord'forande. lib. full morse. -ar. en penna. month en nyhet. to use. than en londondngare. rent. street stdllet. (prep. certain helt sdkert. har nyss kommit. make happy hastig. to accompany -ar. 91 business -nde. . hire i pleasant. -slogo. pen -slog. -t. difficult glcidja (168). to gladden. rapidly.VOCABULARY. -er. i (money) en gata. pas- Han att 3. along arrive . quick. ink bruka. sea-sick fortja'na. ett black.). sdker. to propose to (no timid -t. this morning visst (adv. arilanda. he has been elected president 5. make sjosjuk. -n. he has just come ha mycket roligt. society -slagit. Det gldder mig. opportunity. sage -or. -or. earn. -en. en affar. voyage. with. rtidd -or. and adv. denly hyra. afraid. I. to follow folja med'.). yet. chance. make use of folja. to lib. occasion (adv. 4.

feminine. the boys . its. backer. my son mitt barn. showed their (own) toys. det) vara. my books. my (hans) (hennes) (dess) (hans) (hennes) (dess) vdrt edert (ert) (deras) sitt dina. Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns. adjectives and pronouns are : SINGULAR MASC. The reflexive possessive sin is used. . her (dess). The 172. ram son. her son. her. of den. its (gen. for all numbers and genders of the third person but must be used only when the possessor is the subject of the verb as. our edra (era). his. your (deras). The is pronoun : . hans 173. his books. his (hennes). Ex. your (hans) . and neuter. their sina.POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS. Gossarna visade sina lek. var eder (er) (deras) sin genitive of the corresponding personal used as a possessive in the third person masculine. The other possessives are declined according to the Indefinite Declension of adjectives and agree in gender and number with the noun they modify. gossarna visade deras leksaker. These forms are invariable. their . The possessive NEUTER . Carl took his (own) hat. PLURAL ALL GENDERS ram din mitt ditt mina. but. LESSON XV. Karl tog sin hatt. thy. the boys showed the toys of some other children. saker. hennes son. Karl tog hans hatt. 174. would mean that he took somebody else's hat. my child mina backer. FEM.

In an independent clause these follow the simple verb and stand between the auxiliary and infinitive or participle . : THE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES. here is my book. yours lies there. POSITION OF ADVERBS. egna ord. 93 The possessives are used also as pronouns. people. pi. own. mina ogon tiro bid. your family. SUBSTITUTE FOR definite The form is . mina 176. often used instead of the possessive adjective. egna. . hdr dr ram bok. 179. as. The possessives are often combined with the adjective egen. tat. his head. (a) There are in Swedish a number of adverbs which are called movable adverbs. han har fb'rlorat hatten. people. he has lost his hat jag har ont i hjar178. 175. my own words. as. 177. de mina. my family. 1 have a pain in : my heart. our family or our party. din ligger ddr. take off your hat . he fell and struck hatten. provided there is no ambiguity. particularly when the thing possessed is a part of the body or an article of clothing.POSITIONS OF ADVKKBS. era tiro bruna. he broke his leg tag av dig han foil och slog sig i huvudet. eget. yours are brown. my eyes are blue. de vdra. The possessor especially in reflexive constructions is often represented by an object pronoun han brot av sig benet. They are never preceded by the article except in such expressions as de dina. as. FURTHER REMARKS ON THE POSSESSIVE. Only a few special rules need be given. 1 NOTE. The position of the adverb in a sentence depends largely on its relation to the verb and also on emphasis.

he says he is not sick hans bror reste snart till Amerika. skola sakert ) (Jag ar saker pa att regn och solsken. to be sure . att ) De amna annu plantera ) sin potatis. a number of other nondescriptive adverbs like vdl. I suppose. possi- Ex. finitive or the participle (b) Descriptive adverbs as a rule follow the inwhen the verb is a com- pound. . he is . (Lantbrukaren sade.) . . han dr tyvtirr. ?) Ni . noting the change of position of the adverbs. tror. (Jag 3. unfortunately. snart. att han nog kan ha rdtt. as. . . jdmt. 1. EXERCISE XV. who soon went to America han kan nog ha rdtt. : icke sjuk. . att . som snart reste till Amerika. aldrig. I admit. innan Man maste man kan sa. never. . . alltid. Turn ihe following sentences into dependent clauses by prefixing the parenthesized words. aker. har aldrig satt vete pa sin inte . his brother soon went to America. en harv. continually. not.94 EXERCISI:. inte. (Han 2. Icke. . his brother. att forst uppluckra jorden 4. Han . ever. Such movable adverbs are especially the adverbs of negation: ej. (Sager Vetet kan aldrig vaxa utan ni. A. att . jag medger. he may possibly be right. soon. sager. bly. han brukade ofta komma. not sick han sager. . . In a dependent clause these in compound tenses. that he may possibly be right. hans bror. nog. No adverbs except those mentioned above can stand between the verb and the subject: he often used to come is in Swedish. . att han icke dr sjuk. 5. adverbs precede the simple verb and the auxiliary of a compound verb. always. ndgonsin. certain indefinite temporal adverbs. med .

. till . Har ar (our) hus.. 1. Supply the possessive adjectives and pronouns indicated in the following. passar honom. 95 6. hem med sin lilla 2 mycket om komma dit. dar ar . . . . Hennes syster.. . . I morgon om vadret ar vackert. 1 174. springa vi omkring och leka. om 7. . Flickorna ploc- . polite). (their) bord (sing). . 8. . men . to lay (169). Det daliga vadret kommer mojligen att forhindra att ) . (his). gar en av oss till biljettkontoret och vara koper jarnvagsbiljetter. . Na'r vi vacker plats korg. . (your) hus? 5. . 2 Supine of lagga. .) de ma vara fardiga 1 tidigt i morgon.. Vi skola stiga upp mycket tidigt och fara med den elektriska sparvagnen till jarnvagsstationen. (Jag fruktar. . (my) vanner. pengar... och sedan stiga vi pa taget. 9. . . Efter en halv timmes resa stiga vi av och ga till en 6.. (Vet ni plantera er potatis och er majs nasta vecka. . men ej om (his own) 2 1 lagt (my) bocker pa . Karl har givit mig 1 Ha barnen fatt (their) laxor an? . . . (his) 7. 11. tycker 13. aro stora. 10. 8. . 3. rum sa 9. C. vara och korgar upp en av edra systrar kokar kaffet.. (her) rum . 7. . 2. Var aro (yours. Pas- (your) skor? Jag har funnit .. (their) faders tradgard ar stor. . skola vi foretaga var utflykt. om De ha . . Herr Wallin ar en av . skall folja med oss. . 6. or indie. arbetet pa falten. Han 1 . (my) bocker. Var och en bar Dar packa vi druckit. . 12. Mamma skall packa vara korgar i kvall. . att de matte stanna lange hos oss. Fonstren har . . (our) matsal. .EXERCISE. Huru manga 1 . Vi tycka deras sallskap och onska. 1. litet. 5. som ar pa besb'k i vart dotter. .. (his) rock 10. (his) hus ar mycket . medan sitt paket eller sin duka pa graset. . 2. Nar vi atit och i skogen. B. . 4. .. ?) De skola snart sa sin havre. 3. . pa det att (3d att and subj. 4. .

med dem till sina3 hattar. train. 2. I. Behagar deras sallskap er? besb'k hos er? 5. In the evening we returned to the city by 11. Conversation. Han tvattar sig tanderna om handerna 4 samt kammar haret. Hur lange racker resan? 9. Plural and definite form of liten. Her sister who is on a visit with (hos) us morning .I wish that able as (som) ours evening in order that they might be ready early in the 2 4. satter pa sig batten och ar fardig att ga ut. 'Express the possessive idea in a different way (178). Tad gora ni med ret? 10. Ar det en hastsparvagn eller en elektrisk sparvagn? 7. borstar Sedan tar ban pa sig rocken. When we had eaten we had a great deal of fun (mycket roligt). We took the street we had much to carry. Vem var pa 4. 3. 10.96 ka blommor och pry da EXERCISE. 5. Pa kval- len taga vi taget tillbaka ej staden. but the sun soon began to shine. 2 bror Erik klader (klar) sig. in the in and table baskets the woods set the packed our grass. 15. 6. Varfor gar ni till biljettkonto8. Min 14. Hur komma ni till stationen? 6. We unrode (for) half an hour (en lialv timma). 1. we played games and sang. Vad gora ni efter maten? korgarna? pryda flickorna sina hattar? 11. Matte det bara regna i morgon! 13. 12. When we had bought our tickets we boarded (invert) the train and car to the station since 7. Who made the coffee? My sister Mary. *Is visiting. I wish that you had been with us. 9. She makes (kokar) very good coffee. . likes to go on (med pa) excursions. Mother had packed our baskets 'in (pa) the E. 8. Nar gora ni er utflykt ? 2. och i ansiktet. The weather was not 1 very pleasant when we woke up. Varmed all our picnics might be as (sd) agreewas yesterday. 11. D. tvattar handerna och ansiktet. Varfor packade er mor edra korgar pa kvallen? 3. 4 Also.

slogo. to return finna. 3. -or. forest. to sld. ett sallskap. elektrisk. note) hat when you come into the room. I -ar. to brush drucJco. office borsta. sjo'ng. koka. Wash 3 your hands and brush your teeth. and prep. hair (generally no to sprungit. skating. -ar. dnka. to adorn en rock. I. ett ansikte. -en. Take off your (178. woods sprungo. room sedan. -n. to set the table -t. -er. tooth tidig. passa. comb (to to cook make). to unpack en plats. folia med'. slagit. rum. I. wash excursion la. snart. lib. put en tand. Where do you have your hat? 4. except as stated in 179. -et. -et. ready follow sing folja. basket play tvatta. 14). late 3 in the evening. hander.) -ar. place to suit kit. F. I. I. 1. to boil early to en korg. -ar. in Swedish z never. coat ett fara tillbaka. satte. I. I. -en. satte. lidigt pa morgonen. -er. -et. . Carl struck his head while ( medan) he was J In English adverbs may often precede the simple form of a verb. (in address). leka. head. Eric struck Carl in the 7. -et. sjo'ngo. driclca. lib. 6. funno. to en utflykt. . mother visit mamma . I. omkring (adv. Does he have his own (176) hat or mine? 5. to drink to fit. ticket ticket biljett'kontor'. sent pa kvdllen. Carl. accompany to strike grass en hand. soon en skog. . electric pryda. hand en hatt. druc- -er. satt. springa. hat ett hdr. to kamma. face ett besok. en mamma. sjunga. run (ett) kaffe company coffee satta.) about. -t. slog. . VOCABULARY. around packa. dracJc. funnit. to sprang. a. tander. Tviitta dig om handerna (B. satt. -en. -et.VOCABULARY. pi. mama en ett biljett'. sjungit. fann. to fardig. 2. -en. and let us go out. Eric. . thereupon. Put on your coat and ^at. . to pack packa upp'. then to find -t. to (ett) gras. -en.

181. (with the exception of the arnhaic second person in -as (. Examples of the passive of the verbs . tdget. (are found) men. 3. The r in the present indicative singular endings -or. THE 180. he has been killed . LESSON The Verb XVI. we enjoyed i ourselves very 2. to call att gripa. active jag kailar. 182. (Continued). att stiga att pa (av) kaffe.98 IDIOMS: 1. I am called . 2. Vi hade mycket much. 5. dodats. either PASSIVE. passive jag kallas. ind. active jag griper. gripes. I am The pres. an error liable: mdnniskor finnas. om face. 1 -r is al- ways eliminated and quite often the e in the ending -er . This passive common NOTE 1. there are. in conversation is less than that formed by means of the auxiliary verb This -s is a remnant of bliva. att binda. 3. -er. to bind. THE PASSIVE IN -S. hdnderna. pi. to on (off) the train. The passive is formed from the active by adding s to the corresponding form of the active. as. -en*) of the Second is added" to the to which beginners are In the compound forms s is added to the supine or infinitive: han har rdgen skall sas (from *d) t morgon. there is found or there is. to seize . PASSIVE. att tvatta sig roligt. for which see 188. passive jag seized . koka mafce coffee. the rye will be sown to-morrow. the reflexive pronoun sig (old form sik) extended by analogy to the first and second persons.s and Fourth Conjugations ends in corresponding active form) and not in -es. or by combining the corresponding tense of the auxiliary bliva (sometimes vara and varda) with the perfect participle of the verb. del finnes or del finns. . att kalla. to get ansiktet to wash one's hands.

vi kallades. IMPERFECT Sg. etc. PLUPERFECT Sg. ma ha kallats. gripen bunden . vi skola ha kallats. etc. vi kalles or ma kallas. PI. (2) gripas. etc. to be bound PRINCIPAL PARTS g*-ipa. Sg.PASSIVE. grepo. hade kallats. skulle kallas. etc. etc. Sg. etc. jag skall kallas PL vi skola kallas Sg. ma ha kallats. etc. INDICATIVE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE jag kalles or ma kallas. skulle kallas. etc. etc. etc. or matte ha kallats. INFINITIVES Present. kallats. jag skall ha kallats. jag hade kallats or matte ha vi hade kallats. etc. etc. FUTURE PERFECT PI. binda. jag kallades or matte. bundo. 99 (I) kallas. etc. etc. gripit. jag kallas. to be called. band. jag vi vi ha kallats. bun-dit. jag hade PI. vi kallats. etc. etc. FUTURE Sg. etc. PI. to be seized att kallas att ha kallats att skola kallas bindas. Perfect. PL vi kallas. etc. grep. jag har kallats. Future. jag kallades. vi kallades or matte.

INDICATIVE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE jag gripes. jag hijrs.100 PASSIVE. am heard. Since English uses the verb to be and the past participle to represent the subject both as undergoing the action of the verb. de ha gripits. blyet bojer sig This con- 185. jag greps. instead of jag kallas. Sometimes a reflexive construction is employed . vi skola bindas. jag ma bindas. etc. vi matte bundits. tion . REMARKS ON THE 183. man sager or det sages. they. NOTE. expressed by fiende med (medelst) med ett svdrd. bindes PI. 184. bindes vi gripes. am seized . NOTE. The compound forms are conjugated thus. vi grepos. man kallar mig. vi gripas. bundes like kalla. lead is easily bent (can easily struction generally conveys an idea of possibility. : han dodades av sin he was killed by his enemy with a sword. Idtt it is said. THE APPARENT OR FALSE PASSIVE. Swedish prefers the indefinite pronoun man. jag gripes. When some personal agent is implied but not expressed. as in the door is shut . The agent of a passive action is expressed the The agent may be either by preposition av. be bent). ha In verbs with present in -er e I is very often eliminated in conversaI thus jag grips. with the active voice. or Instrument is usually personal impersonal. (blyet bojes latt). matte bindas. one. thus. PASSIVE. bundes vi grepes. bands PI. SUBSTITUTE FOR THE PASSIVE. bindas Sg. I am being called. bundos jag grepes. as. bindes IMPERFECT Sg.

etc.: Hasten bits (pronounced with short i) the horse bites (has the habit of biting) pappa. The passive : meaning. the door 186. in The latter is expressed Swedish by vara.. (pronounced with short t). have passive force. characteristics. they are met often) barnen klapand kiss one och the children caress pas kyssas. 1) .. It is best to avoid using the -s form of a verb which is often used reciprocal or even absolute sense when it is not accompanied by an de knvffades can hardly agent or other modifier which obviates the ambiguity the . .at sidan. Karl knuffas. in -s has very often a reciprocal de motas ofta. 101 (is being shut). by him. (b) it Sometimes is habit. de knuffades.) 2. man stdnger do'rren. are caressed. which as any other adjective agrees with the subject in number and gender.PASSIVE. (reciprocal) or. When tions take rivs torn. . or is being closed.. de blevo knuffade. another (literally. rives would mean t* being -es The passive is nd there in its true as well as its reciprocal use generally takes no shortening of the vowel. XOTE in 1. .. . examples. they meet one another often (literally. great care must be taken to distinguish between the true passive and the apparent or false passive. which may be called a false passive.. to be. and the past participle of the verb. . Ex. (a) IDIOMATIC MEANINGS OF THE PASSIVE. mean anything than they pushed one another. used in the absolute sense verbs of the Second and Fourth Conjugathere is also a shortening of the vowel: katten not -es (181. they were pushed. is (in the state of being) shut. as. on the contrary. and also as being in the state or condition resulting from the action. or. the cat scratches . (The teacher should give other else .av honom. -s. denoting Ex. In the first case \ve would invariably say. .). Carl is pushing me. as in the door is shut (has been shut before). to the side. papa. or. etc. the door do'rren stdnges. which is a real passive.. dorr en ar stdngd. used absolutely. they pushed (absolute).

and Man am being called. etc. there is too much talking here. and Turn 3. the following sentences into the passive form. Continue through all persons of the singular and (I am being kallar mig.. Man with the active would be less Note such impersonal passive expressions stiff in such cases. EXERCISE XVI. etc.. 2. 9. det har inte spelats i dag. for construction with man. har dies och soves jamt. 8. as. A. i as subject : II. IMPERSONAL PASSIVE. Man (I tackar mig. especially the form in -s. subject becomes object B. detta kallas . here they eat and sleep all the time. saljas? Har ban gar? valts till ordfo*The Dansades det bar . Even intransitive verbs that lack personal passive forms may thus be used: det tolas for mycket har.). The subject in the active becomes the agent in the passive (183). plural. Yem mig skall i 5... benet. det har berdttats mig. see 184. Pa bosten plojer bonden en del av sin aker och sar vetet .) 2. I. Den store forfattaren von Heidenstam rakningen. pres. Man hunden (also hundens agare). there has been no playing to-day. salt huset ? 1 Har ban 6. 10. etc.] 02 EXERCISE. impf. Jag har betalt mota honom vid stationen? En hund bet En hunden med en revolver. 4.. etc. NOTE 2. Skall huset 13. The passive voice. pres. 7. is often used impersonally. Detta ar ett vetebrods historia. pluperf. 187. perf. future. I have been told. 1. man tackar dig. poliskonstapel skot arresterade agaren till Turn rande? lP into the active with 2 man 12. boll ett tal den forsta maj. 1. ihanked. Ratten (the court] botfallde (fined) honom.

which covers it. I do is What the wheat called that is sowed in the fall? 4. vintervete. 7. kaffe. It is called winter wheat and regarded as (som) the best (Msta). Nej. men snb'n skyddar den mot kolden. Medan vadret annu ar varmt. nar snon har smalts av solstralarna. Det har legat pa bordet sedan i gar Brodet ar ej sa gott. savs that the wheat will be cut to-morrow . denna gang har Anna 1. gor bonden pa hb'sten? 2. Ar ad gor han med det? det 6. It is protected by the snow. slutar vetet att 5. ditt Erik? sa ar pappa snail. Nar mognar unga vetet? vetet? Varfor gror vetet pa hosten? Vad tjanst (service) gor snon vilket brod 1. jer 4. 5. Till vem 12. not believe that the wheat has been sowed yet. och pa sommaren mognar till det. This wheat sprouts in the fall before (innan) the winter 6. kommer med kold och sno. 4. Av vem har vetet avmejats ? att vaxa ? man vetet? 9. Conversation. 3. 1 otherwise it would be damaged by the frost. E. 1. Da av- meja bb'nderna det och kora det 8. och dar till males det brod. The field 2.EXERCISE. sa den frysa bort. giv mig 3. som det brukar vara. 4. Yad gor man med det dar? 10. lyckats riktigt. gror vetet. Pa varen. grow again 2 The farmer in the spring and ripens in the summer. ej hellre en skiva av ragbrb'det. Av skall vetet saljas? 11. dar det troskas. Plo- han hela sin aker? Vid vilken arstid borjar brodden ater 8. D. borjar vetet att vaxa. Nar vetet har trb'skats. kb'res till mjb'l. 5. och ar torrt. som sedan av bagaren forvandlas till Vill du ha en skiva av detta vetebrbd 2. 103 Da vintern vaxa. Vart forslar 7. Vad 3. 3. vill ni ha en skiva ? has been plowed by the farmer. C. 7. logen. det till kvarnen. skulle 6. comes. It begins it is to 8. Om den unga brodden ej tacktes med sno.

threshing floor. leg mot. skoto. sprout frysa bort'. to be killed by frost .104 VOCABULARY. -et. to plow en polis'konstapel. skjutit. I. to regard -sett. VOCABULARY. mogna. I. -or.). to bake ett ben. flour mill (en) kold (no pi. This (delta) bread is excellent. to haul (en) sno. It has been bought by the miller. "Ater directly after main verb. to transform skydda. revolver en skiva. to shoot close forvandla. -a. against lib. police- bet. skot. I. -ar. and he hopes that the weather will be (use pres. sluta. When the next lesson has been mastered. to cut baka. -ar. otherwise arreste'ra. first skjuten. to plant torr. to ripen bone. there here. to grind (ett) mjol (no pi.) cold. (har ar) a loaf of white bread 3. flour miller en mjolnare. 9. sloto. any (nagot) bread in the house? is I am so hungry. en loge -ar. man -et. dog en host. 'Use skullc and invert. to drive. Ha. bita. -rar. to -ar. . lib. -ar. I. -t. to arrest av'meja. -sago -it. en revolver. anse. 10. I. fall en kvarn. to sprout (also rather slot. granary mala. -et. hellre. sunbeam sow. slutit) en hund. which he will sell to the baker. luck with (lyckats Sister Anne has had good med) her bread this (dennd) time. to bite en brodd. NOTE. beto. bitit. -lar. slice skjuta. forste. 1. annars. to melt en solstrdle. or IV. to protect to stop. III. fros bort. frost ko'ra. gro. but it is dry. I. go back and substitute the passive with bliva wherever it is possible. froso frusit bortfrusen. who will grind it to flour. -en. 1 . sa. Yes.) fine. lib. F. III. plo'ja. . The wheat which was threshed yesterday has been hauled to the flour mill to-day. ansdg. I. dry . snow smalta. . -sedd. Is there 2.

vi blive trodda. 1 winter en vAr. to believe. spring again en agare. Occasionally the verbs varda. 105 to thresh (ett) vete. to bind : Passive of the verbs tro. en vinter. bunden PI. and vara. jag blev trodd. bunden bundna bundna IMPERFECT Sg. INDICATIVE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE jag blive trodd. vi blevo trodda. which agrees in number and gender with the subject. I. (Continued) WITH AUXILIARIES. jag blir trodd. bunden vi bleve trodda. . k and sk are always hard before a soft vowel in an 1 unaccented ending . vi skola bli(va) trodda. 189. to be. also be formed by the tense of the auxiliary combining corresponding The passive voice can (bli). binda. bundna Sicedish Grammar . lo remain). bundna bundna Sg. to verb bliva become (also. den PI. with the past participle (not the supine) of the verb.PASSIVE. owner dter. bun- jag bleve trodd. to become. are used as auxiliaries. XVII. g is hard in loge (g. -ar. bunden vi bli(va) trodda. troska. wheat -rar. Sg. jag skall bli(va) trodd.) LESSON The Verb PASSIVE 188.

jag hade blivit trodd. is of comparatively (2) Vara is generally used only in the apparent or false passive (185). I am called han vart kallad. The beginner may disregard this formation of the passive entirely since it is obsolete. to express a condition or state. thou wilt be called. bundna ma ha blivit trodd. thus. vi skola ha blivit trodda. vordo. bundna blivit PLUPERFECT Sg. bundna bunden vi hade blivit trodda. which is con- jugated with the verb vara instead of hava in the perfect tenses. bunden PERFECT INFINITIVE att _NOTE. PRESENT INFINITIVE att bli(va) trodd. jag har PI. vorden). bundna bunden bundna FUTURE PERFECT Sg. . as. bunden vi ma ha blivit trodda. the house is burnt. The other subjunctives are formed as shown above bli(va) trodd. jag skall ha blivit trodd. bunden . jag hade trodd. (1) OTHER AUXILIARIES OF THE Varda PASSIVE. huset ar brunnet. du skall varda kallad. that is. blivit trodd. he was called vi tiro vordna kallade. etc. . ha blivit trodd. Ex. PI. however. we have been called. (vart. vi skulle ha blivit bundna. PERFECT Sg. jag ma 190. bunden PI. Jag varder kallad. frequent occurrence. jag vi bunden ha blivit trodda. vi hade blivit trodda.106 PASSIVE. the imperfect tense. : .

om jag ej gor det. . sadana brott straffas med fdngelse. han kallas feg av var man. I shall be called a coward if I do not do this on the contrary. quitoes. 107 Sometimes.PASSIVE. FURTHER REMARKS ON THE PASSIVE. and as resulting from the action of the verb (185) its present plus the past participle is often used as an equivalent for the English perfect passive and its imperfect plus the past participle as an As: brevet dr skrivet. however. poslen var redan utburen. is not huset var byggt pa en mdnad. a general fact. he is called a coward by everybody. Too much stress cannot be laid upon the overwhelming majority of cases passive action is not expressed in Swedish by vara. and the past participle as in English. NOTE. he is liked by all jag dr plagad av mygg. such crimes are punished with imprisonment flaskan forvaras pa is. or by the passive in -s thus. it comes very near expressing a true passive: han dr omtyckt av alia. . I am troubled by mos. has been written . are to be repaired. the (note also construction with man. the bottle should be kept on ice. The passive with bliva is more common in conversation than the These two passives are often interchangeable sometimes. 191. or huset blev byggt (also. . to be. the letter equivalent for the English pluperfect passive. however. 192. I am called John but jag blir kallad feg. jag kallas Johan. but huset byggdes. But since vara plus the past participle indicates a state or condition regarded as complete and permanent. de hdr skorna skola lagas. fact that in the . NOTE. as. . man byggde huset). these shoes. 184) house was built in a month. The passive in -s is preferred to the passive with bliva in expressions denoting a common rule. . an injunction or direction. but by bliva and the past participle. -* form. the mail had already been distributed.

. 3. this is also the case in the passive: frukten blir skadad av frosten. to be (grow) angry. 2. lyckas. Most deponent verbs lack this form.108 EXERCISE. minnas. The present frost. is men- tioned. EXERCISE XVIJ. without any difference in meaning. to wrestle. which are wanting in the passive. both forms may be used of some definite agent.: latas (from lat. to succeed. spring) to turn spring brottas. many are even transitive. others one without. vredgas (from vred. lazy). Some have a present participle in -s. etc. the passive with bliva seems to imply a definite agent. etc. A. du har blivit beromd av din larare. Ex. to be lazy. . ty jag hade ej blivit 1. to breathe. They are conjugated like the passive of other verbs except that some have imperative forms. when no agent : they express different shades of meaning. To express the present. by the Deponent Verbs. 194. Jag har blivit beromd av min larare. use either the present of the passive in -s. Jag kom ej . the fruit will be damaged 193. These deponent verbs are active in meaning. For instance. or man with the active. the -s Conjugate the following both as indicated and with form of the passive. or make the agent the subject. of bliva has generally a future sense. . vdras (from var. Many verbs have only the passive -s form. Jag skall icke bli klandrad av min fader. andas. to remember.while the -s form very often imparts a sense of indefiniteness floden fylldes seems to point to a slow natural process. . whereas floden blev fylld would imply action on the part If the agent is expressed. angry).

nar jag var liten. klandrad. tag. gains or loses time. 5. Vet Icke sakert. Has nothing been saved ? 2. 3. fiskarna nappade bra.EXERCISE. etc. av min van Berggren. Du ser sa sulas 3 . kallad. Vi rodde ut pa sjon. dessutom behover verket . 2. och jag hoppas. att ar fatt med den? rekommenderad 2 till mig av en han lyckas laga min klocka. Ar 1 hela huset forstb'rt? 1 Ja. Den har stannat. Nu har den blivit rengjord. att saga mig. 5 Herr Lind dodades vid jarnvags8. Jag tror att nog att ren11. och innan klockan sju voro 1 tjugu stora abborrar upptagna 1 fjadern ar avbruten. det 3 cippnas ej forran pa eftermiddagen. anlagd." blivit B. de dar. jag har plagats av trott ut. ej resa. allt ar uppbrant. 5 2 -s form can be used. those. det har paret skall halv5. etc. I dag blev jag vackt den saktar sig ej justerad. Jag skulle ha tagit samina gar. klandrad. en sa svar tandvark hela natten. han har Vad van. innan det dagades. men det 4. du skulle ha etc. 'En klocka fortar sig or saktar sig. Anderson's house has been destroyed by fire. 192. 2. 10. 1. note. ej ty du. 4 De hiir. Kan herrn stangt hela sondagen? Nej. 192. om museet ar det inte. *See 190. I do not C. du kom ej. Om jag hade agad mera. blivit blivit ej hade hjalpt honom. Use also the active with man. i alia Jag brukade ocksa mina ihaliga tander plomberade olyckan. som skedde . Utom nagra gamla mobler man hur elden uppstod? den har ar 1 liar intet blivit 2 ra'ddat. och pa det har skola klackarna lagas 3 Har du ej sovit gott? Nej. 10H 4. 9. uppdragen och goras. Karl. I . . sa hade jag blivit en battre manniska. and 185. plagas av tandvark. these. have heard that Mr. men nu ha 7. 13. om du. blivit till 2 men man tror. om jag om du hade hjiilpt Jag skulle ha honom. leaving out "av min Idrare" and "av min fader. men man radde mig att blivit Har aro vi hos ur- makaren. 6 mer. blifvit 6. Vill du taga de har 4 skorna skomakaren. 12.

I should have taken the same train if I had not been advised 5. Passive 'Passive bliva. -ar. deserves to be with 4 recom- mended 2 gu raft. -t. watch. feather. lib. doda. arilagga. to cause arson fatt p&. He 2 is a in man who -. to break i'Jidlig. broken juste'ra (j=sh). Keep good time. impf. I Mr. I. -drar. -ar. Lind was killed in 4. perch -t. for 7. 3. to lay hold of. to half-sole hoppas (dep.). to kill en eld. Hall din 3 is an excellent watchmaker. 6. he was recommended to me 2 My by a friend. railfatt. Where does the shoemaker live? that need to be repaired 2 soled 9. fortjd'na. fire. VOCABULARY. -or. before forsto'ra.110 VOCABULARY. part. I. -lade. in expressions like taga anldgga eld. I. conflagration regulate en jdrn'vdgsolycka. I have seen in the paper that the railroad accident which well. fatt? way accident vad ar det What is the matter? en fjdder. which . I have a pair of shoes 8. -lagd. to hope and bryta av'. to deserve. to adjust. hopav'bruten (p. -or. spring fo'rrdn (adv. 10. to establish. by a friend not to go. Now I shall not be troubled by my hollow tooth has been filled 2 3 . . Mr. main- en Jclack. hollow intet. en ab'borre. clock. It has been cleaned and regulated 4 and I hope that it will keep good time now. bell . of av'bryta pades. to mend -ler. toothache any longer. niture piece of fur- . nothing off). has been repaired 3 3 by the watchmaker. heel en klocka. believe that they succeeded in saving anything except some old pieces of furniture. knew him but I was never Just think (tank bara). to destroy laga. watch. earn haWsula. -ar. happened yesterday. I. en mobel. v.). These shoes are to be halfhad stopped. . ipresenterad for. -lagt. I. introduced to him. I (sometimes Ha).

I. (p. that. part. . Demonstrative Pronouns. NEUTER denna N. poetry. except occasionally Det is pronounced da or de in conversation. arise . to advise radda. part. in LESSON XVIII. MASC. den Gen. to reduce speed. . tunder. rengjorde. this. watchmaker stanga. movement en sondag. -stod. Ill en land. Obj. beside stiker.DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. denne(a). & FEM. trouble presente'ra. -t. -stdtt. to fill (teeth) pldga. of upp'dra- rdda. the same. detta. I. to save sakta. Sunday vid. I. : SINGULAR MASC. -stodo. to up. na and branna up). & GENDER F. torment. densamme(a) densamma G. to burn ren'gora. Dens refers only to persons. detsamma. clean upp'dragen go. lib. den dess dens den den det dess det de deras dem PLURAL ALL GENDERS SINGULAR FEM. PLURAL NEUTER ALL GENDERS GENDER FORM Nom. nappa. toothache upp'brant (p. denne(a) dennas G. The demonstrative pronouns are: den. burnt up to upp'. I. densamme(a). and draga upp'. det. They are declined as follows 195. I. wind up). detta deltas dessa dessas densammes detsamma desamma densammas detsammas desammas in NOTE. to originate. work. dess only to things. upp'std. tooth (en) tandvdrk. to bite (of fish) plombe'ra. to pain.. shut utom. I. of upp'brdn- to introduce etc. wound pulled up pull up. shoemaker en ur'makare. lib. slow up en sko'makare. dennes N. certain (ly) ett verk. to close. -ar. sure(ly). . this.

112

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

196. These are used also as adjectives, but have then no genitive. There is besides a demonstrative adjective samme, same, which is used more frequently than densamme and inflects as follows
:

SINGULAR
MASC.
FEM. & GEND.
F.

PLURAL
NEUTER
ALL GENDERS

samme (a)

samma

samma

samma

197. The following adjectives partake of the nature of demonstratives and may also be used as pronouns in the plural and in' the neuter singular sddan, sddant, sadana, such; likadan, -t, -a,, like, Ex.: en sadan alike; dylik, -t, -a, such, similar. gosse, such a boy; dylikt har jag aldrig sett forr, I have never seen such a thing (or things) before.
:

198. Den har, this, and den ddr, that, used originally only in conversation, are rapidly finding their way into the written language. They are declined
as follows:

SINGULAR
MASC. FEM. GENDER FORM

PLURAL
NEUTER
ALL GENDERS

Nom. and

Obj.:

den har, ddr
Ex.

det har, ddr

de har, ddr

(Genitive lacking.)

Den har hasten

dr vacker, den

vill

jag ko'pa,

this horse is fine, I wish to buy it; det ddr huset tillhor visst herr Carlen, I think that house belongs

Mr. Carlen; de ddr rosorna tiro hdrliga, those (After den har and den ddr, the noun takes the definite form.)
to

roses are beautiful.

199. The former and the latter are expressed by den forre(a) (neut. det forr a, pi. de forr a) and den

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.
senare (neut. det senare,
:

113

Emma

Anna och pi. de senare) systrar; den forra ar ljus, den senare are sisters; the former is a mork, Anna and blonde, the latter a brunette.
tiro

Emma

NOTE. When used substantively, these expressions take an -s in the genitive: den forras (Annas) lynne ar glattigare an den senares, the disposition of the former is merrier than that of the latter.

200.

REMARKS ON THE DEMONSTRATIVES.

(a) The forms in -e must be used when the demonstrative is used as a pronoun and refers to persons of masculine gender; they are generally preferred,
at least in the written language, when the demonstrative is used adjectively before a noun denoting

a person of masculine gender: denne ar min bror, this one is my brother; det ar samme man jag sag i gar, it is the same man I saw yesterday.
(b) After samme a following adjective has always the definite form but a following noun generally the indefinite; after denne the adjective is always definite

indefinite in the written definite in the spoken jag often but language very har sett samme (a) lille(a) gosse forr, I have seen the same little boy before; denna stdtliga kyrka ar den nya Vasakyrkan, this stately church is the new
:

and the noun generally

Vasa church.
(c) Sadan is regularly preceded article: en sddan man.

by the

indefinite

NOTE. In exclamations, however, the order may be reversed in case of sddan and its equivalents sicken, slik, and tocken; thus, sddant ett elande ! Sicken en stackare ! Such a miserable creature (Never oh, such misery
! !

en sicken stackare

/)

114

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

(d) The demonstrative pronouns den, det, and denna, delta, referring to things in a general way, and depending upon a preposition, are sometimes translated by dar (sometimes hdr) with the preposition added: ddrmed, with that, or those; harmed, with this, or these jag har talat med honom ddrom, I have talked with him about that thing, or those things jag litar ddrpd, I rely on that.
, ;
;

201.

SOME USES OF THE DEMONSTRATIVES.
they, this, that, these, those,

For

when used

as

subjects and referring to a predicate noun, Swedish uses the neuter singular det, detta, det hdr, det dar, irrespective of the gender and number of the follow-

ing noun, if the demonstrative idea is not very emphatic or if one person or thing is not contrasted with another; as, detta dr min bror, this is my brother; detta dr vackra blommor, these are beautiful flowers but denne dr min bror, this one is my brother; de hdr dro -vackra blommor, de dar fula, these are beautiful flowers, those are homely ones.
;

202.

Den

is

often used as antecedent to a restric-

tive relative (he

who)

;

icke sanning, he truth (222, d).
NOTE.

who

sagt detta, talar said this does not speak the
as, den,
de darhemma. the people at home.

som

De

is

often used indefinitely

;

203.

Idiomatic expressions with demonstratives

:

En
it

etc.)

sadan dumbom han dr! (or, sddan en dumbom, Whafca stupid fellow he is Det gor detsamma, does not matter med detsamma, immediately.
!

;

EXERCISE.

115

EXERCISE XVIII.
A.
1.

Fill out the blanks as suggested.

Smek

ej 2.

... ...
i

(186, b). rev ... (me)

katten, Anna, ... (it) rivs (that) 2 (it) ar visst (the same) katt , som 3. Ar ... (this)* ... (your) gosse, gar.
. .
.

1

fru Anderson?
flicker.
5.
. .

Ja, och
.
.

.

.

.

3 (detta or dessa) ar
1

.

.

.

(my)

4.
ej

Aro
.

(yours) ? ... (those) i parken. Maria och Elisabet ganska lika? Nej, det ar
.

Vilka aro

(such, 200, c) skillnad pa dem, att man ej kan se, att de aro systrar. ... 6. (the former) ar ljus, ... (the
latter)

mork.
Ja,
.
.
.

7.

Ar

...
. . .

3

(this)

...
8.

(your,

familiar)
fatt

ring?
. .
.

(it) ar

(mine).
9.

Av vem bar du
Jag bar
(it)

(this) vackra ring
till

2

(def. or indef. ?) ?

fatt

den av min far
jag tror
ej,

ar sa ovanlig; 10. Jag att jag nagonsin sett en precis likadan.
julklapp.
...
. . .

blev sa glad, nar jag fick (it), jag hade lange b'nskat mig ... (a similar one, 197). 11. Ar (this, 200, a) 2 Smith, som du talar om, (the same) person , som vi
. . . . . .

kanna pa ... (that) 1 resa (def. or indef.?) till Stockholm for ett par ar sedan? Ja, han ar ... (the same one, 200, a). 12. ... (He who, 202) talade var
larde
. .

i

(the same) gamle herre (use man), som vi traffade gar kvall pa bjudningen hos Linds. 13. Vad sade han
. .

2

.

.

(about that, 200, d)
(because of
2

?

Han

sade, att

han var glad

.

.

.

it,

translate, over it).

'198.

200,

b.

3 201.

B.
it?
I
3
.

1.

This 1
it

found

a beautiful flower; where did you find 2 in that little flower bed. 2. Please take a
is
is

seat
3.

2 comfortable; take this one 2 I believe I shall take that one by (vid) the window,

That chair 2

not

.

thank you (tack sa mycket, girl take after her mother?

first).

4.

Doesn't that 2

little
,

4 Yes, she has the same eyes

116
the
,

VOCABULARY.

same mouth 4 and the same

voice

4
.

5.

Have you

ever

6. He is almost seen such a (200, c) sturdy old man? it does not matter but old, (203) ; he does the eighty years

same heavy work
work
9.
till

as he used to do.

7.

Let us take a walk
is rare.

;

such a fine autumn day as (som) this

8. I

must

six o'clock; after that (sedan) I

can take a walk.

Which (vilJcen) Mr. Smith do you mean? The one who (202) lives on King's Street. 10. That is the same
Mr. Smith whom I used to know. He was such a good man. 11. Are these 1 your sisters? Yes, and those are my brothers. 12. You have such a beautiful ring, Anna;
where (var.
.

.ifrdn?) did you get it?

13. Yes, it is very

Christmas present from my brother. pretty. 15. In that (200, d) 14. I wish I had one like it (197).
I got it as a

you are right, Carl, but please do not talk any more about it. 16. Our teacher was angry with (ond pa) us yesterday. 17. He told us that he had never seen such compositions
before.
18.

Those who (202) had more than ten errors
theirs.
god och
titt

had to rewrite
MJOl.
(also

*198.

*Either var sd
200, b.

ner,

or var sa god och salt er

tag plats).

VOCABULARY.
bekvam, en bjudning,
-t,

comfortable
-ar,

reception,

party en Wom'sterrabatt', bed
brds pd

ganska, quite, .fairly en hostdag, -ar, autumn day en julklapp, -ar, Christmas
present en katt, -er, cat
lik, -t, like,

-er,

flower

(dep

v.)

(

III,

impf.

alike

brdddes, supine to take after
duktig,
ett fel,
fd, fick,
-t,
,

brdtts),

ljus,

-t,

light,
I

blonde
I

mena,
en

(sometimes

la), to

capable, sturdy error
(170), to

mean
mun, munnar, mouth
mork,
-t, dark, brunette ndgonsin. ever

fingo, fdtt

get; be allowed

COMPOUND
niistan,

VERBS.
-er,

117
difference

o'vanlig,

almost -t, unusual
-er,

en skillnad,

skriva om', to rewrite

en person', en ring,
-ar,

person

smeka, Ha, caress
en
-et,

precis', exactly

stol, -ar,
,

chair
rar,

ring

sdllsynt,
tio,

riva, rev, revo, rivit, -en, to scratch, tear

ten

right en rost, -er, voice
ratt,
,

en tunga, -or, tongue en upp'sats, -er, composition
dttio,

eighty

IDIOMS:

1.

2.
3.

be right. att bras pa ndgon, to take after somebody. det iir visst, I think it is.
att
ratt, to

ha

LESSON XIX.
The Verb (Continued)

COMPOUND

VERBS.
in

204. There are two kinds of verb compounds Swedish: inseparable and separable.

INSEPARABLE VERB COMPOUNDS.

The following prefixes always form insepacompounds that is, compounds of which the component parts are never separated: be-, bi-,
205.
rable verb
;

ent-,

er-,

for-, gen-,
a-.

har-, miss-, sam-, um-, mid-,

van-, veder-,

206.
the first

Noun Prefixes. Verb compounds of which member is a noun are generally inseparable
impf. korsfaste; supine,

;

as, kors'fasta, to crucify;

korsfast; past part., korsfast; land'satta, to put ashore; landsatte, landsatt, landsatt; hals'hugga, to behead; halshogg, halshuggit, halshuggen.
NOTK.
If

the noun

is

compounded with a

proposition, this

compound
f

prefix

may be

separated from the verb.

