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NO TREASON.

No.

vr.

BY LYSANDER SPOONER•

• •

BOSTON:
:PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR:

1870.

Entered according to Act of Congreu. By LYSANDER

In the year 1870.

SPOONER.

In the Clerk's 01llce of the District Court of the United States. for the DIstrict of Yauachueelta.

TUE :drst and second numbers ot this series were published In 1861. For reasons not necessary to be explained, the sixth is now published In advance ot the third, tourth and Mh.

NO T.REASON.
NO. VI.

THE OONSTITUTION OF NO AUTHORITY.
I.
THE!Constitution has no inherent authority or obligation. It has no authority or obligation at all, unless as a contract between man and man. And it does not so much as even purport to be a contract between persons now existing. It purports, at most, to be only a contract between persons living eighty years ago. And it can be supposed to have been a' contract then only between persona who had already come to years of discretion, so as to be competent to make reasonable and obligatory contracts. Furthermore, we know, historically, that only a small portion even of the people then exleting were consulted on the subject, or asked, or permitted to express either their consent or dissent in any formal manner. Those persons, if anl, who did give their consent formally, are all dead now. Most ofthem have been dead forty, fifty, sixty, or seventy years. And the Constitution, 80 far as it wa8 their contract, died. with them. They had no natural power or right to make it obligatory upon their children. It is not only plainly impossible, in the nature of things, that they could bind their posterity, but they did not even attempt to bind them. That is to say, the instrument does not purport to be an agreement between any body but "the people" then existing; nor does it, either ex-

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pressly or impliedly, assert any right, power, or disposition, on their part, to bind any body but themselves. Let us see. Its language is : "We, the people of the United States [that i!'l,the people

tlten existing in the United States], in order to form a. more perfect union, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United Statcs of America." It is plain, in the first place, that this language, as an agree· ment, purports to be only what it at most really was, viz: a con• tract between the people then existing; and, of necessity, binding, as a contract, only upon those then existing. In the second place, the language neither expresses nor implies that they had any· intention or desire, nor that they imagined they had any right or power, to bind their /I posterity" to live under it. It does not say that their /I posterity" will, shall, or must live under it. It only says, in effect, that their hopes and motives in adopt. ing it were that it might prove useful to their posterity, as well as to themselves, by promoting their union, safety, tranquillity, liberty, etc. Suppose an agreement were entered into, in this form: We, the people of Boston, agree to maintain a fort on Governor's Island: to protect ourselves and our posterity against invasion. This agreement, as an agreement, would clearly bind nobody but the people then existing. Secondly, it would assert no right, power, or disposition, on their part, to compel tbeir It posterity" to maintain such a fort. It would only indicate that the supposed welfare of their posterity was one of the motives that induced the original parties to enter into the agreement. When a man says he is building a house tor himself and hil po,terity, he does not mean to be understood as saying that he has any thought of binding them, nor is it to be inferred that he

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foolish as to imagine that he has any right or -power to So far as they are concerned, he only means to be understood as saying that his hopes and motives, in building it, are that they, or at least some of them, may find it for their happiness to lire in it. So when a man says he is planting a tree for himself and /,iI posterity, he does not mean to be understood as saying that he has any thought of compelling them, n9r is it to be inferred that he is such simpleton as to imagine that he has any right or power to compel them, to eat the fruit. So far as .they are concerned, he only means to say that his hopes and motives, in planting the tree, are that its fruit may be agreeable to them. So it was with those who originally adopted the Constitution. Whatever may have been' their personal intentions, the legal meaning of their language, so far as their" posterity" was -con. cerned, simply was, that their hopes and motives, in entering into the agreement, were that it might prove useful and aeceptable to their posterity; that it might promote their union, safety, tranquillity, and welfare; and that it might tend" to secure to them the blessings of liberty." -The language does not assert nor at all imply, any right, power, or disposition, on the part of the original parties to the agreement, to compel their" posterity" to live under it. If they had intended to bind their posterity to live under it, they should have said that their object was, not " to secure to them the blessings of liberty," but to make slaves of them; for if their "posterity" are bound to live under it, they are nothing less than the slaves of their Coolish,tyrannical, and dead grandfathers. 1t cannot be said that the Constitution formed" the people of the United States," for all tim~, into a corporation. It does not speak of" the people" as a corporation, but as individuals. A corporation does not describe itself as "we," nor as II people," nor as II ourselves." Nor does a corporation, in legal language,
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bind them, to live in it.

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and paying taxes. and did DO' attempt to bind. but it did not even pledge anyone of them to do so. existing at anyone time. had DOpower to bind. their posterity. men. Legally speaking. separately. the question arises. fifteenth. 1. therefore. If. or perhaps twentieth of the whole population (black and white. II. or twentieth of those then existing. during the first twenty 9r thirty years under the Constitution. then.have done so." It supposes itself to have. voting and tax paying. And first of voting. it is probable that. in the Constitution. nothing that professes or a~tempts to bind the "posterity" of those uzawho e8tablish~. whether their posterity have bound thernselves? If they . as the following considerations show. But for this voluntary accession of new members. Moreover. by voting. women. have the power to create a perpetual corporation. could have incurred any obligation to support the Constitution. A corporation can become practically perpetual only by the voluntary accession of new members. Consequently. has been of such a kind that it not only did Dot pledge the whole people to support the Constitution.6 have any 1/ posterity. In the very nature of things. not more than one tenth. so far as voting was concerned. and minors) were permitted to vote. the corporation necessarily dies with the death of those who originally composed it. viz. fifteenth. not more than one tenth. no body of men. as the old ones die off. there is. and speaks of itself as having. as a single individuality. . But owing to the property qualifications required. perpetual existence. Let us consider these two matters. thoy can have done so in only one or both of these two ways. All the voting that has ever taken place under the Constitution. thoso who established the Constitution. the act of voting could bind nobody but the actual voters.