Thus: landsatta,

to put ashore, satte

land.

not kalla fri. he painted the house white. to lock out. For the present and see note. lish. the present and past participles of such verb compounds are always inseparable when used as attributive adjectives: den landsatte passageraren. Separable verb compounds of this class often change their meaning when the adverb or preposition follows the verb. fo'rega or ga fo're to precede. av'hugga or hugga av'. It is best for beginners to regard the adjective prefixes as in- 208. to break an'lagga. landed at the pier. If the adjective as. to estab. we have been landed. past participle 206. 207. to read through. . . lade VERBS. to . etc. to aim fram'hdlla. to acquit. figurative when not separated: av'ga. ge'nomldsa or Idsa ge'nom. with no difference of meaning: u'teldsa or Idsa u'te. fixes NOTE. but han mdlade vitt. m SEPARABLE VERB COMPOUNDS. organize lagga an'. . number. (2) al With difference of meaning: the sense is liter- the parts of the verb compound are separated. they are sometimes separable: satta i land vid kajen. the landed passenger. to resign graduate ga av'. is separated it agrees with the object in gender and han vitmalade huset. COMPOUND adagaldgga. frikallad. . to take from or deprive of. to point out. frikopt or kopt fri. holla fram'. Adverbs and prepositions used as prefixes form both separable and inseparable verb compounds. when . to stretch forth. ddaga. Adjectives used as pregenerally form separable verb compounds: fri'kopa or ko'pa fri'. un'derhalla. Adverb and preposition prefixes. (1) Separable. lagt adaga. fran'taga or taga fran'. to cut off. frikallat. we hurried to the custom-house. frikopte or kopte fri. vi ha bh'vit satta i land. Adjective Prefixes. to ransom. when equivalent to a clause or when used in the predicate. skyndade till tullhuset. ddagalagd.118 etc. to manifest. huset separable. but frikalla.

fo'redraga. to endure. to appear. if an adverb or a preposition. care must be taken not to confuse it with a preposition introducing a phrase. 207) the object is placed between the verb and the affix. the inseparable prefix. for. to go forth. phrase (206. ent-. fore-. if Care should be taken not to confuse for-. but han brot av' brodet. Ex. prefer. The musical accent is grave. fo'restd. on the noun. like If the separable affix is an adjective or 210. they landed him but han hogg av handen. often after as. ACTIVE Pres. to shut in. man satte honom i land. to NOTE. ga fram'. to manage. Thus: fordra' ga. Impf. he cut off his hand. The latter takes the accent and imparts an entirely different meaning to the verb. except in the case of be-. to impend. 209. and stdnga Synopsis of the verbs av'bryta. han brot' av brodet och at. to interrupt.[see 36 (a)]. to hold beneath. 119 entertain.COMPOUND VERBS. . hallo. fram'gd. he broke a piece off the bread and ate. 212. the preposition rarely. the affix is always accented. un'der. and the separable prefix. a phrase. 211. become evident. forsta'. The stress accent falls always on the prefix. in'ne. 213. present. to understand. Compound verbs are conjugated exactly corresponding simple verbs. he broke to : the bread in two. which never take the accent. . When the affix is separated and happens stand before a noun. jag av'bryter jag avbrbt Future jag skall avbryta jag stdnger in'ne jag stdngde inne jag skall stdnga inne .

or skall bli innestdngd jag har stdngts inne. P. Future jag skall avbryor skall bli(va) av- jag stdnges inne. 3. a piece. or harblivit avbruten jag hade avbrutits. 5. He was (blev) recogrecognized (two ways) him? 14.120 EXERCISE. or bruten Fut. or blev avbruten tas. 9. or hade blivit innestdngd jag skall ha stdngts. landed the passengers. 11. Translate. come my request. Which do you pre- 6. jag har avbrutit Plupf. or blir avbruten Impf. jag avbrots. jag skall ha avbrutits. jag hade avbrutit Fut. thanked his friends. Had you 12. The ransomed one nized. bruten jag har avbrutits. The landed passengers wished to view the city. 13. fer. Perf. or blivit hade av- jag hade innestdngts. or blir innestdngd jag stdngdes inne. P. I can't endure that man. or skall ha blivit inne- skall ha blivit inne- avbruten stdngd EXERCISE XIX. I had 1. or har blivit innestdngd Perf. They ransomed him. off broken 4. Plupf. He has interrupted me. A. Hold the glass beneath the water. They (man} have after. He will comply with 8. Put the verbs in different tenses. He will . You 2. jag skall ha avbrutit jag har stdngt inne jag hade stdngt inne jag skall ha stdngt inne PASSIVE Pres. to stay here or to go with us ? 7. or blev innestdngd jag skall stdngas inne. 10. must entertain your friends. jag avbrytes.

sa att man ej skulle (165) igenkanna honom. We must 2 . fb'retog kejsaren av Eyss- land langa spatserturer? Varfor kande man ej igen honom? Vart begav han sig en gang? 4. Vad gjorde han? 6. Conversation. att kejsaren 11. om du skickar ut pengarna. sin Kejsaren efterkom kuskens begaran och gav hokappa som pant. han varse. Yes. begaran ? D. ropade pa en. Have you observed the conduct of this man? 3. and I do not understand how people 4 can entrust money to 3 him.EXERCISE. nar han skulle atervanda? 5. Varfor kunde han ej 8. 1. sade till kusken och amnade ga in. att "Var god och vanta". Efterkom kejsaren bans skulle kvarlamna kappan? 3. "jag skall skicka ut pengarna genast. disguise ourselves 1 if we do not wish to be recognized 2. Nar han skulle atervanda. En gang hade han gatt ut till en liten forstad. he spends too much for amuseSu-edish Grammar 9 . Hur ville han uppgora saken betala kusken genast? 9. Vad befallde han kusken? 7. Av vilka (whom) hade kusken (settle the matter) ? forut blivit bedragen? 10. avbro't kusken honom. att han ej hittade. blev han han givit ut alia sina pengar. steg in och befallde kusken att kora honom till slottet. For att kunna (165." nom C. Da de hade anlant dit. Nu aterstod for honom endast att anfb'rtro sig at en droska. 2) gb'ra detta bmkade ban foretaga langa spatserturer forkladd i en vanlig officerskappa. "sa ha officererna redan ett par ganger bedragit mig. 1. 121 Nikolaus den forste av Eyssland onskade att iakttaga sitt folks liv. I have. steg tsaren ut. lille far". sa skickar jag in den. de ha underlatit att skicka ut pengarna. B. Vad varseblev han. Kvarlamna din kappa som (as} pant. Varfor ville han. varseblev han (blev han varse). Han Da han skulle betala." "Nej. Varfor 2.

122 ments. 2 Use passive with bliva. -dragen. to an'ldnda (insep. VOCABULARY. object is often preceded by at or till. pi. *An indirect passive with -* would hardly ever be used in such a case. 4. f Var 1 FSrkldda man. -drog. at least in the simple tenses: han ger (giver) ut. request. car ni matt. ' . Did he comply with your a In satt och vis). The supine of a separable verb is separable. (infep. bro-brulit.). kopa fri'.). also construction with oss. verb. 10. that I asked the cabman to wait and said that I 8. Please 5 step out of the carriage. demand comply with icomma efter. How this did you settle the matter (C. -et. -et. used more tSga at or till. but he asked for way (pa request? watch as (bad om) my security and said he would return 9. The man had a good reason it when he got the money. Now we have arrived at (till) the palace. pay 7. to arrive Defal'la (insep. I did not it know that I had when I was going lost my money. 8) ? I settled it in way. -brot. (skulle) to I became aware (of) for the ride (dJctur). for this request. The teacher should point out the difference in meaning of the two kinds of verbs. -dragit. The past participle is practically always inseparable. an'fortro (insep. N. 5. B. to entrust bedra'ga (insep. Ill. to interrupt bryta av'. than the inseparable. ransom to ^ ^ ef terTcom. to come after to fri'Jcppa. stig w. VOCABULARY. if any. -Jcom- -kommit. way (pa samma satt). -drogo. he had been cheated so often in the same should send out the money. to break off en bega'ran (no. kommen. I shall order the cabman to drive to the theater.). sa god och stig vr. which are not always interchangeable: 4 The separable forms are. or. He interrupted me while I was speaking and asked for the money which he had entrusted to me. even when the verb is separable. efterkomma> -bruten. cheat - deceive anliinde. but skriva till. to com- mand av'bryta to.). lib. reflex. lib. 6. Ha.). Get into the carriage.). impf. as a rule.

see std). lamna kvar'..). to un- cloak en orsak. to re- main d'tervdnda(sep. to hold beneath un'derldta (insep. vilkendera. The interrogative pronouns are: vem. lib. LESSON XX. edit hitta. bliva var'se.INTEHROGATIVES. -gdvo. var'sebliva. walk derstand in. . -tog. I. which one vad for en. to return lamna dter (unusual) a'terstd (sep. ut'.). who. DECLENSION. I. who. to land ett Hi. officer's guise en for'stad. palace skicka in'. -Idt. vad. cause en pant. -er. officer IDIOM: att varsebliva en sak.. -er. to become aware of d'terldmna. what. to leave behind en klocka. -stdder. fo'redraga (insep. -er. to recognize neglect kvar'lamna. to i'akttaga tagit. I. -en. lib. to prefer forkld'da (insep. to become aware of a thing.. -satt. lib. -n. security ropa. I. -or.-rit?: vem vems vad vilken vilkens ?t = vilket vilkendera vilketdera vilkets vilkenderas vilketderas . to spend. see bedraga). to igen'kdnna. utgav. (sep. SINGULAR r. to return vdnda dter (unusual) life en officer'. -togo. kdnna igen'. -given. to shout Ryssland (neuter). watch land'sdtta. reason. see std). -satte. . -et. Russia . lib.). en spatsertur. to dis- 123 en officers' kappa. giva ut'. Interrogative Pronouns and Adjectives. tolerate. clock. -givit. -et. castle. fordra'ga (insep.). which. The 214. publish. piece to find. vilken. -er. -satt. -et. serve hdlla un'der. -Idtit. ett stycke. what kind of.) . ett slott. -Idto. to send out ut'giva. what. find one's way ob- un'derhdlla entertain (see hdlla). suburb forstd' (insep. to endure. -or. to -tagen.

vad (object) han har sagt. Ex. how. the student should use vilken and vad for en: Vad talar rdtt har han om? What is he talking about? Vad du att gora detta? What right have you to do this? NOTE. vilken. This use being rather restricted. When ichat is subject in an indirect question it is often represented by vad som in Swedish: jag vet ej vad som ar bast.: Vad adjective it drops for plural. . The interrogative adjectives are: vad. vilkendera. REMARKS ON THE INTERROGATIVES. ter.: Med vem talade du? (or vem talade du med?) With whom did you speak? Vems bok ar detta? Whose book NOTE. the latter use prevailing. vet is this? it is When vem is subject in an indirect question followed by som : du vem som var hart do you know who was here? Vad is used both as a pronoun and as an adjective when used pronominally it is always neu(b) . vad for en. As an ena in the Ex. adjectively it may be used for all genders like the English what. Gen. of what Their declension is identical with nature. vilka vilkas ett Vad for en has a neuter vad for vad for ena.124 INTERROGATIVES. but no genitive. (c) Vad for en is used both as a pronoun and as an adjective. and a plural 215. that of the interrogative pronouns but they lack the genitive case: hurudan has the neuter form hurudant and the plural hurudana. 216. . I do not know what is best but jag vet ej. PLURAL Nom. and hurudan. (a) Vem refers only to persons and is never used as an adjective.

vad may in certain cases be replaced by prepositional compounds with var. you speak? 218. 219. and the genitive form vars. etc. 220. The relative adjective is vilken. and for inflection of den see 195. For may be separated from vad: vad ar is del for en blommaf What kind of (a) flower that? (d) Vilken and vilkendera are used both as adjecand as pronouns.: Vilken har varit hdr? Who has been here? Vilket hus har du hyrt? Which house tives have you rented? Vilkendera o'nskar du? Which one (of several objects) do you wish? Vilketdera huset ar hans? Which house (of these houses) is How is the weather his? Hurudant ar vddret? (of what nature) ? If the interrogative pronoun is governed a by preposition this may as in English either precede or stand at the end of the clause: med vem talade du? or vem talade du med? with whom did 217. hurudan (hurdan) only as an adjective. where: varav. varmed. For inflection of vilken and vad see 214. vartill. . vad.RELATIVES. vilken. 221. 125 blommor har du ddr? What kind of flowers have you there ? Sometimes it has the meaning of vilken vad for en konung hade Sverige da? What king did Sweden have then? : NOTE.. den. The relative pronouns are som. With prepositions.: varmed har man belonat honom? With what have they rewarded him? Varav lever han? What does he live on? Relative Pronouns and Adjectives. Ex.

skall resa i morgon. which is supplied by vars and vilkens (vilEx. It has no plural. vilket forvanar mig. vars barn dro sjuka. my friend who is here on a visit will leave to-morrow. four boys of whom one was my cousin were drowned yesterday.126 RELATIVES. ft skolu saga vad som iir rdtt. (c) Vad is used as a compound neuter relative including its antecedent. by far the most common of the relapronouns. kets. he has been elected. is Som tive when used as a pronoun often employs form vars instead of vilkens. It is not used very often in conversation except when the antecedent is a clause (when it is indispensable) or when a preposition must stand before the relative. Ex. When vad is the subject of the sentence or clause it is generally combined with som. NOTE. it is indeclinable and is used for all genders and all cases with the exception of the genitive. vad jag har sett. dr sant. 222. that is all I have seen (som may be used) . as* such it is of comparatively rare occurrence. also after the indefinite pro- noun allt. dr mycket fattig. the man whose children are sick is very poor. det dr allt. who- . (b) Vilken the genitive : . han har blivit void.: vad han sdger. drunknade i gar. which fact surprises me (here som would be incorrect) fyra gossar. (d) Den is used as a definite relative only in the objective case. In the nominative together with som it corresponds to he who. som dr hdr pa besok. Ex. vilkas). mannen. (a) REMARKS ON THE RELATIVES. what he says is true.: min van. av vilka en var min kusin. we ought to say what is right. thus. the one who (which).

Do you understand what 12. Translate orally. he says? 11. The prepositions which govern the rela- end of the clause. I know the ladies that you speak about. Who is he? 1. bordet. Do you know at (vid) what time the train leaves (gar) ? 9. where. EXERCISE XX. the house which he lives in is his father's. often omitted In Swedish as in English the relative is when objective. whoever says this is stupid den ddr vet det rtitta. the house in which he lives is old. : these are the rules which you must follow. In solemn style it is sometimes combined with ddr. dem (more common som) ni maste folja. A. always. a compound of the rela- adverb var. Of what are you speaking? 7. dessa dro de regler. som boken ligger pa. . kdnner jag. I do not know what is best (bast). huset. . vilket (i vilket) han bor i. or vari han bor. dr dum. dr mitt. den som sdger detta. tives are generally placed at the 224.EXERCISE. sition tive When the relative is and refers to things. he who. whoever. Of whom 6. 127 ever. 223.: damerna. or bordet. when used with som. som han bor i. 3. i du mo'tte gar? Who was it you met yesterday? governed by a prepo- 225. han gore det rdtt dr. let him do right. den ddr. and the preposition may be used. What sort of a man is he? 10. Ex. What 5. as. Who goes there? 1 in your (178) hand? 4. the table which the book lies on is mine. varpa boken ligger. dr hans fars. What do you have are you speaking? book do you mean? 2. What 2 new house is that? 8.: Vem var det. he that knows the right. Ex. huset. som du talar om. Ex. dr gammalt.

thing. . av vilka det ena 3 ar forgiftat. var en obetydlighet. That is all 1 I know about the Whoever (222. There is no poet whose life is so interesting. . in a limited C. of Strindberg do you like best 3 ? 13. what kind of a new house is that? or which is that new house? *To like best. when it 2 Note the frequent use of sa to introduce the follows the dependent. 3 9. c. det andra. Translate orally. That is the lady who has the pretty daughters. there are. aro tva piller." som blev mycket overraskad av apotekarens forandamal naturligtvis var att forhindra duellen. d) does such a thing (nagot a good man. sa tillkommer det mig att valja vapnen. How is the weather? : Which drama what what = translate in two ways: preposition before and at the end of the clause. He who (222. Officeren. . Tidigt pa morgonen av den dag. Transl. som var en apotekare. 6. 5. He is a man who knows every2. och apotekaren. . In (218) does the difference consist? 14. Do you know kind of teacher he is? 15. som liar blivit 2 utmanad. see 222. vars som aterstar. . om vilken de oense. *There is. Den sak. one. B. . av denne utmanad till duell. 1 Relative may be omitted . pa vilken duellen skulle utkampas. The house in which (225) he lives is his father's. is not 7. Var sa god och valj det ena och svalj det jag svaljer det.128 EXERCISE. d) is is rich not always happy. blev voro som 1 hade rakat i tvist med en officer. det andra daremot oskadligt. gjorde apotekaren ett besok helt lugnt till i officerens bostad och sade denne : "Emedan jag ar den. J Note the frequent use of som. principal clause the other. 1. slag. . -Uppsala universitet. The man whom (224) I sadant) a is about at spoke professor (vid) the University of Up2 sala 8. 3. och en av oss maste do. En forstandig man. matter. 4. kastade ut pillerna genom fonstret och forsonade sig med honom. in a general sense sense by det ar. must be rendered by det finnes (/inns). tycka bast om. Har . *det ena. That is not the man I mean. onskade att forhindra duellen.

vilketdera pillret var forgiftat? 8. who was a very sensible man. I know him well (ml). det piller. sition 12.EXERCISE. han valde? 10. through what) 6. 1. the other was harmless. whose (222. which was poisoned 2 . d) remained. what I have heard it was about a The druggist. i 129 apotekaren rakat officeren? 3. skulle hans motstandare Vad Vad slag? (opponent) gora med 11. wished : 5. d). Of these there was one 10. Yes. The druggist asked the officer which one of the two he would 11. Varfb'r 5. When the officer asked him what kind of weapons he would choose he held out a couple of pills. suc- 2 True or apparent passive? . C. 6. 5) who has been challenged to choose the weapons. He is a man whose friendship I esteem 1 very highly. He went to the house of the man who had challenged to him and had a talk with him. 3. a) purpose ceeded in this (200. Conversation. 7. threw the out through the window. The druggist. By what means did he succeed in preventing it? (transl. 1. He himself would (skulle) (ville) take and swallow. 2. prevent the duel. andamal? of a man the druggist is the officer got into a quarrel? 2. it is He reminded him of an old custom according to which the right of him (C. 7. 9. 4. 9. but according to trifling matter. 8. translate in two ways (218). The propo- which the pills druggist made it surprised the officer and he 13. Vad var andamalet med detta for- Vad gjorde officeren sitt med pillerna? Upp- nadde (attained) apotekaren D. the was to prevent duel. officeren? hade apotekaren Vad tillkom honom och for vapen foreslog (proposed) apotekaren? Visste apotekaren. I do not know what the quarrel consisted Do you know what kind with whom in 1 . Med vem hade 4. swallow the one that (222. tvist? Vartill blev till han ntmanad av Niir gick apotekaren beslutat forhindra duellen? varfor?.

to get into a quarrel.). rdka. to en sed. conversation remind fram'rdcka. according to come or get (into).). on the contrary to die do. 2. er'inra (insep. dogo. treat en o'betydlighet. to I. ett piller. Det tillkommer mig. -t. forhind'ra (insep. . insignifi- endure. sensible. dott. at variance o'skadlig. bostdder. trifle o'ense (indecl. to swallow to reach or hold out till'komma forgif'ta (insep. en apotekare. vent ett to pre- see komma). to fight out to forstdn'dig. usage svdlja. proposition. lib. intel- kdmpa (i. weapon I. to esteem forslag'. duel harmless pill ddr'emot. to poison I. I. cease fighting ligent die) . to befit. ett samtal. (sep. I. because enligt. friendship o'verras'ka (insep.. dwelling.130 VOCABULARY. rdckd frarn'. . . high ut' ett vapen.).). to. ut'kdmpa. 3. to throw out en vdnskap. -er. I to become astonished to it. I. utkasta).. -t. att bliva overrasTcad av nagot. -er. ut'. -t. at something. en bostad. to meet to . custom. en tvist. be the right of somebody (insep. svdrigneter. I. sist. emedan. to mean -er. ut'mana lenge (insep.). see std). hog. (rarely I. I. . I. . Ha. kasta lugn. home en duell'. difficulties. dog. -t. cance. -er. havr a right or it is my privilege. VOCABULARY.). chal- proposal forso'na. . e.).). IDIOMS: att rdka i grill. to reconcile -t. quarrel upp'skatta (insep. happy bestd' (insep. druggist lycklig. to con- mena. meet (with). prise to sur- calm(ly) 1. I.

leende. from kalla. The present participle is formed by adding -ande to the stem of the verb if the infinitive ends in -a. dish to it is The present participle is not used in Sweform a progressive tense as in English. to sew. Ex. an adverbial predicative: hon gick tiggantill hus. . instead of hon gick tiggande. otherwise -ende. to call. The present participle is used: ett (1) as an adjective: sovande barn. he was writ: ing when I entered. expressed by means of the verb hdlla pa'. from minnas and aldras. ently .: kallande. da jag kom in. 228. aldrande. When is the idea of continued action especially prominent. it in the genitive: en doendes anger. aging. many 227. PRESENT PARTICIPLE. to smile. syende. continue. 1. NOTK takes 2. remembering. -3j as. lack a present participle. 226. a sleeping he spoke flu- child. Deponent verbs form their present participle either with or without the minnandes. to keep on. (3) as de fran hus to house. and the infinitive preceded by att han hbll pa att skriva. (2) as an adverb: han talte flytande. she went begging from house prefers a finite verb to the present The conversational language often participle used as an adverbial predicative.LESSON XXL The Verb (Continued). -s from le. Ex. from sy. The present participle is indeclinable. : hon yick frdn hus till hus och tiggde. but if used as a noun. etc. NOTE. Sometimes the preposition mea. the repentance of a dying person.

Ex. The English present participle very often must be rendered by a subordinate clause either temporal. . he went away without seeing me. lie. 1 med att lasa. being sick he : had to go home. hearing us come. 231. Swedish uses a noun clause with att instead of att with the infinitive: He came without my seeing him. or relative. The past participle is formed in five different ways according to the class or conjugation to which the verb belongs. 233. is with. their having come home was a surprise. ran away. finite I NOTE. 232. much writing tiresome. I saw him coming. han kom utan att jag sag honom. am 229. lounging about. gossen sprang sin vag. never the present participle. . att de hade kommit hem var en ofverraskning. mdste han ga hem. Sitta. hanging around (idly). causal. all this talking is unnecessary. ndr han horde oss komma. Nouns in -ning and -ande (added to the verbal stem) correspond to the English verbals and abstract nouns an -ing. 230. mycken is skrivning ar trottande. emedan han var sjuk. according to the sense the boy. After the verbs hora and se Swedish uses the infinitive. inserted before the infinitive: han holl pa to sit ligga. as in English: jag sag honom komma.132 PARTICIPLES. and similar verbs are ga. lent to the NOTE. Note the following use of halla pa: jag holl pa att falla. cise. . used with a och skrifver. han gick bort utan att se mig. go . idling och hanga. I came near falling.: allt detta talande ar onodigt. . att The English verbal infinitive: in -ing is often equiva- running is a useful exerar en springa nyttig o'vning. sla. aid writing ligga och lata sig. stand form of some other verb to express progression: jag sitter . PAST PARTICIPLE. When the verbal is modified by a possessive adjective.

bojd. In the Second Conjugation. ii. funnen. NOTE 2. so do many in- transitive verbs. kallad. -en 235. the ending In the Third Conjugation the ending is -dd. of weak verbs may be found by dropping the 236. Class is -d. STRONG DECLENSION. The past participle is used as an adjective and agrees in number and gender with the noun or pronoun which it modifies or of which it is a complement. In the Fourth Conjugation the ending is (-n. sydd skriven sytt 'skrivet IV. may 1. It is declined in accordance with the rules governing the declension of adjectives. the ending is -t. II. II. 1 .PARTICIPLES. shriven. These endings are added to the stem of In the Fourth Conjugation there may not be a change of vowel thus. II. sydd. SINGULAR NEUTER GENDER FORM PLURAL ALL GENDERS I. dlskad kopt bojd dlskat kopt bo'jt dlskade l kopta(e ) bojda(e) III. It may be of assistance for the beginner to notice that the past participle e of the imperfect. . In the Second Conjugation. dlskade kopta bojda sydda(e) sydda skrivna(e) skrivna 'Masculine nouns denoting persons often take the -e dlskade kopta(e^) bojda(e) kopta (e ) bojda(e) sydda(e) skrivna(e) form of the adjective. Class I. or the verb. kopt. 133 234. Class Class i. 237. Deponent verbs as a rule lack the past participle. sydda(e) skrivna(e) dlskade 238. -et). WEAK DECLENSION. In the First Conjugation the ending is -ad.

(vanta lange) till (sova) brev har hund . . Den also the definite and plural endings. havande Nyheterna mottagna i brevet. has arrived. Havande last Translate: 11. pi. the defeated Russians fled hdren.. bad tiggar . . used only with the auxiliary verb hava to form the perfect tenses and is indeclinable. .) bitas ej. 8.. The past participle is used only adjectively as an attributive. 3. . . 239. . (forlora) 1 har blifvit stod (finna) 2. . 1.. the letter is written. brevet dr skrivet. to hi? NOTE. 6. . I eke 9.). With some verbs of motion vara may be used with the past participle form the perfect tenses as. . the house has been painted. . . or the supine of the verbs indicated. (komma). han dr anldnd.. 10. rocken dr lagad. . (vanda) . huset har blivit mdlat. Jag har mig. . In the last function it is used with bliva (varda) in the de apparent passive (185) slagna ryssarna flydde. . (fb'r- tjusa) 5. gar ha gjort oss alia glada. to : . drog sig tillbaka. . vet jag ej vad jag bor gora. defeated and shattered.. framfor den 1 .. .. EXERCISE XXI. liten flicka. . edert 2 Express in more idiomatic Swedish by (inbegripa) 1 sig . the coat is mended. (stanga) dorr 4.134 EXERCISE. Supply the present participle. he has left . The past participle should not be confused with the supine. han dr bortrest. . the army. A. . 7. form the compound passive and with vara 240. 2 Ert . (hitta) alia de (forlora) brev (def. . I heard him . (pi. kastade jag bort det. besegrad och uppriven. or a predicate modifier. withdrew. the past participle. an appositive. Barn ring (grata) . 1 Ester ar en . erfarenhet nog. according to the context . expanding the participles into clauses. which is. . om en slant.. . .

att han mindes mig. 'After verbs like se. He speaks fluently six foreign languages and is very 7. infinitive Past part. hon sade var en julklapp fran hennes far. He came driving. vilken 4. . Nar jag sag sade jag adjo och lamnade henne. kommo hennes vanner ut ur kyrkan. not the pres. 12. havpressed my desire of calling (inf. 1.EXERCISE. Pres. Ernedan det ar lange sedan jag sag henne. 1. kande jag knappast igen henne. hora. well-read. tressant 7. 2. Nar jag gick hem fran kyrkan i gar. Swedish uses the dependent verb. part. 9. 2 of the B. Hon Han ar en mycket inflytande man.) on him. jag ville kupen. 6. stannade han och halsade. nar taget gar. traffade jag froken Lind. som rbka en cigarr. She looked 3 charming in her new winter it hat. att jag tryckt skulle lamna staden utan att ha besokt dem. Mannen.ar val belast. Stopping 2 she wished me a merry Christmas and a happy New Year. I met Miss Wallner. singing 1 . nar han sag mig. dotter till en gammal skolkamrat. dem komma. part. gick jag in i rokstar dar borta. 2. Note the inverted order in an independent clause following a dependent. som talar 8. Z>. Her father is a very learned and cultured man and a celebrated author. Emedan 2. Hon var fb'rtjusande vacker i sin nya vinterhatt. 6. 3. she told me that was a Christmas gift from her father. Da pa att samtala. Jag svarade. manga frammande sprak vi hollo och . 2 Smiling kindly she said that her father would like to see me. ar konduktb'rn. I ex8. fraga honom. att hennes far ofta hade uten b'nskan att fa traffa mig. C. 4. Det ej gladde mig. omtalade for mig. kanna. Seeing 1 me look at it. 3. 1. 5. 1 men Going home from church last Sunday. 3. Reading and writing are taught at school. 3 135 13. Not having 4 seen him for many years. Han kom springande. 5.

tola om' (sep. -ar. p. coin . waiting room. grdtit. compartment for smokers? No. -er. too late grata. emedan. long expected flytande. stop stiga pa'.foreign. fluent lard. smoking 2. translate by a temporal clause. or do. prohibited fortju'sande. to smoker compartment for smokers rokning. se ut. le. -grepo. learned frammande. p. (flyta). grdt. her I asked her to greet her parents from me. -et. My stopping and talking (230. (appearance) 'Clause introduced by ty. note) caused me to (gjorde att jag) come too late to the 1 train. en kupe. to call on in'begripa. en rokkupe. enter stanna. -at. How much did you have to (maste for ni) pay overweight? Nothing. to include en konduktor'. -er. I went into the Is this a is prohibited here. logo. -grep. we boarded the train. -er. often talked about 2 ing 9. foriil'drar. ett sprdk. taga emot' (sep. . Having bought a time-table. *To look 4 Causal clause introduced by en'dr. me and wondered where I was.136 5 VOCABULARY. seven express train to find en slant. to polette'ra. p. lett. to oildad. to board. (Idra). -t. (fortjusa).. pres. hdlsa pa'. check (baggage) charming parents for sent'. lart. p. ett snalltdg. VOCABULARY. I. weep hitta. p. tell to . -gripit. strange (e)mot'taga. to receive om'tala. smoking en ro'kare. adjo'. Having asked the conductor if it was the express train for (till) Stockholm. to stay. tured see taga). p. p. good-bye belast'. sju. 5. language -en. (viinta en er'farenhet. 3. compartment smile well-read (railroad) log. pres. p. they checked my bag1 without gage weighing (230) it. Thanking E. . -at. cul- lange vantad. -er. . forbjuden. (forbjuda). p. 1. (bilda).). p. grdto. ! Expand into a coordinate clause. I. experience lange). 4. conductor I.

like the reflexused more extensively in Swedish than in ive. Ha. it rains det snoar. att om'tala. sondags. to weigh vanda. IMPERSONAL VERBS. en vinterhatt. tit'ta pA. (1) Important impersonals are: Those referring to processes of nature: det fryser.). which is never omitted except in a few archaic expressions. The English.). lib (vande. I. turn en vantsal. to to look at undra. there is a knock on the door det ror sig i skogen. att onska ndgon ett gott nytt dr. to express IDIOMS: 1. 5. -ar. or tala om' ndgot for ndgon. it dawns det regnar. I. to tell somebody something. it thaws det dagas. to wish somebody a happy New Year. det knackar pa dorr en. it snows det blixtrar. I said good-bye to him. to wish somebody 2. LESSON The Verb XXII. as. lib. to wonder ut'trycka (insep. something moves in the forest . -er. vant). att ha frammande. i 137 -ar. beggar vaga. last Sunday tid'tabell'. 241. 4. it lightens (2) Those expressing merely abstract action. to have company. 3. waiting room en overvikt. (Continued). Jag sade adjo till honom. det gar hall. .IMPERSONAL VERBS. it freezes det toar. is 242. The impersonal verb form. somebody is walking in the 10 Grammar . att onska ndgon en glad a merry Christmas. overweight en onskan (no pi. impersonal subject is det. wish jul. winter hat en time table en tiggare. . Swedish i korridoren.

it is worth the while gar mig vdl. NOTE. my life is at stake gdller honom. the person or thing referred to often appearing as object: lonar modan. and det dr: There is. as. dr. det gives. det skrattades och s Jongs. and there are.levde en gang en konung. and det 2. ence. det gives. whereas det dr expresses existence within . tion is often asked. as. (3) Verbs in many idiomatic phrases. there ran a couple of boys across the field. The verb does not as in English agree with the logical subject but always in the singular. but has some idiomatic uses. is (b) 1. there was laughing and singing. even intransitives. 244. you are det frdgas ofta. may form an impersonal passive either with det as the subject or with the subject omitted. Det finns. it concerns him 243. Det finns. Many verbs. hdr dies. more seldom det gives.138 IMPERSONAL VERBS. once there lived a king. This form is often resorted to for emphasis. the queseating. as already shown in part. expresses existence within a space of extended or indefinite limits. ser jag. Other uses of det: Det corresponds in general to the English it. (a) Det stands for the introductory there and serves to bring the verb before the logical subject. expressing mere existare rendered by det finns. det sprang ett par gossar over fdltet. literally. det. THE IMPERSONAL PASSIVE. I feel sorry for you hur star det till med dig? How are you? det det det det det gdller mitt llv. it seems (I see) . I am doing well gor mig ont om dig.

there were still honest men. det tror fag. . to seize fat ta sig. det gor jag. to believe fatta. nu dr han det ej Idngre. to make believe uppfora. Examples erinra sig. (c) Det is used expletively : REFLEXIVE VERBS. I do. ly in no peculiarity of conis placed immedi- The reflexive form is used much more wideSwedish than in English. to remind inbilla sig. vet du vad han sade? Ja. or clause already used. phrase. erect uppfora sig. there are a couple of gentlemen at the door. to imagine inbilla. to behave tro sig. dare tro. or gives en Gud. det dr ett par herrar vid dorren. there is a God. noun corresponding 246. number of the following noun. the subject. he was rich. han var rik. . now he is so no longer. and of which the repetition is avoided (it is then rendered by so or not translated) Ex. A reflexive verb has The pronoun object jugation. to remember erinra. Note the singular of the verb.REFLEXIVE VERBb. to presume. to compose one: self . is he here? Yes. I think so. dr han hdr? Ja. det gives intet val. irrespective of the to represent another word. do you know what he said? Yes. Reflexive verbs "reflect" the action upon Hence the object is always the proto the subject. 245. : 139 a definite space of relatively small extent det fanns dnnu drliga man. to perform. there is no choice det finns. ately after the verb. often giving rise to secondary significations which require their own peculiar translations. 247.

' PERFECT jag har inbillat mig. avoid the use being very limited. to apply oneself tilldraga sig. as. to take place begiva the sig. jag skall etc. FUTURE jag skall inbilla mig. ni inbillar er (eder) PI. etc. however. IMPERATIVE 2nd Sg. etc. PRESENT INDICATIVE IMPERFECT INDICATIVE Sg. sig sjdlv The reflexives may be intensified by sjiilv: han alskade sina medmanniskor : he loved himself and not his fellow men. FUTURE PERFECT ha inbillat mig. Conjugation of reflexive inbilla sig. inbillen er (archaic) INFINITIVES Present : att inbilla sig Perfect att : 2nd Sg. Some verbs are used only reflexively . with the reflexives. this . condition) beflita sig. to be (as to health. and inbilla er 1st PI. inbilla dig (familiar) 2nd PI.140 REFLEXIVE VERBS. befinna sig. icke oss. PI. etc. to betake oneverb: att self 248. etc. jag inbillar mig du inbillar dig han inbillar sig jag inbillade mig. etc. ha(va) inbillat sig Future Perfect: att skola ha inbillat sig Idt(om) oss inbilla NOTE. vi inbilla oss I inbillen er (eder) ni inbilla er (eder) de inbilla sig vi inbillade oss. to imagine. of sjalv och The student construction should. jag PLUPERFECT hade inbillat mig. etc.

Hurry. dig 3. Jag du . (186). We shall see one another 4. EXERCISE XXII. . 3. . freezing and snowing. Continue the following: 2. sa att. du. we loved one another. dig. etc. och det ej mot kolden. A. skall . The postpositive definite article is often used instead of the possessive with nouns which denote parts of the body and articles of clothing. Can you 6. klada . . sa maste jag skammas. om du. Innan jag mottog frammande. Carl. sa du. varmt. sa att jag ej f orkyler mig. . one another. . the horses bite one another sang och gladje foljas at. song and joy accompany one another. jag ej kommer 1. maste jag klada om . we met each other. The possessor may be represented by an object pronoun. Om om so. . tell if we are waiting for (pa) you. 5. I cut my finger.. jag. maste du. THE RECIPROCAL PRONOUN which is is varandra. 1. vi dlskade varandra. etc. regnar. Carl has broken his leg.EXERCISE. When no agent is mentioned the -s form of the passive must often be avoided since it may give a reciprocal meaning to the verb : . . innan du . mig . we meet one another hdstarna bitas. There are two industrious boys in this room. . 4. etc. etc. each : other. Translate: soon. satt pa dig hatten. etc. Karl har brutit av sig benet. Jag hade befunnit mig battre. indeclinable vi trdffade varandra. boys. 141 249. I think 2. there is a postoffice in (vid or pa) this street? it is Stay at home. 5. mig. put on your hat. often be expressed by the -s form of the verb vi traffas. The reciprocal idea may. pm jag hade skyddat mig andrar mig. NOTE. Note such idiomatic reflexive constructions as: jag skar mig i fingret. as has been stated before. 250. Om jag inte uppfor mig battre.

De kunna ju.142 B. i Jag tror. Lind. EXERCISE. very likely. fru Sterner. boken ar trakig. att det ar omb'jligt att skydda sig mot forkylning. etc. 2. such a noise (B. 4. 10) them to behave is Why . 11. som om det gallde livet. 9. it is becoming 2. tror jag. till (at) Erik skriker val 2 gossarna. 1. att min man icke ar 6. and we must dress warmly knock 2 4. the book bores me. 3. 5. J It is suppose. Lendo the boys make Tell (B. Somebody is walking on the porch. it is The pleasure 6. 11). 1. det passar ej att taga emot frarnmande. too bad that. 3 Please look and see (se efter) who it is. Sag days) ? 7. det var trakigt. att de uppfora sig litet battre. looks as if it if we inquite (ganska) chilly tend to go out. long since we met. tills jag ar far dig. Ad jo. att jag bar latit er vanta. Lind ? I am it is Mr. How are you. now there is a would (skulle) rain soon. Jag inaste ga och klada om mig. Det gar pa verandan. herr Edgren. att oppna. nu blixtrade det till och med. i dag regnar det. otherwise (annars) we shall catch cold. Anna? mutual. nu knackar det pa dorren. att Karl ej var hemma. hemma. Anna. det skulle Jag mar fortraffligt. It is cloudy. det drojer endast ett par minuter. 10. Anna. 12. att fa traffa er. . att Karl hade fb'rkylt sig mycket svart. men vadret iindrar sig sa hastigt nu for tiden. kladd som jag ar. . 2 3. ha glatt honom fru Sterner. men vi traffas val senare. herr Edgren och jag kunna knappast hora varandra. very glad nart. etc. 5. Hur star det stiga in till? S'a 1 nom trakigt . I gar snoade det. Father. roa sig utan att vasnas sa. Men hur befinna ni er nu for tiden (nowa- Jag horde for nagon tid sedan. I should think. Mr. Anna. 8. Mr. skynda dig. I it 1 think the weather has changed . att det ar herr Edgren. Jag hoppas ni ursaktar. bed ho- fb'rmaket och satta sig. Vi ma alia bra nu. 3 Val I C. to see you.

c. mulna (generally en forkyl'ning. 1 Use reflex. I. to feel. to catch cold misstaga be mistaken impers.) I. lib. skynda sig. to yell. cry kldda om' dress to change skydda. Who is Mr. Idt. kit. -t. skri- dress (oneself) (sig). VOCABULARY.VOCABULARY. et. froso. There are not many (manga) in this town who would lend him 4 money. passa. 4 Pre- siime tro sig. see taga). cool . to greet dress (some- senare. droja (intr.). lib. frusit. 2 242. fros. verb. Brown ? He is a man who always lacks 3 money and who wants to borrow from everybody. fattas (dep. ett liv. to have a value. to hurry . later skrika. -en. there is much work for me at home. I. life Idtit. to lack frysa. -t. . No. Has he presumed to ask you to lend him? 3 14. to fit. cold (health) to become cloudy ett for'mak. hardly en kold. to protect I. I must hurry. We do not know one another we always greet one another when we meet (250). 7. he ought to be ashamed to behave is so badly. to skrek. lib.. -ar. when 8. 11. to en glddje. Idto. to amuse oneself to hdl'sa pa. be proper concern roa sig. to ready lib.). joy meet one another giilla. If I am not mistaken 1 yelling . allow miss'taga to (insep. 3. but he is no longer so (244. mistake sig. skreko. Idta. Brown. 2. he knows that it is not worth while 15. 10. parlor motas (used reciprocally).. 13. befin'na sig. often impers. I. cold kylig. He used to be much respected. body) Jcltida sia. to freeze ftirdig. to be (health) knappast. Who 9. there is Carl that 1 company. 12. to let. I. forky'la siff. to take time delay. 242. Good-bye. 3 Use an impersonal construction. I. but of Mr. kldda.). is that lady you greeted ? It is the wife well. better it is 143 . v.

to make noise I.144 sfcummas (dep. Why does he stay so long? Myntet galler icke Idngre. pi. may bora. will kunna ma bora kunde kunnat matte borde bort stcolat skall (ska) skola(ska) skulle vill mile vilja velat maste. to change one's mind meet or see one another omsesidig. I. howThe following remarks will suffice: ever. (a) The archaic second person has the ending -en: I skolen (md takes only -n in 2nd pers. 2. to receive company. (~b) The singular form is practically the only one used in conversation. bad uppfo'ra. -t. I. he is of small account here. -t. 251. to iindra sig. IDIOMS. att ta emot' frdmmande. SG. han galler icke mycket har.). until tills dndra. to be ashamed snoa (impers. I. ought to bor skola. 3.). must tor. to excuse fora upp vasnas (dep. shall vilja. is likely maste maste maste mast torde tor tora The modals are conjugated regularly. sad. trdkig. some of them. -t. The modal INFINITIVE auxiliaries are: PRESENT IMPERFECT SUPINE PLUR. Hur star det till med er Itrorf How is your brother? Varfor drojer han sd lunge? LESSON XXIII. . MODAL AUXILIARIES. lib. difficult. AND PL. even (conj. serious sd att (conj. MODAL AUXILIARIES. the coin is no longer current. mutual och med.). to change (something) traffas (used reciprocally).). to be ashamed of something. att skdmmas for ndgot. to per- to snow form uppfora sig. to erect. 4. boring.).: I man). 1. 5. so that till to bring up ur'sakta. can ma ma. lib. Verbal Auxiliaries. kan kunna. SING. to be (health) conduct oneself svdr. to 1 . std till'. are defective.

a perfect subtive: md junctive with perfect identical md or matte subjunctive with skulle and the perfect infinitive. kunnat. . jag mdste arbeta i gar. velat or jag hade perfect subjunctive. det. but sometimes a when an adverb of direction is used a complementary verb may be implied verb of motion I may be . The compound tenses 'are formed regularly: jag har han hade kunnat. velat. to as. and mdste: jag maste hem. att han ej kan komma. had have been able to do 253. The modal auxiliaries have more complete forms in Swedish than in English. Skola. pluperfect subjunctive. and skulle. an imperfect subjunctive with skulle and the present infinitive. must go home jag vill in. (c) 145 skolat. ville. The modal auxiliaries govern. Swedish prefers a construction made up of . The imperfect and pluperfect subjunctives generally used are with the imperfect and pluperfect indicative: imjag skulle kunna. the simple infinitive: han sdger. jag har kunnat gora it. he says that he cannot come. They are generally accompanied by an infinitive. fd) md and tor lack perfect and The subjunctives of the modals except of kunna and are not formed with md. omitted after skola. want to come 254.MODAL AUXILIARIES. matte. jag maste ga nu. I I work yesterday. vilja. by a paraphrase. tor. jag skulle ha kunnat. in. velat. mdtte ha kunnat. I vilja. jag md. The Swedish modal must for that reason sometimes be translated 252. I must go now. SOME USES OF THE MODAL AUXILIARIES. pluperfect. mdste. a pluand the perfect infinitive. or jag kunde. md. and bora lack future and future perfect. perfect subjunctive. In the pluperfect subjunctive of skola and bora. The imperfect and pluperfect subjunctives only are in use (except in the case of vilja and kunna) and they are like the indicavilja kunna and vilja may form a present subjunctive with or matte and the present infinitive. NOTE. as in English.

you ought to have come. om hans mor ej hade varit sjuk. his lesson. men han vill ej. han skulle ha gjort det. 255. Ex. custom hon kunde grata i timtal. I might have been able NOTE. I could have written. he would have wished to go. if his mother had not been sick. now you may go. : (a) Ability : han kan Idsa. han hade velat ga. (e) Habit. SENSES OF MODAL AUXILIARIES. nu kan I (d) Willingness det kan jag giva (ge) er genast. and not jag wile ha skrivit. Kunna. and the depending verb in the present infinitive: jag hade velat skriva brevet. the imperfect subjunctive of the modal and the perfect infinitive of the verb to one consisting of the pluperfect subjunctive of the modal and the present infinitive. except that when we wish especially to emphasize the pluperfect time of the ability or possibility we use the pluperfect subjunctive of kunna. This use is still retained in the verb when used independently han kan svenska.146 SENSES OF MODALS. jag kunde ha skrivit. that may happen. on the other hand. would in a similar case always be put in the pluperf. but : . (c) Permission: In this sense it is ni ga. he should have done it ni borde ha kommit. jag hade kunnat skriva. Vilja. he knows Swedish. Originally it meant to know how. sin liixa. to write. conforming thus with the English usage. jag kunde nog gora det. nar : : . (b) Possibility: det kan nog hdnda. to be skilled in. he can read but he does not want to. The treatment of kunna is identical. I could perhaps do it. can give you that at once. often used as a mild command.

you may not do that. she would cry for hours when she thought of her dead child. mycket trott. it must have been uncanny. Jag skulle vilja ga ut. etc. expressed by the imperfect of the modal matte (not ma) det matte ha varit : hemskt. Matte expresses a more vivid wish than ma. etc. skulle ha spelat tennis. hon tdnkte pa pliiga NOTE. Om jag . (a) Ma. Z. perhaps. you are very tired. du matte vara dare say. 2. du hade. that may be so occasionally in the sense of fa (263. du. Auxiliary: the present and imperfect are used as auxiliaries to form the present subjunctive. Here belongs the expression mahdnda. may we only come in time to the train (would that we might etc. icke. (d) Supposition. whenever he saw me he would ask. Habit and custom are more often expressed by the verbs bruka. etc. a) det ma du ej gora. 3. 147 sitt doda barn. or. om jag hade kunnat. frdgade han. (b) Desire: ma Gud valsigna vart arbete. bad mig att stanna) he asked me to remain. and and the infinitive. .EXERCISE. Continue: 1. possibility: ma (not matte) may be used with the sense of kan: det ma sd vara. vi matte vdl komma i tid till taget. jag maste stanna Jag hade kunnat gora en resa. hemma. om men jag hade velat. or by the present or imperfect of the verb: ndr han sag mig. I EXERCISE XXIII. (c) Permission. Jag visste icke. du skulle.). 256. etc. 4. Jag 5. may God bless our work. From this sense of ma springs its use in purpose clauses and some other clauses introduced by att: han badj att jag matte stanna (also. du visste vad du ville. : NOTE. brukade lian jraga. NOTE 1. vad jag ville. A.