It cannot be said that. probably not more than two-thirds (about one-ninth of the whole population) have usually voted. or ten years. that. five. lIe sees further. a man pledges himself to support the Constitution. He sees. No one." pages 5 and 6. under peril of weighty punishments. a man finds himself enviroued by a government that he cannot resist j a government that forces him to pay money. for example. and forego the exercise of manv of his natural rights. . 2. If. by voting. * viz: "In truth. their actual voting ii not to be taken as proof of consent. I vote for an officer who is to hold his office for only a year. it probably cannot be said that more than oneninth. I cannot be said to have thereby pledged myself to support the government beyond' that term. or one-eighth. on the ground of actual voting. in the case of Individuals. Yet the act of voting cannot properly be called a voluntary One on the part of any very large number of those who do vote. in periods of great excitement. Consequently. On this point I repeat what was said ill a former number. too. three. of the whole population are usually u~der any pledge to support the Constitution. without his consent having even been asked. Of the one-sixth that are permitted to vote. the other five-sixths can have given no pledge that they will support the Constitution. that other men practise this tyranny over him by the use of the ballot. No. than one of their own choice. 3. On the contrary. It is rather a measure of necessity imposed upon them by others.7 At the present time. render servlpe. Many vote only once in two. Therefore. even far the lime being. it is to be considered that. it is probable that not more than one sixth of the whole population are permitted to vote. Many never vote at all. can be said to pledge himself for any longer period than that for which he votes. by voting. unless the act of voting be a perfectly voluntary one on his part. if he will but use the ballot • See" No Treason.2. 80 far as voting is concerned.

and in which no other means of self-defence offered.perfectly free to consent. so situated that. be a legitimate inference that the government itself. therefore. or ever consented to. he attempts tho former. used the only one that was left to him. if allowed the ballot. without thereby subjecting himself or his property to be disturbed or injured by others. or be killed himself. But it would not." . On the contrary. without his consent. as his only chance of self-preservation. it is not to be inferred that the battle is one of his own choosing. ever really and voluntarily consented to the Constitution. and who from the necessity thus forced upon him. he may become a master. to save his own life in battle. is it to be inferred that the contest is one into which he voluntarily entered. if he use the ballot. "Doubtless the most miserable of men. where he must either kill others. Legally . . .As we can have no legal knowledge as to who votes from choice. His case is analogous to that of a man who has been forced into battle. consequently. in an exigency into which he had been forced by others. it is to be considered that. that he voluntarily set up all his own natural rights. Because. he finds himself. as a stake against those of others. Nor can we ever have 'such proof. that be voted from choice. or not. a man attempts to take the lives of his opponents. that by voting. he must become a slave. if he does not use it. as a matter of necessity. even of the actual voters of the United States. to support the government. by subjecting them to his own. if they could see any chance of thereby meliorating their condition. In short. was one which they had voluntarily set up. or pledged himself. And he has no other alternative than these two.because. or. (U to any particular individual. would use it. is not to be taken as evidence that he ever freely assented to the Constitution. In self-defence. he consented.which is a mere substitute for a bullet . we can bave no legal knowledge. even for the time being. he. even for the time being. under the most oppressive government in the world. a man uses a ballot. Neither in contests wiLhthe ballot . until every man is left.1 Therefore. that crushes them. Consequently we have no proof that any very large portion. a man's voting under the Constitution of the United States.8 himself. to be lost or won by the mere power of numbers. he has some chance of relieving himself from this tyranny of others.

therefore. And as we can have no legal knowledge as to. who are willing to be taxed for the sake of voting. consents to support the Constitution. Those who vote for the unsuccessful candidates cannot properly be said to have voted to sustain the Constitution. have no legal knowledge that any particular individual consents to be taxed for the sake of voting. the act of voting utterly fails to pledge any one to support the government. is a very insufficient proof of his consent to support the Constitution. no proof at all. whether they vote or not. votes are given for various candidl\tcs for the same office. be supposed to have voted. inasmuch as such voting is the only mode allowed to them of expressing their dissent to the Constitution. it cannot be said that the government has any voluntary aupporters at all. to say nth. 5. To take a man's property without his consent.WM the particular individuals ate. They may. 4. a large propoetlon of those who vote. but specially to prevent the tyranny which they anticipate the successful candidate intends to practise upon them under color of the Constitution. to prevent that property from being used to his injury. not to support the Constitution. and therefore may reasonably be supposed to have voted against the Constitution itself. when. It utterly fails to prove that the government rests upon the voluntary support of any body. It is. in fact. or. and then to infer his consent because he attempts. no doubt do so to prevent their own money being used against themselves. . . if there are any. with more reason. until it can be distinctly shown WM its voluntary supporters are. ing of being saved from all the other usurpations and tyrannies of the government. On general principles of law and reason.9 speaking. in fact. At nearly all elections. by voting. they would have gladly abstained from voting. or who wonld prefer freedom from taxation to the privilege of voting. we can. This supposition is the more reasonable. if they c-uld thereby have saved themselves from taxation alone. consequently.As taxation is made compulsory on all.

in voting. the "onstitution. and use its powers against their opponents. against the Constitution itself •. there is no legal means of knowing. As all the different votes are given secretly (by secret ballot). it cannot legally be said that anybody supports it. by means of the Constitution. where there can be no legal proof of the intentions of any particular one of them. from the votes themselves. it is probable that a very large proportion of those who vote. W110 votes for. and who against.10 6. 8. they would then willingly support the Constitution. by voting. not to support. do so on this principle. or are to be made slaves. It is clearly impossible to have any legal proof of the intentions of large numbers of men. therefore. that if. they could but get the government into their own hands (or that of their friends). 7. but if their "Opponentsare to have the power. There being no legal proof of any man's intentions. As a conjecture. AA every body who supports the Constitution by voting (if there are any such) does so secretly (by secret ballot). no consent at all. men's voluntary support of the Constitution is doubtless.. in most cases. and in a way to avoid all personal responsibility for the acts of his agents or representatives. with a special intention.• And where there can be no legal evidence that any particular individual supports the Constitution. the Constitution i and. they can make themselves masters. viz. In short. Such contingent consent as that is. Those who give such votes may reasonably be supposed to have voted as they did. wholly contingent upon the question whether. we can only conjecture them. 9. it cannot legally or reasonably be . then they would not willingly support the Constitution. Many votes are usually given for candidates who have no prospect of success. and use it against them. in law and reason. but to obstruct the execution of. Therefore voting affords no legal evidence that any particular individual supports the Constitution .

The ostensible supporters of the Constitution. That is to say.like the ostensible supporters of most other governments. whose purpose is to rob. As all voting is secret. who voluntarily support the Constitution. so long as they act within the limits of the power he delegates to them. or support. there is not the slightest probability that the Constitution has a single bona fide supporter in the country. existence of such a band does nothing towards proving that '~the people of the United States. Knaves. only proves that there is among us a secret band of robbers. the Constitution. who see in the government an instrument which they can use for their . So far. voluntarily supports the Constitution. there is not the slightest probability that there is a single man in the country. No man can reasonably or legally be said to do such a thing as to assent to. 10. and murderers. legally speaking. and in a way to make himself personally responsible for the acts of his agents.a large class. For all the reasons that have now been given. so far as necessary to accomplish their purposes." or any one of them. murder.) and as all secret governments are necessarily only secret bands of robbers. the Constitution. It therefore furnishes no legal evidence that any body supports it voluntarily. and. 2. unless he does i& openly. voting fumishes' no legal evidence as to who the particular individuals are (if there are any). viz.11 said that anybody at all supports the Constitution by voting. the general fact that our government is practically carried on by means of such voting.: 1. a numerous and active class. and sincerely supports it for what it really is. enslave. as matter of fact. therefore. are made up of three classes. (by secret ballot. tyrants and murderers.own aggrandizement or wealth. who both understands what the Constitution really is. no . Dupes . the rest of the people. has no supporters at all: And. as voting is concerned. tyrants. The simple fact of the.

voluntarily entered into by the people with each other. that all taxes are paid voluntarily. government of equal rights. the practical fact." a. 3. or do not choose to so far sacrifice their private interests as to give themselves seriously and earnestly to the work of making a change. indeed.says to a man: Your money. The payment of taxes. that each man makes a free and purely voluntary contract with all others who are parties to the Constitution. like a high-.each of whom.or your life. wlloyman.j free man. that our government is a mutual insurance company. or 01111 the badness of all other governments l . holding a pistol • Suppose It be" the best government on earth. A class who have some appreciation of the evils of government. The fact is that the government. and murdering others. because he is allowed one 'Voice out of millions in deciding what he may do with his own person and his own property. and. ~o pay so much money for so much protection. but either do not see how to get rid of them." does that prove its own goodness. " sovereign ". The government does not. and because he is permitted to have tbe same voice in robbing. But this theory of our government is wholly different from ." * and such like absurditiea. wayl"y a man in a lonely place. spring upon him from the road side. and that he is just as free not to be protected. as he is to pay a tax. being compulsory. m. taxes are paid under the compulsion of that threat. if not most. that others have in robbing. and be protected. is stupid enough to imagine that he is a .12 doubt. It is true that the theory of our Constitution is. and not to pay any tax. and murdering himself. And many. enslaving. the same as he does with any other insurance company. enslaving." " the best government on earth. "a. of course furnishes no evidence that anyone voluntarily supports the Constitution. that this is "a free go\"ernJ~lent".

and villanies as these. danger. He does not persist in following you on the road. take upon themselves per. On the contrary. who call themselves CI the government. he leaves you. sonally the responsibility of their acts. against your will. But the robbery is none the less a robbery on that account. consequently. He is too much of a gentleman to be guilty of such Impostures. dividually known. he does not. they do not. or do not appreciate his peculiar system of protection. and shooting you down without mercy. by requiring you to do this. He has not acquired impudence enough to profess to be merely ~ II protector." and that he takes men's money against their will. if you dispute his authority. attempt to make you either his dupe or his slave. He does not pretend to be anything but a robber." are directly the opposite of these of the single highwayman. and it is far more dastardly and shameful. they secretly (by secret ballot) designate some o~e of their number . by commanding you to bow down and serve him. •. or. and crime of his own act. or resist his demands.13 to his head. He does not pretend that he has any rightful claim to your money. as you wish him to do. or that he intends to use it for your own benefit•. The highwayman takes solely upon himself the responsibility." on account of the It protection " he affords you. in addition to robbing you. and an enemy to your country. assuming to be your rightful" sovereign. and insulta. proceed to rifle his pockets. who feel perfectly able to protect themselves. He ie too sensible a man to make such professions as these. and forbidding you to do that j by robbing you of more money as often as he finds it for his interest or pleasure to do so j and by branding you as a rebel. a traitor. having taken your money. He does not keep It protecting" you. like him. merely to enable him to II protect" those Infatuated travellers. In short. Furthermore. make themselves in. In the first place. The proceedings of those robbers and murderers.