"jag bar blott sett ett enda spel och kunde alls inte bli pa det klara darmed. Matte pappa bara tillata det! tankte jag. sade han en gang. Matte jag veta. Vad bar lyckats overtyga er far om ? 8. 1. att han matte fraga min far. litet for att han hade mast lova. som jag horde gora. sa hade jag mast skynda mig. om jag skulle kunna gora det. Vad fragade Karl er 4. om jag med honom till staden. 3. vara". 2. etc. etc. utkamJag bar ofta bett pappa. ej. om Jag horde ha fragat min far forst. Conversation. Det syntes ej mig vara litet for ett slagsmal. Vad skulle ni ga till. 2. hade velat fara med tiotaget. Vi skulle kunna ha sa roligt tillsammans.148 EXERCISE. om ni finge resa till staMellan vilka skulle spelet utkampas ? 7. du horde. nar Karl avlagsnade sig foi att bedja honom om lov. att ni skulle fa folja med? Vad onskade att Karl skulle gora? Varfor avlagsnade Karl den ? sig. Jag sade at honom. att vi skulle vara tillbaka sa tidigt. om han ville lata mig ga med. 6. du. sa maste han finna det intressant. som skulle pas mellan tva av de basta fotbollagen i staden. 6." 10. Naturligtvis skulle vi bevista det stora fotbollspelet. Jag ville giirna 8. Varfor tror ni ej. Det matte ha varit svart for Karl att fa pappas tillatelse. 9.. "Det ma sa spelet. att om han blott forstodo idrott. du. fara med. om jag kunde 1. ni ej 5. jag hade mycket arbete. ! B. 8. Jag brukar ofta saga. 11. C. etc. men kunnat overtyga honom om att det ar en nyttig 7. ville fara att jag Min van Karl fragade mig i gar morse. att jag bar han matte lata mig spela fotboll. mycket for ett spel och litet for Karl kom tillbaka och sade. att jag kunde vattna blomsterrabatterna och kiippa grasmattan. i gar morse? 3. 4. 5. att . 6. 7. men att onskade. Varfor trodde ni ni. etc. ej ha kommit for sent matte du.

but it is my father does not think that a useful sport. I should terday. 7. 2. A football I should like to go to town with my friend Carl. Now I must say mission? 11. I wish he would come spends soon so that we could 4 begin to eat. to go away bara. water the flower beds and cut the lawn. always I. 14. Hur manga fotbollspel Har Karl lyckats att fa er fars Vad maste ni gora. of maste) to stay at in order to take care of the garden. do not know whether (om) I father has given me much work to do But I may go. Would you go and ask father (pappa) whether I to may go? What 2 work to-day. flower avlagsna sig.VOCABULARY. preceded by the prepositive article. see. I am so glad be able to get my father's permission. nar ni kom- mer hem? D. 11.. he would 8. money. He must be very maste} (pres. 1. 10. go fara med. much 1 to attend 2 it. Yes. that you came. but you will have of to be back early. er far finner spelet intressant? 149 har er far bevistat? tillatelse till 10. 'Imper5 fect subjunctive of kunna. for he much rich. me time (gang). '. only bevista. 6. -er. VOCABULARY. 186a. 2 l Fdr (263). to travel. 12. the noun takes the definite form. I. I have home all summer 3 that he ought to allow me to go this had (perf. I ought (horde] really have done (254) this work yesDid he give his perdid papa say? 9. game will be played between the two best like very teams in town and I should 3. If Carl were only here. resan? 9. I have always wished to play football. for my before evening. 4. 13. av'ldgsna. 2 You you may go with me. to rerriove en Worn''sterrabatt' bed blott. which is not Skulle mycket garna vilja. atttid. But it seems to 5.. but we might meet again to-morrow. Carl. only to attend fara. s-form. to accompany . 5 good-bye to you. 'After hela.

2. 258. I. < Jag vill gdrna fara med. ett fotbollag ball (lag). again Tclippa. mow game. Det synes mig. Ha.150 ett fotbollspel. SENSES OF MODAL AUXILIARIES (Continued). permission .). lova. water I. I should like to accompany. : (c) Fitness : sa bor det vara. Ha. too much ett spel. -t. or jag tyclcer. lawn en gang. verkligen. if I were to do my duty) to go home and work. If accented it implies that one does not do what one ought to. useful . spela. I ought (that is. once en i'drott. : The imperfect borde is generally used with present meaning and hag the same signification as bar (ought) if unaccented du borde skammas. NOTE (b) Calculation taget bor vara har om tio minuter. gar morse. . I. football . to cut. between i vattna. game foot- naturligtvis. play play tennis. signified duty or obli- . the train ought to be here in ten minutes. you ought to be ashamed of yourself. to convince IDIOMS: att fara till staden. early tillsammans. I ought do what 1. 257. permission to promise tillata (insep. Verbal Auxiliaries (Continued). to Bora. -er. (a) Duty: jag bb'r gb'ra vad som ar rtitt. of course nyttig. I. ten o'clock train mellan. together en tilldtelse. Skola. gation. team ett slagsmdl. take care of for mycket. sport igen. really o'vertyga ( insep. understand. 2. -or. yesterday morning 1. to permit to ett tiotdg. for instance: jag borde ga hem och arbeta. In the sense of duty bora is weaker than skola. . tennis tidigt. ) . to go to town. 4. fight forst. bli pd det Jclara. ett lov. thus Originally it it ought to be. is right. it seems to me. SENSES OF MODALS. en grasmatta. first skota. 3. % LESSON XXIV.

SENSES OF MODALS. (a) Will. e. he said that he would come. (d) Threat or promise: det ska du inte ha gjort for inte. he is said to be enormously rich. you should have gone when he asked you. The imperfect finitive as (skulle) is used with the inone mode of forming the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive. sa lat oss gora det snart. when proceeding from skulle ha gatt. then let us do it soon. (a) Auxiliary: 151 1. I will remember you for this (i. if you should see him han sade. he did not at a!l intend to make you . thou shalt not steal. Vilja. du skall icke stjala. The present (skall) is used as an auxiliary with the infinitive to form the future tense jag skall ga. give him my greetings. (e) Intention: han skulle ha kommit intended to come yesterday. (f) i gar. I wish we had a garwhich all kinds of flowers might grow. : . he Report: han skall vara kolossalt rik. . (b) Condition or contingency: om ni skulle se honom. I shall go jag skall hava gatt. att han skulle komma. 2. (g) alia slags den in 259. i vilken blommor skulle vdxa. I shall have gone. (c) the speaker Duty or du : necessity. om vi ska gora det. ndr han bad dig. Wish: vi skulle allt ha en trddgard. if we are to do it. purpose: han ville visst icke gora dig ond. repay you in kind). sa hdlsa honom frdn mig. intention.

I must have starve to death. my watch does not run (won't run) . generally used to express a request politely as above. (b) Logical necessity: det mdste vara sant. sometimes with vdl and a negative: ni ville vdl inte gora del for migf Would you do that for me' 2. ville. I cannot keep him. any other than animate subjects. . jag kan ej kvarhdlla honom. of vilja with the adverb garna. Mdste. please come a little closer (vill is very often used thus to express a mild command) . present and past. blommor dig t What is 'vilja ej vaxa i sadan jord. flowers do not grow in such soil. han vill hem. e). is till. children must obey their parents. if 260.152 SENSES OF MODALS. or else I shall svdlterjag ihjal. or by the verbs bruka and plaga (255. Probability. Vilja is often used with an object. he wishes me well. (b) Wish. they are only a sign of the future or the subjunctive. he is determined to go home. entreaty or request: han ville garna hjalpa. angry. annars food. but it is often used figuratively with inanimate: min klocka vill ej ga. jag ville garna ha en kopp NOTE 1. Its signification seems to forbid its use with well disposed toward me. for- Tor. 261. (c) Moral necessity: barn mdste lyda sina dldrar. he was anxious to help v ill ni komma ndrmare or vill ni vara sd god och komma ndrmare. especially a pronoun: Vad vill han The imperfect subjunctive he does he have to say to you ? han vill mig vdl. supposition: the imperfect torde is used with present sense and is of much more frequent occurrence than the present tor: det torde . REMARK. willingly. that must be true. Will and would denoting habitual action are generally expressed by the simple tenses. I should like another cup. (a) Physical necessity: jag mdste ha mat. Do not translate will and would by vill.

for he promised surely to come. In this reflexive construction the passive infinitive is also permitted : the reflexive always precedes the infinitive: han har latit sig ofvertalas. c). I suppose that he is sick. or cause (to do or to be done). . (b) to have When rock. more common than either kunna fick ma (256. It has three main significations : leka. also occasionally as a substitute for the passive as. that can be done. (a) Permission Tn this sense it is 255. han har latit overtala sig. is also used as an auxiliary in a variety of meanings. to get. I have had Carl fetch the bread. Fa. c) or : nu far du ga. 153 vara ganska svdrt. he has been persuaded. det later sig gora.VERBAL AUXILIARIES. han torde vara sjuk. I XOTE. 263. (b) Necessity: Swedish Grammar som gosse han ofta gora en 11 . OTHER VERBAL AUXILIARIES. make. In the latter case it is best to render lata. he has been persuaded. NOTE. very likely it is quite difficult. The causative auxiliary lata. the infinitive the verb has this signification the subject of is often omitted: jag har Idtit gora en have had a coat made. (c) Lata is used to paraphrase the : first person plural of the imperative lat oss ga. (a) to allow. to receive. : han lat pojkarna somebody do a thing: jag har latit Karl hdmta bro'det. now you may go. by have and the infinitive by the passive participle. to let. to give permission he allowed the boys to play. 262. ty han lovade sdkert att komma.

striking analogies with get a thing through. permission. honom. to get hold of used independently fa presents fa igenom en . sa borcle jag vara. EXERCISE XXIV. NOTE. gosse hade jag nog fatt arbeta tungt. etc.154 EXERCISE. att jag maste hjalpa 2. etc. etc. When Fa tag pa. etc. thus. Jag skulle ha latit gora mig en kostym. det pa velat ge mig pengar hade velat avlagsna att betala sig. som gosse hade du. and se. etc. Jag bor vara hemma om en timma. you must study now. 264. du bor skall gora det. 5. surely han ar more commonly expressed by the use of the adverb visst sjuk. du skulle garna. is Lar to denote a supposition : NOTE. used only in the present indicative based on report. min far har sagt. Mdstc has a more general and absolute meaning than fa. you will see (learn). . anda gora det strax. as a boy he often 1. om jag lakare att dricka det. 4. hora. om jag hade kunnat. min skulle garna vilja ha kaffe. hon fick veta det i gar. The adverbs allt. nog and vdl ex- press the idea conveyed by torde (261). f ) lar vara sjuk. The same idea . Om han kunde jag ha gatt till sangs 7. Jag blott finge lov af etc. is used euphemistically with denotes necessity: du far lov alt studera nu. many sale. Om jag 3. she received news of it yesterday (learned to know) kommer han? du far se. we must it all die. mans work. fa arbete. A. had to do a man's NOTE when 2. klara med hvad han ville. ty jag var ej tidigt. sa . ty Continue: 1. fa is used in an inchoative sense resembling the English get. etc. (c) With the verbs veta. they say he is sick. as. etc. vi mdste alia do. must be rendered by. gel. men jag var sa klen. is certainly. du lat honom. Jag lat honom vanta pa svar. 6. In this han sense it is more common than skola (258. Very often the word lov. visst. om min far hade Som den med.

He he had to have in order to be able (165. val kopa mig glasogon. Bonden ville ocksa kopa sig ett fram till disken. bast lasa? 7. och nar den andre svarade ja. vad for glasogon han maste ge dem? 5. Vad fick han8. bok med fin stil i. 155 En bonde hade kommit till en marknad och ville kopa nagot. a pair 1. Vad trodde han. D. kunna *Satta i stand. ogon? (ogonlakaren). satte pa sig det steg par glasogon. Vem hade kommit till marknahan garna gora? 3. to read wished to buy (of) spectacles. som ha att han ocksa svaga ogon. to enable. A peasant who was unable 1 2. Handlanden ville hjalpa honom och erbjb'd honom olika glasogon. kan du verkligen lasa?" "En sadan dumbom du ar". 9. om han hade kunnat lasa? 11. Vad tyckte bonden. to be able. Hade bonden velat kopa glasogon. "Kan ni lasa den liar sfilen bra?" fragade handlanden. hur folk kopte glasbgon. Conversation: 2. Av vem (7. om jag kunde lasa?" sa kopte han glasb'gonen. Vad gjorde handelsmannen for att kunna se. Han stod vid ett av marknadsstanden och Handlanden gav dem en sag. Han 1. ena paret efter det andra och sag i boken. att glasb'gonen skulle satta honom i stand 1 att gbra. men bonden sade gang efter aiman: "Jag kan inte lasa med dem. man koper glas- Yad for stil de. 2) thought (trodde) that all to read was a . 10. B." Till sist fragade honom en annan bonde. "skulle jag. som under tiden hade kommit dit: "Men sag mig. man lade ater bort dem. Vad gjorde man vid ett av standen? 4.EXERCISE. sedan satte de pa ett par glasogon och sago uppmarksamt i boken. den? Vad ville bor man lata undersoka sina ogon. Vad gjorde han alltsa? skulle ha? delsmannen lov att ge honom? (one pair after another). roro i stand. svarade den forsta bonden. innan 6.

"You may go. -bjo'd. 10. Where have you had your suit made? I should like (259. . Several times I have wished to see him. bonder. "May we go to town?" and my father answered. efter annan. sensible bort'laggd (sep. but we can't afford to give them much. 7." 12. dit. 14. have spectacles. He said to himself: "I ought to can get a pair that fits me I shall The peasant would not have wished 3. ~et. 11. en adress'. 5. Causal clause with emedan. to offer -en. Your father must have a great deal to do now. but I have not been able 1 to. 3 1 Icke kunna in proper tense. -bjodo. he is having (262. VOCABULARY. b) have had (262. and must superintend the work. endr or do. and be able to read. The dealer 3 one after that he would another. 6. 13. The (263. to put away genom. note) to if I 4. What do the children wish (to have) for Christ- mas ? They want many things. but you must be back before six o'clock. b) his eyes ex- 2 oculist before buying glasses. 15. He can make clothes that fit. fool er'bjuda. to build en disk. thinking try pair find a pair which would fit him. peasant forstdn'dig. b) to have the address of your tailor. doctor says that he may read a short while to-mor- row. lib. -ar. through 1 bygga. address flere(a) more. counter glasogon. of modal) to be satisfied with little. A wise man would (258. spectacles gdng -bju- en dumbom*. he is said (258. -mar. The young man is not amined by an let him permitted 8.). Yes. time and again en handlande. -man. wise. Carl asked my father. had he been able to read. -t. dealer . -er.156 pair (of) spectacles. merchant en Jiandelsman. 9. VOCABULARY. Then they will have (use pres. several en bonde. a) to read because his eyes are weak. b) a house built in the country. buy glasses." (254. : Expand into a temporal clause with innan. g) to have studied his art in London.

oculist overvaka (insep. (a) In the oblique cases the corresponding forms of en are used. is doubled on LESSON XXV. weak under tiden.). -t. olik. we. nijjd. I. Vad for att 3. Thus vad man ger.INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. en ogonldkare. ens for the genitive. French Ex. means ej rdd. man sager. USED AS PRONOUNS ONLY. Indefinite Pronouns. : bringar en lycka. man fb'r. is variously translated one. to nu. vill du ha till More commonly used separably. six IDIOMS: 1. . people (cf. to step forth t short def. little -er. while smd. to have a coat made. satisfied -t.). pi. attentive vilja ha'. art atiga fram'. kliider. I sex. J julklappf What do you wish Christmas (. . -er. Jag har cannot afford. you. I. they. people slander me. 2. ett en marknad. kort. stil tailor en konst. att han har skrivit en ny bok. liten. unlike. different . Man (indeclinable) is used only in the nominative as an indefinite personal subject and. : talar mig. in the meantime un'dersoka tinsep.present)? luta sy en rock. en stund. to examine upp'marksam. fair -ar. en for the objective the reflexive is sig. mycket. advice. . 265. lacking an exact equivalent. to superintend ett rdd. style. marknadsstund. print -et. 2 Note how final m of a word when the preceding vowel is short its becoming intervocalic by the addition of an ending (3). -er. clothes 157 . what one gives brings one luck. -t. en skriiddare. now nojt. on} they say that he has written a new book. want . German man. lilla(e). much booth wag.

one ought to honor one's parents. after.). ndgonlikewise intet is placed before and nagot after. anything. NOTE. no plur. -s. att han ingenting har sett. In a dependent clause ingenting and intet come immediately after the subject: han sager. Envar (gen. sometimes en och var. Ingenting and ndgonting are followed by an adjective in the indefform of the neuter: har ni nagonting gott alt ataf do you have anything good to eat? Likewise nagot and intet. var och en (neut. 266. envars. every one var och en (envar) har sina fel. everybody's reputation should be respected. no plur. Var och en is sometimes used adjectively. har du sett nagonting? Ingenhave ting alls. as. I saw nothing whatever. 267. is one's enemies. -s. Ingenting (gen. Ingenting ting. alls jag sag ingenting. one should not The reflexive possessive is sin. Ingenting as well as ndgonting in a negative sentence are often intensified by a following (sometimes 268.). everything. preceding) 1. (b) it is When man is the subject of a transitive verb usually best to render the sentence by a passive : man har behandlat honom ilia. alls. Jag har ingenting (intet) sett. : envars (vars och ens) rykte bor respekteras. everybody has his faults. man bar vorda sina fordldrar. sitt. nothing. . -s. no plur. vart och ett. skulle icke man praise oneself. everybody. gen. no plur. Allting (gen.).) . jag har sett ndgonting (nagot).). 2. something.158 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. vars och ens. NOTE inite is usually placed before the supine of a compound tense. you seen anything? Nothing at all. Ndgonting (gen. otherwise ens an ens usedr ens vdnner dro ofta vdrre one's friends are often worse than fiender. 269. he has been badly treated. no plur. beromma sig sjdlv.

151) USED AS BOTH PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. En form (neut. nagots. En och en och annans. any. ndgras). ett och annat. II. gen. Ende (-a) (plur. a. gen. nagra. some one. ena. etc. gen. an: man tror ens bast.). anyone. something. and def. he was the only son. one. det ena) often used in correlation with den andre (-a).INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. Den is . gen. one now (some say so). ene. han dr en av mina bdsta vdnner. these were the only ones who were there. plur. anything: har du nagra . in the oblique cases it always takes the place of man. ndgons. : 274. det roda applet och det grb'na. egna vdnner one has most confidence in one's friends. one comes. I have not seen a single one of them. ena). here and there: and then says so annan (neut. the one. he is one of my best friends. den ena. jag har ej sett en enda av dem. no plur. It is not used after adjectives like the English one: the red apple and the green one. nagot. one en och annan sdger sd. neut. den andre gar. only as adj. only. the other goes. When used as a pronoun it is always preceded by the definite or indefinite article and takes an -s in the genitive dessa voro de enda. a few. 272. 273. ens. Nagon (neut. the other: den ene kommer. one now and then. def. some. own ene (-a) (fern.. ett. In less elegant conversation en is used in the nominative with the same sense as man. enda). 271.. som voro ddr. is used as an adjective: han var enda sonen. plur. 270.

some one (has) asked for you. When all in English means whole it must be rendered by hela without the prepositive article jag har arbetat hela doyen. gen. body's) hatt hanga dar. ingas). annars kan heist komma in. gen. allts. jag ser . ingens karaktdr kan vara renare an hans. pengar? have you any money? nagon har frag at efter dig. allt. vet. all his daughters were pretty. Supply the missing indefinites: Ar . more common than ingen. inga. helt och hallet. inget. gen. For the use of . Inget is becoming more 276. nobody's character can be purer than his. taken as a whole.. XXV. none. adjective. ingens. 3. alias. plur. NOTE. . everything: Gud har skapat allt. . . alias). all. all alls Paris. Ingen (neut. God has created everything. all the earth is the work of God. sa Men ju vem som (one) horde lasa dorren. (some(nobody) har kommit. alia hans dottrar voro vackra. The paraphrase icke nagon. completely pd del hela taget.1 GO EXERCISE. wholly. I have no money... Observe the following idiomatic uses of hel: som ett hell. all j or den dr Guds verk. and more common for intet. intet. nagons hatt ligger har. as no: har nothing. 2. . . . on the whole. 3. somebody's hat lies here. gen. . I have worked : all hela Paris. 275. NOTE 2. I have heard something nice about you. no one. . inga. 1. och (one) hb'r det icke.. for the use of allra see 316. . see 268. . day 2. plur. jag har ho'rt ndgot vackert om dig. NOTE 1. 1. . nagra is at the beginning of a statement ingen is preferred. nobody.. All (neut. (nobody}.. intets. The words it often omitted: for any and some when used in a partitive sense are har ni tdndstickort do you have any matches? Some when means a little is translated by litet (lite). jag inga pengar (also jag har icke nagra pengar). EXERCISE A. (anybody} dar? vitt 1 Jag jag ser . alia. as a whole.

i familjen. fardig .. Middagen maste nu. I wish to rest a little. Hur skall (one) fa . he left no card. I shall the best quality. 13. this chicken Should you like a wing or a leg? 7. 2. . 4. .. One (271) of those two Americans asked for (efter) you... B.. . vara 12. och jag bar inte . till? *Sin Sd neuter of vid). a). so annoying? and now when 5. I am at home to no one 1 .. svarighet med posten. Thank 3 you. .EXERCISE. to eat? Yes. till . Have you ever seen anything have waited for (pa) him all week. 8. som ni ser. note omission of som (as). not now. (the other) var rekommenderat. One generally takes a glass (of) wine .. 8.. adressera dina brev poste restante till (some) av de stadu amnar besoka.. . 3. bort .. (a little more).. och reser. it is ten years old and of is excellent. 7. 2 nar .. liar (some) vanner. Skulle ni vilja ge mig .. If 2 will allow me. . . . (everybody). and I cannot recall his name. .. I shall take a little of this fruit. . . Har du (any) frimarken att lana mig? Jag bar skrivit brev (all) da. .. der. 11. 10. bararen liar varit bar med . 10. . (some) soppa? Soppan iir utmarkt. 9.. here one helps oneself (248. If anyone asks for me.. note). (one) . Var god och tag plats bredvid mig. . gen (every one) (a single) frimarke kvar. Behagar ni . . 161 (somebody) kunde till och med komma ocli stjala 2 5. . as far as. och jag maste betala fyrtio ore.. 4. (a few) brev for dig. vi aro blott . ar ute och reser? 9. l Behagar ni en kopp kaffe vitt (vitt. (no) ceremonier. or ens (265.. say that I shall be 2 at home again at seven o'clock (klockan sju). . out (for) a few minutes he comes. li. . som ar ute . . Take you what you want without ceremony. Here I I am Do you have anything good 6. with (till) the fruit. utan att man visste det. Brev(one's) saker. Try this wine. 6. . . Lat (one's) post. (one) var ofrankerat..

for anybody. to rest (visiting card) en kvalitet'. en ceremoni'. VOCABULARY. Let us all go there. to leave wine en vinge. family ett smaka. -or. to lock en amerikan'. -er. 3. lib. fyrtio. 2 Use the present tense. general delivery en brevbarare. or automobile? translated: not. -t. IDIOMS: 1.).). a). car. your wine another time. to please. bortstjula (sep. regis- seven I. Skulle ni vilja ha en kopp kaffe tillf Would you like another cup of coffee? . ceremony en familj'. quality kvar. Ila. One single apple like this is worth more to me apple. -stulo. wing ett ore. American mer. 14. we shall see the sights of (bese) the city. postage stamp -stal. to try Jiiinga. 'Adverbs cannot stand between subject and verb except adverbs of negation and a few others in a dependent clause (179. 12. but I shall take another 4 11. rier bast. without stamp poste restante. en svdrignet. best letter car- rekommende'rad. when we have eaten. -er. -en. tered sju. to address -er. behaga. frimarke. Vad behagar nif What would you like? Var god och tag plats. lasa. -at. to remember ofrankerad. I la. to desire bredvid. -at.). I haven't seen anything of Stockholm yet. than all (the) wine in the world. left lamna. Now. -et. please sit down. adresse'ra.-teo . cab. -er.162 taste VOCABULARY. to hang ett kort (visit'kort) . to taste stjiila bort'. -n.. -n. -ar. I. I. lib. annoying forsoka.. ett vin. forty to steal furarglig. Where shall we go? who visits Stockholm must of course visit the Everybody famous Skansen and the Northern Museum. beside .). ore (coin worth 14 cent). more I (often impers. minnas (dep. difficulty en soppa. *Translate: one such apple as (som) this. soup ito. -er. What do you prefer. over. -er. -stulit. card Vila sig (refl. 2. 13. I.

gen. . pi. gen. en till means one more: var . others. several. please give me another book jag ville garna ha en kopp till. somliga. : Somlig (neut. somligt. 1. many beautiful flowers grow in the garden.: manga vackra blommor vdxa i trddgarden. gen. 279. andras). Ex. gen. some. annat. . are the others doing? 1. of all genders: somliga mdnniskor. every other day. gen. Mdngen (neut. 278. is used as a pronoun or an adjective generally only in the neut. some people. much: hur mycket pengar har du pa dig ? how much money do you have about you? icke alls mycket. Mycket (indeclinable). somligas). What NOTE 2. . andra. some. . 281.LESSON XXVI. many a rich person is unhappy. 280. nagra. fleras). 3. . in speaking of individuals or individual things. pi. andra det ddr. . En annan means god och giv mig en annan bok. another. by litet (lite). mangens. Note the correlatives somliga. Indefinite Pronouns (Continued). sing. mdngen rik dr olycklig. something else. and plur. . The English some is generally to be rendered by ndgon. andra. other it Annan is (neut. other. . annans. some want this and some that. somliga o'nska det har. Varannan signifies every other varannan dag. NOTE 2. more. and def manga. I should like another cup. pi. Flera(e) (gen. . Like the English definite article in the singular: bok? preceded either by the definite or inhar ni en annan Have you another book? Vad go'ra de andra? ffagon annan. in speaking of quantity. and def. not very much. ndgot annat means somebody else. 277. mangas) many a in the singular and many in the plural. mdnget. a different one.

164

INDEFINITES.

282.

Flesta(e) (gen. flestas)
fiesta are

,

most, the majority.

used as comparative and superlative of manga. When flera does not express comparison it signifies several, quite a few; fiesta is always preceded by the article, but the noun it modifies does not take the postpositive article: flera voro hiir i dag an i gar, more were here to-day than yesterday; pd fieras begaran sjong han sdngen, at the
request of several he sang the song; de fiesta rosta nog honom, the majority will doubtless vote for him.
fur

Flera and

283. Fa (gen. fas), few. It is very often preceded by nagra: ndgra fa voro hdr, a few were here. 284. Varannan (neut. vartannat; no plur.), every other: varannan dag ha vi tyska, we have German every other day. NOTE. Om vartannat, topsy-turvy; var (vart) tredje, var (vart) fjdrde;
every third
;

every fourth.

285.

Endera

(neut. ettdera)

,

one of two, either;

ndgondera (neut. nagotdera), either;
ingendera (intetdera), neither; vardera (vartdera), each.

nominally.-

when used proadjectives. Ex. ingendera av oss fick ndgot, neither of us got anyThese take an
s in the genitive

They are rarely used as

:

thing; han kan komma endera dagen, he may come one of these days ; hdr ha ni ett apple vardera, here

you have an apple each.
286.
1 Var (neuter vart; no plur.) Veach, every varje (indeclinable) varenda (neut. vartenda, no pl.)J

a pronoun

only used adjectively. Varenda used as followed by en, ett. Ex. varje larjunge mdste go'ra sin plikt. every pupil must do his duty;

Varje

is

is

:

INDEFINITES.

165

jag har givit bort vartenda every one.

ett, I

have given away

NOTE. Varje may sometimes be used with the sense of any: varje penna dr god nog, any pen will do.

287.

Vilken (neut. vilket, plur. vilka)

som

heist

and vad som heist (neuter) are used pronominally and adjectively with the sense of whosoever, whatsoever, whichsoever, anyone at all, anything at all, any at all; vem som heist, whosoever, anyone (at
all), is

used only pronominally. When these words are used as adjectives, som heist generally follows the noun when used as pronouns, som may be dropped before a relative clause. Ex. vilken penna som heist dr god nog, any pen is
;

:

good enough; vem som heist kan komma, anyone at all may come; Ids vad bok som heist, read any book you please; vid vilken tid som heist, at any time; vdlj hvad heist, som passar, chose anything
that suits you.
adverbs hurudan, and conjunctive ingen, hur, sd, likewise form compounds with som heist to become especially indefinite; as, dr det ndgon som heist
1.

Ndgon,

like nar,

or sale, varfor du icke kan din Idxa? is there any reason whatsoever why

Nej, ingen

som

heist,

you do not know your lesson? No, no reason whatever; kom nar som heist, come at any time; kor sd fort som heist, drive as fast as you
please.
2. The particle an is also used with the relatives and certain conjunctive adverbs to impart an indefinite force: vem det an dr, whoever it may be; vad du an gor, gor det veil,

whatever you do, do it well; vad svar han an gav, whatever answer he gave; hur fort det an gar, sd, hinna vi ej from i tid, no matter how fast we go, we won't be there in time. 3. Note the difference in meaning between han gjorde vad som heist, and vad han an gjorde.

166

EXERCISE.

288. Bdda, bdgge (gen. bddas, bdgges), both, are plural forms. When bada is preceded by the prepositive article it means two; as, de bdda flickorna tiro systrar, the two girls are sisters; but bada systrarna kommo, both sisters came.
OBSERVE.
Vi bdda, ni bada, de bdda, both of
us,

both of you, both of them.

EXERCISE XXVI.
A.

En

pa

sitt

grosshandlare behovde en gang en springpojke kontor och satte fordenskull en annons i tidningen.

gossar infunno sig pa kontoret nasta dag. Somliga av dessa hade medfort goda rekommendationsbrev, men

Manga

grosshandlaren skickade bort dem alia utan att se pa deras rekommendationer och beholl en enda liten gosse, som icke hade nagot som heist skriftligt intyg. En av hans vanner,

som var narvarande, fragade varfor han ej hade nagon rekommendation, da de
medfort sadana.
ej

just valde en,
fiesta

som

andra hade

"Jo", svarade grosshandlaren, "han hade sa fa rekommendationer, ehuru de ej voro skriftliga.

Han

torkade av fotterna vid db'rren och tog upp en knappnal fran golvet, foljaktligen maste han vara bade renlig

och noggrann. Dessutom tog han av sig niossan och svarade raskt och riktigt, darfor maste han vara bade forstanHan vantade stilla och tyst, medan flig och uppmarksam.
var och en av de andra trangde sig fram, och ar foljaktEn manniskas uppforande betyder ligen ocksa bl}'gsam. mycket mer an vilken rekommendation som heist."

B.

Conversation.

1.

Vad behovde

grosshandlaren?

2.

Vad

gjorde han for att fa en springpojke? 3. Medforde hans annons nagot resultat? 4. Vad hade de fiesta medfort? 5. Brydde sig grosshandlaren om deras rekommendationsbrev? (bry sig

oni=o
Vad

core for).
det.

6.

Vem

valde

han for platsen?

7.

var

som forvanade en

VOCABULARY.
av bans vanner, vilken var narvarande?
8.

167

Vilka fern

goda egenskaper (qualities) agde gossen? 9. Varigenom (through what) visade gossen, att han var renlig? Artig? Forstandig och uppmarksam? 10. Vad brydde sig grosshandlaren mer
C.
1.

om an
1

(than)

om

rekommendationsbrev ?

day?
if

Are tbere many advertisements in the paper toNo, only a few (283). 2. I should like to know there is anyone who wants an errand boy. 3. It seems
4.

as if every other

boys.

The next morning
;

(279, 3) advertisement is about errand there were many boys in (pa)

the

letters of

it was full of boys who wanted the place. 5. The recommendation of most were very good. 6. Some 7. But the of the boys had many recommendations each. merchant dismissed every one of them and kept a small 2 boy who did not have any recommendation whatsoever.

office

Which one of you got the place? Neither. 9. Every boy who did not have any letter of recommendation was dis10. I believe that he missed, and neither of us had any.
8.

will

that (den som) he has
little

soon need another (279, 2) boy in his office; the one 4 4 11. The is neither polite nor tidy. conduct of both boys was good, but it seemed as if the
12. Do you have any reason boy behaved better. whatsoever 2 for not having 5 done this yet? 13. I did not

3

that it should be ready so soon; when I asked you, said that I could do it at any time. 14. How fast shall you 2 I drive ? You may drive as fast as you please 2 3 kommer att and or 1. Use ijfr del or finns det (244, b). 287, present

know

.

infinitive.

4

VarTcen.

.

.

.eller.

translate varfor du icke har,

etc.

VOCABULARY.
en annons'

(pronounced an- behdl'la (insep., see hdlla), to retain nongs') -er, advertisement lieho'va (insep.), lib, to need artig, -t, polite
av'torka (sep., torka av'), to
bety'da( insep.), lib, to signify

wipe

llygsam,

-t,

modest

168

USE OF TENSES.
narvarande, next
,
,

bort'skicka, skicka bor'(sep.) to dismiss

present

nnsta,

bdde. och (conj.), both. ehu'ru (conj.), although
.

.

and ocksd, also
en plats,
rask,
-t,

-er, place,

position

fort, fast

quick
cleanly
-er,

foljaktligen,
ett golv,

consequently
floor
,

renlig,

-t,

forderi'skull, on that account
,

en rekommendation',

re-

commendation
wholeett

en grosshandlare,
sale

rekommendations'brev,
-t,

,

merchant

a letter of recommendation
skriftlig,

in'finna sig, to appear, to pre-

written

sent oneself
ett intyg,
just, just
,

testimonial

en knappndl,
ett kontor,

-ar,
,

pin

office

en springpojke. -ar, errand boy synas (dep.), Ha, to seem torka av', I, wipe off trdnga sig from', lib, to crowd to the front, to press forward
tyst,
,

medan, while
med'fora (sep.), to bring along noggrann, -grant, careful

quiet,

silent

upp'taga, taga upp', to take up
ett

uppforande (no

pi.),

conduct

LESSON XXVII.
Use of the Tenses.
289. In general the tenses are used as in Engbut the following points should be noticed.

lish,

PRESENT.
290. The Present for the Future. In both languages the present is used with the meaning of the future but this use is much more extensive in Swedish, and a Swedish present must often be rendered by the future. In fact Swedish employs the present instead of the future almost always when some adverbial expression of time accompanies the verb and prevents a misunderstanding jag gar till posten och ar tillbaka om tio minuter, I am going to the post office and shall be back in ten minutes.
:

NOTE.

For the progressive present see 228 and note.

USE OF TENSES.

169

IMPERFECT.

The imused in a present sense, especially in exclamatory expressions, to denote intensity of feeling, such as pleasure, enthusiasm, disgust, etc. It is usually combined with the impersonal det. Ex.: Det var fortjusande vackert! How Det var forfdrligt, hvad det charmingly beautiful bldser! How fearfully it storms! Det var roligt, att du kommer, I am glad that you are coming. Det var da lojligt! Isn't that ludicrous?
291.
perfect of the verb v ara
is
!

The Imperfect for the Present.

NOTE.

For the progressive imperfect see 228 and note.

292. The imperfect is used in certain expressions with a present or imperative meaning to give a tinge of modesty or politeness: herrarna behagade komma in, please come in, gentlemen; jag on-

skade veta om herr dr tillbaka, I should like to know if Mr. X. is back. This might perhaps be

X

regarded as a subjunctive (167).
PERFECT.
293. The Perfect for the Future Perfect. As in English the perfect is often employed with the meaning of the future perfect when no misunderstanding can arise: ndr han har varit i Sverige ett dr, sd talar han svenska flytande, when he has been in Sweden a year, he will speak Swedish fluently.

FUTURE.
294. For the present taking the place of the future see 290.
.295.

The future expressed by the auxiliary skola
infinitive often

and the

conveys the idea of a reso12

Swedish Grammar

We may say. skall jag borja att arbeta. is equivalent to a promise . is used very little in taken by the perfect (293). In a dependent clause the auxiliary hava is frequently omitted: nar du gdtt (har gatt). 298. jag betalar i morgon. am jag star i on the point of leaving for Europe. Omission of the Auxiliary in the Perfect and Pluperfect. nar ni laser boken and not ni skall skratta.170 USE OF TENSES. preceded by att: jag kommer att betala. it is equivalent to the English to be about to. 297. or even command: jag skall betala. I am going to pay. I shall begin to work. you will laugh when you read the book. The future perfect its Swedish. we must say ni kommer att skratta. etc. I will pay. but is used much till less extensively: I begrepp att resa Europa. nar ni laser boken. If we wish to translate. place being 299. Pure futurity is often expressed by the of the verb fcowwa-f-the infinitive of the verb present 296. du skall betala is equivalent to an exhortation or command. decision. FUTURE PERFECT. when you have gone. . lution. for instance. since the latter has almost the force of a command. The present of skratta may also be used but is not quite as good in this case as kommer. In this case the present could not be used since there is no adverbial expression of time to obviate the misunderstanding. Sta i begrepp is occasionally used with the infinitive to express immediate futurity. or on the point of.

to use. ved att saga. jag horde honom sjunga. especially when euphony demands. han sages ha dott. 171 THE USES OF THE INFINITIVE. he was heard to say. bliva. I heard him sing. is 301 (a) . bruka. to err subject or object of a sentence: att fela In this case the is human. rooms for rent . As a Note expressions like : rum att hyra. I saw him coming. jag sag hojective. the modals.USE OF TENSES. 300. (d) After many verbs which in English require to before the infinitive which they govern. The infinitive with att used : As dr mdnskligt. as. Idr. to use. std. (c) etc. modifier of nouns and adjectives konsthe art of growing rich detta dr latt att forstd. As predicate after vara. like. along well. dmna.. Thus. I asked him to come. jag bad honom komma. to hope. . he is said to have died de syna-s trivas. (b) When the infinitive has a subject in the ob- very common in Swedish. fa. where the noun is really the object. infinitive is often translated by a verbal noun or a : gerund (b) ten att in English. The simple infinitive (without att) is used much more frequently in Swedish than in English. they seem to get . and lata. wood to be sawed. hoppas. plaga. att (a) is omitted : With the future auxiliary skall. etc. infinitive Swedish uses here the active where . bli rik. (c) Very often when the infinitive is used predicatively after a verb in the passive: han hordes saga. this is easy to understand. finnas. a construction nom komma. to intend.

och kaptenen samt halften av besattningen ha dott i pesten pa b'verresan. att man skulle stryka flagg. in can help you. som han noga foreskrev.172 EXERCISE. Swedish uses an att clause preceded by the preposition: genom att han Idnade mig pengar. jag dr glad over att kunna hjdlpa dig. I was able to buy the house . "tror du verkligen. din 2 dumsvar. he played instead of doing his work. genom att hjalpa andra hjdlper man ofta sig sjalv. forfoljdes av sjb'rovare och ansags vara Kaptenen kom da pa den tanken att lata besattningen ga ned under dack. ni fa bemaktiga er skeppet. som seglade fran Smyrna till Marseille last. he went without my getting a chance to speak to him. han gick. ropade matrosen med jamrande rb'st: "Jag bar ej sa mycket styrka kvar. att . "Far din vag. Infinitive. as. NOTE. med dyrbar forlorat. han lekte i stdllet for att gora sitt arbete. we often help ourselves. vi komma fran Smyrna. kunde jag kopa huset. by his lending me money." till bom !'' ropade sjorovaren Skynda er att stiga ombord. he is not to be persuaded. I am glad that I infinitive sition. Pa dacket lamnade han blott en enda matros. Prepositions with att When it refers to the subject of the leading verb the att may be preceded by almost any prepowhich case the English generally requires a verbal noun. When the subject of the infinitive is not the same as that of the leading verb. A. om ni ej hjalper oss. either the active or the passive is used in English: Vad dr hdr'att gora? What is here to be done? Han star ej att overtala. Ett skepp. by helping others. Nar sjorovarnas skepp narmade sig och dess kapten be- fallde. 1 ty ni allena kan radda oss. utan att jag fick tala med honom. EXERCISE XXVII. men komma sakert att do. vad han skulle gora. 302. Sex man aro annu kvar.