may be disposed to resist our demands. say to him that that is our business.individually known tq him. If he presumes to say that he has never contracted with us to protect him. but all your own expenses and trouble beside. tell him to quell the rebellion and 1/ save the country. is our business. Tell him to kill all who resist. that we choose to protect him.14 to commit the robbery in their behalf. he should kill any of our baud ~ho are assisting you. too. though they should be hundreds of thou- . If he dares to inquire woo the individuals are. and say to him that" the government~' has need of money to meet the expenses of protecting him and his property. capture him at all hazards. a receipt that will protect hirq against any similar demand for the present year. whether he desires us to do so or not. if he complies with them. and that we demand pay. that we have secretly (by secret ballot)' appointed you our agent to give him notice of our demands. If he resists the seizure of his property. If he refuses to comply. say to him that that. call upon the commander of our hired murderers. and not his. cry out that they are all rebels and traitors j that" our country" is in danger. call upon the bystanders to help you (doubtless some of them will prove to be members of our band). too. and that he wants none of our protection. seize and sell enough of his property to pay not only our demands. like him. and. in defending his property. to give him. without his having ever made any contract with them. that we do not choose to make ourselves . who have thus taken upon themselves the title of" the government. and demand payment of him. and hang bim." cost what it may. charge him (in one ~ of our courts) with murder~ convict him.B--. while they keep themselves practically concealed. They say to the person thus designated: Go to A. in our name. If." and who assume to protect him. or any others who. and they should come in large numbers to his assistance. and not his. If he should call upon his neighbors. for protecting him.

to support "the government. and thus to make themselves parts of. Who. so called. therefore. for the time being. no contract. or pledge to support them . an abstraction. by common report. 3. Not knowing who the particular individuals are. of a certain age. are permitted to vote. a~d to which he can give no consent. and especially /u. they will be good loyal citizens for many years. give them no consent. All he knows is that a man comes to . When these traitors shall have thus been taught our strength and our determination. that the people ~onsent to support "the government. practically compose" the government.>w each one votes (whether so as to aid or oppose the government). the voting being all done secretly (by secret ballot). therefore. that we may have DO further trouble of this kind hereafter. and thus strike terror into all others similarly disposed." To him " the government" is a myth. and has no means of knowing. is that the tax payer does not know. "The government" itself he never sees. He knows it only through its pretended agents. to support the government. the government. Still another reason why the payme~t of taxes implies no consent. his paying taxes to them implies. on his part." it needs no further argument to show. It is under such compulsion all this that taxes. 2. who call themselves" the government.done." for the time being. Of course he can make no contract with them. But who of them do thus vote. See that the work of murder is thoroughly . and make them no pledge. or (if' they choose) opponents of. or pledge. with which he can make no contract.that is. and make no pledge. an incorporeality. are paid. He knows indeed. who the par. And how much proof the payment of taxes affords.s." the tax payer does not know whom he pays his taxes to. that certain person.15 sands. ticular individuals are who compose" the government. he has no means of knowing." or tho Constitution. and pay their taxes without a why or a wherefore. Of necessity. consent. he does not know.

. after he has given up his money. That every man who put~ money into the hands of a CI government" (so called). And. he gives up his money to tbis agent.that is. whoever desires liberty. To say. when their authority is denied. who have taken to themselves the title of« the government. All political power. having money enough to start with. puts into its hands a sword which will be used against himself. 2. he entered into a voluntary contract with them. that he pledges himself to obey them. the first use they always make of money. and with soldiers extort money. therefore. well understand that their power rests primarily upon money. and also compel general obedience to tbeir will. can establish themselves as a =goremmentj" because. viz. the latter. With money they can hire soldiers. as Cresar said it was in war. and to give them whatever money tbey should demand of him in the future. with money. that by giving up his money to their agent. To save his life. tbey can hire soldiers. It h with government.16 him. to extort more money from him. knows no more who are" the government ".than he did before •. that money and soldiers mutually supported each other. and with soldiers extort money. who call themselves governments. to support them. rests practically upon this matter of money.that is. that with money he could hire soldiers.: 1." and have determined to kill every body who refuses to give them whatever money they demand. the agent of a secret band of robbers and murderers. That those who will take his money. who were tbe robbers . and also to keep him in subjection to its arbitrary will. representing himself to be the agent of "the government" . is simply ridiculous. is to hire soldiers to kill or subdue all who refuse them more money. and with soldiers extort more ~oney. should understand these vital facts. Any number of scoundrels. So these villains. as it is called. 4. without his COD- . But as this agent does not make his principals individually known to t~e tax payer. For this reason.

for their benefit. perfectly satisfactory to themselves." he is competent to make his own bargains for it. and not for t~eir injury. That i~ is a perfect absurdity to suppose that any body of men would ever take a man's money without his consent. is just as absurd as it would be to suppose that they would take his money without his consent. or that anybody is under any contract or obligation whatever to support it. It is perfectly evident." for the purpose of securing its protection. 5. and nobody has any occasion to rob him. viz. That the only sec·urity men can have for their political liberty. proves anybody's consent. that neither such voting. 6. so called. or obligation. If a man wants" protection. consists in their keeping their money in their own pockets. nor such payment of taxes. And nobody is under any obligation to support it. if he docs not wish them to do so? To suppose that they would do so. as actually takes place. that it will be used as they wish it to be used.17 sent. These facts are all so vital and so self-evident. 4. Oonsequently we have no evidence at all that the Oonstitution is binding upon anybody. to support the Oonstitution. until they have assurancea. any longer than it depends wholly upon voluntary support. in the first place. can reasonably be trusted for a moment. therefore. 2 . unless he first makes an explicit and purely voluntary contract with it for that purpose. That no government. for the purpose of buying food or clothing for him. will use it for his further robbery and enslavement. if he presumes to resist their demands iA the future. for why should they wish to protect him. or reasonably be supposed to have honest purposes in view.. when be did not want it. 3. thnt it cannot reasonably be supposed that an)" one will voluntarily pay money to a 1/ government. for any such object as they profess to take it for. that of protecting him. in order to 1/ protect" him against his will.

Hence the custom of affixing seals. that even though a man is unable to write his name. that a written instrument binds no one uutil he has signed it. goes for nothing. because it was never agreed to hy any bod)" in such a manner as to make it. that bas continued to this tj. Aud if be do not then sign it. in which to decide whether lie will sign it. and reason declares. or with the hope that be would sign it.me. he must still" make his ruark. he is then expected to decide. a written contract must be signed j and men who could not write. The law holds. a man who could write . and. This custom was established ages ago. It is a general principlo of law and reason. or not. but it 1lever did bind an!Jbody." before he is bound by a written contract. And law and reason both give him until the last moment. when a c1erk.18 IV The Constitution not .he luis had the opportunity to satisfy himself of its precise legal meaning. Even at that time. the presumption must be that the party to be bound hy it. written. until it i. Neither law nor reason requires or expects a man to agree to an instrument. whether he will agree to it or not.was 80 rare and valuable a person.that is. And wben it is written. either" made their mark. when few men could write their names. for until it is written. and not before.onl!J bltuu nobod!J flOW. The fact that the instrument was wl'ittenfor him to sign. It never bound anybody. his reason is supposed to be. or to bind himself by it. on general principles of law and reason. that if a written instrument is not signed. binding upon him. This principle is so inflexible a one. that evenif be were guilty of high crimes. that he does not choose to enter into such a contract. ." or signed their contracts by stamping their seals upon wax affixed to the parch. ment on which their contracts were written. h13cannot know its precise legal meaning. he was entitled to pardon. on the ground that the-public could not afford to lose his services. did not choose to sign it.

or to anybody's agent or attorney. • The very men who drafted It.* The very judges. never signed it in any way to bind themselves by it. as a contract. as he is to refuse to sign it. not only be signed. He is as free to refuse to deliver it. Moreover. unless the instrument be also delivered. that should be brought before them for adjudication. after he has signed it. The signing is of no effect. have signed it? that he had had the opportunity to sign it. that was never signed or delivered. in law and reason. and claim to have it enforced. before it can bind the party making it. the following facts are pertinent. if he would? but that he had refused or neglected to do so? yet that is the most that could ever be said of the Constitution. not signed. a written instrument must. upon the ground that it was written for another man to sign? that this other man had promised to sign it? that he ought to. as to tho practical necessity there is that all men's important contracts. And not one or them probably ever would have Signed it in any way to bind hlmsel! by it. v As further evidence of the general sense of mankind. but it was never delivered by anybody to anybody. than can any other instrument. It can therefore be of no more validity as a contract. if one party could bring into court a written instrument.19 Where would be the end of fraud and litigation.would spurn any other instrument. as a contract. should be both written and signed. in whose favor it is made. without any signature. . The constitution was not only never signed by anybody. but must also be delivered to the party (or to some one for him). especially those of a permanent nature. who profess to derive all their authority from the Constitution .from an instrument that nobody ever signed . And a party is at perfect liberty to refuse to deliver a written instrument.

for the price of lln. Delaware. and the same. . CaUfornia. unless 'the purchaser accepts and receives part of the goods so sold. Massachusetts. Upon 0. New York. or some memorandum or note thereof. New Hampshire. Unless the promise. and is now in force.. wares. a statute.: Maine. Wisconsin. Kansas.rty to be charged therewith. unles tltey are IJut in wliting. and Is now in force. Pennsylvania. and Oregon. hereditaments. Virginia. shall be good or valid. contract for the sale of lands. but generally enlarging its operations. Is In wrltJng. Minnesota.. or merchandise. but also that all con. be it observed.. Missouri. and signed by the partie.. North Caronna. Nevada. to be lteld chargeable 'IIpon them.y dollars or more. a~d signed by the po. South Caronna.*' The principle of the statute. or concerning them i or "Upon an agreement that Is not to.there has been on the statute book of England. Rhode Island.Arkansal!. has been re-enacted. No action shall be brought In any of the following cases. Tennessee.Alabama.' I have personally examined the statute books of the followIng States. in substance. in nearly or quite all the States of this Union. New Jersey. Texas. or ot any interest In.be perfcrmed wlthln one year from the writing thereof: . since IGi7. Indiana. upon which such action is brought. contract.20 For nearly two hundred years-that is. or in part payment i or unless some note or memoran." * . Iowa. Kentucky. viz. Michigan. To charge a person upon a speclal promise to answer for the debt. not merely that written contracts shall be signed. default. tenements. Georgia. Connecticut. the general object of which is to declaro that no action shall be brought to enforce contracts of the more important class. FlorIda. or by some person thereunto by him awfully authorized: • • • • . . Ohio. Mississippi. if not precisely in letter. sometimes with modifications. or by some person thereunto by him lawfully authorized. Illlnols.. is. dum In writing of· the bargain Is made and slgned by the party to b charged thereby. or misdoings of another: • • • • . and find that in all these States the English statute has been re-enacted. Nebraska. or agreement. or gives something In earnest to bind the bargain. that is to say: . The following are some of the provisions of the Massachnsetts statute: . Vermont. No contract for the sale of goods.