Om jag hade vetat. . . (besb'ka. Conversation. och da . Other expressions of the same kind din skurk. future with sTcall. transl.. (resa. . 1st plur. . 1st plur. (do. . Det dar gamla fartyget . (fara) till Chicago. progressive imperfect. 3 . or hamthe first six sentences. B. Varifran kom skeppet? 4. 7. 8. Supply the proper Swedish equivalent for the Engnamely. Vart det seglade det? Vad 6. as. Erik. 2 Note the use of the personal pronoun of the second person in expressions denoting contempt . koffert. the present. you big fool. . ? 2. (gora) allt boll. . jag skulle vilja narma 173 nade ban J 3 sig sa fort mig ditt fartyg!" ban kunde.. .. och da . . 6. . niiigen voro kvar? 11. polite) at mina manga fel. for slags last hade det? Var ett segelfartyg eller ett angfartyg (steamer) det Av vem sjo- forfoljdes det? Kunde undkomma (escape) Vart skickade kaptenen hela besatt1 med ningen undantag av en enda matros ? 8. Nar 2nd min daliga svenska. Darpa avliigs- Note the weak form of the adjective after a personal pronoun.. ni laser besoka mig. 1st sing. Hela besattningen . sakert for- olyckas. .. . I morgon . 1st plur. 3. (skratta.. 1. en ring at dig. niir de horde detta 1 ? of. . . att ban var sjuk. (packa. sa sing.) dig. . Change the following three sentences according to 299.) till Stockholm. . . With the exception 0.) . first person) min 9. innan du far ga ut och spela (kb'pa. 5. Du ditt arbete. Vad befallde kaptenen pa det andra fartyget honom 'att gora? 9..EXERCISE. I morgon . 1 : din asna. Hur manga av besattrovaref artyget ? 7. Om en vecka (vara. Note omission of som. sa hade jag besokt . 5. 4. lish future. I gar nar min kusin kom for att progressive present).) tillbaka. Vad hade blivit av kaptenen? 10. in 1. 2. mer att. etc. 3. Vad gjorde sjorovarna.

I call that working (301. 14. Did he do all this work? sailor Well. 1. He asked us to come on board. bemak'tiga sig. had (299) told the pirate that half of the crew had died of the plague. 10. som nyss ha rest infinitive. 7. Shall we go on the captain.). to take pos- session of lib. alle'na (only predicative. The water is warm enough for bathing 3 (till att bada i).. no neut. a). for (ty) he did not wish to 3 8. We must walk form). (Tcomma) home before night (def. 12. som nyss bar stigit i vagnen. (ga) ned under dack. Vi sakna vara vanner. Han bad matroserna . .174 VOCABULARY. In the following supply the proper . Han ansags till . . very interested in playing3 tennis. Lind was kind enough to lend me a book. D. the att New York. 4. Genom 13. He was on the point (297) of possession of the ship. alone befal'la. He does not believe that his trip will be stormy. min larare. (vara) rik. going out when I entered. . When the leave the city without having spoken to us. the pirate sailed away without taking 3 9. and shall 1 introduce you to you wish. 5. this is (291) a beautiful ship! it is 1 Do you know him. But I say. He is a fine man and I am sure (saker 2 that you will like him. ar till Den gamle 11. to what port board? if know going to sail ? 2. 12. 2 6. to command en besatt'ning. *Here the future implies a decision: skola or komma attf 2 Here pure futuriis He much ty. honom. fast in order to get 11. 14. crew . (ropa) matrosen pa dacket. . He has just returned from pa) America and the passage was very difficult. (narra) sjorovarna raddade kaptenen sitt fartyg. 10. VOCABULARY. . -ar. . It was only 3 by maneuvering the ship skillfully that (som) he saved it. of the verbs indicated. Sjorovaren hordes . 15. 13.. infinitive or the simple. herrn. Mr. 3.

a thought. ett ddck. -er. be so kind as to (please) lend me. . -et. han var sd god och kom.). interested stryka.). captain komma en IDIOMS: in'. port. Var sd god och Idna mig. 4. cargo. I. deck vessel en matros'. pest. to pur- omoord. voice en sjorovare. kit. . maniivre'ra. to hit upon an idea. to cry. sig. skillful intresse'rad. att komma pd en ide. -ar. thought iinnu. flag nog. -man. 5. harbor en hedersman. to approach fvrfol'ja (insep. -t. burden 1. on board en pest. -t. en person for ndgon. to be sure fort. 175 -er. sailor to maneuver thereupon . enough. en flag g a (flagg). en rost. jiimrande. power en tanke. att omtala ndgot for ndgon.VOCABULARY. call honor en hiilft. rapidly fo'reskriva (insep. to tell somebody someatt presentera thing. to enter en styrka. dyrbar. en tanke. ned. to die of a disease. strok. 3. -er. down ett far'tyg. lib. -er. att do i en sjukdom. struto lower en kapten'. yet last. he was kind enough to come.). 2. I. costly . certainly. exact I. -er. strength. precious. ndrma and adv. -en. to introduce a person to somebody. dilrpd. man of to introduce ropa. plague presente'ra. -er. sue en hamn. I. half skicklig. plaintive stroko. quickly. -ar. v. -at. -or. to prescribe noga (adj. pirate .

LESSON XXVIII.
Comparison of Adjectives
303. Most adjectives form their comparative by adding -are to the stem of the positive, and the superlative by the addition of -ast. 304.
rik ddel

Examples

:

trogen vacker ringa
NOTE.
in the comparative

rikare ddlare trognare

rikast ddlast

rich

noble
faithful beautiful

vackrare ringare
Positive stems in unaccented

trognast vackrast ringast
-el, -en, -er,

humble, small

and superlative.

drop the e of these syllables Positive stems in -a drop the a.

305. The following adjectives form their comparative and superlative by the addition of -re and -st and modify the stem vowel if it is strong:

grov hog
lag

grovre hogre
lagre Idngre storre

Idng
stor

trang tung

trdngre tyngre

ung

yngre
;

NOTE. Grov, trdng and lag are also compared regularly moral signification.

lag then has a

306.

The following are compared

irregularly:

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.
307.

177

adjectives derived from adverbs, such as designate place, have no posiespecially tive. These have a comparative in -re, generally

Some

inverted in the superlative -erst.

bakre
bortre

bakerst
bofrterst

frdmre
ftfrre(a)

frdmst
forst innerst

farther back, rear farther farther in front

former
inner
nether, lower

inre

nedre undre
yttre
o'vre

nederst

under st
ytterst

under
outer

overst

upper

308. Adjectives which do not easily take the endings of comparison may be compared by using mera and mest together with the positive (such are adjectives in -e, -ad, -s, isk and all participles) Ex. ode, desolate, mera ode, mest ode; dlskad, mera
. :

dlskad,

mest dlskad.

NOTE. This is also the case when two qualities of the same object are compared with one another: han or mera trott an somnig, he is more tired than
sleep}'.

DECLENSION OF COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES.
309. The comparative is invariable except that takes an -s in the genitive when used as a noun den dldre brodern, the older brother; det dldre barnet, the older child; den dldres rdttigheter, the rights of the older.
it
:

The superlative is not declined in the predicate when not preceded by the definite prepositive article; when preceded by this article it is declined Ex. han like an adjective in the weak declension.
310.
:

178

EXERCISE.

var den flitigaste i klassen, he was the most diligent one in the class han var didst, he was the oldest.
;

Superlatives in -ast take only the ending -e: del vackraste barnet, but det yngsta barnet, den yngste gossen.

NOTE.

311. jag, he

Than
is

is

rendered by an: han ar aldre an
I.

older than

EXERCISE XXVIII.
A.
Insert comparative and superlative forms respective-

ly in the blanks.
1.

Jag ar trogen, du ar
.
.

.

.

.

,

han ar

.

.

.

2.

Vi aro

adla,

ni aro

.,

de aro ...

3.

Detta huset ar
. .

stort, det

dar

och det grona dar borta ar 4. Detta ar en fortjusande utsikt, men utsikten fran berget pa andra sidan floden ar och utsikten fran den hoga bergstoppen .,
ar
. .
.

,

.

.

.

5. Karl ar liten, Erik ar (peak) dar borta ar ., 6. I dag ar det manga i kyrkan, men forra Ernst ar
.
. .

.

.

.

.

.

Han ar en lag manniska, jag Vilken av de tva bergstopparna ar den (lowest) ? 9. Hur gammal ar Erik? Det vet jag ej sakert, men han ar (older) an Karl, och Alfred
sondagen var det ... bar sallan sett en ...
.
. .

7.

8.

.

.

.

ar den

.

.

.

(oldest) av gossarna.
eller

10.

Vem
ar
.

ar
.
.

.

.

.

(most

musical},
tive)

Anna

an Klara.

12.

Klara? H'ar du

11.
sett

Anna

(compara-

en ...

(more desolate,

ode) trakt an denna?

E. 1. Ar icke katedralen i Koln en av de aldsta, storsta och hogsta kyrkor i varlden? 2. Jo, det finns endast fa, som aro aldre, storre och hogre. 3. Nar tycker ni, att det
ar intressantast (310) att resa?

Pa sommaren,

ty da aro

dagarna namare.

langre, man kan se mer, och det ar mycket ange4. Hur lang tid tar det att komma fran New

De snabbaste angarna gora overtill Liverpool? resan pa mindre an sex dagar. 5. Det ar ett misstag, att
York

EXERCISE.

179

de europeiska tagen skulle vara langsammare an de amerikanska. 6. I flere lander i Europa aro snalltagen bland de
snabbaste,
flere

som det over huvud taget finns. 7. Har man ej klasser darborta an har? Jo, det ar vanligen tre
i

klasser;

Tyskland har
fara
i

man
9.

till

och

med
i

fyra.

8.

I Sve-

rige resa endast de allra rikaste

(316)
reser
10.

forsta klass, och

de

fiesta

tredje.
i

Man

andra klass dar an
borta?

var forsta.

bekvamare (318) i Vena bor i huset dar-

en kusin.

Tva av vara narmaste slaktingar, en farbror och 11. Den forre bor i framre del en av den ovre va-

ningen, den senare i den bakersta delen av den undre vaningen; resten av huset star tomt. 12. Jag skulle garna
vilja

hyra huset,

om

dess yttre vore vackrare, dess inre dar13.
1 Skulle du vilja gb'ra en langre

emot behagar mig.
tur
1

i

min

bil

i

eftermiddag?

Ja,

med

Translate: extended; form of the noun.

langre means here rather

stb'rsta nb'je . 2 Note the indefinite long.

2

1. There are large and high churches in most cities, C. but there are business buildings in New York which are larger and higher than the largest and highest churches in

the world.

in the class.

oldest brother is the most diligent boy In point of 1 studies he is at the head (framst, 310), but in sports he is poorer than most of them. 4. We had the most beautiful weather on our
2.

My

3.

trip to-day; it
5.

was

less

warm

than on our former

trip.

Have you no nearer and
No, he
is

he?

my

better friend in this city than 6. I do not nearest and best friend.

know whether

I shall travel first or second class.

Would

2 you advise me? 7. If I were you (i ert stdlle) I should is than rather travel second; that class more comfortable

our
8.

first

and only the wealthiest

travel first class here.
3
;

The

fastest steamers are not always to be preferred
less.
9.

a slower and larger steamer rocks

Don't you think

180

VOCABULARY.
is

that the interior of this house

much more

beautiful than

the exterior?

Why
etc.

(308). don't you rather rent that
*Use impersonal form of gdlla.
*att foredraga (301, c).

Yes, but it is more beautiful than modern The house next to ours is for rent (301, b, note).
?

It has

many more modern

improvements (nutida bekvamligheter).
Translate
so,

(171, B, 2) skulle jag hellre,

VOCABULARY.
en affiirsbyggnad, -er, business building angendm, -t, agreeable (en) bekvamlighet, -er, comfort bekviim', comfortable bredvid', next to, at the side of ddrborta, over there
endast, only

en klass, Idngsam,

-er, class

slow '(not lone-t, some; to be lonesome att ha trdkigt) ett miss'tag, mistake modern' -t, modern
,

ett noje, -n,

amusement,

pleas-

ure

en rest, -er, remainder -t, European en slakting, -ar, relative en farbror, -broder, uncle snabb, -t, quick, rapid fattig, -t, poor fo'redraga (insep., see draga), ett studium, -er, study till och med, even prefer torn, -t, empty, vacant gunga, I, to rock, to swing en tur, -er, trip gdlla, lib, to have a value; to be a question of vanligen, usually en dngare, steamboat Jiellre, rather 1 i'drott over huvud taget, on the whole -er, sport en overresa, -or, trip across en katedral', -er, cathedral
europeisk,
,
,

*ldrott

is

generally used collectively in the singular.

LESSON XXIX.
Comparison of Adjectives (Continued).
is expressed by or lika(sa) .som, (just) .as; by sa. .sow, so (as) ... as, the latter generally after negatives lika or sa is occasionally omitted: han dr lika gammal som jag, he is just as old as I; hon dr ej sa lycklig, som hon brukade vara, she is not as happy as she used to be; han dr tapper som ett lejon, he is as brave as a lion.
. .

312.

A

comparison of equality
as.
.

.

;

NOTE. A comparison of equality with adverbs is expressed in the same way where there is no equality the correlative as as must be rendered by d som only han skriver lika bra som du, he writes as well as you ; kom id fort
; .
. . .

:

som

mojligt,

come as soon

as possible.

313. The comparison below the positive is formed by using the adverbs mindre, minst (less, least) han dr den minst framstdende av de tre brb'derna, he is the least prominent of the three brothers.
:

314. The adverb the with a comparative is expressed by dess, desto (sometimes ju) ; the correlatives the. .the by ju (normal order) .dess, desto or ju (inverted order) as, jasa, han kommer, desto bdttre,so, he is coming, so much the better ju Idngre han stannade hdr, dess (ju) fattigare blev han, the longer he remained here, the poorer he became.
. . .

;

;

315. The comparative and the superlative are sometimes used absolutely; the comparative then denotes a rather high degree and the superlative a very high degree; as, en sto'rre penningsumma, a rather large sum of money jag gor det med storsta noje, I shall do that with the greatest pleasure min
; ;

baste van,

my

dear friend (in speaking or writing

NOTE. of The indefinite forms of the neuter singular most descriptive adjectives can be used as adEx. verbs... adj. 318. hastig. god. . Adverbs form Very Examples hovligt ddelt troget : tungt 319. adv. possibly. friendly. 316. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. vdnlig. Distributive Superlative. Adverbs. mojlig-en. The bra.182 to ADVERBS. good.: adj. plural of all) den allra storsta. probably.. kdraste du (kdra du is perhaps more common) is in speaking to very intimate friends. hastigt.. vdl gdrna ilia ndra Idnge fore fort ofta sakta fram . trolig-en. adj. their degrees of comparison like the adjectives. few except those ending in -t can be compared. vdnligt. pret: tiest) . prettiest of all (the very greatest. 317. rapid. The superlative often strengthened by the adverb allra (old gen. the greatest. den aUra vackraste. adv. gott.. Some adverbs are formed from adjectives in -Kg by means of the ending -en. some one) . adv..

most) fern mycket hellre De olika numren pa programmet mottogos med bifall. As. 323.. 1. han kdmpade i det Idngsta. The English more and more=aUt+the repeated comparative as in English (a single comstormen rasade allt hdftiparative may be used) the storm och raged more and more hdftigare. gare : violently. she walked as quietly as she could. Apparent exceptions are a few idiomatic absolute superlatives. i 321. 183 320. 322.EXERCISE.. mojligt . 4. : som. fast den senare ar mera omVad skall ni gora under de stundande . . 3. salongen var i det narmaste fullsatt. Jungstedt. as soon as possible. 2. as. he read as plainly as he could (also sa tydligt han kunde.som sa snart som mojligt. they were very nearly one hundred. can. Jag gar pa forelasningar och konserter. han kom med det snaraste. han hdlsade mig pa det hovligaste. The comparative and the superlative of adverbs are invariable. as). A.as possible is expressed by sa. det allra varmaste lika bra Jag tyckte. Gar du ofta pa 1 eller sex teatern. he came as soon as possible. Konserten i gar var troligen den mest lyckade (308) sedan sa2 songens bb'rjan. he fought as long as possible. So also the Swedish equivalent for the Enghon gick det tystaste hon as . Karl? Hogst (at the ganger om aret (338. att frb'ken Forsell sjb'ng som fm 5. de voro det narmaste ett hundra. EXERCISE XXIX. note). talad (308). . could kunde. han Idste det tydligaste han kunde. . he greeted me most politely. . note omission of lish.

dropped in the def. the more there is to do. att jag skall skriva 7. 11. go. pa B. note). fa tealern. 6. 8. the more (314) I do. 8. is Indef. gar Fann ni konserten lyckad? ? Appladerade ahorarna de olika numren 1 Forsell eller fru Jungstedt? (ett) besok hos er bror? 7. raste 2 . Jag skall avlagga ett kortare (315) besok Halsa honom pa det hjartligaste 2 och sag till honom. 1. Hur gar det for Erik i skolan? Icke sa bra som det gjorde i bb'rjan. maste du verkligen resa? Jag ar sa men kom igen sa fort du kan (321). du kommer. Do you attend the theater oftener now than you 1 used to (do). 1. Conversation. 5. han var visserligen icke den allra basta i sin klass. Vem sjong bast. Var auditoriet vid konserten 4. EXERCISE. Pa is target. 2. 4. pa teatern i eller pa en forelasning? talrikt? 3. Carl? 2. Jag har hoppats i Erik skulle uppflyttad ar. Ju oftare ledsen. to market. ty du ar alltid en mycket valkommen gast hos oss. No. 3. it seems. 9. men 2 i det langsta . 10. Aren't you working a . I have never bemostly fore been as occupied as I am now. Na'r amnar till honom an? Gor en jamforelse (comparison) mellan Eriks och Karls Har ni skrifvit arbete 1 i skolan. Karl daremot studerar det flitigaste han kan och ar framst i sin klass. one m no longer intervocalic. och ju langre du gb'r ditt besok. han arbetar utan det ringaste intresse och ar alls icke uppmarksam i klassen. is sound form nummer . froken ni (att) avlagga 6. att det troligaste ar. men han var flitigare an nu och gjorde sitt basta. desto battre. to used in the sense of to in a number of phrases: att 2 320. go to the theater. honom med det allra sna- Kara du. bli 12. form since the long m- G. Nu synes han mera lat an dum (308. att han far 1 sitta kvar. and when I 2 the I attend do attend.184 helgdagarna ? hos min bror. Vart gar ni heist. extremely seldom. opera.

to take a trip to northern Sweden. foremost full'satt. Are you going alone? beautiful sceneries of Lapland. are often used to form an absolute superlative. we shall 10. Ytterst hogst. -er. seems as 3. the we are. -er. summer I prefer mine most (hogst) interesting account of the 9. I wish have a certain work ready as soon as possible in order 6. lecture en gdst. cordial hard. With the greatest (315) pleasure. insep. -er. lay. watering place applause en torjan. audience (a off for det mesta. the merrier it will be. Sivedish . This 8. At a watering place? 7. -t. ) harder than you used to? 5. very. can't you come as l to see me a little ofterier than you 1). 5. My dear (315) friend. in the highest degree. guest hjartlig. perhaps crowded en Mass. do? Come as often you please (287. class 13 Grammar . exceedingly. Perhaps. come an- (316) greetings to all his friends. Is Eric as diligent as he was in the beginning? it No. for the most avlagga. stupid intressant'.. make take part sep. 2. I do not know what if is the matter with him. -ar. he were growing lazier and lazier (323). more (314) (skutte) D. four. beginning ett bifall. extremely. and ytterst. perhaps (flera}. hard interesting dum.VOCABULARY. Would be more No. ett auditorium. en badort. h&rt. approval. No. eft intres'se. although friimst. *For del mesta (320). interest karihan'da. fast. He sent the most cordial 6. friend of A has given me a as soon as you permit me to go with you if I could be ready you? 11. -n. Where do you intend to spend it? to get my vacation. to . he not here yet ? Perhaps he will come a little later. visit) -cr. I have been at watering places several (flera) times before. -t. Is he wrote other me most politely that he would time. No. little 2 185 to (274. VOCABULARY. 1. en forelasning. rather 4.

8. 5. occupied en semes' ter 1 vacation ^Semester is a scenery -rar. not to be promoted. nificant sceneri'.). verkligen. IDIOMS: 1. -at. program ringa (indeclinable) insig. ett program'. . sjungit. 3.186 kvar (adv. successful . 2. -er. to sing (no neut. -ar. probably lyckad. I la. 3. v. ferier a vacation from school. The Numerals. elva . is 2. etc. 6. en skildring. 4.). mentioned. to be promoted. snart. lazy -at.). ledsen. opera. -er*. uppflyttad. 1st def. -or. promoted upptagen. a natural season. sex sju dtta nio sjunde dttonde nionde tionde elvte 10. adj. att tli uppflyttad. -et. northern stundande (indecl. sorry rapid. sjong. sjongo. ORDINAL ett. 3rd. snar. -at. att sitta kvar. 9. en [neut. -t. tio 11. ene(a)'\ tvd tre andre(a).). om'talad. account quick. and predicate) lat NUMERALS. coming ett nummer. moved up. arstid. CARDINAL 1. fyra fern fjarde femte sjatte 7. *Sasong is a social season. appear celebrated en sdsong'. opera tilldta (insep. Hvad fattas honomf What the matter with him? LESSON XXX. (den) forste(a). left. to permit house troligen. number synas (dep. -et. sjungen. to be sure. season en opera. to seem. soon norra (indeclinable). cer- tainly vacation from work. in the over sjunga. 2nd tredje. really visserligen. semester.

000. 17. 30. but tjuguen gossar. 15.000. 90.150. 325. 101. When genitive but are otherwise indeclinable: used as nouns they take an s in the de fyras . 326. tjuge) 21.NUMERALS. 18.000. (ett) tusen 1. tjuguett 22. 70. tva 250. en million REMARKS ON THE CARDINALS. 40. 13. The cardinals are indeclinable when used as adjectives with the exception of en. 50. 16. 187 tolv tolvte tretton fjorton trettonde fjortonde femton sexton sjutton aderton nitton femtonde sextonde sjuttonde adertonde nittonde tjugonde tjuguforsta 20. which has the neuter ett: det ar tjuguett barn i rummet. tjugutva trettio (tretti) tjuguandra trettionde tretti(o)forsta tretti(o)ett fyrtio (fyrti) fyrtionde femtio (femti) sextio (sexti) sjuttio (sjutti) attio (dtti) nittio (nitti) (ett) hundra hundra ett femtionde sextionde sjuttionde attionde nittionde 200. 100. 80. tva hundra hundra hundrade hundra forsta tva hundrade tva hundra femtionde tusende ett tusen ett hundra femtionde femtio 1. ett tusen ett hundra femtio 1. 19. tjugu (tjugo. 31. 60. 12. 14.

ett tusen ett hundra sextiofem. The form . They are usually preceded by 331. pa tu man hand. NOTE. tre (in counting time. The numbers. are declined as nouns of the Third Declension: tre millioner manniskor. million. the opinion of the four. milliard. Aderton is REMARKS ON THE ORDINALS. del forsta tusendet. Fyrtio is pronounced generally pronounced arton. adv. 328.. fyrti. femti. they two. tear in two. in such expressions as vi bada. between two de unga tu. . de Academy) . . the engaged or newly married couple ett. Tvenne and trenne are sometimes used for two and three but never in connection with other numerals. (in counting ett 330. the meeting of the eighteen (the Swedish dsikt. are used mostly in compounds: femtiatta. bada and bagge have the force of numerals. 327. etc. adertons sammankomst. tu..188 NUMERALS. de bagge. The forms tretti. Hundra and tusen may also be used substantively and then take the form hundrade and tusende with plural in -n: det tjvgonde arhundradet. in confidence phrases. the twentieth century thousand. etc. as if it was written fortio. itu: riva itu. also in the sense of suddenly) . och. sextitre. and. The ordinals are used as indeclinable adjectives. we two. cf. the prepositive definite article. the first tu is used for tva in certain set such as. is not used between the hundreds and the tens. NOTE. Bada and bagge are occasionally used with tva for the* sake of emphasis: bada tva. except forste(a) and andre(a) which follow the weak declension. but may sometimes . billion. etc. 329. ett Hundra and tusen are always preceded by : may be left out) ett hundra femtioatta. both.

a quarter of Klockan ar tjugu minuter fore minutes of three. it is the second time he is here. tre. The following phrases illustrate the manner of telling the time of day Hur mycket ar klockan? what time is it? Klockan ar tio. EXPRESSIONS OF TIME (O'CLOCK) : . : 130 be used without it den forsta. used instead of the ordinals these follow the noun : pa sidan tio. on page 335. det ar andra gdngen han ar har.: den 5:e. den andra. 334. i) fyra. Ex. dicate letter or letters The ordinals are often abbreviated. it is half past nine. the first day of the week is Sunday. 332. Klockan ar halv tio. tre kvart pa fyra. In compound ordinals only the last number takes the ordinal ending.NUMERALS. 336. den ett tusen tvd hundra sextiofjarde. The ordinals take the genitive -s: Karl den tolvtes dod. the numbe used alone after the article: den 5 ber may februari. it is twenty . den 8:e. den tredje. 333. (till. the death of Charles XII. it is ten o'clock. Klockan ar en kvart over fyra. cardirrals are occasionally . Klockan ar en kvart fore ter of four. it is a quarter past four. The ten. the last being used with the numbers to inthe ordinal. it is it is a quar- Klockan ar four. but forsta dagen (also den forsta dagen) i veckan ar sondagen.

this cloth costs three crowns a meter. etc.113 fran 6. 337. Klockan har jiLst slagit fyra. postpositive article of in- stead of the indef. 1. towards ten Han kom klockan tio. he came at ten o'clock. tva ganger tva ar fyra. give me a glass of fresh water. two times a year kronor f veckan.348. 2. EXERCISE A. 3X12=36. is 338. Multiplicera 580 med 213. it has just struck four. . Vid niotiden. Addera 1. En gang ett ar ett. o'clock. about nine Fram at tiotiden. Eead in Swedish: 2X12=24. at three o'clock sharp. EXPRESSIONS OF MEASURE AND PRICE. Pa Precis slaget ire. 3. article is found after other expresnoun is then preceded by a preposition (generally han fortjanar trettio om. 4X8=32. 4X2=8. or <) tvd ganger om aret. 6X7=42. Klockan dr tjugu -minuter over ire. live the differ5. 3X2=6. After nouns of measure t*he thing measured used without preposition: hon kopte fyra meter svart tyg. NOTE.213.190 EXERCISE.213. tre. 7X10=70. etc. sions of quantity. ett ar tva. piece. 19. Subtrahera 15. XXX. she bought four meters of black cloth. . article in English: detta tyget kostar tre kronor metern.563. 2. Practice orally. After an expression of price a noun measure requires the def. 4. he earns thirty crowns a week. it is twenty minutes past three. at three o'clock sharp. giv mig ett glas friskt vatten. but the : tio kronor stycket. 11. 7X9=63. ten crowns a- This distributive use of the def. pa. o'clock. tva ganger En gang tva ar tva.

klockan en kvart efter tolv. 53.012.000.. 104. att det ar en av de storsta 3. nar man tar i Minnesotas befolkning ar ej vidare 1 betraktande. talrik. 12. the numbers 40. 209. 205. 4. (a quarter past seven). sa kunde vi a'ta frukost pa hotellet. may be is translated by very. it it has an idiomatic use which is hard to render. 89. femti.. 1. jag fick den for nagra att vi onska rakningen. Ah nej. 10. 'At a quarter past twelve. vi ha annu en kvarts timme pa oss (to spare). 498. further.15. minuter sedan. 100. 41. ent expressions for: 3.000. pr- *Tva och (pronounced d) per kilo. 12.15. 1. 7. 50. Vad Smoret kostar 2. kloekan har just slagit sju. innan det gar.098. 94. 75. en skinka pa fyra kilo och diverse gronsaker. 12. 4. 1. icke sa varst. 2. 6. klockan is often denna stad bo 2. : kl. eller 2. staterna i Unionen. 10 kronor for rumrnet. Skynda dig. och resten for diverse smasaker. 8 kronor och 50 ore for supen och frukosten 7.001. 11. 67.342 manniskor. dessa far sig till? snail.50 kilot3 och kostar smoret och aggen? aggen 1. Sag till uppassaren Har ar den. om vi stiga upp . man betala sarskilt. men den ar anda ej pa langt nar sa stor som London.30. G4. tror jag. abbreviated to kl. belb'pa de 2 kr. Det bradskar ej. icke Da aro naturligtvis drickspengarna till betjaningen inbegripna? 8. 5. Nej. 22 kronor och 37 ore.427. 78. Jag har kopt en hel del (en massa) saker pa torget i dag: 1 kilo mejerismbr. ar du annars forsumma vi taget. 5.50 sometimes 3 Also tjoget.. Widare means wider.. Med vilket tag resa vi till Stock- Det gar ett tag . (at six or half past five). Hur mycket 9. I 2.45.656. 191 1 It is Name a quarter past 12 . 2. Hur manga invanare bar staten Minnesota? Omkring B.000. 4 tjog agg.EXERCISE. Den ar val tamligen sa hog.25.000. formodar i holm morgon? jag.50 2 racker. 371. ver abbreviated to .000 manniskor eller nara tre ganger sa manga. ty dar bo nara 7.

the whole expression stockholmstyer. (In a store. we slept to a quarter past six and the train was 2 to leave at ten minutes past seven. . breakf ast at the hotel before you started ? No. 8) to about 1 3. minutes of by (enligt) 7. we only had time to drink a cup of coffee and eat a sandwich. in American money a crown is about twenty-eight cents. or fifty ore a dozen.000. please. only fourteen minutes. 'Use the plur. Hurry. Ila. Yes. Did you oversleep ? Yes. 12.). consideration del. part. Let five me see. part inhabitant en invanare. 9. vegetables (ett)betraktande.). here is a fifty-crown bill. -ar. How much a crown? A crown is one hundred ore. you? holm. diverse. 4. sova). -ar. I should like to look at. 3 Use over or translate VOCABULARY. 2.192 C. population ett dussin. . dozen see behaga. VOCABULARY. Was your bill at the hotel very high ? No. *Skulle. to hurry diver" se (pi. This ten ore apiece (338) or a crown a dozen. or we shall miss the train. en befolkning. crowns and is twenty-five ore in change (tillbaka) 11. the tips not included . various mejeri'smor. it is nine mj watch. I. or state. to please beldpa sig till. to oversleep (insep. 1. 8. brddska.) What can I do for some view cards of 2 Stock(till) We have cards at various prices. here are forty-six . that.). How many minutes do we have to spare (B. five ore apiece. Did you have thirty-six crowns. creamery butter . servants to miss (train) gronsaJcer (pi. neg- en betjaning (generally no pi. of the p. it was not as high as I expected. 10) before the train leaves? 6. I owe you three crowns kind is and seventy-five ore. to to forso'va amount sig (insep. I wish to change one hundred and forty crowns into (i) American money. 5.. service.000 more than three times as many as (312) in our people. can you change it? 10.). In the city of London live almost 7. it amounted (B. of inbegripa. to forsum'ma lect. I believe.

en sedel. two kinds of. to change . numerous back . manga slags blommor. fairly. : many (b) kinds of flowers. 5. rise ett stycke. not by far. union uppassare. 2. trifle en smorgds. 193 almost price bill. score kronesedel. 339. -er. supcer. meaning kind) tre slags. ett pris. to get up. waiter to wait. From The the cardinals are formed : variatives by the use of slags (the geni(a) tvd slags. state stiga upp' (see stiga). alt taga en sak betraktande. -or. . market place en skinka. three kinds of. different . 6. souvenir postal egg take a andd. pi. -t. supper talrik. olik.NUMERAL FORMATIONS. Vad behagasf What do you wish? What can I do for you? Jag ar skyldig honom tio . 4. er. -er. fifty-crown bill ett torg. -n. near. utan vidare. pretty en union. multiplicatives by the addition of dubbel for the adjective and dubbelt for the adverb more rarely by the addition (neut. . expect vdxla. NUMERAL FORMATIONS. piece tamligen. not very much. 3. . LESSON XXXI. -a) for the adjective and -fait for the . dubbla) . niira. ham en smdsak. vtinta. icke pd Idngt ndr. ett dgg. I owe him ten ten crowns. unlike. to thing into consideration. -ar. The of -faldig (-t. tive of slag. femti- ett tjog. icke vidare mycket. dubbelt. I. without further ado. -t.kronor. yet i IDIOMS: 1. The Numerals (Continued). en supe. sandwich en stat. -lar. ett vykort. I. tillbaka.

a twenty-second part so also en tretti(o)tvaendel. twice or two times tre ganger. one half en tjugutvaendel. part (plur. one half of the house. dubbelt sa manga. thousands. manifold. the eighties. in pairs.). by twos. From the ordinals are formed : (ct) Fractional nouns by compounding the ordinal with the noun del. two at the time. mangfaldig. : the tva och the 1. two tenths. one at a time och tva. double. quadruple. tva dr lika med sex. fyrdubbelt (neut. ett tjugutal. 2. Half. etc. NOTE. . he is in the forties. hdlften av huset. Halv is used as the denominator of fractions and as adjective. . Observe expressions like hundratals. (b) Fractional adjectives by prefixing halv to the . tva tion(de) delar. thousands of many dozen people were present. . tusentats. a third. hundreds. and adv. NOTE. 1599). half a dozen ena : . tredubbel. en halv. tvd ganger. dussintals. collars of four-ply linen. de gingo tvd tva. once or one time. 340. vetet avkastar trettiofalt. triple. . . adverb: dubbel. (e) The collectives by suffixing the word tal to numeral : . about twenty. ett tiotal. To denote a decade or a century thus. twice as many. tusentals manniskor voro narvarande. one by one. (c) The iteratives by the use of gang. To denote an approximate number: about ten. halv and hiilft. 80-talet. (d) The distributives by the repetition of numerals en och en. three times two equals six. 1500-talet. kragar av fyrdubbelt linne. the wheat yields thirty-fold. han gar pa fyrtiotalet. they went by twos. otherwise hiilft is used ett halvt dussin. ganger: en gang. the sixteenth century (1500 . time plur.194 NUMERAL FORMATIONS. delar) : en tredjedel.

. i dag. 341. in the year of. Vad for en dag ar det i dag? What day (of the week) is it to-day? Det ar onsdag i dag. first for det andra. EXPRESSIONS OF DATE. every third: varannan dag ha vi rakning. every other.EXPRESSIONS OF DATE. halvtredje. Napoleon ar dog 1821. one and a half. secondly. to-day is the sixth of August. NOTE. as. etc. day. etc. (b)The date of the year number often preceded by ially in the given by the cardinal ar. as in English: Boston den . Only the first is in common use. (c) Ordinal adverbs by using the preposition for with the ordinal for det forsta. det ar den sjatte In augusti i dag. we have mathematics every other (neut. especis case of historical dates. Observe the following date idioms: Vad ha vi for ett datum i dag? What date it is to-day? Det ar den femtonde juni fifteenth of June. To-day is Wednesday. vart tredje). (a) In giving the day of the month the ordinal is used without any preposition as. two and a half. To-morrow be the sixteenth. a before name letter the date is the dating placed of the month. To-day is the will I morgon ar det den sextonde. : . 190 next higher unit: halvannan. (d) Distributives by prefixing var to the ordinal : varannan var vartannat). 5:e (or 5) oktober. tredje (neut. not after. Napoleon died in the year of 1821.

om (about). kvdll. mdndagen voro vi borta. NOTE after pa is . of the week the prepositions pa (on). this morning gar morse. last night. and i (in) are used pa requires the def form. . With the names of the days . vid midnatt. morgon. at noon. . next in church. gar kvdll. do on Sundays? 343. to-night. to-morrow night morse. fo'rmiddagen. sing. and 343). 1. plur. and om followed by the def. om lordag. while the day any day of that name in the past or future the day after' om is the next day of that name (for other uses of f and om see 338. om so'ndag kvdll. middagen.196 EXPRESSIONS OF TIME. on Sunday evening we sondags kvdll for han till Neiv York. last Monday we were away. . at midnight i i . note. pa sondagskvdllen voro vi i kyrkan. on Sunday one ought to go to church rod gor ni om sondagarnat What do you . Note such expressions -of time as: pa pa pa pa morgonen. 2. may denote indefinite or recurrent time: pa sondagen horde man ga i kyrkan. om the indefinite and i the genitive of the indefinite: pa . eftermiddagen. Sunday evening he left for New York. i i i i i kvdll. The day following t is the last day of that name. . in the forenoon. next Saturday. Pa followed by the def. in the afternoon. to-morrow b'vermorgon. vid middagen. on Monday we were away i mandags voro vi borta. last i were Sunday evening. pa kvdllen. the day after to-morrow. 342. in the night. yesterday morning morgon . in the morning. in the evening pa natten. . at noon. .

344. 1. (a) In addressing letters the street name is written as one word with -gatan (def. ('{fete. i nummer -\-ihe number generally precedes the street name han bor i nummer 11 Linnegatan (also i ll:an [elvari] Linne: gatan). at noon to-morrow tidigt morgon. Supply in Swedish whatever is indicated. manad? . till sommarn. Herr Carl Lind. next summer. A. Storgatan NOTE. ar en tolvtedel av ett haller en hel. to morrow . the latter part of April in the middle of April mitten) slutet .. En manad eller . . i i sommar. 8. 4 tr.) pa en . (|f) (|t) hel.. . (trappa or trappor. ({). morgon middag. tr. stair or stairs) signifies story. i i somras.. in the summer. 2. early to-morrow morning.. form of gata. i . Hur stor del av ett ar ar en ar. to-morrow i i i i in the beginning of April borjan\ \pa april. gar det . in the summer of . 197 . Stockholm. (b) In giving an address. i i .. this summer fjol sommar. . next Monday om sommarn.. a year from om mandag. the past summer (of the same year) dag for ett arsedanl to _ d . dag ett ar sedan } morgon om ett ar. he lives at number 11 Linne Street. eller Hur manga . . . (twelfths) inne- En hel innehaller alltsa . the house number follows the street name: street) .EXERCISE. early i morgon bittida. EXERCISE XXXI. last year . .

. Har du varit i herr Lindgrens tradgard nyligen? 18. . tror jag. 1.. jag var dar i onsdags. Tyskand . . det JOT datum. aro de allra harligaste rosor. till . till hb'ger. . (the ninth of) augusti 1861.6.. to go to work with something. 17.. och om (342. . .. 14. han foddes (50th) fodelsedag. . . dividerar taljaren med nam1 (liV). eller hur? Lit oss ta dag? Det ar fredag i dag. . (2 |) manader. 8. . 11. note) lordag maste vi ha det har arbetet fardigt for att kunna ta i tu 2 (327) med nagot nytt i borjan pa nasta vecka. . . jag nagonsin har sett. Vid vilken pa dagen stupade konungen? . also vilket datum or vad ar med nagot. (the sixth) tid november . . for att deltaga i firandet. Vad for datum ha vi i Man 7. Eosorna aro utspruckna de Ja. dess- utom har han manga andra J slags blommor. indef. . och . . 16. gor man sedan naren och erhaller . ar er brors adress nu? 2. . I gar for en vecka sedan kom min bror hem fran . Hur mycket ? . bag- vagen till ar halv en och en kilometer kortare. Sverige ar mer an sa som stort Minnesota och har nastan (twice) . (three times) sa manga invanare. Det ar . 4. EXERCISE.. . Hur langa aro feri- erna vid den svenska folkskolan ? Skolan slutar i mitten pa och slutet i borjar igen pa augusti. 12. den ge leda till till vanster eller den 15. for- vandlar bada braken (twelfths) blir det? och adderar de blir bada taljarne. en dag i . . (in the year of) . Den andra ar alltsa mer an diibbelt sa lang. () . . *Att ta itu may be omitted. Conversation. Pa vilken vaning bor han ? Han amnar ju att flytta. han stupade 1632. . Hum Vad adderar man .198 3. article vi. Vilken ar den genaste vagen. B. ha vi salunda arsdagen av Gustav Adolfs db'd vid Liitzen. Sommarferierjuni na racka alltsa omkring . 13.. 9. . () ? Man . Vad ha vi for staden. 10. Det (ff ). I dag dag? (the sixth) november i dag. I dag fira vi pappas (in the morning). Vad 3. den bortemot vanster. The etc. vet ni . 5.

Vad ar det for datum morgon om en vecka? Nar firar er bror sin fodelsedag? 8. he has ber 13 King's Street. than I. rdrst is colloquial. *En och en halv mdnad. Is she coming so soon. haven't you ? Not so very long 5 I left the city at the beginning of August and came back at . 2. How many is ? units are there in seven-sixths? 4. my sister Mary is a year and a half older and I have a brother who is almost twice as old as I hope that you will pardon (use 4 . No. Can you tell me how to 1. Yes. a week from to-day is Christmas. 1 multiply two-fifths by one-fourth ? i multiply the numerators and the denominators together and the result is two- twentieths. 20th year. You have been away very long. 4 Translate att jag 'har drSjt med att skriva. att ha bratt or bruttom. but my birthday 8. 9. only (forst) this morning. You suppose. (290. I Why 2 are you in such a hurry am going 3 to the station to my sister. Nar foddes Gustav den andre Adolf? Vilket ar och vilken dag ar han fodd? 9.EXERCISE. In seven-sixths there one unit and one-sixth over. Nar stupade Karl den tolfte? C. is a family festival at home. How old are you ? I am in are the oldest in the family. nar? 4. it is only the 18th to-day. 5. meet is I know. we are studying note) them now in school. (on) the 20th and we shall have 7. August 4th. I must be there at a quarter of ten and it half past nine now. which was dated Monday. so I was away a little over a month and a half 6 11. the end of September. pres. . now he lives at num- ''How to followed by an infinitive must be rendered by a clause here hur jag man mvltiplicerar. Have you studied fractions? Yes. skall multiplicera or hur 5 moved. Does your brother have the same address as (som) before? No. (on) L my I. i Vad ha 7.) my delay in writing but I received your letter. 6. 199 5. . : fcke sa varst Hinge. 3. IFuture with skall. vi for datum i dag? 6. 10. 2To be in a hurry.

death er'hdlla (insep. ursdkta.). slolo. midst leda. -t. -er. I. kilometer . near. to date multipUce'ra. -ar. fraction trouble) (also hoger (no neut. -or. of spricka en fodelsedag. thus folkskola. short (of a road) en hel (-a). to be born utsprucken. I. to lead. almost denominator nyligen. birth to). brattom (att Jia brtittom). apartment en drsdag. to equal) ett ftrdfc. gen. -ar. lib. I. thereupon. give en tdljare. to divide'ra. *Sluta I. forvand'la. slot. delay en dod. of foda. sluten. right innehdlla (insep. see taga). . anniversary when it means shut and to conclude belongs to the Fourth Conjuga-et. adde'ra. and conj. recently ett drojsmdl. indef.). tion. -a. participate I. vacation ett ftrande. en ndmnare. to divide . I.. to be in a hurry ett datum. festival -er. public school fodas (pass. see hftlla). Ha.200 VOCABULARY. to part. numerator to excuse p. date'ra. slutil. I.). (generally sing. -ar. last sedan (adv.). to reach. VOCABULARY. get omkring. story. to contain en kilome'ter. to multiply del'taga (sep. family ett slut. about racka. to become (in mathe. unit matics. nastan. end close. to fall (on the battle . en familjefest. birthday to presume transform to to open (of flowers) en vdning. ut'. -ar. after sluta 1 . alltsd. end stupa. month mitten (def. lib. I. I.).. date conduct en mdnad. then. to add thus (not also) bliva. celebration field) sd'lunda. . form or mitt). formo^da. middle. to . to receive. ferier (pi. sluta..

utom. is the same as the nominative. to undan. igenom. around. outside of med. against. by. within jcimte. 345. out. Prepositions. before innanf&Tt within utmed. except utan. since till. after. without about utanfor. down ovan. framfor. in. ositions in av. out of innan. by the side of mellan. last summer. into among ur. to. below nedfor. hos. by. of. to. NOTE. by. between at. emot. through. Swedish The following expressions with preposi14 tional value are of Grammar common occurrence: . aenom. and i (in) bed i govern the genitive in a few idiomatic phrases: somras. among from efter. along utefter. beside kring. emellan. till sdngi 346.over. past fore. by. before fb'rbi. invid. close by nedanfor. in front of for.LESSON XXXII. off bakom. with vid. before. by means of bredvid. beneath. behind bland. down inom. during by uppfor. beside. a. in. up i. omkring. for mot. outside of. to Till . with. except for a few of the pronouns. near. for. behind enligt. on sedan. at medelst. below. ifran. along utfor. above ward 347. Prepositions govern the objective case which. above ovanfb'r. ahead of ' pa. away from under. according to above frdn. The following are the most important prepSwedish: nara.

watch is (c) Agent: han beundrades av alia. (e) Quality. for: konungen av Sverige. in consequence of. instead of undantagandes.202 PREPOSITIONS. med avseende pa. with reference med hdnsyn till. skull requires the genitive case: for min fars skull.. ago . For. by virtue of or till foljd av. he died of hunger. sedan. a year ago. along 1 rorande angdende [concerning betraffande i J stdllet for. on account of trots av (trots). excepting for .. in spite of oaktat. for the sake of for. for Idnge sedan. the of gold.. USES OF THE PREPOSITIONS.. Av.. the king of Sweden. by. For.. for hans skull. for his sake for ett dr sedan. 348.. skull. (b) Material: klockan dr av guld. . of: han grdt av glddje. description or characteristic: en .. NOTE. off. (d) Cause=for. he was admired by everybody. he wept for joy.. (a) of. long ago. The following are the uses of some of the most common prepositions. langsmed. . skull and for. sedan take the expressions which they govern between the two parts. in regard to i i to kraft av. Titles: from. fian dog av hunger. because of med anledning av. for the sake of my father . in spite of i Icings. .

I have from him. (g) Partitive idea: onskar ni ett glas av detta vin? Do you wish a glass of this wine? en af mina v anner. det ar sndllt av dig. the most diligent of all. send for the har letat efter boken. behind. for. .: inquire for? (c) strdva efter. at: Time or sequence: efter efter middagen ar det sko'nt att vila.PREPOSITIONS. governed by his father's will. according to efter vad jag har hort. according to what I have heard (enligt is more common in this sense) NOTE. den flitigaste av alia. to strive for. ella saker. av ara. .- skicka efter lakaren. 349. one of my friends. tala om det for honom. 203 of character. as far as I am concerned you it . according to. mention to him han har ingen forstaelse for idehe has no appreciation of ideal things for mig far du gora det. to. after. he is . 350. looking. a of honor. object: han har so'rjt for sina barns uppfostran. related judge by something expressions are found with certain verbs: att doma han rattar sig efter fin fan vilja. sending. vem frdgar han efter? Whom does he etc. mig? Who comes after me (behind (b) for: after verbs of asking. for. he has provided for the education of his children. jag the book. (f) man Source : received the book it is kind of you. : etc. etc. before. jag har fdtt boken av honom. . it is nice to rest after dinner. reference. vem kommer me)? striving.: (a) Advantage. I have hunted for doctor. Closely to efter ndgot. For. (a) Efter. of man av karaktdr.

that is enough for a week (see pa and under). when danger is at hand (before the door) . give a crown's worth of bonbons. in for mig dr han blott en vanlig mdnmy estimation he is only a common mortal. caution. concealment. han gomde sig for mig. a week ago. spdnn hasten for kdrran. me du (b) Price: giv mig for en krona konfekt. long ago. The temporal before : is rendered by fore and t'nnan. a strictly literal : before is generally expressed by framfor) med do'den for b'gonen. may do it. to be on one's guard against something. NOTE. he has translated it word for word. : With sedan. niska. att skrdmma nagon for nagot. he fled from the enemy.204 PREPOSITIONS. steg for steg. (e) Succession han har o'versatt det ord for ord. he grew worse day by day. to be afraid of (g) After something. to (h) In a frighten somebody for something. hitch the horse to the cart. att akta sig for nagot. to warn somebody against something. (d) Duration of time: det dr nog for en vecka. number of idiomatic expressions: vad . with death staring one in the face. in the sense of ago for en vecka sedan. and the like: han ftydde for fienden. ndr faran star for dorr en. step by step. att vara rddd for nagot. han blev varre dag for dag. hur mycket har betalt for hatten? (c) Place How much have you paid for the hat? (especially figurative. fear. for lange sedan. (f) verbs denoting flight. he hid from me (with such verbs for is sometimes used together with undan) : att varna nagon for nagot.

som ej ar upptaget av nagon. i sa fall 10 kop en lada. Hans dod kommer att fororsaka sorg inom vida kretsar. han skrattade for sig sjalv. att herr Liden skulle do sa hastigt. med agaren. Dar star han sjalv framhb'ger 4. 1.EXERCISE. Man skickade efter 9 lakaren. Han blev hjartforlamning. 9 Sa sorgligt. upp/or. men darborta i hornet . I walked by myself. Vill ni. Det ar mycket folk i denna restaurang. Det var hyggligt av dig sjalv. 9. 5. att jag skall prehonom? Han ar en man av karaktar och skall Jag for ga ned i staden 7 i dag for att att gora nagra uppkop mig. note use of ut. 12. sa titta in och hor efter . for att vara bara ett barn. de allra bekvamaste. jag bar fatt adressen av en av mina vanner. 10. spelar han icke sa ilia. aga ett litet lantstalle utmed 2 Aro era forbindelser med staden bekvama? delse Ja. Av haftigt sjuk efter middagen. vill du kanske. 5 for disken och talar sentera er for 6 bildning. 8. he laughed to himself. A. to be only a child he does not play so badly. att jag skall ko- tanka pa 8 men jag fb'rskottera. Han var en praktig enligt ryktet bar han utovat en storartad valgorenhet. designate location *Note use of kommer att. vi 2. Under sommaren bor 1 ni val ej i staden? Nej. vi ha angbatsforbin- med tva turer i timmen. 'Also utefter. pa nagot at dig ? mig 7. Into. ej utratta nagot. nedfSr denote direction. *Nedanfor. du Om gar forbi Lindgrens cigarrhandel. EXERCISE XXXII. 205 tar du mig for? What do you take me for? jag gick for mig sjalv. skall may also be . Vad dog han av 11 ? 11. om de fatt in av mina favoritcigarrer an. kommer automobilforbindelse snart att upprattas 4 3. Detta lar vara en ypperlig restaurang. Pengarna kan bar fatt lana av dig sa ofta. och efter vad jag bar hb'rt. men han kunde karl 1 . da flo- flytta vi ut pa landet. ovanfor. till ar ett bord. den nedanfor 3 staden. 6. jag jag ar alldeles utan pengar nu.

Where do you live 1 during the summer? We live in a little country house. Who was the gentleman who just walked past us and saluted ? I met him about a week ago 6 when I took and it is a trip up 7 Gotha canal from Gothenburg to Stockholm. att ban ar utan pengar? 9. May I give you a piece of this steak? If you please . This looks really cozy. 3 the city? No. The little steamboat that 12 in front of the lies there by the quay will land you right Now 10. EXERCISE. I expect company between nine and ten. 7. 10 In that case. tdnka pa. Pa vad satt kommer forbindelsen med staden att forbattras? 6. and according to the paper we are soon 3 to have connection by automobile. Ar det svart att komna in till staden ? 4. shall we sit down by that table in the corner? 5. Conversation. Aro angbatsturerna taia ? 5. I have not had a bite to eat since twelve o'clock now after seven. Var kb'per gb'ra. d. But it will leave within a few minutes. Vart flyttar ni. 7. we have connection by steamer 4 every half-hour . 'Down town. After dinner I shall have 10 to hurry home. a. ban sina favoritcigarrer? Vad C. Var ligger ert lantstalle? 3. hotel. B. 4. *Think of. I must be at the hotel before nine. 9 8 6. Which is the best way of getting 11 to the hotel? By by steamboat? 9. 3. 1. Let us ask that side of 2 5 policeman for a good restaurant. 11 348. what opinion do you have of him? 9 349. 6 Not till. street car or . Varfor tror ni att den bar restaurangen ar ypperlig? for tjanst vill ni gora er van? 8. Is it not inconvenient to live outlittle above the city. "Note omission of article. That is too 8. give me only half of that. which we own along 1 the river a 2. 1. nar sommaren kommer? 2. Vad lovar ni att nar ban siiger. but if it means to have an opinion of it must be translated by tdnka om: vad tanker du om honom.206 used. much.

kind ut'rdtta (insep. comfortable en bildning. -ar. "Present of modal. J See A. 3 Medelst (med T may also be used). *Use fa. middle. right on the finger. 14P&. turn (also I. -ar. shall go down to the quay Just in time 15 . en forbindelse. en disk. titta. 16 Fram. heart establish. cause forskotte'ra. strange connection I. -ar. -t. steak storartad. to en tur. en favorit'cigarr'. KI tid. -n. counter prdktig. above. piece. 12 350. -ar. en automobilfurbindelse. ni bchagar. to ac- Mftig. '349. we 14 ancl wait for the boat.). is used with certain prepositions: mitt i rummet. If you are ready now.VOCABULARY. pier. kan'ske. frequent Goteborg. . -r. violent complish . for precedes omkring. v. VOCABULARY. mitt. mitt pu fingrel. I. jag komma. favorite en sorg.'e halvtimme or far trettionde minut (note use of ordinal in such expressions). . hemtrevlig. character en krets. -r. country house en poliskonstapel. z Utom or utanfor. -t. note 3. to -at.). Gotha canal luck) tilt. hygglig. education hoger (no neuter. quay en bit. cozy. -er. institute . for'orsaka (insep. -t. 12. "Use infinitive of . -er. a. cigar sorglig. culture. bit (bite) en cigar rhandlare. -t. circle ett lantstdlle. splendid -er. f tackar or om See A. police-. v. above. -ar. it 207 backs out from the quay. There will soon come 13 another.). Va. cigar . -t. to failure upp'tagen. -er. en halvtimme. en spdrvagn. right in the middle of the sermon . sorrow. in the middle of the room mitt under predikan. perhaps en karaktar'. -ar. street car en stek. -er.). Det plus present. right en kaj. occupied I. I. connection by automobile bekvtim. -t. Gothenburg ett uppkop. there it comes out 16 between those two big boats. 6 1. v. magnificent look trip. homelike upp'ratta en hjartforlamning (-ar). may be. grief sad frummande. half hour purchase (insep. 4 Far. 11. nice. -lar. indef. Translate right by mitt. I think a steamboat leaves every ten minutes. 13. dealer man -t. to advance Gota kanal.

hos skrdddaren. on account of: (a) Direction: vi gingo genom skogen. he lives with us. it is my 3. (b) (the preposition in this sense (c) Means: han later hdlsa genom sin bror. at the tailor's. v. to call on somebody. min tur. on acforande count of his foolish conduct he has lost our con(d) fidence. charity ypperlig. LESSON XXXIII. -t. by means of. Time account of: genom sitt ddraktiga upphar han forlorat vdrt fb'rtroende. he sends greetings through his brother. to exer- practice excellent. by means of great exertions he has attained his goal. Jia to have company. I. in Goethe we read much about art. -r. may follow the noun and has then the form igenom): han var olycklig hela livet igenom. he was unhappy throughout his whole life. det ur att tur. at the house of. On Hos. PREPOSITIONS. vi Idsa hos Gothe mycket om konsten. -er. we went through the forest. connection by steamer en dngbdtstur. en IDIOMS: 1. en dngbdtsforbindelse. Genom (igenom). steamboat " trip a . han bor hos . in: oss. fine en vulgiirenhet. turn. 2. genom stora anstrdngningar har han uppndtt sitt mdl. Uses of Prepositions (Continued). 351. 352. through. cise.). in the shop of. iigare. att titta in hos nugon.208 utova (insep. to be in luck. owner att ha frdmmande.

place into which (figurative) svarigheter. he was among the first who went. to write in haste. i . write with pen fara med . to (figurative) att poverty. i skolan go. jarnvag. by. he came into the room. i (go into the church. (a) Accompaniment: mil ni ga med mig i kyrkan? Will you go to church with me? han var med de forsta. . Observe the difference between expressions like ya in i kyrkan. . in. go into the' school skolan (to attend church. with (at) a single (c) mail . to get into difficulties. Manner: att studera ett med flit. to study with diligence. som gingo. into: han kom in i rummet. (e) hast. yesterday i hundratals ar. 209 353. in the room. translated by last) : i vdras. en gang veckan. for hundreds of years . i transition: is smor och 354. with. (b) leap.PREPOSITIONS. to attend school)'. ost. i (d) Manner: skriva vrede. last Friday i gar. last i spring i . into: (literal) : Place i rummet. to send by med penna. the cream grddden forvandlas i changed into butter and cheese. i Change. to: Med. go. med enda sprang. ga bitar. once a week. skriva Instrument: skicka med posten. dag. travel by rail. . : : (c) Time (with seasons and days in the genitive to denote past time. (b) Place live in rdka i att leva i fattigdom. (a) 7. in anger. in [house]) and ga i kyrkan. place into which (literal) is denoted by in i. NOTE. to-day fredags. to go to pieces.

oppose something. han kommer nog fram mot kv alien.: : (a) Subject or topic han berdttade om sina dventyr. etc. taget kommer train will be here in five min: month. they won the game with ten points to four. sdtta sig emot nagot. piano for a new. as. comparison: I gamla pianot mot ett nytt. in . the army marched against the enemy. Wednesday. (c) Time at which (indefinite) : om dagen. toward: (a) Direction: hdren marscherade emot fienden. (d) In a number of set phrases. emot. I know nothing about that (at the matter. for. of. bytte Exchange. As an adverb med means along: kom med I Come along! Mot. around. about.210 PREPOSITIONS. here is a good remedy for headache. go (b) to meet somebody. NOTE. Time end of which) in a om fem minuter. he told of his adventures. etc. (c) (d) Remedy: hdr dr ett bra medel mot huvudvark. Om. related to. in. tola med. NOTE. next Time within which I nagra dagar. om onsdag. against. he will very likely come to355. shall have it is denoted by inom: jag skall ha det fdrdigt inom ready within a few days. a. ward evening. be kind to your brother. 356. om en manad. gd emot nagon. speak to. ut det exchanged the old jag Hostility: arbeta mot nagon. besldktad med. vad handlar boken om? What nagot (b) om does the book treat about? jag vet ej den saken. work against somebody. var vdnlig emot din bror. the utes. de vunno spelet med tio podng mot fyra.

tdvla om ett pris. with the arm around somebody. Jag kanner ej till 3 nagot vaxelkontor narheten. Avgar 6. especially generally denoted by omkring or kring. om vintern. contending etc. Jag 7 tele- skulle vilja siinda ett tusen adressen och telegi'ammet. att Shall we try to pass him? (here be regarded as a separable prefix stress) . till hoger om. men darborta om hornet ligger en bank. kronor per telegraf till Berlin. 211 the daytime. Position or motion around. tva ganger om dret. play for money. och dar vaxlar man nog for er. bedja om ndgonting. he has a bandage about his head med armen om nagon. (e) Motion past: ska vi forsoka . 8 grammet i dag? Ja. . ask for something (inquire for=frdga ejter. A. med forsta lagenhet. see 349. quest something. Hur mycket Berlin? kostar ett telegram om tjugufem ord till Det blir fyrtio ore per 6 ord. Det var bra. om honom? om may perhaps ga takes the main it (f) Position: han har en bindel om huvudet. to re1 . in winter. jag ar vat om fotterna. : . lamna Stockholm om* 5 ett par timmar. ni betala for adress och namnteckning. NOTE. ty jag har sa brattskall om. var det narmaste vaxel- kontoret ligger 2 i 2. with verbs of asking. when the meaning is literal. is EXERCISE XXXIII. b) spela om pengar. twice a year. Kan ? ni saga mig. competition. (d) Interest. att anhdlla om ndgot. to compete for a prize. to the right of. Jag skulle vilja vaxla en del 1 svenska pengar i amerikanska. norr om Stockholm.EXERCISE. har ar Tors 9 jag be om 10 ett kvitto? . 1. 3. och dessutom maste 5. north of Stockholm. my feet are wet. jag 4.

*Also dr belii- get or or. I0 356. The Latin per is used after 456. It is from my brother. Hurry up! 9. kat. Han hade kunnat vara valbargad for lange sedan 12 . och anholl om 11. Could 2 you You will find tell me where the nearest telegraph office is ? I one around the corner on the first cross street. wish to answer immediately by 1 telegraph. 'Common *Kanna till. . May I then send the ad- and signature for nothing5 ? No. Why not? I have promised to take my friend Carlen along to the football like to game in the afternoon. om han 13 f otbollmatchen ? tre mal mot ett. know of. will start few train in the ment. "355. b. 6. 2. Visst inte. ett mindre Ian. you will have to pay 6 5. 4 form of polite request. "350. och vi kommo ej tillbaka forran fram mot 11 niotiden. 7.212 EXERCISE. *0/. 3. 'Note use of pres. dinner with 7 us next 8 9 Wednesday ? I am so sorry. skb'tt sig. Get 12 a minutes. iary. b . Will you take for them too. herr Carlen bad mig ga med honom till Idrottsparken. I shall 13 take these parcels with me into the car. also vid. . 1. Du var val ej hos Bloms i gar ef teriniddag ? Nej. i vilka han ra10 10. I should 10 go with you myself . han har adragit sig sina motgangar genom sitt slarv. they are going to compete for 11 into this compartthe championship in football. 8. an expression of price with the meaning of a. d. 8. 7. a number of. elegans. Jag traffade var gamle van Agrell i mandags. but it will not be possible for me. "Note omission of auxil- B. That seat so kind of you to check that valise for me. l En del is used colloquially in the sense of tome. also kommer att avga. Here is a telegram for you. Han talade om de ekonomiska svarigheter. 4. allt synes ha sammansvurit sig mot honom. Stackars Agrell. "See 354. Hur av- lopte med Idrottsklubben Kamraterna vann Kamraterna spelade med kraft och 9. a. How much dress does a telegram of 3 twenty words to Paris cost? It 4 costs forty-five ore a word. f. It was 10. we could also say fyrtio ore ordet.

-ar. v. They 16. strength ett kvitto. 1P *Intet. within en kraft. force.). backwards en bank. -svurit. ship -t. -ar. -n. possible (ly) -ar. financial elegance -er.VOCABULARY. -er. while the students are still return within 20 a month. ''-Vaster. 18 356. g. encounter radd (no neut. prepositive def. note. gentleman en idrottspark. 12. 356. an'Mlla (insep. 356. 6. -et. Use ata. you. v. 15. to conspire en Wgenhet. 'Use present of denotes 21 "Use j. above. -er. athletic polette'ra. v. immediately word I. champion- av'gA. of ga. 12 1. article. I. -er. vicinity ett ord. no indef. a determination. to request ett mdsterskap. en namnteckning. Use pros. 13 4 See A.).). north (en) narhet. 6. norr (adj. goal. 11. afraid Stockholm inom. park Idrottsparken. above. meet 21 us? Old Upsala. depart. Now we are there. "Use kommer ait "Use langt. meal slarv. Athletic Park in to meet. football game genast. above. and noun. f. 1 -t. parcel en herre. -svor. -svuro. to take care of oneself ett ett mal. . ett paket. 4. 6 3 note bliva. will be 1* 213 very comfortable for you. -er. ture signa- ekonomisk.d. will the spring. Over 22 we have there. check valise en resviiska.). 19 0m or pa. en fotbollmatch. How far 17 is it to Upsala? ring for the 18 of Stockholm. timid.). raka. good-bye! they 16 third time. 13. 2 Sec A. if you are not afraid to ride 15 backwards. gd av' to break mojligt. 4. VOCABULARY. . b. receipt sammansvarja sig (refl. to go out. bli. 7 8 352. Use skall since the future here 15 18 Leave out the 350. 5. d. en motg&ng. towards the west above. bank baklanges. 20 356. carelessnosfi . Who is this gentleman that comes . See A. 358. nearness. indef. Ha. not ingenting. opportunity adversity skota sig (refl. elegans. a. -en. -er. You Upsala lies thirty miles north Thank Now ought to there. I think. 'See A. . to -or. to visit it in 19 14.

(d) rest Time during which. 357. gd pa target. he is in his room ett hdl pa rocken. for how long: han har till Sverige pd ett ar. svdrigheter. in the country. I do not find 2. to become poverty-stricken. to the post office. pa landet. mean? only till attendance att skicka to the theater as a place . pa go to market. . (a) Place in which: boken ligger pa bordet. a disease. to Till teatern . in. pa posten. well-to-do d'draga sig (refl. I met him in the street. to send to the post office . posten. vdlMrgad. Idvla. contract to see. meet a person. at. I looked at him han syfiade pd mig. -er. vaxla. he pointed his camera at me. he alluded to me. pa teatern Implies posten.). IDIOMS: 1. to get into difficulties. office to compete -at. on. seat PREPOSITIONS. gd ut pa faltet.214 elt sate. jag blickade (sag) pd honom. LESSON XXXIV. for. . -n. on. (c) Direction toward an object: han riktade sin kamera pd mig. to change exchange v. upon. my way here. att rdka fattigdom. bring att i rdka en person. a hole in the coat. en tvargata. to the theater. I. pa landet. -or. the book lies on the table. to. telegraph cross street . he has gone to Sweden . : (b) Place into which teatern. jag rdkar inte hdr. I. han ar pa sitt rum. to contract att ddraga sig en sjukdom. to NOTE. to en telegraf. Pa. to go into the field. Uses of Prepositions (Continued). into the country. 'Pronounced elegangs 1 . jag mo'tte honom pa gatan (not i gatan). ett vaxelkontor. att skicka pd mail.

(h) In a number of idiomatic expressions: pa svenska. svara pa mitt brev. for. is much more indefinite: we must say dag pa morgonen. avundsjuk pa. a draft for fifty dollars. pa varen. to live on ten dollars a week. to the (a) Motion to a place: ga tavlan.: pa. Till. etc. mdrksam etc. in the spring. to rely ! : . han har ej skrivit pa en vecka. Om morgonen. . I have no money about me. (g) With certain adjectives ond pa. I am waiting for him. etc. in Swedish soppa pa oxkb'tt. in. listen to what I say. : . upon. jag har inga pengar pa mig. in this manner. Response and expectation after certain verbs Response: svara pa. tired of. om varen. to count on. i Time at which pa morgonen. jag rdknar pa din hjdlp. till svarta himlen: go to town. etc. I hope for rain. there are one hundred ore to the crown. jealous of. (f) : 1.: till staden.: jag hoppas pa regn. see om. he has not written for a week. beef soup att leva pa tio dollars i veckan. he is angry with me. ho'ra pa.PREPOSITIONS. till posten. 215 for a year. giva akt pa. jag dr matt pa sddana saker. rdkna pa. (e) NOTE. to. en vdxel pa (a) femtio kronor. . in the morning : . Expectation hoppas pa. of. this morning (not om morgonen). I count on your help. attentive to. I am tired of (have had enough of) such things. answer my letter. upp2. to hope for lita pa. to answer. envious of. till . pa delta sdtt. angry with matt pa. det gar hundra ore pa kronan. tank pa det! Think of it jag vdntar pa honom. to pay attention to: ho'r pa vad jag sdger. svartsjuk pa. 358. han dr ond pa mig. to listen to.

tag socker till kaffet. As an adverb it means even: till och med han. (c) Purpose. transformation: nyckeln ar till att Idsa upp med. fora till bords. they have crowned him king. de ha kront honom till konung. sjunka till batten. I drink meals. up to. shoemaker by trade benet till bordet. the key is for unlocking. genitive : is the president's son. to lie sjoss. destination. etc. of a good disposition skomakare till yrket. in (b) Place at or in which: ligga bed sitta till bords. vanlig till sattet. be of use. to the post office. I shall go home for Easter. appointment. han kom till mig. he came to me. on sea.216 PREPOSITIONS. sink to the bottom. even he. och med=to. vad fick du till julklapp? what did you get for Christmas present? vi hade lax till middag. next fall till pdsk far jag hem. sit at table . . of good character. . blackboard. he NOTE. (g) till : till . till till stings. Here may perhaps be classed the Swedish equivalent for the objective karleken till fosterlandet. take sugar with the coffee. to congratulate on a birthday. become stone. God's love for us. . har ar ett paket till er. (e) Addition coffee with : my jag dricker kaffe till maten. Guds kdrlek till oss. love of country. taga till hustru. presidenten. including frdn sidan och med sidan trettio. . conduct to the table. to take for wife) . we had salmon for dinner gratulera till fb'delsedagen. bliva till sten. (d) Specification. to heaven. to marry (lit. here is a package for you. . reference: god till karaktaren. vara till nytta. from page twenty tjugu to page thirty inclusive. the leg of the table han ar son till . (f) In a number of idiomatic expressions: till hosten.

21? 359. amidst laughing and joking. vill ni salja huset under 10. Under. som jag utstallde pa denna bank genom litet dess korrespondent i Chicago. value. 1 stood beneath the tree jag star under hans uppsikt. men jag har ett kreditbrev pa denna bank till belopp av tio tusen kronor. under middagen. jag har till princip att tagit ut alia dina pengar? Sivedish 5 Grammar 15 . I am under his supervision. Pa manga i 1 hant som gar. 5. the captain is below the major in rank. Vad vantar du pa ? satt. snalltaget mellan Stockholm och Uppsala.EXERCISE. on the march. under. 4. come beneath my umbrella. (b) Time under hans livstid.000 crowns? under tjugu (d) ar. under twenty years of age. . direction: jag stod under trddet. . in the course of the : . kom under mitt paraply. his book is beneath all criticism. till ar har ej en sa forfarlig jarnvagsolycka foljd av en felsignal ursparade natt2. amid: (a) Place. Har du 7 6 Nej. during his lifetime under tiden. 1. Jag har mycket kontanta pengar pa mig. hans bok dr under all kritik. XXXIV. Manner: under tarar omtalade han vad som hdnt. weeping (with tears) he related what had happened under skratt och skdmt. in the meantime. Min kusin var bland passagerarne. under marschen. under omstdndigheterna. han blev raddad pa 2 ett underbart 3 3. (c) Rank. age: kaptenen star under majoren i rang.000 kronor? Do you wish to sell the house for less than 10. EXERCISE A. during. dinner. beneath. Jag vantar pa att fa* en vaxel a ett tusen kronor inlost. under the circumstances.

Could you tell me where Stockholms Enskilda Bank is? . 9. Vem och vad ar den dar unge mannen. f. 2 357. 5 351. 4 on carelessness the of because part of the employees.218 alltid lata EXERCISE. pened 5. Lagg det har brevet pa posten. Varf or later ni en mindre obetydlig? summa innesta i banken? 8. som ni satt in? 9. Conversation. d. 2. Omkom han ocksa ? tillfallet ? sig pa taget ni ? 6. kimna Har du reda pa att ogynnrorande denna bank under de senaste veckorrykten na varit i omlopp. *Fa can often be translated by get. 1. Anna? Soppa pa lions. Adressaten hade nog 12 13 blivit ond pa mig. 10 357. The accident hapof the cars which did not derail. om han fatt betala losen. My brother. '357. mera senare. ^57. Vad ha vi till middag i dag. who is on a was among the passengers. Vem befann 5. 7. a. jag raknar pa att 6. utan 9 ga till bords. c. pa honom kan man da aldrig rakna. Nu vanta vi ej langre 8 pa honom. "357. Vad vid 4. uttagare. A. for 2 many years. trans358. 'Adversative conjunction . Varf or har ni ej gatt 1 bords forut? 10. Varf or vore det sakrare att till taga ut allt. lates but after a negative. en mindre summa innesta. lammstek m. have to. Var gardagens jarnvagsolycka Varigenom ursparade taget? 3. Vad ar er tanke om middagen? ^Thought is here equivalent to opinion. de insatta pengarna. som vi traffade 11 pa bjudningen i gar? Han ar en son till dr Liden och ar larare till yrket. but de uttagna pengarna. What do you think of 1 the railroad accident which It is the happened yesterday afternoon ? most serious 3.) Maken till middag ha vi ej haft 10 pa lange. f. Du har glomt att satta frimarke pa. 12 357. a. Translate. How? He had gone into 3 the dining car and this was the only one 4. Det var bra att du gav akt darpa. 2. 11. 6 satta in samma 8. T 8 insdttare. h. B. but was saved. bara er Varf or behover vaxel till mycej beloper sig ket kontanta pengar pa er? 7. trip to Narvik. sa ar du snail. m. Generally separated. c. "Fa. C. (etc. 10. any longer.

c. All the banks are closed at three o'clock sharp 6 and you have only 7 five minutes to spare 7. f. on it foi 5 one thousand crowns. You can count on me. in this sense). c. Garna. d. d. . e. to turn to. ett belopp. . terrible in'losa. note. to have an opinion of 4 2 8 A betjdningens sida. is your opinion about the book? According to 14 12. error. He seems to have a habit 13 of always coming late. 357. 10. yesterday en Jijalp. have very little cash about me. have not used sugar with 18 my coffee 14. amount poultry en bjudning. serious gdrdag. to redeem. envious (collective). 358. -er. to think of (have in tonka om. 8. 358. for I . 358. mistake en felsignal. the place is never literal. I believe that I must turn to 9 you and ask for help. addressee -t. jag tackar. During 8 all my travels I have never been so short of money. I shall 10 gladly to-morrow they will 11 cash advance the amount of the draft for you. VOCABULARY. waited long enough for 12 him and the dinner is getting cold. a is used instead 353. er. 9. . -er. 358. ambiguity. -t. tanka pa. we have here a temporal adverb which obviates 18 I3 12 /To till vana att . a. 5 357. forfarlig. I must have the money. invitation. What my under 16 money. to remain ett fel. all'varsam. 10 address oneself to. Now we have it in the bank. promise). 2. I9 d. 8 359. -t. en adressat'. 357. wrong signal (money) . h. "Use present. "352. I have a drjift 219 6. a. mind). 357. party in'nestd (generally insep. How is he as to opinion it is badly written. "Att vanda tig till. f. Mr. 15 character? I observed only one fault in him while he was 11. 2. help lions avundsjuk. 8 Pd slaget of pa in a few set expressions To. Lind will surely be envious of I Carl when he hears that they have elected Carl chairman 19 . . "358. 13. "Nej. tre or precis klockan ire. giva akt' (pa). losa in'. chickens. to heed to cash . supervision: too great a love of Take a little more sugar. thank you. years. for many a. Is your coffee sweet enough? my 17 No. future with skall (the future here denotes a *356.VOCABULARY.

in of something. Vid. vid bordet. LESSON XXXV. in'satta. principle en reda (-0 in compounds) order. carelessness trade IDIOMS . I. -er.). I. satta in' (see sdtta) to deposit en restaurangvagn. (b) Time: vid jul. in this sense). 360. -n. miraculous. draft vdrdslosJiet. reputation rakna. to count en sida. perish circulation om'komma (see komma). sockret). Uses of Prepositions (Continued). Also figuratively: fdsta sig vid nagon. postage due derful en make. in the neighborhood of . -ar. -or. etc. by. 2. . till consequence of. unfavorable . taga ut' (see taga). a din- iMllna. night exur'spara. -n. become cold (adj.220 PUKI'OSITIOMJ. gora reda for nagot. to draw (a draft) omlopp. vid femtio ars . . by the lamp. way o'betydlig. at the table. manner. -or. ett yrke. to know something. vid stranden. 3. fix one's affections on somebody vid lampan. (generally insep. knowledge en vilxel. because of. to derail press . lib. to take out en princip'. . kontant'. ing car -ar. page. at. -ar. ett -t. -lar. letter of en lammstek. spondent ett -er. part ett socker (def. -t. supervision ett nattsncilltag. the battle of Breitenfeld. sugar en soppa. cash corre- en Correspondent'. soup ett satt. side. ett rykte. insignificant ut'stalla ogynnsam. att att ha reda pd nagot. wonen losen.: (a) Vicinity: slaget vid Breitenfeld. credit . to . : 1. mate. -t. spdra ur'. by the shore vid Stockholm. ransom. rumor. lamb steak w ^rbar. fastened to the wall. match en uppsikt. at Christmas. on. to give an account foljd af. kreditbrev. Stockholm fdstad vid vdggen. ut'taga.

this sense at does not necessarily In imply attainment of the goal. he pushed the chair to the side. in good humor. det dr sa man kan grata at det. draga. to take by the rora vid saret. fora. he is in the army. at a great heat. used thus hand. at the first opportunity. at the reading of this letter. with verbs like hdlla. vid stark hetta. vid gott lynne. on the other hand d ena sidan. d andra handen. 22 1 alder. on. toward. he didn't even look at . A. at fifty years of age. (b) Often before an indirect object (also till) jag gav boken at Karl. is used in a few common phrases. . Contact: taga vid handen. vid tjugu kronors bb'ter. as. : 362. han dr vid armen. to seize leda. throw a bone to the dog. vid Idsandet av detta brev. to. to laugh at. han skot stolen at sidan. to: (a) Direction=toward. lead. touch the wound. to pull. . han sag inte ens at mig. At. he has gone toward the river kasta ett ben at hunden. in the direction of. (c) Condition: vara vid god hdlsa. 361. I gave the book to Carl. me (in my direction) . to be in good health. . to conduct. to hold gripa. the idea of direction is often strengthened by till placed after the governed word: han har gatt at floden till. it is enough to make one weep. to (d) . vid forsta tillfdlle. at the penalty of death. at a fine of twenty crowns.PREPOSITIONS. (e) Penalty: vid livsstraff. : (c) Cause (often with a touch of ridicule or contempt) att skratta at.

beyond: ett stort moln hanger over berget.222 PREPOSITIONS. (b) Direction=over. of. that surpasses my understanding. to . . this thing costs over a crown. . across: bron. tola. etc. to gain a victory: Karl den tolvte regerade over ett vidstrdckt rike. he remained with us during the summer over natten. When the expression is literal. han segrade over sina fiender. over havet. beyond the sea. topic=about. the teacher is above his pupils. han ar nog over trettio ar.: over. above. Related to this construction are expressions like han har rest till New York over Chicago. 363. one one side of the street. he was victorious over his enemies. about. to write. to rule rada. floden. (e) Cause. over night. over. I think he is above thirty. at: 1. pa must be used: pa ena . (d) Duration: han blev hos oss over sommaren. on. in his behalf. a draft for fifty crowns a Hans vdgnar. Related to this construction is over after such verbs as regera. som leder over har rasat. across. Place (literal and figurative) =over. the bridge which leads across the river has collapsed. det gar over mitt forstdnd. beyond. sidan gatan. to hold sway (primarily to advise) segra. above. Charles XII. en vdxel a femtio kronor. lararen star over sina larfungar. With verbs like skriva. ruled over an extensive realm. (a) . a big cloud hangs over the mountain. concerning. he has gone to cago. (c) New York by way of Chi- Excess: denna sak kostar over en krona. on the one side.

gladja sig over. With verbs denoting feeling: sorja over. With adjectives denoting feeling: glad over. 2. Ser ni anslaget darborta vid : gangen ? ! Det dar under tradet med orden "Det ligger i (is to) allmanhetens intresse att skona planteringarna ?" 4. sorry on 3. say in Swedish. svaga kroppskonstitution maste han varda 3. Om used with similar verbs may have a different of). ond over.EXERCISE. : 223 speak yttra sig. talade over ett svart dmne. ond pa en person. klaga over. 6. to become angry at. spoke on a difficult topic. och kan inte formas att tala vid en lakare. he expressed himself concerning the questions of the day." Han faster stor vid hovlighet. annu har jag ej haft tid. Jag 2 har sagt at honom mer an en gang. to write about. Nej. to mourn. he wrote. pa vilka svensken uttrycker det amerikanska vikt ofta "Keep off the grass. det beromda friluftsmuseet. account NOTE. angry at a thing. 5. glad of. angry at. express oneself han skrev. meaning: att tain om ndgon. vanned svenskarna 3 bemota varandra. vredgas over. XXXV. Din for tiden. 2. fortvivla over. far ar visst ej vid synnerligen god halsa nu Nej det ar han inte. We EXERCISE A. angry with a person. men han klagar aldrig over 1 nagot. ledsen over. att vid bans hoga alder och sig med hans om sin halsa battre. han yttrade sig over dagens frdgor. . but ond over en sak. men vid vid alia tillf alien . Under min vistelse i Sverige har jag 4 forvanats over den stora hovlighet. to speak of somebody (make a mention skriva om. to despair of. NOTE. of. to rejoice at. som Hazelius har Vi svenskar aro med ratta 6 stolta darover. 1. Ja Det ar ett av de manga satt. Har ni varit vid 5 Skansen. to complain of. upprattat? 7 forsta tillfalle 7.

B. of the tor many prominent men that have lived there. going to the think I shall pass am 2 the evening over my books. I am not very fond of it either . 9. make somebody believe hon kan icke format. jag ga hb'll dit. '360. men Har Klara nyss ute pa vaatt ban skulle vara sade. cause fa nagon att tro. 3. i London. 8. litet. "Note the irregularities of liten. it 6. gen . amd. but I have forgotten 11 Stockholm. . he can't be made to there more compulsion implied in fd. the rolling and pitching of the ship always makes 13 me sick. ! We shall 15 14 soon be at the mouth of the Were you at the spring festival at Skansen yes- . 10. c "Also pa. traffat Karl? Han har Ja. jag traffade 10. blivit fardig honom med sin an? Nej. I I theater. han gick at staden niotiden. I am in 3 such a humor to-night 4 that I could not laugh at anything. def. Although across the ocean many times. hon var somnade over boken. 7. att Idgga vikt pa. 1. Is not holm.. Med rdtta.224 skall EXERCISE. e. 9 4 Note the S 363. Where is your home ? Do you intend to ream going home for 9 You have mentioned it. also till. att bon to is Fd and forma are often used in the sense of make. pi. 361. -a. 11. fragat efter dig. tillbaka vid 7 for ej sa liinge sedan ett hogst intressant fore- Har du till 9 . I suppose 8 5. Doktor White. rightly. seende) vid. Christmas. prepositional compound. I know that you 6 5 are tired of the theater . What shall 1 we do to-night? 2. and it Djursholm a suburb has become famous by reason 8. attach importance to. lay stress on. b. 2 361. a. How quickly we glide -I over the water Elbe. will you go with me? No. before. en av mina vanner 9. b. usual at eight o'clock. close by to 10 me I live in Djurs- of Stockholm? Yes. I . *Att fasta vikt (av: . 7 you know how I have often expressed myself concerning 4. neut. 8 drag over Skansen. stackars liten 10 . Kile. Vic- 12 Eydberg died there not so very long ago and all have traveled Sweden mourned his death. laxa J sa trott.. main here over Christmas? No. At what time does the play begin? It begins as it.

to treat. not kom heir. to mention ett lynne. (en) hovligJiet. -ar.VOCABULARY. 10 350. constitution (of body) -et. ceive ett dagsljus. c. e. politeness skona. b. attach ond. -n. to spare. ett hall. listened to 13. gled. to complain en . Ha. I and Ha. to consuit (a doctor) Skansen. I. 3 360. 5 357. 15 360. 8 c. is the Swedish equivalent for all "Present. en rullning. to forget . generalities klaga. suburb furv&nas (dep. glidit. vegetation in parks. en allmanhet. 20 them. 15. during the go there evening the weather got better and we went to Berns and No. I am 21 by the otudy only by daylight. and he told me to Yes. prominent fiista. . to glide uneasy. -er. I. -en. an open air in museum glomma. at Christmas. "What used in the sense of whole f 13 What order? also angaende. "Invid (nara invid). 1. to fasten. public. he may be frightened at the sight of horses. direction -er. gledo. 363. 4 361. mouth (of rivnozzle er. rolling rddfrdga (insep. Take the little one hand. to be astonished glida. placard. f. cannon) om'tala. -et. . to treat with care . sorry notice bemci'ta. aspect kroppskonstitution. design. worried en pj<is. ett anslag. fid jul. en anblick. v. v. squares. etc. evil. -sttider. Why? 7 2 357. i narheten av. 14. etc. . angry. terday ? 225 all stayed at are so sorry 10 that we could not 17 12. sight. I. Why not future with si-all f Use an adverb. disposition en mynning. play (theater) en plantering. daylight humor. "Se-f what? 20 363. of hither and thither are hit och dit: kom hit.).). Were you not out at all? Yes. -t. Den -\- what form of litenf VOCABULARY. We 18 the music. lib. sore en forstad. to re- ledsen. *Fastad fid. 9 358. g. Your eyes look 19 very sore. ont. orolig. a. ^357. e. haller ej vidare pa. 16 What preposition? In this "Here and there used in the sense case the preposition may also be left out. e. Have you conquite worried about sulted an eye doctor about them? Yes. -er. tola om'. -ar. on account of the bad weather we home in the afternoon. 2. a. framstdende (invariable). Stockholm hold. 'Future with shall.

wickedly. hdr. pass (of time) en ogonlakare. at att vara home. here. (3) Derivatives formed by means of a suffix: bara (from bar). ej. to express proud synnerligen. to be out. hopefully. to spend. -rar. there. 365. occasion to stanna. With respect to their origin adverbs may be divided into three groups: Primitive words and compounds of such as nu. I. . age till'bringa see (insep. hemma. elakt (from elak). v. darav. inte. importance en v&rfest. Ha. remain uttrycka. -a: The usual adverbial suffixes are: borta (bort). (2) The neuter singular of the indefinite form of adjectives: beskedligt (from beskedlig). Note the following idiomatic expressions: att vara borta. fast. icke. to be at home. to mourn en vikt. hemma (hem). hdrtill. spring festival vdrda. -er. (a) Derivative Suffixes. especially sorja.. fort. . Origin. only. to care for en alder.226 ADVERBS. nagorlunda. possibly. mojligen (from mojlig). hoppfullt (from hoppfull). blott. eye doctor LESSON XXXVI. to this. -er. ett tillfiille. nej. . no. clearly. lib. bringa). 364. (1) now. dar. not. stolt. klart (from klar). weight. opportunity. yes. pitching (of ships) -n. modestly. jo. only. tolerably. hereto. en stampning. of or from that. ja. away. Adverbs.