. that it is now so easy a thing for men to put their contracts in writing. as well as in England. how careful most men are to have their contracts written and signed. And in the case of married women conveying their rights in real estate. and their failure to do so opens the door to so much doubt.of any considerable importance . are careful to take a note for it. on this point. ~r any other small debt previously contracted. fraud. ought not to have thebenefit of courts of justice to enforce th-em. deeds. and acknowledged.written and slgned.generally those tbat are for small amounts. except those specially cx~mpted . shall not only be written and signed. of no larger amount than five or ten dollars. to put their' contracts in writing.fl'om motives of common prudence. is. the law everywhere (probably) in our country. they take a written receipt for it.shall be both written and signed. and have them signed.take. and which individuals . Furthermore. witnessed.. tbat men who neglect to have their contracts . and sign them. We all know. and are to remain in force but for a short time . but also sealed. If they lIuy even a small bill of goods. and declare that they sign their contracts free of any fear or compulsion of their husbands. they take a receipted bill for it. If they pay a small balance of a book account. requires that the women shall be examined separate and apart from their husbands. and litigation. paying for it at the time of delivery. most men. to guard aga:nst all uncertainties . even in cases not required by law .21 tracts. the law. is demonstrated by the fact that it has been acted upon in England for nearly two hundred years. etc. requires that a large class of contracts. even when this statute does not require it. such as wills. and that nobody thinks of repealing it. Such are some of the precautions which the laws require. too. if they have money due them. For example. The reason of the statute. And this reason is a wise one j and that experience has confirmed its wisdom and necessity. &0. and has been so nearly universally adopted in this country. in many States.

and which few persons. or ever will agree.such principles as we arc all governed by in regard to other contracts . women and children throughout the country. inasmuch as it has never been signed by anybody. It is no exaggeration. have ever agreed. surrender ~ot only all their property. consisting of many millions. or. by the Constitution . or so wicked.the Constitution . VI.22 and controversies in regard to their meaning and validity. have ever read. Lind. i~.Andof those who ever have read it. contract . or even seen. perhaps no two. or acknowledged. if offered to prove a debt of five dollars. or ever will read it. but a literal truth. and even lives: into the hands of men. Moreover. as to what it means. or is claimed. sealed. preserved only to serve as a witness and a warning of the folly and wickedness of mankind. . are expressly made wholly irresponsible for their disposal of them.3 I interpret it. but which nobody ever signed. or ever will read. fit only to be thrown into the fire. or see. which would not be received in any court of justice sitting under its authority.not Q. in fighting to compel men to fulfil a supposed contract. if preserved. and through all time. to say that.as it is generall!J interpret"d by those wlw pretend to administer it . compared with tho whole number that are claimed to be bound by it. scarcely any two. delivered.And we are so insane. and who never had any power to bind !IS. . but also their liberties.And yet we have what purports. this supposed contract. but which (it is claimed) has nevertheless bound three generations of men.who by this supposed contract.owing by one man to another. ing upon nobody. witnessed. as to destroy property and lives without limit. or professes.the merest waste paper. to he a. and which (it iii claimed) will be binding upon all the millions that are to come. on general principles of law and reason . . by men who are now all dead.made eighty years ago. is one by which .al] men. but as it is inte"preled by those . which.

when it is expressly provided. or transgressing those limits? Neither is it any answer to this view of the case to say that the particular individuals holding this power can be changed once in two or six years] for the power of each eet of men is absolute during the term for which they hold it. and this provision protects them from all responsibility Ior the laws they make.23 it . by giving them power to withhold the salaries of. that they shall never be /I questioned.instead or two-thirds of the whole. G) provides that. I. for oaths or limits. who refuse to execute them. it is provided tty the Con." or held to any responsibility whatever. Scc. shall never be It questioned" as to any disposal they make of them. they [the senators and representatlres] shall not be questioned in any other place. liberties.the properties.that Is two-thirds of a majority . for what care they. by the Constitution itself." The whole law-making power is given to these senators and representatives. Thus the whole power of tho gorernmcnt is in their hands. Tho Constitution also enables them to secure tho execution of all their laws. and they arc made utterly irresponsible for the use they make of it. and to impeach and remove.] in either house. for violating their oaths. they are succeeded only by men whose power will be equally absolute and irresponsible. irresponsible power? It is no answer to this dew of the case to say that these men nrc under oath to usc their power only within ccrtain Iimits . quorum . and lives of the entire people of the United States are surrendered unreservedly into the hands of men who. all judicial and executive officers. and when they can hold it no longer. Thus the Constitution (Art. . "for any speech or debate [or vote. stitution itself. [when acting tly a two-thirds vote] * . or what should they care. who pretend to administer • And this two-thirds vote may-be but two-thirds of 11. What is this but absolute.

dare not be consistent." The right of absolute and irresponsible dominion is the right of property. as such. 'l'hey say they are only our servants. The two are identical.. No man call be my servant.ys hereafter to be. therefore. If. a contradiction. If I made him uncontrollable by m~. and irresponsible to me for his acts. and the right of property is the right of absolute. attorneys. is of no authority oyer us. the one necessarily implying the other.and irresponsible to me.or representative. and claim either to be our masters. or representative. and are ahyo. A man is none the less a slave because he is allowed to choose a new master once in a term of years. If they do not own us as prop· erty. in the hands of men whose power over them is. agent.24 Neither is it any answer to this view of the case to say that the men holding this absolute. irre* or what appreciable value is it to any man. irresponsible dominion. . It is of no importance that I appointed him. irresponsible power. Neither can exist withou~ the other. it can only be because they own us as property. which the Constitution . attorney. and their will. as an Individual.be men chosertby the people (or portions of them) to hold it. at the same time.gives them. that he Is allowed a voice In choosing these publllC masters? nis voice is only one or several millIons.according to their interpretation of it . they are our masters. he is no longer my servant. agents. uncontrollable by me. they are not our masters. attorney. must. and always is to be. What makes them slaves is the fact that they now are. . But this declaration involves an absurdity. If they own us as property. and put all power in his hands. or to own us as property. But these men who claim and exercise this absolute and irresponsible dominion over us. and their will is our law. Congress have that absolute B:ndirresponsible lawmaking power. agent. Neither are a people any the less slaves because permitted periodically to choose new masters. and representatives. If I gave him absolute. and be. absolute and Irresponsible.