Note the following idiomatic expressions: i morgon aro vi framme. : (e) -ledes: sdledes. svdrligen. alldeles ypperligt. or A : . he is taking a walk. at hand. . troligtvis. piecemeal delvis. to-day I was up early at hand ? han or ute och gar. partly. there. uppe. -es (originally a genitive. (c) -e (in Idnge. mojligtvis. up. fortu- nately. daily. note all. 366. out. any- where. 2) : alls in or icke alls. har du boken framme t Do you have the book / dag var jag uppe tidigt. not at ndgonstans. alls icke and 366. aker.ADVERBS. or that ddrtill. by hundreds. tidtals. (h) -s. disposition) annorlunda. mojligen. greatly. to this. possibly. at times. (b) -deles: alldeles. some adverbs of time and place) framme. quite right. ride. etc. : lyckligtvis. by no means nagorlunda. thus. bitterly. manner. I can't aay I like Note the following idiomatic expressions: alldeles mar am him riktigt. . (f) -Ugen: bitterligen. probably. ute. sdrdeles. generally in b. or ddr. troligen. in. storligen. hoptals. inne. Compound adverbs are usually composed of very common form of prepositions and adverbs. styckvis. probably. recently. framdeles. here. likewise. . tjogtals. in great numbers. in front. we shall see later. at the des: tination. toler- ably. . nyligen. (i) -vis (ws=English wise) possibly. later on. long. hardly. e. see 365. com- pound adverbs. . in this. etc. to-morrow shall be at our destination. (g) -lunda (an old genitive of the Old Swedish lund. vi fa se framdeles. I honom. jag tycker ej sa sdrdeles om very well . entirely. -fa preposition hdri. jag feeling very well . in any oth: er way ingalunda. adverb compound is hdr. 227 quite. especially. by the score hundratals. we . dvenledes. (d) -en (from adjectives in -lig) dagligen.

(or results) that. liggdags (pronounced daks). all For (for ing en) del: kom for all del.) Another form of adverb compound home ddrinne. Ens to his (in questions till and after negatives) : han har icke ens skrivit sin mor. . utomhus. just kom till mig. you come too late. in there.. . the difference consists ddrav foljer. half-way. etc. Alltfor. by all means. sure he has deceived you. . bara ett ogonblick. darborta. Position and comparison of adverbs have already been discussed. inside. your. Carl could cer- tainly be I am bedragit dig. if you need any- come to me. innan jag reser. come by all means before I leave. outdoors. da. 1. . . his.rhem. gor det for all del icke.ma. . of place to form over extremely common compounds: daruppe. the The functions of the adverb are same as in English. he hasn't even written mother. hdri bestdr skillnaden. Hdr and dfir are also prefixed to many adverbs there. Bar a: om jag bar a hade tid! If I only had time! Kom du hit bara! Just come here (threat) om ni strict . halvvags. more han har allt du kommer for sent. practically 369. etc. in this NOTB there 2. . 368. . somewhere. . jag vill for . bedtime (also hur dagsf at what time?). etc. apart. at (my. sa bara thing. . he is much too diligent. sometimes met with consists of a of noun generally in the genitive case preceded by some other part speech (see also 365): avsides. that. . The following examples illustrate the idiomatic uses of certain adverbs and adverbial expressions Allt: : Karl kunde allt vara flitigare. just a moment. att from this it follows . up upstairs. don't do it. behover nagot. ndgonstades.228 ADVERBS. 367. for: han dr alltfor strdng.

he det . once upon a time there was a king han skriver inte en gang till mig. not at all. would by no means wound his feelings. I think you ought to have obeyed your father jag ville nog gdrna ga med. Ju: du gor det ju? You are sure to do it? Han dr ju min far. not in the least. and I was most frequently alldeles icke. I should indeed like to go along. . inte det allra minsta. you know det kunde jag ju gora. 229 I ing en del sdra hans kdnslor. I believe. my brother was not tired. inte det ringaste. I should gladly do it jag ville gdrna ha litet mera kott. kan nog vara sant. inte en smul. but I do not have time. skulle . inte (icke) alls. han kommer en och annan gang. I am fond of fish. Note such em: phatic expressions as by no means. alls (icke) inte. ej: of the negative adverbs inte is used in conversation. men Nog: han kommer nog. . En gang: han har varit hdr en gang. Inte. . Gdrna: jag dter gdrna fisk. he does not even write to me. . Heller: min bror var icke trott. jag har inte tid. he is my father. inte ett grand. tror jag. of gdrna} vila sig. will very likely come. he comes now and then.ADVERBb. he has been here' once. jag gdrna gora det. I suppose I could do that. not tired either. neither was I. not a bit . icke heller jag. det levde en gang en konung. I should like a little more meat han vill nog hellre (comp. it may possibly be true nog borde du ha lytt din far. icke. och icke jag heller. . I think he would prefer to rest.

ej dum. 7. that is no doubt true lat dr han vdl. att ni maste betala. Det hande en gang.230 i EXERCISE." icke lange. svarade skomakaren. has a ring of concern and sincerity which vdl lacks. 8 blev allt varre och varre och dog slutligen. atager jag mig icke er hustrus behandling. I suppose you are tired dr vdl sant. mig en kopp till. och ni forstar ju. 4. som bodde mitt ofver i men han emot (tvars ett stort. XXXVI. gatan) visste ocksa. but not stupid. 1. att denne skulle begara ganska mycket for sin behandling. det . Lakaren atog sig den sjuka fruns behandling." jag botar henne eller icke. "men jag vad jag bar. Skomakaren betankte sig mycket pengar hade han val inte. vad ni begar. he is lazy. Han kande nog en framstaende lakare. antingen mycket". Hennes man hade garna kallat en allvarligt sjuk. Han "Har ni da 6 nagot att betala ej sa mig med?" fragade lakaren. men denna 12. 5. "Kom bara". men nog is more *Val has almost the same meaning as nOg . kunde betala en sadan och befaim sig alltsa i stor nod. men han alls han hade varmed skicklig lakare. "Tyvarr ger er garna allt 8. om ni bara botar min hustni. att en skomakares hustru blev 1 2. Strax darpa 9 begarde lakaren sitt honorar av skoma- . men det gallde ju hans sjuka hustru darhemma. och nagon utvag funnes 7 nog. sa 9. hum manga till? How many Till: giv more? : ni dr vdl trott. dr ni snail. give me another cup. 6. 2 3. vackert hus. please." 11. "och jag betalar. Veil 1 . both denote supposition subjective. ingenting. 10. "Under femtio kronor. . overlade saken lange for 3 sig sjalv och kom slutligen pa foljande tanke. antingen ni botar henne eller bringar henne om livet. EXERCISE A. sade han. Han gick namligen 4 till lakaren och bad honom att besoka bans 5 hustni. to oe sure.

C. *Ex. 9. om livet". The doc- who lives right across the street is skillful. 3. "Ni bragte henne val ej fortsatte skomakaren. of course . Vad ville den- ne forst veta." turligtvis daremot. XXXII. hans hustru? 1. da kan jag alls icke inse. I heard that the doctor. Note 12. Vad lovade sko- makaren 11. 5. hence hans and not sin. "Olyck14. do you not 6 from him. etc. C. but al- 7. 13. pa vilka jag lovade att betala er. Conversation. 3 . Would have liked to. Var denna lakare barmhartig? 8. tor if I had only had money. Neither have I. . Fanns det nagon skicklig lakare i narheten ? Varfor tvekade skomakareu att hamta honom? 5. s : : B. I have sent the shoemaker a bill for his treatment. and her illness will 2 2. karen. etc. but he chargIf he had been sick instead of his wife. soon after together too poor. get your You know. 231 ligtvis icke". 16. 2. not seen her since she became better. 8 350. be. 'Translate and there would probably 8 Note allt plus repeated comparative. He is honest. note 1. Lakaren protesters de na- 15. innan han atog sig den sjuka fruns behandling? 7.EXERCISE. he would probably 4 not have hesi- tated at all to summon is 6. When the 5 concerned. I should have liked last to send for a probably long. 9 366. 4 May be omitted. es at least ten crowns a visit I suppose 4 . skomakaren eller Varfor hamtade ban icke en lakare med detsamma. can . Vil- ken bb'n riktade skomakaren till lakaren ? 6. Dessa voro ju de tva villkor. health of my fee wife the expensive doctor. 7 8. h. She has 1 prominent physician. att jag ar skyldig er nagot. att betala? 10. Translate But do you have. svarade lakaren. Vem insjuknade. 1. 3. be too great. llonom referring to lakare is the subject of the infinitive. 4. "Botade ni min hustru" fragade denne. "Ja. no expense. Pa vilka villkor skulle han betala detta honorar? Var Lyckades lakaren att bota den sjuka? skomakaren enligt sin asikt skyldig lakaren nagot? fallen seriously ill. that you will never to be sure 6 .

Forsell.). the cause? Too much indoor 12 above. following ett honorar'. : . to betdnka sig (refl. He is out riding 8 with Dr. XXXIII. treatment in'se (insep. I think 'Not future with Why? 2 A. to continue clyckligtvis. feeling 12. to demand. . 2. better . v. Use the definite Attention has been called before to this distributive postpositive article. ^Translate by nog. the trip thither. indoors en behandling. 2.). Ha. -ar. In expressions of time i and om are used han fortjilnar fyrtio A. 11. see fin- be situated. direct . until are you now 10 ? I am the doctor has visited me daily. realize (refl. -t. arbete inomhus. feel reflect bota. see sat- dagligen ndmligen (adv. to see. when so used they follow the noun resan dit. work. should like 6 to see Mr. merciful befinna sig no. VOCABULARY. charitable. is he at home? No. I is VOCABULARY. just wait and I shall look for them. I. I have them somewhere. 3. en Jialsa. c. you no doubt 6 find them later on..).000 kronor . 10. to cure leta. namely.). indoor work nb'jen vtomhtis. to protest rikta. framme hand (adv. to be. Note 5. Do you happen to have those books at hand 8 ? No. om aret. kroner i veckan. in front. outdoor amusements 10 dish . often per is used.). Note. to search for (adv. v. '-Certain adverbs may be used to modify nouns in Swedish. Translate by an adverb. daily fort'sdtta (insep. b. There are three common ways of asking for the health of a person in Swewhich are they ? ^Tills nu..000 crowns a year en gang i manaden. v. see se). etc. to aim. fee barmhdr'tig. ho out for the moment. What was skall. that is to say unfortunately ta). "Invert. which follows the simple verb or the auxiliary.). I. tills for narvarande. by chance begdra. at proteste'ra. ''Hans or sinf 8 365. 13 . above. . : makes forty crowns a week. lib.). instead of I. Please don't take the trouble just now. 'Translate by ju which follows verb 6 invert.232 9. health hdndelsevis (adv. use of the definite article after expressions of price . will. prominent foljande. v. he . S A. 1. 9 349.. Edgren.). seriously framstdende. I. How now 11 somewhat 13. i stdllet for. charge inomhus (adv. allvarligt (adv. once a month.

expedient to last. for ogonblicket.. prep).). eller. en sjukdom. nor. en utvag. (2) the subordinating conjunctions. of these are : .CONJUNCTIONS. later on. to under- dtininstone. . or 16 Swedish Grammar . 1. . v. which are used to connect clauses. some other part of the COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS.. I. The most important anting en . either . LESSON XXXVII. tvars (adv. or . bade and och. endure -er. across moment en utgift. to kill. upon an idea.. at last. Har du to hdndelsevis sett min ftofcf Do you happen have seen my book? 4. langre fram (framdeles). tions: join a dependent clause to sentence. There are two general classes of conjunc(1) the coordinating conjunctions. o'verldgga (insep. phrases. (a) General connectives. Conjunctions. 5. see lagga). and words of equal rank. 233 (refl. 371. . neither . finally tveka. 3. into The coordinating conjunctions are divided two groups: (a) general connectives and (b) adverbial conjunctions. . which 370. I. . to deprive of to hit life. expense -ar. . komma p& en tanke. eller.. both ej heller. for the moment. to deliberate IDIOMS: att bringa att om livet. vara. sickness slutligen. 2. -ar. at least ett ogonblick. to hesitate d'taga sig take v. I.

. but (adversative) varken eller. 373. eller vdgar han ingenting saga. which require the . etc.eller. . but I stayed antingen vet han ingenting. he does not come. and samt. ty... inverted order (predicate before subject) when they connect clauses: han reste genast. . . . -or he dares not say any.eller and ej heller. . men jag stannade. ej heller jag.utan dven(ocksd). utan tifven may take either word order. Those of the general connectives which connect clauses require the normal order (subject before predicate) with the exception of antingen. (aven rarely stands at the beginning). . he not only gave me good advice but he also lent me money . utan han lanade mig aven penningar. . NOTE. REMARKS ON THE GENERAL CONNECTIVES. varken. . inverted order when used with antingen and varken but not as a rule when used alone. The normal is in which case icke blott and aven are placed within the sentence . but och. The following peculiarities in usage should be noted : (1) ej heller translates nor when it it not correlative: hem kommer icke. and sdval. . they stand at the beginning the inverted order must be used: han icke blott gav miff yoda rad. neither . utan liven lanade han. . . either he knows nothing..but also men. if more common. he left immediately. nor 372. In dependent clauses the Mormal order is used with antingen. . . not only. nor do (2) I.som.234 icke blott.eller: jag vet inte antingen han kommer eller ej. icke blott gav han mig goda rad. . CONJUNCTIONS.. . . Icke blott. as well as for utan. thing. eller requires the .

still ock. but a pretext. also. so sdledes. now. . still ddrfor. dels. also sd. partly alltsd. 375. (3) samt does not connect clauses in conversational language.. yet. . therefore emellertld. also ocksd. thus an. but are used as conjunctions to connect coordinate clauses. (5) utan is used only after a negative and introduces a contrast which excludes or contradicts what goes before detta dr icke ett skdl. : 374. otherwise dels . (b) Adverbial conjunctions. .an. still dven. yet. The most important of these are the following : consequently annars. sdledes bo'r han vara .. thus sdlunda.now dndock. A large number of conjunctions are adverbs in form. The adverbial conjunctions require the inverted order: klockan dr dtta. . .CONJUNCTIONS. yet. partly dock. yet. still icke desto mindre. . 235 and is not used (4) for often takes the place of ty in conversation. even REMARKS ON THE ADVERBIAL CONJUNCTIONS. this is not a reason. nevertheless likvdl. .. utan en forevdndning. .

and dven. the equivalents of also are ock. : Quite alternately. consequently he to be here soon. 1.) the attack was fuThe adverbial conjuncrious. while aven precedes: man har ej hort av honom pa manga ar. . . ) an grdt hon. dock (likval. likval. emellertid. he has not been heard of for many years. .an is equivalent to the English now. An. . although he was there I had no opportunity to speak to him. Ocksa is more common than ock. en i XXXVII. Det matsalen Jigger ett paket smutsiga starksaker antingeller i salongen. now . yet it was repulsed. or at times.at times (or alternately.) blev det tillbakaslaget (or det blev dock. har snart. when used as mere adverbs ock and ocksa like English too often follow the word they modify. tions must be placed after the subject and the predicate when a dependent clause precedes: ehuru han var ddr. common in the same sense is EXERCISE A. etc. 376. Var snail och tag dem . etc. . an skrattade hon.. . fick jag dock ej tillfdlle att tola vid honom. and dndock are often placed after the subject and the predicate: angreppet var hdftigt. I. (1) ought Do not confuse Note the following peculiarities in usage the Swedish alltsa with the : English also.. . it is eight o'clock. consequently he is probably dead. alltsa dr han troligen dod. (2) Dock. . too. omsom . she laughed and cried (3) . have been in Paris. o'msom.. . jag ocksa har varit i Paris. ocksa.236 EXERCISE.

4. 10. da hinner jag icke blott att ga till barberaren. Karl. B. Ehuru det ar skall jag ocksa bestalla en ny kostym hos er. ehuru den icke ser fin ut. 7. salunda tet. Jag onskar att bli bade klippt och rakad. 2. Har sir en f risersalong . far ni vara snail och skynda 8. 9. Vad fattas er rock? Vad . ty jag har brattom. eller kom5. the former refers to form. har den mycgatt upp 7 ket att laga pa den. Conversation. sommarna har och dar. 2 Note use of later. 11. Huni ha era kragar och skjortor?' 4. Bra often has reference to the essential excellence. Sag at dem. higher degree excellence. to the outward: skriva val and skriva bra are not the same. Emedan ni lagat rocken sa val 1 . Vad later herr Sjo8. att antingen kommer han mer han icke forran i morgon. Jag later icke hamta tvat- ten sjalv. 375. tvatten vara fardig? 7. '373. sa skall jag emellertid forsoka att fa den fardig till i kvall. etc. 5. att Karl skall bara det? 3.EXERCISE. of must. 3. alltsa Vad felas den har dels 6 rocken? ett par knappar. arbeta bra. Bra colloquially may have the sense of very (much): 5 Fd lov. 4 372. Var ligger paketet med starksa- kerna? ru vill Vart vill ni. Klockan fem? Det ar bara halv tva nu. som ej ser fin ut? vill ni ha gjort dar? 10. 4 pa slaget fem. amnar ni gora under tiden ? Var- for gar ni in i en f risersalong. Var dar- for sa god och tag matt pa (of) mig. Vad stedt halsa ? Yarfb'r? 6. 1. 2. Herr Sjostedt bad mig halsa och saga. the latter to contents. far jag likval lov 5 att ga in. Jag anvander endast de basta varor och sysselsatter endast de skickligaste arbetare. 2. att bade 1 kragar och skjortor maste vara vita och val strukna. jag har bratt. 1 kan jag garantera bade tyget och snit- Bra and val would here be interchangeable. utan 3 de maste skicka hem den fore klockan sex pa onsdag kvall. val denoting a. utan ocksa att utratta ett par arenden. Nar maste 5. 6. '376. 9. ty 2 de aro mycket vardslosa. val. till 237 strykinrattningen. Dels 6 saknas i men er. bra mycket.

1. It is either on the little table in the dining room or in the hall. en arbetare. hence you must hurry. b. 12.238 C. 10 three quarters 9 of an hour to spare . Idioni wise. 5. You must not wait for 4 me to call for it 12 this time. to lack. before fore ehuru. consequently I can't write to him. yet I shall go to the barber shop. hunnit. therefore I came in A to ask you. . Tiemn. Carl is not satisfied with their work either 3 4. etc. 13. I shall come down myself. Although he will be here in an hour. 3 2 1 adverb after the subject. VOCABULARY 1 boy is here from the laundry and asks for your washing. -et. "376. en f riser' salong. Use a prepositional phrase. 369. anvdnde). bara. (prep. (Translate by clause. nevertheless + VOCABULARY. 8. barber shop . Tre kvarts timme. heller. Just 2 wait a little. before forrdn' (conj. intr. most worn 11 he sent out. I have only . they can neither wash nor iron. f. ter Both the washing and the ironing must be betnext5 time. nevertheless he sent it to the tailor to be mended. I. but we can't find it. -ei. to go up. to fetch hinna. I need not only a hair cut8 . 2. 3. What two words translate timef 6 When or equals other8 ''Precis klockan fern or pa slaget fern. workingman an'vanda. (common- tain. 1. but also a shave 8 11. 2. to ail I. .. to order . it is translated by annars. 4 'A'a'sia.). 9. note definite form of adjective. garante'ra. bestal'to. to use barber en barberare. 2. although felas (dep. lib (impf. -en. 357. "See 342. It is a very poor laundry. lib.).). My friend writes that he will either come 7 at five o'clock sharp or not at all. The coat was almost worn out. to guarantee g& upp' (sep. at.). 10. get (to) ly. to have time. Although the coat was al- it. rise open (sun) hamta. I don't know his address . rakstuga) . hunno. I. place negative 349. but send it home on Friday without fail. Neither the collars nor the cuffs were well ironed 6.) noun is indefinite. last time. 7. 369. or 6 I shall send my washing to another laundry. 9 IO 3.

laundry rub en strykinrattning. vestibule.. cuff measure ned (adv. stryka. -er. -ar. en kostym'. nojt. dirty. to mend. oaktat. ironing starksaker (pi. Laga. -ar. although. 4. : 377. -et.). fast. satisfied en onsdag. -en. -er. -n. so'mmar. 239 stro'k. hall auditorium (in a theater) ett tyg. 6. ej att go'ra det. som. (b) even. laundry (en)strykning. SUBORDINATING CONJUNTIONS. en tambur'. aven om. to oc- cupy. Concessive: ehuru. -er. careless cut ett iirende.. the coat has ripped in the seam. (a) Comparative: ju. Jag hinner to do it. to employ en som. the door has opened. soiled .). -t. though. -ar. II. to miss en salong'. article. om ock. (linen) Wednesday parcel sysselsatta (see satta) .desto (dess). collar laga. . as. as sasom. 1 wish to have a hair cut. to occasion en manschett'. the . a shave. fastdn.. 5. such as . -er. drawing room. I shall 2. Jag o'nskar att bli klippt.. the. erase. worn out en skjorta. than. . -or. to iron. stru- kit. costume en Jcrage. ett matt. cloth utsliten. even if. rakad. Darren har gdtt upp. down nojd. merchandise ett paket'. ett snitt. smutsig. v&rdslos. LESSON XXXVIII. he reached there in time. Rocken har gdtt upp i sommen. suit. I. -et. seam sakna. The most important of these are .CONJUNCTIONS.. 3. om an. I. -er. att ni ar har da. -er. Han hann dit i tid. an. shirt vara. see to it that you are here then. errand not have time IDIOMS: 1. Conjunctions (Continued). stro'ko. -t.. -or.

sa hade han varit vdlbdrgad nu. (c) Causal da. innan. often In a subordinate clause the auxiliary hava very often omitted: om han inte slosat bort sina pengar. 378. whether. . sa var luften ratt sval. while. sa snart. efter. when. since. so that. : (e) Consecutive (result) sa att. The general subordinating att. as emedan. (f) Final: for att. om. as darfor att. . so that. sa. . its verb precedes the subject and introduced by sd. as soon as . if he had 379. . so: ehuru solen tycktes skina ganska varmt i dag pa formiddagen. medan. att. 'sa ofta. han sade. is If the independent clause follows. REMARKS ON THE SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS. forrdn. that. indefinite temporal adverbs and certain adverbs expressing supposition. before. (d) Conditional: bara. . although the sun seemed to shine quite warm. eftersom. we shall have to begin to eat without him. After a subordinating conjunction many adverbs (negative adverbs.240 : CONJUNCTIONS. det dr osd- om vi ndgonsin fa se honom. sa att. etc. after. because. so. . he said that he possibly might be able to lend me a couple of hunkert.) which in an independent clause follow the simple predicate or auxiliary must be placed before the predicate: eftersom han icke kommer. ndr. until. in case. att han mojligen skulle kunna lana mig ett par hundra. if. as often as (h) . . . since som. because entir. if. pa det att.that. NOTE. the air wag quite cool. in order that. . is . sedan. that. . sa fa vi borja dta utan honom. it is doubtful. if all. we dred. (g) Temporal: da. tills. in order that. if ever shall see him. when. if only. since he does not come.att.

Bara=om bara (often om. it. Som may have both a comparative and a causvalue (eftersom is more common in the sense of han gjorde precis som jag. The following will serve to illustrate the uses of the subordinating conjunctions: (1) Ju requires the normal order of words. but both may. om an are often separated if they stand at the beginning of a clause. have a causal value (da is more common in the sense of as) when as . (3) Om ock.CONJUNCTIONS. as the weather was . om . sa skola vi ga. even if he were here. as rich as you (sdsom is less (2) al : . if only it does not rain. interrogative (5) nar. m (4) Da and ndr are temporal conjunctions. like ivhen in English. . if only: det bara inte regnar. (6) . the easier desto Idttare gar det. as it now rains it has not rained before this year) som vddret var tryckande. 380. we shall go. ock and an being placed immediately after the subject: om han an vore har. har det icke regnat forr i ar. he did exactly since) as I lika rik som du.bara). common. we could not do anything. he would have been in easy circumstances now. holl jag mig inne. its correlative desto (dess) the inverted order: ju forr du do go'r det. the sooner you it will be (go). 241 not squandered his money. it is more emphatic than som: sdsom det nu regnar. I stayed indoors. oppressive. Emedan and endr are used less in the spoken than in the written language. sd kunde inte gora ndgot.

I don't believe I am able. sa att han icke kunde arbeta.242 EXERCISE. as often as.jag gldder mig over vad som har hdnt. I suppose he will soon be here. 2. as if. EXERCISE XXXVIII. I Om do not know whether I shall stay or not. En viss person erholl ej en gang ett tungt brev f ran en Enar brevet var frankerat. Prepositions may also govern other clauses jag tanker pa hur jag skall fa bud till min bror. sd snart som heist. (9) Sa ofta. van. om jag skall stanna eller ffd. he has convinced me that his intentions are sincere . as soon as. For att with the infinitive is used when the subject in the purpose clause would be the same : . he injured himself so that he could not work. is also equivalent to whether in an indi(7) rect question: jag vet ej. and sa snart (sa fort). as though det ser ut. kom miff till hjdlp. Som om. is (10) Att substantive almost identical in that. I am thinking of how I shall get a message to my brother . A. its usage with the Like its conjunction English it is often omitted: equivalent jag formodar han kommer snart. may take som but generally do not: sd snart han kommer. som heist. as soon as he comes send him here. : as in the principal one. it looks as though it would rain. only by your coming : to my assistance I was saved. Observe : sd ofta . Subordinate noun clauses introduced by att may be immediately preceded by a preposition: han har ofveitygat mig om att han menar vpprikendast genom att du tigt. blev jag rdddad. som om det skulle regna. maste han betala ganska . (8) Pa det att is less common than the other final conjunctions sa att always denotes result when used with the indicative han skadade sig. sand honom hit. whenever you please. as often as you please . I rejoice over what has happened. jag tror icke jag kan. as soon as you please ndr som heist. NOTE 1.

. trodde. .).)." och avsande samma dag 1 ett stort : Mottaga- vannen. Conversation. .. inclosed. lade utan att knota den hoga losen i hoppet. att avsandaren ej 8. etc. decided. honom att ett spratt. foil narslutna 2 sten fran mitt hjarta. . mycket mer som. etc. etc. .. etc.).. Vad hade avsandaren bifogat? att tro. avenledes utan att frankera det. att paketet inneholl nagot vardefullt. darfor . (he paid. Emedan han sag. Da han oppnade viss person var brevet. nagot varde6.EXERCISE. . (he paid. fann han "Jag mar alldeles fortraffligt. Han onskade 6. (he received. Varf or betalade vannen den hoga losen utan att knota ? 5. att pa resa. 3. . etc. (lie sent. att paketet inneholl som kom honom C. . nar han oppnade brevet? Vad gjorde han hamnas pa vannen ? 4. Vad var det i all synnerhet.. . 2. 4. Brevet var ej frankerat. alltsa 1 . . . att en 7. 5.. Ehuru han van(it was not light). ." Note use of indefinite form with samma. nar ett brev ar ofullstandigt eller icke frankerat? Vad fann personen for att i fraga.). . 1. 243 ingenting mycket i losen. Vad maste man alls betala. so innelyckta. van hade sant det tunga brevet. Complete the following according to the anecdote above and the indications given. Narslutna and the noun indefinite. (must pay. B. annat an orden ren skrattade Da ban oppnade det. Eftersom han (lie insag. var en av bans vanner. be especially careful to 1. etc). Hur kande han sig vid upptackten av paketets fullt? innehall? 7. Han .). att han skulle bli rikligt ersatt paket till Adressaten beta- som genom paketets innehall. Till sin overraskning fann han dock intet annat dari an en stor sten orden: med 1 "Vid underrattelsen 2 att du madde is definite bra. 2. lat spela Nar en . . hamnas pa 1 sin van. Ehuru han . sa 9. . andock . bans van ve. sag. (he found.). sa mycket mer dess tyngd lat ana nagot vardefullt. get the word order correct. etc.

astonished). the better. mindre 3 .. *372. for I shall leave the city on Saturday. (he did not 'be- come. . a The finer and more durable the a little 6 cloth more. kusiner komma icke att besoka oss i bb'rjan pa juli . He does not believe what you say. honom. Ju (he played) en van ett 4 tyngre det ar. 13. As 10. Since you cannot do it. 13.. You must hurry the coat that you can send it home on 7 Friday. 14. go . .. . even if it should cost the suit now is. I have sent for you because my friends have rec- As soon ommended you to cloth that I like 4 . is and the colder the weather. Den fattige her om brb'd.. . He went out of the house without saying 14 a word. He did his work so well that all were pleased 9 with it. Yara fortare. ty 5 . As is.. 9.. . 11 we cannot 12. nor 13 shall we.244 tat EXERCISE. to 378. Han .. The had as it out. . besides it does not fit me very well in the back.. 379. 7... (but) i slutet av till September i stallet. seatboys long rains. 15. If you have samples of suit. enar 376. nagot annat. lare . me. you must let me try.. 8. desto 14. 12. WS. An 1 an en annan. please 2 send him up 3 2. 1. 17. Ju fb'rr . spratt. I me so often. desto vardeful. Have }ou . We have not gone away. as 1 the tailor comes. 15. att (one believes the contents to be). 5 may order 3. Since you and change it so 8 went away yesterday. . 6. Jag tordes ej (I had never seen him 16. 4 conies). icke desto 10. 4. (but ) you is will have to change it. 7. 11. (he (he knew nothing). D. the more the poor 16. (we shall be ready). he has done nothing but play 10 11. it does not please me. . 5. Don't you see that altogether too tight under the arms.. nor I either 13 . 2.. note. mannen sade. vanda mig before). (he is hungry).. ed themselves at the table in order to 12 study. The dearer the food suffer.

-t. fit to (insep. -et. b. surprised o'verraskning. . 10.VOCABULAKY. ett fortro'ende. -er. -et. take the place of ett spratt. (Pi. suttit.) "Use present of verb with kanhdnda. 12 380.). likewise o'verrasfcad. to grumble lidit. : VOCABULARY. 'Either pa or om. 8. ) av' siinda. . fin. Give at least three equivalents for the English *Tycka om can be used in the sense of like about both animate and inanimate objects alska. 18 369. -t. lida. heller. satisfied riklig. to indicate. "349. fection for. to take en underrattelse. sample. passa. ledo. toras.) 'Either of the three equivalents for the future Which are they ? 9Nojda or belatna. tion varaTctig. ett prov. I. . "Swedish uses the supine will do here. sitta. 15 thought of how we can help him? dence in 15 what he does. "In analogy with as soon as. to no one 2. 380. -ar. -ar. -t. fattig. abundant sutto. . ana. surprise ingenting annat an. perhaps. (insep. trick -t. test dispatch beldten. leka. omf (See 342 and note 1. 1 245 18. note 2. instead of the infinitive. ingen annan an. 380. content (s) knota. to suit. to dare Jiamnas (dep. I. 2 please. heavy -r. -n. -t. . narrow. ete. to play led. to compen- sit. to suffer en mottagare. to have a presentiment narsluten. 1. recipient dndra. to send. att hamnas pd ndgon. fatherland. inclosed fit arm. att ana. vardefull. What form does pa require? What. er'hdlla er'satta sate. -t. I. generally only about animate obhdlla av. 15 380. "Use infinitive. but. -at. poor trdng. IDIOMS: 1. lata revenge oneself upon somebody. to cherish afjects (also about objects like home.). and 373. torts. 9.). informa- revenge ett innehdll. -en. to change dvenledes. "373. -t. 3. to receive satt. tight fine tvng. to love. I have no confi- Far god och. 9. -et. 5. confidence tordes. arm sanda av'. nothing but. durable valuable Ha. I. only about animate objects.

horror. and the be classed as interjections. The most common interjections are: ack! alas! oh! ah! aha! ah! aj! ouch! fy! shame! whew! 7m/ ha! halld! hello! hysch! hush! klatsch! crack! kras! smash! kratsch! crash! o/oh!0! ojl ouch! paff! pang! hejl hey! hejsan! heigh-ho! bang! hm! hm! hurra! hurrah! hu! whew! NOTE jections. Se upp halt good look out! Vdlan' ! ! halt ! hjdlp ! help ! Se dtir ! very well! to Aj the usual interjection express pain. by the addition of da and visst: Ja may sometimes be rendered I har jag inte sagt dig detf Well. no. Ja and jo are often strengthened . fy. Yes. ! A number ffott I ! of other words and ! such as is look! 2. yes. puh. why. certainly. yes jo da. jo visst. by well: ja. reprimand interjections are often followed by da: usch da t fy da! Usch expresses disgust and disgust. The affirmatives ja and negative nej. ja visst. may (1) Kommer han he come soon? snart? Ja. gb'r han. . 381. haven't told you so.LESSON XXXIX. jo. hu. he will. 1. plask! splash! ptro! whoa! puh! usch! whew! ve! woe! expressions are also used as interhell ! hail etc. Interjections. oppression and discomfort. Will (2)Du har I I val icke tid nu? Jo. det don't suppose you have time have. These . (3) now? har jag visst. certainly Shall Ska ! vi fara (doubt) ? Jo visst! we go? Certainly NOTE. det Yes. Jo is used in answer to a negative question or in answer to a question or statement implying doubt: 382. yes.

384. etc. se ddr! Why. menace. anger. nej. as joy. an interjection extensively used in Swedish. vad sdger du? You don't say! Nej. cerIt has other tainly not. no indeed. oh! is that so? ivell. visst inte or inte alls: Nej da. Nej is often strengthened by da. 247 383. It may be rendered by so. just look! Nej. sa vackert! How beautiful ! . Jasd. idiomatic uses: Nej. inte alls. you don't say! etc.INTERJECTIONS. is made to express almost any emotion. nej visst inte. sorrow. not at all.

at (in) or to school. gold is man is not as useful as iron. With many names of rivers. In a distributive sense where English uses the indefinite In temporal expressions the noun is preceded by a preposition. guldet dr ej sd nyttigt som jdrnet. in the spring. (e) With names of streets: Linnegatan. the crown of creation. in court. on summer is ended. mountains: Ofre sjon. gen. the Baltic. useful. The article is NOTE. (c) article in expressions like om mdndag. hundra Jcronor i veckan. Linng Street. the Rocky Mountains. Lake Superior. nouns of material and class: leve friheten. ratten. long live freedom. two crowns a meter. lakes. omitted when the noun is not used in an absolutely general way: han har guld. tvd gdnger om dret. infor article. om vdren. he has gold (partitive). . of the Articles. twice a year. With names of places of public and official resort: i i kyrkan. Cb) With names of seasons and days of the. mdnniskan dr sJcapelsens krona. The following summary may be THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. pd mdnda- Monday. OdenOden Street. The definite postpositive article is used: (a) With abstract nouns. generally i or om: tvd Jcronor metern. oceans. of the articles Some of the most important uses have been given already.APPENDIX. The Use 1. (d) gatan. Osiers jon. (f) skolan. (g) Instead of possessive adjective. a hundred crowns a week. Note omission of next Monday. in or to church. Klippiga Bergen. see 178. week: sommaren dr slut.

money is the samme. or connected by som. tht remarks on the prepositive article. It may be omitted in a few instances (cf. is e>< omitted : . han dr soldat. 3. he is a brave s. doctor. in a hurry. etc. station in life. me& grdtande stamma. in a tearful voice. jag har fdtt svar. som same boy that we saw yesterday. such a. etc. (b) Often in phrases: i hast. he is a royal councilor. -et. Note such forms as nagra fd. what a. same: samme gosse. 249 (h) With titles used alone in address: vill doktorn vara sd god och komma? Please come. 4. in the former case also before a noun denoting nationality. he is a soldier. But we must say: han ar en tapper soldat. many a. tandvdrk. m sago i gat. 17 . Cb) After Do you have money? But till mycket ont. vilken man han dr! What a man he is! (c) en sddan. rank character. in haste. a. used alone. . vilken. med darrande hand. with a trembling hand. jag har huvudvdrk. any) or as & simple predicate: har ni pengarf penningen (general) dr upphovet the cause of much evil. On the other hand the indefinite article is more frequently omitted: (a) Before an unmodified noun denoting vocation.. The definite postpositive article is omitted: (a) With nouns used as partitives (some. I have a headache. han talade som soldat och ej som statsman. he spoke as a soldier and not as a statesman. The prepositive article is as a rule used in connection with the postpositive article when the noun is preceded by an adjective.APPENDIX. mdngen. If the noun and modifier form a set phrase the indefinite article han ar han ar svensk sprdklarare. -et.) 2. 126. kungligt rad. 2). a few. oldier. I have received an answer. ett sddant. ft thus appears that the definite article is used more widely than in English. rector? (See 142. toothache. Sivedish Grammar. he is a teacher of Swedish han svensk sprdkldrare would mean he is a Swedish teacher of langiiages NOTE. THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE. har kyrkoherden trdffat honomf Have you met him.

are given. the beautiful. Note* on Inflection of Nouns. staver. moss. the iron. stader. -eum. ledamoter. jdrnet. man (manner) man moder.=sing. the beautiful det sko'na. hand ledamot. and all words not real substantives but used as such: det mdktiga Amerika. fire-brand en en broder. -an 2 . ! . derived from (c) 1 1 falla. fotter. Other\vise common gender. mother mus. countries. spanger. tiinger. 6. soner. rotter. (b) Verbal abstracts of the same form as the verb after dropping the infinitive ending -a. Neuter are: (a) Almost all names of continents. daughter en fader. (pi. the calling. fader. places. with or without change of vowel: fallet. . border rot. . gdss. VOWEL MODIFICATION IN THE PLURAL. Under. Originally masculine or feminine names of inanimate objects or abstracts are now classed as common gender (Swedish realgenus or den-genus).) 2 -um.350 APPENDIX. sttinger. -n). boter. louse and. city stav.=sing) -turn. Only the rules for determining the neuter gender In regard to masculine and feminine nouns it will suffice to say that sex names follow the sex male names being masculine. dottrar. det vackra Stockholm. member en en ZMS. stad. Rules of Gender. feminine. fine brand. skriket. -skap (plur. hdnder. (pi. father en fot. broder. eri. Nouns ending in ande ende at dome 1 1 . female names. mouse natt. (in concrete nouns). pincers . book man. the cry. J -ment. foot en gd$. brother en dotter. duck bok. -el and -er (plur. some en en en en en en en en en en en en en en en bot. natter. 5. Grander. goose en hand. -a -e skrika. kallet. pole tdng. The following nouns modify the vowel also double the final consonant: in the plural. the powerful America. night rand. modrar. root foot-bridge son. loss. . REMARK. letters of the alphabet. the fall. kalla. Stockholm. -on. In abstract nouns. bocker. metals. -n). stave stang. son spdng. rander.

groceries gronsaker. bill bolster paraply'. pedigree snubbor. scolding hdvor. times staver. parasol borr. 251 Some nouns have double plurals. snubbing sddor. vegetables musikalier. Some nouns occur only in the plural. gdngar. 8.APPENDIX. Some nouns may have either common or neuter gender: the most important of these are: 9. paths stav. gestures. blood bolster. beak. staves SINGULAR LACKING. ndbb. dues utskylder. in behalf of somebody THIRD DECLENSION. chaff entrails dthdvor. purses form. easy life vagnar. doft. border. bannor. stavar. redskap-. taxes DOUBLE GENDER. trimming fragrance snitt. skrofler. pd (d) ndgons vagnar. formar. intrigues scrofula finances specerier. shapes gdnger. vacation flnanser. bourses former. blod. DOUBLE PLURALS. umbrella parasoll'. scolding sndsor. music (written) umgalder. corresponding to dif- ferent senses of the singular: en en en en bors. parents goddagar. molds gang. the following being the most important: FIRST DECLENSION. borsar. goods. annaler. staffs borser. annals ferier. behalf. 7. manners SECOND DECLENSION. anor. gifts inalvor. utensil. drill brarn. furaldrar. ranker. tool cut .

generally drop g before the probable. : Al'PENDlX. taga. tragg&rd. so is also att when it is the sign of the infinitive: jag skulle tycka honom. thanks common gender when used in a 2 'Generally fingrar in the plural. bliva. Wi. ste'nitt. and saja. 10. and saga are practically always pronounced as if written maj. be. ddj. ste'nigt. innkeeper. among which are the following: (a) The words mig. especially in Stockholm. skrivi for skrivit.252 finger finger musslin'. ha. what did you say? Va(d) menar duf What do you is mean? -t in the supine of verbs of the Fourth Conjugation dropped in conversation in many parts of Sweden: tagi (hard or soft g) for tagit. Another common colloquial form for de is di. are. hava. Ar and aro. dom is used for de. In certain parts of Sweden. I om att (d) traffa (f) Vad very often drops d in conversation: Va(d) fbe)falls? beg your pardon. sig. garden. stony. are often pronounced o or e. dra. muslin . . 1 span. I should like to see him. saj. are (j) There are a number of familiar words which softened in conversation by the dropping or assimilation of a consonant: tradgdrd. etc. is. spoke to him yesterday. (g) Final (h) Skall is generally pronounced ska. shaving tack. where stg^= sJi. So also final -t in mycket and litet. ge. Irregularities in Conversational Pronunciation. 'bedja giva are generally shortened to ta. gastgivare. (c) Adjectives ending in -t -ig neuter (d) (e) in pronunciation: tro'ligt. dig. Conversational Swedish presents many peculiarities in pronunciation. Colloquially dem is always pronounced as if written dom. the utensils. draga. Always collective sense redskapen. (l>) Det often drops the t in pronunciation. (i) Verbs of the First Conjugation often drop the ending -de of the past tense in conversation: jag tala I med honom i gdr. Och is generally pronounced d. pronounced tro'litt.