or attorney. has the same right to hold them individually responsible.the highest of all laws . And that reason is. with either absolute power. irresponsible power over myself. I necessarily make myself responsible for all his acts done within the limits of the power I have intrusted to him. that we do not make ourselves responsible for their acts. they are themselves individually responsible for their own acts. an absolute and irresponsible one? or a limited and responsible one? For still another reason they are neither our servants. and hold them responsible for these acts of their socalled agents or representatives. agents. are really tbe agents of nobody. I made him my master. nobody iii individually responsible Cor the acts of Congress. But no individual who may be injured in his person or property. The only question is. And if they are nobody's agents. can come to the individual electors.25 sponsible power over my property. so long as he acts within the liI:Ditsof the power I have granted him. agent. what power did I put into his hands? Was it. or any power at all. I thereby necessarily make myself responsible to those other persons for any injuries be may do them. This fact proves that these pretended agents of the people. If. If I gave him absolute. of everybody. and for the acts of all whom they employ. the members of Congress are nobody's agents. as my agent. He has the same right . And the authoritJ they are exercising is simply their own individua~ authority. by the law of nature . . 'and gave myself to him as a slave. and. . by acts of Congress.anybody injured by their acts. anybody who is deprived by them of his property or his liberty. nor representatives.:\nd it is of no importance whether I called him master or servant. agent or owner. over the persons or properties of other men than myself. that he has to hold any other trespasser individually responsible. I gave him the property. attorneys. then. If I have intrusted him. If a man is m'y servant.

leaving all . VII. and administer them upon. that on general principles of law and reason . to treat them as such. that he has to resist any other trespassers. and' that all those who pretend to act by its authority. in such manner as the common sense and experience of mankind have shown to be reasonable and necessary in such cases. there is no reason in the world why they should not sign the instrument itself. It is 'plain. It is. and in such manner as to make themseltes (al t/tc1j ought to do) indiiidualb] responsible for the acts of the got'ernmcnt. that they were neither such fools nor knaves as they must needs have been to be willing to sign it. preted) it is not what any sensible and honest man wants for bimself. and that everybody not only has the right. nor such as he has any right to impose upon others. each other. hut is morally bound. and thus make known their wishes in an open. that it binds nobody. why do they not sign it themselves. authentic manner . as destitute of obligation as the compacts which robbers and thieves and pirates enter into with each other.the Constitution is no contract.such principles as we a. but never sign. they are mere usurpers. and their agents. If the people of this country wish to maintain such a government as the Constitution describes. has been that it has been known that they never would sign it. and never did bind anybody.11 act upon in courts of justice and in common life . and make laws for. If any considerable number of the people believe the Oonstitution to be good. on 'general principles of law and reason. are really acting without any legitimate authority at all. to all moral intents and purposes.26 to resist them. that (at least as it has been practically inter. then. that. But the people have neve~ been asked to sign it: And the ouly reason why they have never been asked to sign it.

or even to recommend it t01 others? Plainly the reason for such absurd and inconsistent conduct is that they want the Constitution. seize men's property. by ballot. all their eulcglums on the Constitution. and trade. being of no authority.11 justify the conclusion drawn from it. and all their expenditures of money and blood to sustain it. The Constituti~n itself. shall act as their representatives. VIII. because he claims to act as their agent. But this tacit understanding (admitting it to exist) cannot at 11. the persons to administer it. tyrant. to deprive me of my property.ny their authority to dispose of men's properties. to restrain them of their natural liberty of action. industry. liberty. or life. Dut for this latter reason. that some half. and murderer. or a plurality. liberties. .A tacit understanding between A. depute D as their agent. of their ballots. and lives at their pleasure or discretion? The most they can say. by ballot. in answer to this question. and by their authority. but for the dishonest and illegitimate power it gives them over the persons and properties of others. and that those persons who may receive a majoritj. claim the right to. two-thirds. and C. that they will select. is. or three-fourths of the male adults of the country have a tacit understanding that they will maintain a 'government under the Constitution. all their exhortations. not solely for any honest or legitimate use it can be of to themselves or others. and administer the Constitution in their name. and to kill all who dp. would be wanting. on what authority docs our government practically rest? On what ground can those who pretend to administer it. . how can they have tho face to impose the Constitution upon. cannot at a 11authorize D to do so.27 other pc~sons (who do not interfere with them) in peace ? Until they have tried the experiment for themselves. that they will. B. He is none the less a robber. then.

I am under no obligation to take his word as to who his principals may be. be said to have any principals. in law or reason. And they are personally as much unknown to the agents they select.28 . . that what does not ap pear. or in any manner to make themselves responsible for their acts. I have a right to say he has no such authority even as he claims to have : and that he is therefore intending to rob. avail any more than does their tacit understanding. nor can he legitimately claim to be their agent. Neither am I bound to recognize him as their agent. and if they cannot show any open and authentic credentials from their principals. when he brings no written authority from them accrediting him as such. they have Done. Neither do the ballots by which they select their agents. therefore. appoint their political agents in any open authentic manner. unless they do it in so open and authentic a manner as to make themselves personally responsible for his acts • None of the voters in this country. or murder me on his own account. Somebody must be responsible for the acts of these pretended agents. Therefore these pretended agents cannot legitimately claim to be really agents. Bringing no credentials. for acting by secret ballot is acting in secret as much as if they were to meet in secret conclave in the darkness of the night. amounts to nothing as an authority to their agents. If they can show no principals. or whether he has any. Nobody of men can be said to authorize a man to act as their agent. The maxim applies here. . than he would be if he avowedly acted on his own responsibillty alone. does not exist. But even these pretended agents do not themselves know who their pretended principals are. among the voters of the country. This tacit understanding. they cannot. to the injury of a third person. and therefore in a way to avoid any personal responsibility for the acts of their agents. 'for their ballots are given in secret. enslave. These latter act in secret.