(c) Gender nouns ending in -n preceded by a vowel often have the definite form the same as the indefinite: han stfir pa grdsplanen (pronounced grasplan).APPENDIX. and -na. Grammar. . the bird sits on the branch. he stands on the lawn. met with The most common grammatical The singular irregularities in the (a) spoken language are here noted: of a verb regularly takes the place of the plural in conversation. the houses. fageln sitter pd grenen (pronounced gren). thus becoming like nouns of the Fourth Declension: hus-ena. 'et ('t). (I) For enclitic pronouns 'en. c. (~b) Neuters of the Fifth Declension take -ena in the def. form of the plural instead of -en. Irregularities in Conversational 11. vecker. 2o:> (Jc) The plural ending -or of the First Declension is often pronounced ~er: vecka(or). see 140. the names. namn-ena.

STRONG AND IRREGULAR VERBS. INFINITIVE .

be 255 named .Al'I'KNDIX. beta.

sink .25G sjunka.

tvi.APPENDIX. 257 wash .

notice business. . -er. always arreste'ra. appetite in allmdnhet. -n. by. thus.). public. that. sight. consider. abborre. I. suspect. ana. lish v.). lib. arbetare.. def.. I.. I.VOCABULARY. ankare (n-* -^. request prep. prefix anblick.). spectacle anfortro. quite anticipate annars. v. insep. -er. etc. business anvdnda. apt it'. adv. polite att. alltid. intrust auditorium automobil'. v. otherwise annons' (annongs'). connection by automobile av. -er. lib.. druggist alle'na (gen. alone i .Ua. In the vocabulary. -ar. placard. good-bye adress'. seriously sign) amerikan'. sober. -er. arbeta. punish akt (invar. st. at all arm. st. estab- add anliinda. artig.) are gender nouns. -ar. perch adde'ra. grave. -er. irr.-ier. so allvarlig. American an-. anchor arrive avbryta. notice alldeles. (n. SWEDISH-ENGLISH. address addressee think ansikte (n. rupt. anliigga. design.. only the gender of neuter nouns is designated . agreeable. irr. accented var. sep.). work workingman arm . regard. face plot. use building aga. from. (infinitive allvarligt. store affdrsbyggnad. -er..). conj. -r. of. audience automobile automobilforbindelse. designated only in cases of ambiguity. affur'. general alls. found. -er. and accented variable prefix. pleasant anhd. I. all nouns not marked (n.. -ar. address adresse'ra. break off .. angendm. arrive anse. serious alltsd. st. advertisement apote'kare. adressat'. inter- ankomma. For the principal parts of irregular and Parts of speech are strong verbs the list on page 254 should be consulted. III. .. anslag (n. entirely. arrest to consequently. v. I. I. v. adjo'.

and place) befolkning. .). envious well-read (till). merciful child barn (n.. st. smooth. . I. bestd. bjudning. no pi. please behandling. demand. besok betala. signify population betunka. Ha. cheat. ask for st.).. deliberate. back . -er. I. 250 (n. besoka. remove. lib. education (n. -ar. lib. visit I. dispatch avundsjuk.. v. known. lib. -er. acquainted. bad baka. treat. Ha. lib. praise av. bestdlla. conven. order besdttning.. need bekant.. piece ient bita.).. avliJpa. n. background backwards exist. Ha. shiny. I.. satis- go away. sep.. crew visit barmhar'tig. party blank. watering place bake baker . culture. bath berg (n. st. I. only test). leg . command st. v. take posses- B backa. pray. beratta. def..). v. (n. n. -romt. pay pi. relate beromd. comfortable.. lib. belopp fied beliist. beldten. irr. treatment behdlla. . prefix irr. I. send away. lib. amount avlfigsna (sig). -lutna. keep. -er.ar.. cultured bildning. sep. of treat. lib. request sig. bifall bil. betjaning. consist bakgrund. . (n. be (health attendance betraktande (n. reflect begaran. irr. I la. bakom. mean. bone.). (n. betyda. avgd. v. bedraga. behind bank. unaccented insep. retain attend behova. I. applause "auto" bildad. bekvdmlighet.. invitation. turn out avsiinda. glossy . ticket of- en an acquaintance bekvam. beromma.VOCABULARY. bevista. convenience comfort. bank bara. depart refl.). bedja (om). -at. consider. v. -ar. bemota. v. bakllinges. receive ben (n. . Ha. -et. befalla. bite -er. -ar.). no servants. mountain famous stand (a badort.). biljett'kontor' fice bit. I. bagare. be-. -ar. considera take into tion taga i . deceive lib.). demand behaga. begara. -ar. beftnna sig. beldpa sig to amount bemdktiga sion of sig..

best blom'sterrabatt'.. remain. bonder. (n. take (time) . peasant. doctor dotter. -er. sprout . -samma. besides.). st. bust. date'ra. drama dricka. become. take after. daughter dram. begin borjan (no.).) the dessutom. . st. build bdde.). v. only). datum del. v.) the letter carrier poem dish direkt'.). cigar dealer . Ila. hurry brod (n.3GO bliva. dwell. doktor. (adv. diver''se divide'ra. daily dagsljus (n. . lighten flower -er. . I. live boJc. . bo'cker. bra (adj. III. blow -er. favor be in -a brdtt. drama drink (pi. ink bo. at the side of brev (n. . VOCABULARY. D daglig (adj. break brddska.). diverse divide brdk (n. brush dar- aagngen away borta. -ar. I.).). beginning C ceremoni'. fractions (math..).). . pi.).). (n. well. -ar. only blygsam. -er.. deltaga. v. valley over there dam. lady date data. (art. I. -stdder. I.) bras pd. -er. use off thither (pi. and adv. quite bredvid'. in addition det (pron. it.and drojsmdl (n. flower borja. . date residence bota. only). (art. table borsta. heal. dikt. ceremony bldsa. -ar. dokto'rer..och.). day . st.). farmer bord bort. good. that. (n. bryta av'. v. direct broder. bdra. v. lib.. dit. it. both. -er. be (aux. of passive) olixtra.). I. fine. delay. . brodd. cigar black (n. letter brevbarare. dottrar. sep. tip(s) by. village cab delay bygga. carry porter Momma. cure part st. hurry . brother disk. ha . book dag. bed -or. counter. cigarrhandel. -ar..). -or. bro'der. droja. by. I. daylight dal. brdttom. drama no plur. -ar. dwelling. participate den(pron. biirare. cigar store cigarr Jiandlare. st. bread drickspengar droska.. lib. away from home. bostad. I. bruka. trouble. def. cigarr'. modest blott. daily bonde.

adv. dum. there durbar darpd. fast (conj. dep. celebration one fisk. not fattig. fader. kill family travel. v.). dumma. -er. erhdlla.). only en rat. det ftnns.. (pi. uncle ship. impers.VOCABULARY. I. lack conflagration ferier fin.. firm. I. elegans' (elegangs'). impers. travel ) and accented comply come efter. I. I.). erinra. European exporte'ra. . I. an. delicate st. irr. wicked ddr.. st. ett. although ej. (are) celebrate fish is firande (n. solid. -er.. ehuru. fast. prefix st. mistake v. go dorr. because emot (prep. flag. v. export on it (them) v... poor. compensate europe'isk. bad. electrical nice. i . epic er-. -ar. after st.). error. at home thereafter. dyrbar. -ar.). is eftermiddag. lack. although fattas. vessel fartyg. door fara. several. v. I. dead (-or). death fader (far). expensive. dott dod.. vacation find. afternoon. hissa flaggan. go along (drive. everybody enligt. remember ersatta. -er.. fast.. I. fine. emedan. fara cfter. die (adj. felas. dep. v. stupid. def. there fira. flagga. drive. n. -bommar. family festival familj'. hoist the flag Here. do. offer foolish erfarenhet. after farbror. this afternoon ail. precious dalig. dumbom. fel (n. get sig.. doda. duel episk. father familjefest. darhem'ma. -er. . experience receive. factory dod.). duell'. to replace. according to more . variable prefix. v. finna. financial eld. fire.. -or. -bro'der. 1 ta. a. -er. against. duka. over there thereupon. vad digf What ailing you? poor . fast komma -ar. irr. v. ekono'misk. set the table accented insep. opposite en. med'. st. v. prep. elegance elektrisk.). dozen dussin (n. remind. endast. efterkomma. -ar. with. fabrik'. and adv. fool erbjuda.

.. barber shop Mrs. . healthy fru. III. get. people folkskola.. museum -n. Frank fransk. foremost. accompany consequently following . I stamp (put on France and Ila. frukost flow kost). foot (n. frysa bort'. fill. adv. from strange. river flitig. re- foljande.. re- ceive fdgel. fritt. promi- fdglar. v. n. later framme (adv. also collectively.. adv. fdrdig. n. free sep. crowded crowded Ar. fresh. quickly fortsatta. wife. hand framracka. frammande. team or -match. Francis. hold out framstfiende. -er. future franke'ra. window open for (prep.262 flicka. fasten v.). deem friluftsmuseum air (n. at lib. fot. forsla. (n. ready fdsta. st. have a birthday fyrtio. birthday. -er. breakfast pi. also collective frukt. -or. fast. fullpackad. and accented . -ar. stamp) Frankrike fodas. (pronounced -ar. v. indecl. forty fa. . and accented var. reach forth. have comfirst pany framst. bird field nent framtid. stamp . fait may . perish by frost fryspunkt. . flytande. franska. prep. freezing point frdga (efter). be born Frans. flee frisk. irr. n. fruc'- diligent flod. continue football jran. -er. I. fodelsedag. follow French language fri. I. girl VOCABULARY.. football game . or rdcka fram'. for.)... for a birthday folja. foreign. till fddelsedagen. fluent flytta. . fullsatt. fotter.. prefix. -or. before for. fonster (n. n. in the future. ask a question. forth.).). v.).). ha . dep. lib. ago frimarke (n. -er. flyta.sedan.). fotbollspel (n. fruit frysa. freeze public school haul v. (n. move .). foljaktligen. French. indecl. people. .). flowing. fotbollag variable prefix. lady. irr. at destination. /riser' salong. folk (n). -er. fly. v. lib. nation. fylla. inquire fort (adv. . ransom. frikopa. -er. -ar.. fram. folja med'. -at..). I. forward framdeles. st. (modal). frukt.

prefix. delay forsiktig.). forstad. n. destroy I. forstd. (train. prevent forfolja. (oneself) forvandla. forst. v. v. until late. prefer forelasning. lib. earn forsoka. forklada (sig).) forhdllande (n. having a cold forkylning. prefix. formak (n.. ahead . I. unaccented insep. pursue furgifta. too much for-. former before. before forre(a). v. vexatious forbindelse. occasion varandra. lose . lib. bear with one another fore. parlor accented insep. neglect. I. lib. -ar.. tonished fordldrar.. -ar. forlora. v. relative Ha. -ar. for'orsaka. formiddag. pd formiddagen. st. n.. poison forhindra I. and accented var. adv. fortjdna. first -stader. to be as- cold (sick- ness) only. forsona. prefix forarglig. foredraga. lib. cause.. union. i to -n. induce forolyckas. catch cold forkyld. foredrag (n. (money) forslag (n.. I. -kylt. etc. oversleep performance foretaga (sig) st. bjudna. . I. lecture forening. wise. I. . try charming fortjusande. v..). forr (adv. suburb understand forfiirlig. def. cause to be before.). parents .. v. forskotte'ra. scribe st.. prohibited fordraga. too. trans- forkyla sig. pi. society dictate. irr. st. annoying. st. -ar. I.. I. ob-bjudet. become propose forsova..). form forvdnas. before for-. mycket. relation. excellent I. usually insep. in the fore- noon formoda. prep. reconcile. v undertake author forfattare. forestallning. . be able. reconciled fore-Sid-. III. I. advance proposition refl. .). terrible forstdndig. tr. change. suppose formd. till. v. first. sensible fiirstora. for (adv. v. miss meal. forran forsena. connection.). condition. forsumma. also Ila. intr. n. dep.. I. v. perish tolerate. -r. dep.). -ar. st. pre- foreskriva. ligation fiirbjuden.. forenoon. (conj. disguise fortrdfflig. lecture cautious I.VOCABULARY..

gossar. hat havre (n.).). gd. yesterday gds. .. -ar.). gladden halvtimme. -or. hand baggage om. harv... holiday hellre. gang. v. pi. port gosse.). gammal. -ar. lib. glatt. oats hedersman. weep. Gotha Canal Goteborg (n. pi. guest through. neck.). III. hander. treat about gro. gdss. helgdag. glas (n. gora make has the form igenom st. -er. gladje. glide half -ar. harbor. go. -ar. it gd upp'. sprout grosshandlare. gen (adj. home hem (adv. merchant grata. I. . I.).). value. hand degree gren. I. near (of a road) genast. no v. st. and adv. gdr. half hour joy glomma. def. run. whole. ho'gsta in degree. of a unit gunga. notice. I. -ar. he hand. street -ar. det gar won't work klockan gdr. path . i the highest han.264 VOCABULARY. the watch is running v. glad. yesterday gdrdag. only. it have lib. green gronsaker. home. en gang.. quite.). en man . entirely garante'ra. swing . pi. . gdr. yellow hatt.). -ar. grds (n. irr.). a gdst. grade. cry hastig. n. st. observe glad. handla. n. give. concern. -ar. -t.. halfway hamn. irr. i -er. immediately genom or ige'nom (prep. Gothenburg Goto. rather icke. be a question of (irr. grass grasmatta. goose galla. act. v. gd home .. boy grad. handlande. -er. trade. giva. lawn gron. glddja. happy H hals. v.. gamla. branch wholesale handbagage. old time (in counting) once walk. merchant harrow quick. forget floor golv (n. -or. . vegetables gul.). ganska. honor hcl. rapid. spectacles glida. v. throat Jialv. guarantee gata. halvsula. as adverb akt' pd. -man. sudden . rock. do. go . kanal. glass glasogon. rise hem (n. . half-sole halvvags (adv.

fee . chicken. hjartforlamning. hemifrdn. "kind. in. direction.).. -ar.).).. I. hogra. to hos. Mr (n. . how (n. (at somebody's herre. n. story hitta. dep.). Mrt.. her. chickens hora.). -er.. history. heart -ar.. -ar. v. to the right . hostdag. rent. dt alia hold. vehement hemtrevlig. wife huvudvark. hopp (n.VOCABULARY. at home home haftig. in all directions i (prep. dep. greet halsa pd' (hos). half halsa. corner i hus fall.. help Jijalpa. greeting hinna. col- honorar' (n.). take venge hamta. lib. fetch Mnda. listen to ho'r pd mig. hill hons (n. with. -ier. keep . Ha. st. happen re- hjalp. observe hard.). irr.. in of hope the house hog. hold. cordial glorious. htinga. I Mil (n. make home) a call my name is Carl halsning. case herr. from 265 hemma. -ar. to find hamnas. lective. -ar. horn house host. autumn day accommo- hovlig. to st. def. jag Jieter Karl. last hustru. in address (noun). -r. I. high hoger. gen. here harlig.). cozy. v. till hojd. . -r. magnificent hon. headache hygglig. into st. hotel hund. . hoppa. lib. have time do or get to I. violent. homelike Jiennes. ibland'. hostas. handelse.). I. jump hoppas. polite dating hyra. historia. -n. lib. she hast. in. hotelV (n. politeness Mlla. hair i'akttaga. hungry hur. health -er halsa. I. hiilft. by chance hjarta (n. -ar. hire hovlighet. hang (n. help -n. Mister. v. fall (n.). attain. dog hungrig. respect hearty. event hdndelsevis (adv. horse . v. hard sometimes IS Sicedish Grammar . hope v. heart hanseende Mr. . height. listen to me . gentleman heta. lib. master.). by. hear hora pd.). nice. to be called. right. I. v. . greet Ml'sa pd. -ar. . failure hjartlig.

remain (money in a bank) kaj. room and board inbegripa. no. v.). comb inte. you don't say! Is that so? jo. so.). sep. perhaps kappa. of ingen.. till Christmas .). nothing kanhdn'da.. recog- hollow ja. is. -n. tive). jdrnvdgsolycJca. Christmas. adv. back Ita'lien igenMnna. v. prefix.).). prefix innehdll (n. into ju. and accented var.. cash accident jdrnvdgsstation. perhaps kan'ske. quay. indoors insiitta. v. n. irr. nothing inledp (n. ingen. bad. pier kail. I. jul. . n. just juste'ra. inse. ilia (adv. intyg (n. -or. Italy prefix. and accented -ar.). -er. * ..266 i'drott.. sep. no one.). illuminated jasd (pronounced jas'sd). before inne (adv. coffee innestd. within inomhus (adv. innan (conj. inlosa. irr. v. v. again. just. you "know. vid for Christmas. deposit under- kamma.). n.. nize i'hdliff. sport idrottspark. ilia. redeem. to come. or inget... intet. infinna sig. cloak karaktdr'. det var that was too bad -at. -er. station -er. inom (prep. (with the comparato be sure . throw out . ticket plaintive -er. character kapten'. testimonial inhabitant -ar.). athletic field igen'. -er. board. yes the -ar. -at. . prep. cold I. -er. jdmrande. inside inne-. -er. .. kallna. I. kasta. kalla. to see. accented var. st. interesting interest throw kasta ut'..). sep. at include v. Ice (n. arrive st. contents contain K kaffe (n. innehdlla. Jiel var. stand not intet. in. st. interested intrcssant'. intresse'rad. captain intres'se (n. VOCABULARY. in. railway railway railway purchase to Ila. -or. no. . yes illumine'rad. inackordering. jdrnvdgs'biljett. adv. adjust n. v. also boarder.. grow cold call I. invdnare.). I. . . lib. irr.

church a finish . kostym'. Ha. fight to spondent kort (o long and close) . strength. body) kunna.). in'. I. ren. dress kldda sig. (n. collar power . I. clothes compartment cousin driver. grumble koffert. cut. cup korg. evening. krage. kvar. -er.).). knock. kroppskonstitution. kort . knock at the door knappast. -ar. -ar. pin kusk. adv. Jclar. I. (modal) can. -ar. only. -er. (n.). I. corre- -or. cabman kvalitet'. trunk koka. -er. hill con- climate klippa. artist . kylig. prefix. Kvart. -er.VOCABULARY. criticise kredit'brev (n. I. dress (oneself) kldda om' sig. complain kraft. in the evening kyckling. i gar last night. r er. collide sep. -or. left over. hook crown -er. change dress klimat' (n. -ar. behind. gram kilome'ter. basket . pd kvdllen. konstndr'. korrespondent' '. st. with) know (acquainted . cat kilo. cathedral katt. v. cost -er. a quarter of an hour kvdll. -er. kilo kosta. I. klassisk. -er. -er. weak . hind kvarn. . office kopp. -er. kontant. -er. -ar. come come in conductor pi. circle.. quality knota (over). -ar. (rail- knacka. komma konsert'. krok. -ar. concert tricks art. heel (of shoe) klaga (over). card kdnna. kldder. -ar.. n. en kvarts timme. -ar. boil I. n. -er. society klass. King's Street kupe. credit letter of clear class krets.). lib. -ar. -ar. re- cook. quarter. katedral'. lib. kdmpa die ut'. be able Kungsgatan. stitution (of kulle. maining kvarlamna. I. shear kldda. classic Arena. flour mill konduktor'. suit kilometer klack. and accented var. (o short and open). klandra. pi. pd dor- way) Tcusin' -er. young chicken . konst. -ar. kollide'ra. kilogram . know. leave be- komma. cash kontor (n. -ar. klen. chilly kyrka. hardly knappndl. -er. short I.

lot. v. praise lugn (adj. sorry lek. def. ledsen. light. lange. teach. sad. I la.' n. litet. long Idngre. permission. little. last. love kold (n.). lynne gott (n. slow farmer vice Idsa. I. v. small life Idsa upp'. I la.). load. reader Idxa.. . learned lika (adv. land.). landsatta.. Idrt. cold lov (n. live lida. (just) def. -er.. let. -or. irr. learn teacher (adj. London with kdrlek. -er. Zefca. Idrjunge. pupil pi. physician Idmna. det. lib. steamer . as lilla. leda.). comp. lyckas. -bocker. lib.). -or.). country. read sra4. country house lantbrukare. lead Idgga bort'. humor. also upp'ldsa. lamb steak laga. lie /ifc Idrare.). lend. to do or be done opportunity put away smile ledsna. I. v.. . suffer ligga. landscape land . candle jus (adj. n. quiet lycka. Ila. good humor Idda. I. irr. n. -or. liten.). recite litteratur. via ashore landskap lantstalle (n. v. drive (from school). like.. Idngsam. light no pi. lakare. I. -ar. dep. land. drawer Una. le. play st. -at. longer Idra. . literature ttv (n. leave lange (adv. -samma. game Ha. def. buy (ticket) ransom loge.. v.). -er. borrow in Idng. ledset. fortune lyckad.). . -or. n. lander. allow. lesson Idsa (biljett).). threshing floor . buy kora. I. lagenhet. mend. ljus I .). vacation kopa. long (n.. lazy irr. lib. bring to pass lammstek. st. irr. losen. in the pd i lan- lyda.. VOCABULARY.. Idsa. may lova. irr. alike lard. happiness. v. have to fd lov.268 klinna till'. play. be acquainted londondngare. leva. box. lycklig. lib. calm. v. lock Idta. (n. promise. country. logar. Idsebok. -n. succeed happy obey -n. . successful v. cause no neuter. of Idng.

creamery recipient (n. -er. adv. mycket. against motgdng. flour . but multiplice'ra. noun. and accented var. I. bring. to-morrow morgontidning. mycken. man. modrar. -er. lib. miller mdl (n. grind modern'. ripen def. mellan (emellan). -ar. I. md ma. morning paper morse. mitt.). modern mogen. entail (conj. morning. along..). match. mena. mouth cannon) nozzle . III. def. make. ber minut'. -ar.). musical musikkdr. -er. my dep. tidigt pd morgonen. music musikalisk. early manschett'. mouth munter. pron. prep. manovre'ra. while mejeri'smor (n.). moget. mitt. merry museer. indecl. min. be mistaken mistake misstag (n. (indef. -ar. How are you? mitten. band def.). one. ripe n. ception mo'torbdt. mottagningsrum re- medan room -ar. also emot. Monday mdtt (n. food -ar. var. with. this (past) noon museum (n. month mdndag. .). bill of fare med. noon. mottaga. etc.. morgon. mogna. adversity i mat. between men. dinner. i middags.). Indian corn -ar.). st. receive mottagare. . v. remem- na. 269 M maj. marknadsstdnd at a fair booth morgon. v. much (of river. butter mulna. multiply mun. -er. myck- minnas. motor boat become cloudy I. lib. prep.). lib. very mynning. angle middag. musik'. goal. and accented matsal.. -ar. dining room matsedel. May majs. marJcnad. n. more I. in the middle mjol (n. moder. mate mala. munnar.). . . man. they -er. mother measure . mjolnare. may hur mar nif feel. I.). . meal mdnad. -ar. mogna. in the i morning maneuver fair (n. museum meta. middle. cuff I. mycket (adv.VOCABULARY.. man man morgnar. mistake misstaga sig. this morning mot. muntra. mean mer(a). medfora. minute miss'taga. n. i (modal). -sedlar. prefix. prefix.

). also insignifi- noga (adv. n. nytt. inclosed natt. form only).). indecl. noje (ik). distress nojd. enough nog. reciprocal. careful (ly) noggrann. def. person mdsterskap (n. cance. officerskappa. no you accented prefix of negation -t. officer now for tiden. and predicate indecl. not stamped. insignificant -er. -er or -are. (n. -slutna. -at.ota. approach namn (n. namely namnare. -ot. nature naturligtvis (adv. officer's nu cloak nummer . meet (one another) ndr (adj. nog. following ndstan. ndgra (adj. cap Ha. denominator when motas.).). down (polite address) o-. that is possible mojligen. and prep. n. number new ofrankerad. almost nod. careful. near ntirhet. and pron. n.270 VOCABULARY. champ. ever namligen. . ndrsluten. night express nappa. name -ar. . often . I. trifle och. ndr. -slutet..). . namnteckning night nattsndlltdg signature i . possibly to say. no'jt. nej (adv. I. accurate norr (noun and adj. last ndrvarande. -er. ny.). some ndgonsin. . night. now-a-days (n.). human being. certainly. I obetydlig. mdnniska. northern nu. -grant. n.). piece of furniture mojlig. oense (indecl. near ndra (adv. nearness.). suppose adj. nyhet. not prepaid ofta. novelty. indecl. n..). vicinity N ntirma sig. now nag on. at variance officer'. and ocksd. mobler. dark -or. obetydlighet. -or. n.). -or. def.. newness. just ionship mo'bel. news nyligen.. morJc. north. meet mossa. any. of course contented -n. numret. bite natur'. pi. ned. predicate adj. recently nyss. next. ni. present ndsta. natter. pleasure amusement. def. m.

pill omkring (adv. opera. ombord. prefix. no. parcel security. n. I. harmless ovanlig. . -er. -ar. a couple of pris (n. plague piller (n. -er. be proper . Olympic patient'. conj. if. torment. favorable oliJc. suit. unusual postanvisning.). ing plats. preach predikan. -er. otdlig. ogynnsam.). pest. princip'. exactly. principle ett par (n. unfortunately passande. post office. livery uneasy -er. pi. about.. I. liceman post. mail. -er. -er. n. pant. -er. price . mail poste restante. different -or. passa.). check (trunk) -staplar. precis kloc- kan I. ordine'ra. sep. orolig. ac- n. evil. ont. plocka. proper olympisk. der pota'tis. tell -at.). -or. pain. I. ond. plane' ra. . celebrated mentioned. traveler olyckligtvis. def. introduce predi'ka. patient om. pi. reason impatient oskadlig.). pair. plan.VOCABULARY.). sermon presente'ra (for). 271 -n. relate. park. forfeit . -er. play (theatrical) plan I. five o'clock sharp packa. omtala. par. impossible down sore. I. and cented var.. umbrella passenger. word chairman . pick I. prescribe ka pa posten. olycka. unlike. money pen person'. person -or. aboard pessimistisk pessimistic om'komma perish (see komma). pallet' (n. I. general de- orsak. -er. fit. opera polis'konstapel. trouble Wednesday . penna. potato precis'. tag plant sit omtalad. circulation pjas. couple. about. prep. unpack fern. -samma.). around omlopp (n. plante'ring. polette'ra.. plaga. misfortune passagerare. pestilence. I. -ar. money or- (colloquially often -ar). ordforande. . around. concerning pengar. plan -ar. -er.. angry onsdag. poskic- ord (n. pack packa upp'.). place. . omojlig. and prep. un- paraply (n. bad.

irr. lib. n.). roa prescription sig. remind pa. call (somebody) ruin'. afraid of . (n.). ta pA. no. sample. v. restaurant -ar. -rar. rain rengora. car resultat (n. nificant ringa. direct right. ) correct. v. timid. -er. rain -ar. travel. -ar. dining another rlicka. VOCABULARY. -er. row I. already regna. -ar. order. ring up riva. Ha. -or. humble. brisk recept' . . I. -or. st. (n. redan. rolig. revolver. I la. recommend. rikta. reda (-0 in compounds). I. fish-line radd for. -ar.. -er. splendid punJct. lib. I. rumor Ryssland (n. regis. advice. valise rddd. quick. shave (n. I. get (into) get into remainder -er.). tear. know about. scratch ro. -abla. magnificent. result ficient resvdska. prov. protest abundant I. letter of recommendation rekommende'ra. quite pryda.). diffi- restaurang'. have fun roll. ha roligt. advise resa.. able rest.) ring. adorn praktig.). rye bread i resona'bel. rolling tered rum rykte (n. lib. n. rowboat amusing. be sufafraid. rich riklig.272 program' . trip rdgbrod rddfrdga. met. rev. III. coat roddbdt. part (theatrical) shout.). call. register rekommenderad. test (pi. I.). ring ringa. culties.). amuse oneself rask. ring insig- upon pdminna. reason- consult . ropa. program promene'ra. revolver rik. . rdkas.). restaurangvagn.. go rdda. -er. -er. rekommendationsbrev (n. I. raka. Russia rdd (n. riktig. R raka. ringa pd' (hos). ruin rullning. dot (adv. take a walk proteste'ra. aim. -gram(n. meet. -at. indecl. have the means to . svdrigheter. lib. . rock. reputation. find out regna. room -n. clean resa. -ar. ha pd. I. pd.. fine. def. to meet one last. def. decorate. point. reach. ha rdd. I. I. journey. on.

-ar. after sedel. skadad aged ske. counting rdtt rdtt. bill (adj.). slow down. slowly sal. injured. thereupon. rdkna.. be right rdtt. st. (prep. I. send out skicklig.). send skicka ~bort'. accented. then. ha segelbat. possessive. lose time (watch) sakta (adv. skillful se ut'.). together happen . sedan. description. sjuk. motion. miss. sjo. of I. semes' ter. for . -or. red sail smoke smoker rokkupe.. rod. n. auditorium shore skada. smoking riirande. lake pirate . samtala. se' pd. rorelse. send away. sick sjukdom. -er. after. n. v. him-. till sist. sailboat segla. (conj. samtal (n. movement. calculating. v. drawing room. semester. v. look (appearance) sed. after. -er. save count bill. sjunka. feel loss st. irr. conspire skepp irr. senare. matter sju. -ar. (the) same sammansvdrja (sig). conversation converse. sjostrand. irr. sit S sak. -ar. I. samma. v. ship dis- skicka. sig. miss skicka in'.). lack. (adv. six sida. injury. sedlar. n. salt sam-.). se. page itself. thing.. compartment rokare. rdkning. see.). when. -er. I. selves her-.). -strdnder. concerning -r.VOCABULARY. I. III. sjunga. -ar. damage dam- salt (n. (n. skildring. . -er. send in skicka ut'. at last sitta. side. I. -at. sceneri' I. sing sink sakta (sig). sist. hall sea.).). -or. ro'ka. late smokers rokning. v. -er. rddda. sjosjuk. -ar.. them- exercise rust. lake salong'. (n. since. insep. -er. -rar. voice sin. vacation sen. seasick sjorofvare. right.. last. custom portrayal . prefix. later sex. scenery look at. sickness sakna. 3d pers. reflex. seven -ar. chat .

sorry .. -or. -or. difference. shoe . . shirt skjuta. . I. man- sommar somrar. let go.. slatt. school-mate forest .). hurry skynda. and st. strike in. soon snitt (n. smaka. skate. shoemaker spare -ar. trifle skorsten. soner. at last sld. var . cry write skriva om'. rewrite skridsko. slice skjorta. -er. v. pron. shout. guilty. snow . st. I end close. sunlight solstrdle. sno. (conj.. sugar so/fa. finally. skriva. let -er. Ha.). caress smutsig. def. v. sad. smoke- Ha. strike skinka. seat owe hurry skynda sig..). chimney. Ha. st. smorgds.) as (rel. close. -or.). -ar. bread and butter. dka . quick.). that. son slagsmdl (n. I. of. -er. skridskobana. tuition plain skolkamrat. i be ashamed (of) skota. school. slant. skola. quick.. last summer somna. sla. in. debt skydda.). (n. shine shut slutligen. dirty skomakare. shoot i slakting. smdsak. v. vara skyldig. taste smeka. v. -or. end. v. sunbeam som dep. -er.). son. out skolavgift. -ar. v. (irr. skona.. relative slarv (n). sko. difference between VOCABULARY. lib. sandwich.274 skillnad. rapid. fall asleep blow. skina. ham skiva. coin slott (n. st. v. slut (n. guilt. v. skraddare. kind. st. I. summer. soup sorg.). which. -r. stroke . cut (fashion. skog. sko. skrika. butter laugh skriftlig. protect skyldig. st. melt stack smor I. solsken (n. I.. carelessness . -ar. sorrow. speedy skridsnart. socfcer(n. -or. snail. sltippa ut. fast snar. skate.). smiilta. grief sorglig. skating rink please snulltdg (n. -or. tailor express train skuld. who. good. pd. Ha. -r. sna6&. somras.). -ar. I. skammas (for). -or. take care age slag (n. gd to school (attend) go slappa. sofa. castle fight soppa. sockret. -er. -er. sluta.). -ar. written skratta.

lib. Swede serious difficulty Sverige (n. spela. strdnder. hur star det till? How are you? stdlle (n. city erence to health). pitching (ship) stanna. large storartad. proud n. 275 st. III. stor. v. stiga from'. v. st..). supper svag. -ar. I. -er.). station (washing) supe. laundry stude'ra. play a trick on st. spel (n. stark. dep. (n. stampning. -er. stundande. I. state only. struggle. indecl. close. laundry station'. while. . . chair . v. poor. shut stdrk'saker. v. enter stiga upp'. trick. -artat. stdder. . swallow synas. n. ne sig i spegeln. upset stol. strong stat. spdrvagn. save a flag) stroke spatser'tur. stiga pd'. sprdk (n. v. -ar. Swedish. Ila. sister sd. ed street car -n. studier. -er. sysselsdtta. place.. -er. great. strife. fight ploy syster. steal svdrighet. -er... strength. -ar. ironing strykinrdttning. mirror. svara. indecl. play. sten. I.VOCABULARY. get up. remain stdnga. . Ila.). em- magnificent stormig. (n. look in the mirror study study studium stund. piece styrka. -er. lib. steak weak ..). sd. busy.). I. stay. om en kort in a short while -er. run errand boy language stycke (n. gora en . stjdlpa. step forth answer answer svensk (adj. spratt ett (n. st. take a walk strykning. fall.. . svalja. irr. lower (of spare.. also svalde. irr. Sweden svar. iron. die (on the battle field) springa. -ar. be (with ref- stackars. -ar. v. stormy strand. v. seem synnerligen. stone stiga. -ar. walk. .. sleep stryka. stek. so sow so that sd att. I.).). force std till'. svalt. style.. -ar. difficult. coming stupa. print stjdla bort'. -trar. -ar. wretchstad. springpojke. grand. game spela play . shore strax. especially stolt. pi. rise stil. in your place stop. soon stria.). -n.). st. speglar.). i ert . step svar (n. spegel. I. v. sova..

tomma. tdnderna. theater. society. -er. place sutta sig. put. -er. teater. -ar. tell -er. consequently sdng. tooth. have a toothache tandvark. . seek. I. v. only. toothache tanke. termome'ter.. right v. telephone . permit permission . bed.). go to the theatre telegraf. tand. teatern.). song dt (till). to. -r. -ar. I back and irr. market place off. grieve sweet (n. I. .). set. tennis sullsynt. -ar. sommar. 'tavla.. tjog (n. early sasong'. sodra. tidtdbell'. I. . titta. singing. on time tidig. look for tillbaka. tilldta. Sunday sorja. till. -n. -ar. . n. seam somnig.). befit. time table tidning. seat. picture def. belong to be the tillkomma. som. i ther- sang. ..). wipe dry . tillbringa. mestelegram'bud (n. . tilldtelse. -n. tander. pd. I. numerous ha ont i timme. talrik. speaking. def. drop painting (n. tavelgalleri' gallery dry torka av'. tappa. way satta. say.). manufacture vestibule tills (conj. thus. tennis. number tambur'.. sure. teatrar. n. ta. until -ar. sot. gd pd saga. bench satt (n.). picture. sott. st. prefix.. pass. take taga upp'. st. spend tillfdlle sion. sdkra. take up tal (n.). siillskap.. and accented var. -er. speech. v. southern soka. def. twenty torn. Ha. tillsammans. I. irr. pd. separate time. v. tain sallan. tillhora. st. irr. telegraph saker. -er. v. look.. sdlunda. . adv. -er. look at score va- tjugu. v. go to bed sarskilt. torka. season sate (n).276 VOCABULARY. lib. allow.. of faga. first mourn. -or. mometer tid. hall. sure of cer- seldom club rare telegram telegram (n.). tiggare. sit down prep. hour . chance. until. thought lose. cant torg (n. lib. occaat the vid forsta occasion . sleepy sondag. -er. empty. together tillverka. newspaper beggar manner. gd stings. till -metrar. senger boy telefone'ra.

dare. Ila. erect.). tycka. union upp.). unfortunately . st. -or. . -er. performance . tdmligen (adv. up . un- pleasant trdng. st. v. -er. German German language . waiter uppassare. probably tyvdrr'. trogna.. lib. tvdtta. tedious. tveka. faithful troligen. because Ila. -et.). crowded tree trad (n. tyst. I. III. two tvdrgata. -er. silent time. dragna. in- apart. n. heavy undersoka. n. see reciprocal. uppbrand.VOCABULARY. across tvaft. cross street tvdrs (over). and accented prefix. promoted uppfora. underldta. traffa. two tvist.). numerator tr&kig. conduct oneself. tro. conduct. n. -at. information tu (tvd). prep. beneath. underrdttelse. -ar. trddgdrd. n.. -er. tvenne. tyska. fairly tdnka (pa). compete (for) to'ras (modal). def. in twain. boring. like fancy. nice. 277 dry tysk. quite. see trdffas. entertain. recite . cover taljare. neglect tired itu. trevlig.. def. troska. tunga. dis- uppfora sig. under. may -ar. have a fine ha det home. trott. v. sep. troget. -r. turn. train tacka. tongue wonder var. cloth tyngd. believe trogen. U meet. burnt up uppdragen. n. Ila. moved up. vestigate Ila. think (of) tat. prefix. pleasant. asunder underbar.). Ila. support I. ty. under. trip. adv. wound up iippflyttad. thresh . lib. uppldsa. two. . etc. om'. wash (ing) wash think. etc. examine. I. wonderful undra. -brant. and accented one another trdnga sig from. behave tyg (n. frequent tdvla (om). -er. garden meet. tag (n. narrow. -or. weight uppforande (n. make a way for oneself var. tung. quarrel tvd. n. tur. build for. trevligt. luck I. hesitate union'. like. torr. ilia om. underhdlla. crowd up.

become beside. Ha. -et.. challenge utmarkt. flowers) utstdlla. . sep. found uppsats. -er. -et. durable varje. express utvdg. -slitna. usual. spend var och en. I. expedient exercise practice. att vara utantill.. establish. view -et. each. VOCABULARY. ware. st. I. take out originate upptaga. uppmarksam. -or.. esteem sep. ute.). indecl. indecl. watchmaker derail vacker. foreign water . -ar. adj. urmakare.. def. sep. to take uttrycka. by heart st. I.. I. with- vandra. vackra. irr. I.. utan. st. out -er. ex- whither and indecl.. Vasa Street vatten (n. varsebliva. vapnet.. common def. v. wander. each. n. upprndrksamhet. excellent of. -er. merchandise vara. adopted occupied.. awaken vaktmdstare. to last. warm st. st. v. to adopt sep. adv. -spruck- composition (about leaves and exhibit. ursakta.. I. and adv. adj. upptagen. outside cept utrikes. up. v. varm. def. utom. prep. lasting. pretty vagn. loosen utrdtta. wagon. every utflykt. I.. execution utgift. everyone vara. . . I. play (a game) utmana. n. -ar. (soil) I. utforande (n. . abroad. to be varaktig. utsliten. attention upprdtta. I. sep. vanligen. def. to carry out. ac- complish def. prefix.). at- utsikt. to arise. every utkdmpa. open n. busy.. draw (draft) uttaga. na. and accented var. v. bring a contest to a close. carriage excuse adv. aware of vart. usually utbryta..278 uppluckra. lib. utova. -er.. out (motion) vakna. I. uppsta. tentive -samma. adj.). waiter . ut.. utgiva. edit. sep. Vasagatan. urspdra. I. endure vara (v. janitor. supervision uppsTcatta. break out vapen (n. worn out utsprucken. lack vanlig. expense v. v. water vattna. n.. weapon picnic. stroll out.). sep. excursion var. I. uppsikt. publish..

. I. valuable room vilja (v. lib. further. -ar. field vdrfcst. vdrt. ride dker. st. -ar. -ar. vitt. -er. show office sure. wide withvidare.VOCABULARY. friendly. and accented by vid. -r. -ar. winter vinterhatt. -rar. prefix. work verkligen. I. bless vetebrod (n. want . i (n.. wine vint- vasnas. I. vdtt. ha. age vdrda. dngbdtsforbindelse. I. spring festival vdt. contract. adv.). white bread. tal card vdning. . carelessness incur Alder. vdrd vdrld vdxa. exchange visst. vanster. veranda.). story. choose. elect vdlsigna.). draw a draft en exchange vdxelkontor (n. (n.) . world vin (n. wet . sig. friend vdnda. -er. wheat vdlgorenhet.. turn around mot. will. kind to vdnskap. vanner. important vila. careless vdrdsloshet. dngare. . directly vikt. -er. I. valbargad. I. n. . to the left till out further ado. prep. etc. last var. tion by steamer connec viider (n. v. (I villkor condition mute). dka. dngbdtstur. excellent vykort (n. i apartment vdras. prep. Ila.. importance viktig.. .). adv. spring nurse. kind. -er. def. intend. wake up weather well to do -at. and accented insep. viss. I la.. waiting vardefull. turn back. n. winter. dep. charity. 279 porch verk (n. vdxlar. v.). steamer -r. n. surely. ras. vdcka. -ar. last I la. certain vdxla. vdnlig. Y ypperlig.). . really vete (n. to be sure vistelse. turn. grow draft. steamboat trip steam engine . vdnstra. vdnta (pa). oenevolence valja. worth -ar. A d. I. on ddraga sig. wing vinter. van. sojourn souvenir pos. friendship vdnster. wait (for) rest vdntsal. utan var. spring. change. at. make noise vinge. wish. certainly visserligen.). utstdlla vdxel. take care of vdrdslos. -or. winter hat visa.). dkrar. loaf of vid. lib. dngmaskin. left. dldrar.). -er. prefix. weight.

I. skildring. 60on. wish . -n. folja med (over) accomplish.. lib.). foljaktligen able. def. overvaka. Swedish coin over. meadow overvikt. accordingly. according a. be kunna account. overresa. -or. wish oppna. med anledning av. agare. overweight ENGLISH-SWEDISH. utrikes abundant. st. v. I. surprise -ar. enligt an.280 dr (n.. om. onskan. nevertheless age dndra. change. adv. opinion dtaga sig. yet. yet. sep. noble iiga.). -n. undertake dter. v. the Swedish-English vocabulary must be consulted. eat year anniversary dsikt. errand d'venledes. I. olycksfall on account of. open ore (n. prefix. v. omsesidig. still. adv. intend deliberate an. eye . ddel. I... dnnu. own . VOCABULARY. one's change mind overtyga. and accented var. lib. indecl. apple urende (n. over overldgga. trip across. return drsdag.). than (n. -n. arnna.). en. about. -er.. irr. to. surprise voy- dndamdl purpose sig. omkring abroad. -ar.. (after a com- dverraska. owner egg dgg (n. itervdnda. irr.). o. at least ditto. island dterstd.). addera . eighty moment ogonblick (n.). -ar. riklig accident. bekant accustom. . sep. olycka. likewise tita. I. remain 60a (n. mutual onska. return dtmins'tone. again. -or. utratta add. back dterldmna. prefix. tindd. For particulars of declension and conjugation.. convince supervise dng. till foljd av acquainted. .. parative) overruskning. st. tvars accompany. and accented var. v. ett . rakning. I.). yet apple (n. oculist ogonldkare. I.. vanja across. prep. ddla.

roa. arrestera om ago. fattas konst article. .. ga i kyrkan amerikansk attention. pryda another. hostdag 19 Grammar . adressera addressee. vid (time. med land ask. address. nagot appetite. upptaga. allena along (as in come ). belopp uppmarksamhet uppmarksam amount ha to. allow. fraga (efter).. roligt Swedish amuse oneself. artikel. forarglig answer. automobil autumn day. och angle. i . arm around.VOCABULARY. forskottera adversity. in the pa eftermiddagen afraid (of). arrest. attentive. anniversary. omkring. ehuru. noje amusing. nagon. tillata skammas ashore. bland. any longer. forfattare amuse. alltid forvanas at the at. anlanda vara agreeable. alder mot arm. skamsen. nagonting. artist. igen against. ocksa although. konstnar to be luft som . American (adj. ankomma. arsdag motgang advertisement. lika ashamed. age. . behaglig ail (impers.sedan arrive. uppna. church. svara any. automobile. bevis. apple after.). annons advice. efter approach. langre anything.). rikta air. alike. aptit eftermiddag. antaga meta adorn. art. adopt. i (for) almost. radd (for) afternoon. narma sig approval. (n. as. fastan altogether. angenam. rada annoying. astonished. rolig and. besoka. adressat 281 amusement. among. emot. bifall again. redan also. rad advise. roande. be already. adress address. nastan alone.). this eftermiddag. applause. ibland amount. alldeles always. bifall apple. en annan advance (money). for. amerikan. aim. bedja (om) . place) house of. generally def. hos attain. belopa sig to till audience. forvanad. ta. hinna attend (visit). auditorium author.

fagel birthday. inackordering board (a train). bite. forsenad. go to . (adv. nappa (of fish) napp (of fish). inackordering boil. frisersalong basket. branch. forut. tillbaka. kost board and room. innan bedja om borrow. blond beat.) for. brod break. back fram och tillbaka belong (to). and. bita.282 aware. become of. lana av both. bade. passa. bake. away. baka baker.). bryta . bell. gren bread. belated. besegra (in games) beautiful. bagge. lana. in the i borjan behind. tro pa klocka B back. (e)mellan big. bara blonde. of what became himf Hvad blev det av honom? cloudy. be . bliva. beg. before (adv. bank. borta. band. being. forr. ga bort. (conj. bird. bok booth. fodelsedag bite. bakgrund. ilia utom bredvid. blasa bless. gosse bakom vasen human . sen belief. skon. emedan. tillhora bench. matsedel band.) fore. borjan. tro believe. back (v. tillkomma (prep. ga till stand fo'das befit. bed. beginning. sla. fodd. boy. ty board (fare). fond backwards. man- niska . sangs koka bone. borrow from.) utom. . beggar. (except) besides (prep. sate and forth. borja. vacker because. dessutom.) boring.. trakig born. become. korg be. to go away. baklanges bad. begynna bada. dartill best. bank barber shop. valsigna blow. tigga. how are youf Hur star det till? bear. bort.. musikkar bank. mulna sang. ljus. dalig. tro. tiggare begin. elak badly. both. ond. varse. vara borta in. backa background. stiga pa' boarder. . rakning of fare. bast between. bagare bill sedel. vid. bliva varse to VOCABULARY. to be away (out).och . vara. stor bill.) beside. ben book. bit.

carelessness. polettera chicken. vardslos. noggrann barn kylig careless. med celebrate. affarsbyggbut. sparvagn renhet captain. firande certain.).). kyckling child. tillfalle. business. avsluta. call balsa p. varda. valgo- soka called. affar. slarv cargo. last carriage. upphora business building. barmhartighet. bedraga omsorg care (v. bringa. by chance. kapten car. call. vagn carry.VOCABULARY. care (noun). do a good gora goda affarer cautious.). karaktar kalla on. viss chair. cheat. be charge. fora brother. byggnad burn. utan) celebrated. fira nad men. ordforande challenge. uppbrand build. sluta. smor kopa bredvid by. firad. branna burnt up.). handelsevis change. 283 vardslb'shet. lugn kunna vagn. slott cat. skota careful. buy. beta rande charity. vaxla( money) character. check. kort charming. valgo- calm can. broder brunette. championship. slarvig . borsta bygga building. yard. forsiktig cease. bryta av. fororsaka . be . kontant cash (v. hons. stol butter. brush. kusk calculation. chairman. bryta ut breakfast. (after a negative. chilly. utmana droska cabman. barmhartig. rakning cab. masterskap chance. inlosa castle. card. frukost bring. bara hamta bring along. mb'rk med cash (noun). katedral cause (noun). medfora. (hos). saker. omtalad celebration. samtal chat (v. fortjusande chat (noun). aktsam. orsak cause (v. avbryta break out. samtala skotsel. katt cathedral. brunett. break off. vid. begara charitable. (adj. andra.).

ci- Christmas. kostym costly. galla concert. ersatta dealer. omlopp stad class. sallskap. trost comfortable. klocka close (noun). uppfora sig . vanlig company. anga. innehalla contents. constitution. cold (noun) for- continue. befalla common. ren compete. besta (av) conspire. konduktor confidence. brand. uppsats concern. kostbar costume. sluta. samtal cook. stundande corner. slut connection. bekvam correspondent. mulen. eldsvada olimate. cigarr. klassisk clean. stanga tyg clothes. close (v. frammande (guests) dyrbar. allman. mynt. stand conduct (noun). korrespondent cordial. kupe" compensate. consult. kosta command. klass classic. hjartlig coming. klaga (over) comply. slant (adj. krage collide. klimat clock. compartment. forbindelse consequently. kaffe coin. belona.) kail. kylning collar. fortsatta contract. infinna sig koka kylig come comfort. sammansvarja (sig) cloudy. horn cost. kamm komma (to a place). uppforande conduct (oneself). efterkomma composition. kyrka cigar. konsert tillf orhallande condition. cool. cleanly. fortroende conflagration. kollidera adraga sig (as a sickness) converse. become . radfraga mulna coat. kroppskonstitu- rock tion contain. garrhandlare circle. betraktande consist. cirkel circulation. kommande. count. foljaktligen consideration. comb. come. city. klader cloth. tavla complain. klar conductor. renlig clear.284 choose.). rakna counter. jul church. disk . samtala conversation. valja VOCABULARY. innehall coffee.

naturligtvis cousin. mork date. fullsatt.VOCABULARY. bildad cup. urspara creamery butter. fullpackad cuff. of course. difficulty. insatta derail. datera daughter. overvaga anhallan. diligent. dyr (price) death. klippa. 285 pa degree. par. besattning cross street. fortjana design. honorar dog. deceive. monster desire (noun). hemtrevlig betanka. debt. anslag.). gang. prick. namnare deposit. dead. folkmassa crowded. dack . different. country. diverse divide. hall. kusin cozy. flitig avmeja dining car. a couple of.). dag daylight.) ned. skara. mejerismb'r crew. grad delay (noun). land. dod deal.). country house. direkt damage (v. a great deal. sed cut (noun). crowd. snitt cut(v. gora office. dod dealer. annorlunda difference. landet in the . beskrivning deserve. matsal dinner. skicka bort dispatch. forstora die. avsanda diverse. dividera do. D daily. hund punkt door. daglig middag direct. onskan. olik. manschett do culture r kultur cultured. drojsmal deliberate. myc- doctor. (prep. skillnad difficult.). tvargata description. anhalla denominator. forklada -dismiss. dorr dot. be- demand (noun).) ned- deck. bedraga down for (adv. lust destroy. dagsljus direction. dotter day. restaurangvagn dining room. garan demand (v. datum date (v. doktor ket. skada dark. kar. kurs. riktning dirty smutsig disguise. ett par course. kopp svar svarighet cure (v. skuld doctor's fee. lantstalle couple.). bota custom. del. en hel del doctor's mottagningsrum handlande dear.

elegans emperor. arende drop. varaktig dwelling. fortramig. exact. hallande entirely. dram. ekono- except. ro- electric.). erfarenhet medfora export (v. fel. ypperlig ata economical. utflykt excuse (v. noga. uppratta esteem. besta. vanta expedient. byta.). draga. europS.). examine. anlagga. fordraga. tappa (lose) druggist. springpojke error. torr duel. afven evening. salong dress. varje. dussin draft. under- drama. roa vaxel entertaining.). varje everybody. anfortro envious. attio either (conj. precis earn. valja exchange. apotekare dry. till och med. avundsjuk erect. sparsam. entertain. uttrycka express train. utgift slut. betjaning exercise (v. noje enough. var. dyr experience. antingen elect. isynnerhet establish. intrada. snalltag eye. agg eighty. torn expense. rita drawing room. slappa ned. elektrisk elegance. var och en (adv. vara enjoyment. ursakta execution. enter. aricka drive. expensive. rad empty. afton. drama draw. end (noun). noggrann exactly. belt och ballet entrust. rora expect. ova. utbyta excursion. utom misk egg. examinera. envar. fortjana eat. klada (sig) drink. ande endure. VOCABULARY. utforande exercise relse (noun).286 . roande. europeisk even.) tidig.) ti-- early digt (adj. komma in oga .dozen. duell durable.). var each. kejsare employees. uppskatta European. medel. uppratta errand. underhalla. nog entail. kora uppfora. kvall every. misstag especially. undersoka excellent. exportera express (v. ovning. utova. bostad errand boy.

formogenhet fraction. fri honorar kanna fetch. vanskap finally. game. flyta floiver. full. familj. the forenoon. nagra (fa) French. slagsmal. beromd. framst festival. friendly. vanligen . falla. first. fotbollag factory. field. foljande food. (immovable).) force. blom- spel. hitta from. brak (arithmetic) France. vanlig general delivery. fee. ty faithful. lycka. trogen fall. vacker eldsvada framme forst frukt fish. golv flour. frost fruit. strid fill. fabrik fair (noun). ansikte football game. (i)fran front. fool. folja garden. in battlefield) foremost. fransk friend. tradgard general. fly floor.VOCABULARY. fine. frost. fa. fast fel father. poste stante generality. fort. (conj. fader fault. freeze. trevlig. fa- family. slutligen. allman.) for. fisk fit. forest. bed. styrka f or. marknad (fall for (prep. flee. antligen frightened. fin. flytande folloio. Frans free. mjol flow. fotbollspel football team. 287 narr face. hastigt fortune. find. frysa freezing point. lek blomma: sterrabatt fluent. mat generally. kraft. fryspunkt a few. stupa on the foreign. langre. frammande. framtid flag. fire. pa formiddagen famous. hamta feiv. Frankrike Francis. forskrackt finna. eld. aker van fight (noun). full passa flagga further. allmanhet re- following. vidare future. feel. in front. glomma (speed). utrikes formiddag. lantbrukare fast fast skog forget. vanlig fylla friendship. front. ryktbar farmer. miljefest forenoon.

hire. at . frisk. gast 0ttiZ. glad. ske happiness. and obj.). sorg grind. f. fa. glorious. hatt God. get up. halsosam hear. forsla. adjo goose. skyldig help (noun).). tveka H habit. make . glas glide. lyda. blifva grumble. VOCABULARY. gas haul. stor green. hjartforlamning heavy. ga. lada gras . high. det gla- der mig glass. till hands. giva glad. bans . hard. bar hesitate. erhalla. handbagage hang. lycklig. hojd 0nef. mala (become) grow. Twiir. fara goal. harlig go. framme hand baggage. kora he. klack (of shoe) height. god. gron greet. Gota kanal Gothenburg. hogligen. hamn hard. hall. knota guest. I am glad. hjalpa her (gen. hojd. vaxa. henne herself. han Gotha Canal. hora heart. hjarta. halsa greeting. hand. halvtimme half-sole. halsa healthy. glad gladja harbor. sig halvsula halfway. huvudvark health. stiga upp girl. skuld guilty. hogt. snail good-bye. glida happen. hal. skinka hand. Goteborg granary. farval. Tyskland get. resa. sig here. honom w. hog mycket vana bar halv (adj. halft (noun) highly.288 German. lycka happy. tung heed. hanga flicka give. hennes. tysk Germany.). mal harmless. bekomma tambur ham. Gud good. halsning heart failure. himself. by . svar . headache. hjalp help (v. utantill . giva akt pa heel. kulle him. halvvags hyra 7m. hill. oskadlig hat.

6 it. helgdag induce. intend. flitig information. det Italien Italy. ill. kilogram. obekvamt kung Kungsgatan knock (v. sarad. presentera (for) house. intresserad timme (noun). kanna. kilometer kind (adj. humanity. halla. obetydlighet obetydlig hem insignificant. hall hold (v. (v. hurry up. slag king.). hem. kilogram. halla om sjuk illuminerad illuminated. hope hope hopp hoppas at the interesting. King's Street. history. skynda journey. avbryta hotel. hurry sig (v. mansklighet. stryka ironing. intressant interrupt. hoppa just ice.).). vanlig kind (n. be in ha brattom a .). hotell introduce. is K keep. humor. historia indicate. arlig hook. manniska being. snail. viktig inclose.). skadad hollow. rac- 289 visa hold (noun). invite. vilja interest (noun). konung. inbjuda inbjuaning iron (v.). amna. bjuda. honest.). out. kilo kilometer. joy. innesluta. bradska. if. house of. otalig important. hos human. industrious. kunna know about. underrattelse inhabitant. black hemma home (adv. strykning invitation. skynda. inbegripa inconvenient. ihalig home (noun). mansklig. narsluten include. intresse interested.). immediately. genast impatient. narsluta inclosed. ka fram holiday. veta.VOCABULARY. invanare injured. behalla. kanna till . insignificance. hungrig hurry (noun). bus. lynne hungry. ink.). island. forma. krok hour. at . resa gladje (v. skynda pa I jump just. knacka know.

).). at. last. se ut (ap- pearance) for. stor load. let. lange vantad look. (att). tion. kvarlamna lecture. lie. manga . lagga pa pos. ligga ljuga liv insjo life. language. lamna. love. as tycka om to. lard least. last liten. fora learn. i mandags longer. se pa. lasa gar kvall. rev listen. man.). (adv. (adv. live. land land (v. line (fishing). stryksaker long (v. titta. mail (v). tur lower. landskap literature. karlek lycka. lake shore. sen. post leave behind. langta long expected.) lik. i i loaf. fattas. ga M magnificent. leta efter lat lose.) last (adj. brev. manner.). forelasning to the left. manniska maneuver (v. till ten vanster left. man. atminstone minst. sprak Lapland. dam sjo. Lappland large. bo borda (v. lock. impers. at leave (v.) (adj. harlig. kre- ditbrev. sjostrand like lamb steak lammstek land (noun). satt.290 VOCABULARY. . kaka lang. . storartad mail (noun). lake. fa (induce) (att) forma kvarlamnad ben leg. letter. landa (intr. make. vis manufacture. forlora. lara learned. hora p& lite(t) landscape. landsatta (tr. lange Monday. stryka (flag) luck. taga ned. litteratur little. forsenad laundry. langre late.) likewise. sakna. last fjol. laxa. soka efter.. lend. look lawn. tappa lead (v. avresa. vanster.). grasmatta lazy. last year. of of credit.). bara. leva. lyssna.). blicka. lie. long. racka last night. vara. tillverka many. lana less. manovrera lektion mindre lata lesson. a little.). afvenledes like. gora. recommendarekommendationsbrev felas lady. sist. lack. strykinrattning (place) laundry.

mirror. mal mother.VOCABULARY. nyheter newspaper. mycket multiply. ny newness. museum music.) nara nearness.) ingen noble. misstaga (sig) Mister (Mr.). tidning next. betyda means. traffa melt. mun. underlata nest. make tjana pengar . snail. kunna meadow. night. misstag mistake (v.) nar. market mate. miller. laga mention. natt. namligen. narhet need. herr modern. fiesta most people. omsesidig merry. nyhet news. natur near (adj. morgon.). omtala merchant. for- new. mandag money.). paper. flytta . telegrambud middle. blygsam moment. and prep. glad. pengar. to-night. rnest. munter miraculous. adel noise. mer. . berg mourn. olycka miss. spegel misfortune. of. manad more. behova neglect. sb'rja mouth. handlande merciful. moder motor boat. namna. ma. bredvid nice. bo never. ogonblick Monday. multiplicera mend. musik. morgontidning larm . forsumma. movement. de make may. forsumma mistake (noun). mota. modern modest. rriin N namely. i morse: i morgon. minut mill. smalta (v. i kvall night express. torg most. fa. aldrig kvarn mjolnare minute. rorelse verk much. trevlig money order. spel mutual. (adj. mycken.). river) move. sakna. hygglig. motorbat mean mena. to-morrow. mountain. mitt (i mitten) my. mynning (cannon. ang meal. that is to say nature. place. nej. vasen. (adv. nast next to. barmhartig museum. postanvisning month. nattsnalltag no (adv. flere morning. this . medel by means medelst measure. underbar messenger boy. matt meet.

only). tid- offer office. pair. olympisk on. overresa man once. sysselsatta. paket building. at . bestalla originate. mening. ursakta parents. ingenting. namnare numerous. tillfalle pain occupied.). tavla occupy. ofta old. there. formak roll gammal pa en. nummer. annars out. blott open kep (adj. plaga. uppsta Northern Museum. bara. (theater) participate. own. opera. or. betala patient. eller. over. en passenger. 6'ppna open peasant. endast. darborta. ning parcel. lagenhet annars order (noun). talig. intet notice (v. ett. newspaper. of. palats om erbjuda kontor affarsbyggnad paper. malning. on board. VOCABULARY. deltaga pass. agare havre pack. (adj. upptagen (v. iakttaga occasion. befalla.) norra (def. opera pa middagen north (noun) norr.). ute nothing. talrik overweight. (sig) forsova now. packa page. Olympic. upptaga oculist. gora ont painting. park. ut. officer. ombord one.) passage.292 noon. par ogonlakare palace. park part. overvikt owe. (flowers) (v.). ej Nordiska otherwise. middag. tal numerator. nu number. varsebliva over. aga owner. forbi patience.j. kvar. sysselsatt. foraldrar parlor. tillfalle. sida P obey. tanke opportunity. pron. bonde . papper. inte. museet not. icke. passagerare gang oppen. and adv. reda order (v. pardon. only) northern. only. sleep. office (v. officer often. lyda observe. nordlig opinion. ordning.).). tillbringa (indef. av. talamod patient pay. utspruc- past (prep.). vara skyldig O oats. norra (def. del.

princip skald probable. tillatelse. tillata person. utova praise. plocka post postage stamp. piller beromma pin. sit present (adj. taga upp piece. fattig. bedja pirate. dyrbar of. vacker. postkontor potato. punkt. formoda. troligen point. behaglig. plats. place. stampning anslag. aning. knappnal sjorovare pray. dot program. plantera. manniska pessimistic.). bit power.). pessimistisk pest. predikant precious. person. mojlig physician. ova. tro sig pretty. noje poem. behaga print. ganska angenam. foreskriva prescription. pest population. presume. placard. pen. praktisera. frimarke office.). pjis (theater) pleasant. foreskrift. befolkning porch. hovlig. program prohibit. plats. forhindra price. principle. kanske. hovlighet. lakare picture gallery. aitig 293 politeness. forbjuden . kraft. diktare. potatis pick upp. stallning possible. pris . abborre poor. torbjuda poison.. forestalling perhaps. forgifta policeman. stackars. trolig probably. gen. jamrande prescribe. folk polite. have a . piece of furniture. preach. recept plan (noun). tavelgalleri pick. predika preacher. i pitching. spela play (noun). makt practice (v. hamn porter. artighet perch. narvarande presentiment. ordinera. dikt poet. trevlig please. hellre stallet for. dalig performance. mobel pill. poliskonstapel prohibited. take the of. behag. ana (adv. plan plan (v. penna people. tryck. skildring position. veranda port. stil pleasure.VOCABULARY. planera plant. lov permit.). prevent.) tamli- play (v. foredraga. lek. kanhanda permission. stycke. plakat in the prefer. (heist) +verb ersatta plaintive. barare portrayal. leka. spel.

fort quiet. . jarnvag. till by reason of. omtala R railway. inkop purpose. mottagare recite. forbliva. komma ihag receive. resonabel recall. mottagnings- rum recipient. satta reconcile. fbresla proposal. forslag proposition. kaj quick. lasebok ready. inse really. lagga bort Q quality. rod redeem. inlosa reduce. rather. betanka (sig) regard. sallsynt snabb remainder. rykte . snabb.). snar.). trata quay.). larjunge foljd av reasonable. framstaende promise (v. slakting jarnvagsolycka remain. ganska.). frikopa rapid. befordrad propose. VOCABULARY reach. hellre rare.). fardig realize. kvick. bliva. erinra sig remind. (noun). nyligen reception room. regna ransom (noun). racka. proud. avsikt forfolja put. lova promoted. upplasa torsona recognize. erinra (om). stolt public (noun). lagga. Mersta ransom (v. rest remember. offentlig public school. mottaga recently. losen (money in bank) . innesta rain (noun). regn rain (v. riktigt. folkskola publish. forslag protect. accident. rekommenderad regulate. letter of. recommend. alldeles registered. anse. tyst quite. minnas. betrakta kvalitet quarrel (v. utgiva pupil. reach out.294 prominent. allman. reducera reflect. relation. lasa reader. orsak. rekommendationsbrev red. erhalla. minnas. protest. hastig. rac- ka fram read. paminna rent. rekommendera recommendation. quickly. fa. allmanhet. hyra reputation. skydda protestera verkligen reason. rask hastig. relate. igenkanna put away. purchase pursue. justera beratta. publik public (adj. stan- na. forhallande relative.

salja mogen ripen. respekterad rest (noun). plats ride (noun). nojd save. it seems to me. tjanst. rullning boat. vila rest (v. (coll. del she. rik om hav seasick. flod- river. rum tjanare. synas. scenery. atervanda hamnas scratch. rykte run. skicka send for. sceneri school. radda (rescue) restaurant. traffa pant right. allvarsam. mogna rise. prov sandwich.). restaurang result. .) return. sjo. segla. segelbat hon sailor. semester. see. ring ring up. rewrite. sorglig. betjaning service. sju several. begaran request (v. salt anhalla. aterlamna tillbaka. sate. saga v. sb'ka ring. roddbat sermon. atskilliga share (noun). sallan sell. skicka efter send away.) salt. room. belaten. flera. begara salute. riva revolver. ruin rumor. hoger. sensible. ratt. sjoman shine. sorgsen. behalla say. spara. stiga semester. skina .). forstandig allvarlig. ga (watch) avgora. uppgora Russia. right. (tr. predikan servant. sjosjuk seat. ro. vila sig sample. boat. servants (at- row. hoger seek. Ryssland seven. skola score. flod. vag (v.).VOCABULARY request (noun). trakig sail. rida (horse). tjog komma revenge. springa. soffa. ruin. ringa pa hos rink. sakerhet. halsa (pa) respected.). skriva rich. S sad. det synes mig seldom. smorgas satisfied. be to . strand road. aktur ride (v. skicka bort send. skridskobana ripe. rock gunga svar rolling. seem. aka . ha the ratt till security. revolver seam. serious. resultat retain. betjaning tendance) settle. termin upp bank. se. som sea.

rokning smooth. skepp. skinande. blank snow (noun). nagon somewhat. forening sofa. giva time. syster six.). skicklig sleep (noun).). liten smile (v. ibland some. sova sleepy. since. anblick. rokare spring chicken. sa. starta. stangd sick. so that. skorsten smoking. . sex sitta souvenir postal. skjuta shore. asyn (-stans) son. ledsen soup. sorg sorry. blank ship. sakta slow up. le smoker. sida. sjukdom . nagonstades at sidan side. belagen. praktig sport. tal spend (money). stanga shut. glasogon (noun).). sno snow (v. ond (cause) sing.). soppa southern. somn sleep (v. vy^ort sow. sakta small. somnig slice (noun). brodd sprout (v. snoa so. tillbringa ut. son signature. aka skridsko skating rink. skridskobana skate skillful. kort jasa societet. syn. situated. sko shoot.296 shiny. sa att society. sometimes. frimarke. to the sight. visa shut. fartyg shirt. mean emedan song. skona speak. namnteckning signify. jamn. sydlig sister. varfest sprout (noun). 6m.). sang soon. shout. strand short. ga. sit. snart. sodra. kyckling spring festival. sedan (time). sjunga sjunka sorrow. skrika show. skiva splendid. betyda. soffa sjuk sickness. speech. avresa . langsam slowly. idrott spring. ropa. sa be . sink. skridsko skate (v. shoe.). skjorta VOCABULARY smokestack. nagot somewhere. gro stamp. var slow. borja. tala spectacles. befinna sig lig- spare. strax sore. without ofrankerad start (v.

strid. gunga strength. larare tear. omtala. kalla sun. haftig. stormig story. tala.). tailor. tala om.). hastig. solstrale Sunday. forstad succeed. uppsikt supper. to be nog. lyc- teach. stiga. droja. bras pa talk (noun). station stay. sondag. samtal talk (v. surprise (noun). riva kad sudden. sakert. ga ut take. telegram telegraph. superintend. kralt strife. vis. Sverige sweet. stanna serligen surely. station. telefonera tennis. street. sommar. socker suffer. tio at. framgangsrik. passa suitable. lida saga ten. angare. sot. annu stop. set the . telegrafera tell. berattelse. b'vervaka supervision. snabb suddenly.VOCABULARY state. overraskning vaning (of a house) strange. gral strike. kvallsmat. samtala taste. sol i steak. till suit (noun). telephone. kostym suit (v. sunbeam. och ga. sparvagn swing (v. taga.). tennis 20 . overraska swallow. beratta. bod. studera stupid. time. bord. passande Swedish Grammar. svalja Sweden. stjala bort steamboat.). stjala. sakerligen store. alsklig gata street car. angmaskin step (v. frammande surprise (v. saker. promenera. style. stat 29' last . tedious. butik stormy. student study (noun). plotsligt sugar. i up. somras summon. angbat steam engine. table. sla stroll. lyckas successful. styrka. forth. lara teacher. sup6 sure. stanna stek summer. duka vandra strong. son dags last . steal. stiga fram still.). stark student. dum skraddare a walk.). stil smaka suburb. studium study (v. after. trakig telegram.

union unit. tunga to-night. tidtabell timid. resa. bil- jettkontor tidy.). to-morrow. tyvarr union. therefore. thank. till. genom throw. unpack. farbror under. tva ganger two. tandvark town. loge try. (rel. gang time table. besvara. darpa. brak trouble (v. orolig unfavorable. prov tag than. trouble (noun). teater behandla. (dem. (v. troska trip. detta thought.298 terrible. (conj. besta. salunda ticket. kasta thus.) denden dar. tanka.). dar treatment. ataga sig time (counting). sedan there. ne. fara travel (noun). forfarlig VOCABULARY torment train. tanke thresh. ta. svarighet. biljett. plaga test (noun). olycklig unfortunately. darfor thereupon. an som. trott to-day. tid. tacka that.) att da. tillsammans tolerate. ordentlig turn (v. tala. under understand.) transform. sedan smasak.) vanda (om) turn (noun). i morgon tongue. radd tip. tills (conj. hals tuition. forsoka throat. handla om then. trad trick. denna. together. forvandla travel. have . trakig until. (en) hel tooth. termometer think. obetydlighet tur thermometer. behandling t'iee. skolavgift through. ogynnsam unfortunate. tjugu twice. drickspengar i tired. tva time. olyckligtvis. forsta undertake. stad too. packa upp unpleasant. for. - - office. tycka this. renlig. tur twenty. spratt trifle. dag fordraga uneasy. paraply uncle. sann threshing floor. foretaga. resa. hinna U umbrella.) . resa treat. plaga true. bemoabout. sa. i kvall ocksa tand toothache. theater.

olika wealthy. vart . uppassare. besoka. tvatta u-ash. vanligen up. halsa pa vilkeu. spatsertur wander. bruk waiter. have a watchmaker. mycket. vattna way. vandra want (v. galla valuable. overresa while (noun).VOCABULARY unusual. vapen weather. vie iv. rost ivhile (conj. weak. (interrog. vakna walk (noun). vete off.). semester valise. by haftig. varst vessel.). anvanda useful. vantsal use (v. rik Vasa Street. weapon. upon. onsdag week. besok (v. when. stund whither. oense various. ferier. vardefull . vilken. val. ledig. nytcig usual. sakna warm. varm wash (v. utsikt villa. stjalpa usage. with negative vidare. vatten water (v. vaga fartyg vestibule. belast violent. tvatt. varde. haftig very. vilja ha. onska. villa village. pa upset. klocka resvaska dal valley. vat wheat. valdsam. gronsaker vehement. viktig well. fickur. tyngd weighty.). vader Wednesday. washing. tambur narhet weight. vikt. nar where. som medan voyage. tvatt- ning watch. urmakare water (noun). \asagatan vegetables.) (rel. vanlig. torn vacation. som van- usually. vag. asligt wake .) den visit visit (noun). vis variance. set! use (noun). be at. vecka iveigh. vanta (pa) ic agon. vicinity. value (noun). sud- valbargad. (hos) voice. bra. var which.).). wet. frisk. vacant. svag satt.). read. ovanlig 299 W vagn wait. vaktmastare ivaitlng room. bruka.

klok torka av year.) som. varld wind up. handlare wholly. ni . arbete. VOCABULARY (rel. underbar word.). ja. hustru wonder (noun). undra wonderful. orolig (adj.).). hel wholesale grossmerchant. du. verk work (v. vintras last winter. under wonder (v. torka. ord work (noun).).300 who. innanfor yet. ar yell (v. wise. i gar annu. draga upp window. gul yes. skriva Y off. (interrog. without. wipe. belt och ballet wife. wing. hos. an. jo yesterday. vinge winter. skrika wish (noun). arbetare world. arbeta ivorkingman. vin worn worth out. 6'nska with. inom.). i vard write. onskan wish (v. vilken whole. anda you. fonster wine. meet yellow. utsliten worried.) vem. vinter. utan within.

Declension. 118. compared. 205. 188 varda. Impersonal verbs. v* adjectives. 65. 4. adverbs. . Accent-stress. 96 .CONDENSED INDEX OF SUBJECTS. Address. . 68. senses of. and proper. Conjugation: 87. substitutes. irregularities. 270. 315 . The reference is to sections. Conjunctions. tax. 364. 291. . 18. Articles. . app. 131. stract. 33. Comparison. Double forms. 152. . verbs. uses of. 377. 344. synuse of. 62. 381. 127. adjectives of pronouns. 338. of nouns. 317. demonstra. of. . . Infinitive. c. postposi- Apostrophe. 133 . 66. 299. 179 compared. syntax. . 188. Cardinal numbers. uses of. 302. 127. modal. hava. 105 . see pronouns. omission of the auxiliary Adverbs: form. 201. 45. Causative. nite. Concord. remarks on Imperative. Capital letters. . 80 fifth. nouns conjunctions. 147. . 290 . sing. 56 adjectives. 303 by auxilof equality. . 262. 204. . 265 pronouns only. gender. Impersonal passive. note accentuation of. 243. Auxiliaries: expresison of pure futurity. 187. . 143. a. 55. Deponent verbs. prepositive. remarks on. of. 325 Imperfect. 76 . see modal auxiliaries 143 . with 134 objective. 64 and Foreign words. foreign. pronominal. . 339. 143 use of 294 present used for future. 1 22. word order 104. 371 general connectives. 134. bliva. 132 uses nouns of measure. app. Accent. forms. 128 127 . to express purpose. 135. com- Date. 67. 71. see g . coordinating. . 144 . adverbial . subordinating. 338 . . 34 pounds. note. 39. 38 . nouns. 73 79 . 23. 200 . 129 . 374 . 158. 265 pronouns and adjectives. 341. 300 . 241. prepositions with infinitive. Compound verbs. musical. 303. . . 324 . Interjections. in. app. 110 . first. . 214 of. 195 . 372 . g. Future tenses: form. . 1. Measure. 2 . att omitted. Dependent clauses. 83 . tiara. . adjective. Alphabet. Demonstratives. 74 . formations from. 318. for plur. 113 . second. 165. Cases. . position. . pronunciation of. skola. . 318. Genitive. 130. interrogative. generic and abdistributive. in nouns. in verbs. 77 . 35 . 116 . 308 lute. 296. . simple words. indefiAdjectives: declension. 299. 255. definite. syntax of. 69. Inseparable prefixes. see Pronouns 109. use of. . Indefinite pronouns and adjectives. . Modal 252 . fourth. after. tive. 136. 122 see . 126 indefinite. third. 312 absoiary. 251 . 63 . expressions of. . Gender. etc. . 300. lata. app. of letter. 190 omission 96. Interrogatives. note 21. is In general only the first of successive sections on the same topic Accentuation. 38. 216. definite. use of indefinite declension. remarks. 194. 70. 124 tive. 180. indicated. foreign. 97. 2 .

88 . Comparison . possessive sin. hard 13 modification. 76 fourth. Relatives. 165 concession. 179 nagonable verb-compounds. 127. 185 192 291 . 290. . 42. 181 Passive. pronoun. reflexive. 130. 88. formations from. 172 reflexive conjugation. Quantity. of passives . . . . 128. . conjugaconjugation. . present. Paradigms. substitute for. 248. 219 . 55 app. 268. of principal verbs. 104. Numerals. 184 apparent or idiomatic meanfalse passive. . 360. article. 335. g gender. 292. 89 . see demonstratives. interrogative. Syllabication. 139. 174. . ting. 90 third tion. 183 substitute for. 186. 299 of . 338. 2. Nominative case. . utive. variable. Pronunciation. purpose. 210 . 331 . 168 al. uses of. app. demonstrative. passive. long m and n. names. 251 . 14. see nouns. 35. 152 . singular plural. 83 118 irregularities. 163 . 14. Order of words. 127 and fifth. ac- verbs. 94. 80 . 67. personal. a. Tenses (uses). present. . 128. 324. 51 compound sec words. 136 . 338 . number. 180 cent. reflexive. 3. 178. . 2 object with variadverbs. 2 . in . 130. 2 Punctuation. . 139 . Weight. 77 Nouns. use. 134. : 351 . 245 list . in address. date. 211. 172 . 1. note. 142 . . 207. . wish. note. 357. 91. Past tense. . 'possessive. of. . 158 . 324 325 ordinal. 341. inseparable. 1. varda. . of verbs for English Number. 204 Prefixes. b . 214 . 211. of measure. 290. Weak verbs. quantity. reciprocal sense of the passive. of day. Participle. 134. . . Principal parts. . Time 336. form. . Verbs. 315. . vara) . 250 indefinite. 180 . strong. emphatic. 187. 345 uses. 316 absolute. 226. 293 future. remarks 222 . impersonmodal. inverted). irregular 207 . aries fbliva. regular verbs. adjectives. verbal. imperfect. . . 250 . secfirst. : INDEX. position. third. 2. sion of. 293. weak. with auxiliin -s. Separable prefixes. etc. a.302 Negatives. Supine. lieciprocal. 219 . cardinal. 210 . see . etc. use of title instead. 265. impersonal. note . agent with passive. app. . (forms). 233: past participle and supine. and soft. c. a Umlaut. 290. 6 ings. ingenting. . foreign. . pro- nouns. Proper nouns. declension. unreal conditions. Pronominal adjectives. questions. Vowels. Prepositions. second fourth conjugation. Superlative. strong and irregular Present tense. 224. c . parts. 166 potential. of strong and ir- Verbal nouns. 230. omis- Omission. 230. 54. 171 progressive-. 93 . past. indefinite. 167 . 105 ond. Personal. of verb (normal. 294 . Pronouns. 67. 2. 2 . nouns 134. 339. 291. 97 . first Possessives. 179. 241 . 348 . ison bliva. compound. note . distrib- Paradigms. . Subjunctive. intensified. 240. auxiliary in dependent of prepositive definite clauses. . reciprocal. 164 171. 186 93. (condition) unreal. c. perfect. compar-s and with in . 195 . Perfect tense. 150. relative. position of object. 126. 104. 67. 131. . for and fore. 50.

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SWEDISH NATIONAL SONGS .

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Ma vi da i to - ner rrTTTTTJ Ma vi mm da -pa. g B . gff " Di) i i I I L'STT " T rp-T. broder. rte& afcfc H 8ang-en ad- +-4 f .Dane liksom askan. !. > ** .la kans-lor fo - der. hogt var fosterlandaka sang! b p p U " -*- -H TT Pul-sen briuner. bro-der. . H. marsch framat annu en gang! i. i uer . . hjUrtat gloder. J._. hjar-tatanyckelhetersang. Marcia. STUNZ._! -L svii - C - to - ner ra to - Ma vi da. f Zgl.-Jj Hi rt '^' " * Da-ne lik sum as-kan. L Sangen ad-la kanslor foder.

r ^^ira^a^ P L f* .f . r /#f-H . hell ! dy . hand.ra fos . ^:\:\ ^=t 4r r. .3==:toi4g sva tro-hets-e ra - den tro-hets hand - i e - den hand i hand.ter- AiiMiJ.sva ra tro-hets-e - den hand i hand. ~l F 1 1 f t> t v liv t \ 0" - it p vart och blod for Sver-ges a ra.

Dalkarlasang. LlNDBLAD. Marsch. ^fc-rriiizi^ rr . 0.

a~~. -J- j -*:_ -* --.dys -ter prakt. r -- !^r_rjt=^ ^t^_f5ZR :^: 4-^L lEiiEH Ett har . I go . -Jn --.r decrease.-*.*-. ett bar - ligt land.de p da - la- "f f"f .ligt land. : ocli ill - var bru -sa -*" diir fran trakt -t" till trakt. > :r T Ti X h _| H .

var sjung . dal. PFBIL.ma nes en him . fc4 y #11 ^ * wm . mf 5ita 1. varm varm). bla).er var stra .mel sa skon (sa (sa skon). Var dof Var tin - - tar en blom .lar en vftl fa so - - gel len sa sa nojd nojd). 2.Mitt hemlands Andante.

-j&f ft 1 .rit.

du fjiill-ho-ga Nord. da - tys ta. gaxnla. mf 3E* 1. 2. du a . - * f* 1 J -i-PU" ' i 3 fr-ft f= - Du gam la. du fri a. du fria.ratditt i^t^fefe! x 31 n_a NL .Du Andante maestoso.du Du tro -nar pa min-nenf ran forn-sto ra-dar. Folkmelodi fran Norrland.

C. BELLMAN. M.Fjariln vingad syns pa Haga. > .

F. allt. J. allt. dim. ' P P lyftsenh(3jdmothimlensrand. mer alskad an var bygd. an va-ra fii-ders jord.skall mognaur sitttvang. och hogre klinga skall var fosterlandska sang. fosterlandska sting. i> p- & ' : 1.den Din blom-ning.din frojd.ljudhogt. varstjarDenatt.ejsauksendal. kad an var bygd i nord. . i /z dim. som sang an v&rt va-ra fit ders jord. hogre klinga skall en gang r> var hjarta rort en gang. vart hjarta rort en gang.och -r* fr^i -7- 3& rt<.ae. Vartland.ody-raord! Ej 2. allt. s als - allt. vad harsom syn. Rl'XEBERG.din glans. Vi al-ska va-ra strom-mars brusoch va-ra backarssprang.vartland.Maestoso. PACIDS.mer mor-ka sko-gens dyst ra sus.ejskolJ8eustrand.vartfos-ter-land.vart8ommarljus. urvar karlek skall gaopp ditt ljns.sluten an knopp. L. 3.ditthopp. vad bar som syn.

Ill r\ Folkmarsch fran Orsa i Dalarne. Allegretto. mod och morska man. .Mandom.

AIT. yrty/tr . af toQsattaren. IVAR WlD^BN. M. J = 100.Dalmarscti. Hurtigt. M.

at ff >r -0 m c . I bro-der. f mf ~f mf PM-^^ Hur latt =f= f^f^ med var-and-ra.Lifligore. L. nar - det ar att vand-ra.

.A K a tempo.

A. -*- * it kla - I - * ri-net-ten la - ter. * . Dalmarsch 4. . :i2: ^^ at flickan - dim. la - la - la. L r *1 I' m * j fP^ H*/^ ^s^ i kan sla takt mot byx-ans skinn! Hur ^ ^^ : H j. tra-la-la. e rit.-M H z med var-and-ra. I bro-der. tra-la-la.Lifligore.tra-la-la. KARLFELDT. la - la - la. da spel-man vSn-der a termed la - la - la. f mf m=f Hur T latt del &r att vand-ra. tra-la-la. E. tra-la-la. -== n== ^^ ^&r T brudgumsskank och brollopslust >-- i sinn! la la - la. niir * t ir J m * slan-tar-na fie- J 5 * |j.

Svenska kungssangen. ^ m . mf Ur svens-ka h jar-tans djup en gang en samfalld och en 1 /K r -. OTTO LINDKLAD. Maestoso.

.Varmiands-visan.

till landet.Langtan Tempo di marcia. f > .

ra sjo. 2. .: 2 X i> I - gens la gor. SATHERBERG. gens lun-der. Folkmelodi.ga gung-a fram pa den gro-nan kla |> ' - sal. sjo. vat-teo-fa-gelnslekkringfjardocho. lig - ga ang - ar i - na fu - i klar nad tras-tens sang ru- S ^f-Z ^ | 00000 r^ j-MSft^?: p : ff 33 da sko " t-l 4. T. & nat-tens tar . de --.a .nor Har-pansljud. span-na mor-ka pal-len ga sa sor - ge - 11 - ga.zur dans till - skif - tan - de.^T till "t i_:i_fJ~ : tih"'>-p- jL f-f- Langtan landet 2. Nackens polska.lar i ho-nom sak-te-li . ^4ndan<e con moto. A Djupt - i girs dott-rar ha -vet pa de-man-te-hal-len nac-ken vi . och i lun den dan-sa kiil-lor-ne. H. $= 1.

^ P P 3= sitt m ^ fcdt stor det lugn 6 .dt PP i > P ft EE*E 6 . b ft % Nackens polska 2. 6 . 1 bor-gen gar. f 5^5 - *^*= tnnnTa tempo. i . A.ran en vag att do.ver nejden Fre-ja smyckar rar. bar-pan slar.ej en sus-ning. Kval-len har-lig star i so .ka fjar . nar havets kung ur gyll-ne bor-gen gar.ver berg och dal. tt=4t :P=3= rfl. J> ft -&- mr vA. ing-en stjar-na ba-dar nattens drottning an. nar havets kung ur gyllne gyll-ne bar. = : t P svartan hog-tids-skrud. nar och fjarran. Fast bans 6 . ocb nac-ken sa sin sorg pa f t^t p * y v 35 ^fe=|b=ig ___Jjw_J5 L_i. AFZELIUS. *c.ga star at 9id?=F=F-S K i. -r**- . ii *:r P dunk-la him-me-len.ver skog. och nac-ken sa sin sorg pa bar-pan slar.

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A 000 666 352 .