let him try conclusions with me. This is the kind of government we have. Not knowing who his principals are. as to some of his immediate neighbors. until they have struck. fle may guess. Men honestly engaged in attempting to establish justice in the world. or to appoint agents to do acts for which they (the principals) are not willing to be responsible. No pretended agent therefore can ever know by whose ballots he is selected. and it is the only one we are likely to have. he has no right to eay that he has any.29 as they are to others. The man to whom he would most naturally fly for protection. and a secret government is a secret band of robbers and murderers. Under it.11 men. He can. . until men arc ready to say: We will consent to no Constitution. and perhaps not then. may prove an enemy. and says: I am the State: My will is law: I am your master: I take the responsibility of my acts: The only arbiter I acknowledge is the sword: If anyone denies my right. are. at most. a man knows not who his tyrants are. done in their name. beforehand. The secret ballot makes a secret government. shall be resisted. who are bound by that faith which prevails among confederates in crime. or consequently who his real principals. say only that he is the ~ge~t of a secret band of robbers and murderers. But a secret government is little less than a government of assassins. have no occasion thus to act in secret. except such an one as we arc neither ashamed nor afraid to sign. aud we will authorize no government to do any thing in our name which we are not willing to be 'personally responsible for. when the time of trial comes. Open despotism is better than this. if his acte. to stand by him. The single despot stands out in the face of 0. But he really knows nothing.

30 IX. enslavement. let them make and sign an open compact with each other to do so. among themselves. in certain contingencies. enslavement. murder each other by the hundreds of thousands (as they lately did do) to accomplish their purposes against each other. they are engaged quite as much in schemes for plundering each other. as in plundering those who are. And we are insane enough to call this liberty I To be a member of this secret band of ro bbers and murderers is esteemed a privilege and an honor I Without this privilege. How many of those who now support the Constitution. and to have their individual doings known. and have their individual doings known. In fact. but with it a free man I With it he is considered a free man. And this is avowedly the only reason for the ballot: for a secret government. And it is perfectly well understood among them that the strongest party among them will. a slave. that that other man has to procure his robbery. but enemies j and they are afraid to be known. and murder of another man. many or few. claim the right to govern the people of this country. those who use it are not friends. and murder. They can contrite to bring about a sufficient understanding to enable them to act in concert against other persons. because he has the same power to secretly (by secret ballot) procure the robbery. man is considered. And this they call equal rights I If any number of men. a. but beyond this they hare no confidence. And let them thus openly take the legitimate responsibility of their acts". What is the motive to the secret ballot? This. and no friendship. Let them thus make themI selves individually known to those whom they propose to govern. noi of them. even to each other. and only this: Like other confederates in crime. Hence they 'dare not be known. even to each other. will ever do this? How many will ever dare openly pro- . a government hy secret bands of robbers and murderers.

viz. and consequently cannot. alleged principals put these pretended agents forward for the most criminal purposes. on general principles of law and reason. who act in concert. and that the only authority that these alleged principals have for so doing. presidents. Thus it is obvious that the only visible. and in a way to avoid all personal responsibility for their acts. any consent. that. that if these alleged principals ever did appoint these pretended agents. collectors. tangible government we . It is obvious that. tangible. they were never appointed as agents or representatives in any open authentic manner. It is obvious. is that of a few individuals only. that the only visible. generals. colonels. representatives. be said to have any principals at all. or representatives. these. in law or reason.31 claim their Tight to govern? or take the legitimate responsibility of their acts? Not one I x. they do not themselves know. there exists no such thing as a government created by. since they can show no credentials from the people themselves. or resting upon. captains. too. and restrain them of their liberty. they appointed them seer etly (by secret ballot). shoot. who their principals (as they call them) are individually. &c'1 &c. is simply a tacit understanding among themselves that they will imprison. "1' hang every man who resists the exactions and restraints which their agents or representatives may impose upon them. at most. or agreement of "the people of the United States" with each other. treasurers. responsible government that exists. compact. and have no means of knowing. and call themselves by the several names of senators.: to plunder the people of their property. and cannot-prove. On general principles of law and reason. judges. marshals. it is of no importance whatever that these few individuals profess to be the agents and representatives of" the people of the United States".

all property and persons found in the United States. control. . three. in whose presence the oath was 'taken. no mutual recognition. who. of no obligaticn. of Solon. or five thousand male adults. It Is merely given to the winds. with whom I have no contract on the subject. oC Justinian. It is of no obligation. have taken to themselves the title of u the people of the United States j " and who. their robberies and murders. plunder. or to the remainder of the hundred thousand . or gloss over. murder. . tl.that is. and consequently pledges my faith to nobody. It would not alter the case at all to say that.designated me as their agent to rule. and to control and dispose of at their pleasure. these hundred thousand ." are of no validity or obligation. (as the lawyers say). pretended agents of the people take /I to support the Constitution. men. consent and agreement . viz. There is no privity. XI. and any other persons. not merely because it is intrinsically a criminal one.by secret ballot. if for no other reason.32 have is made up of these professed agents or representatives of a secret band of robbers and murderers. And why? For this. women and children. take an oath that I will enforce upon them the laws of ~Ioses. to cover up. and in a way to avoid making ' themselves individually known to me.at they are given to nobody." assert their right to subject to their dominion. among these hundred thousand persons. if need be. but also because it is given to nobo~y. on general principles of law and reason. there were two. that oath is. and in the presence of a hundred thousand people. of Lycurgus. or of Alfred. and. If I go upon Boston Common. on the pretence of being u the people of the United States. On general principles of law and reason. who had secretly . the oaths which these.between those who take these oaths.

and consequently makes it impossible that there can be any contract. and have. appointed or designated these men as their agents to carry the Constitution into effect. on my part towards them. of no validity. made their wishes known to me.were never asked. and in ~ way to save themselves from all responsibility for my acts. these two. people of the United States ever. or pretended agent. For these reasons the oath taken by members of Congress. to a man whom I neither know. I t1!US publicly confess myself to be. to signiry. robbers and murderers. in any legitimate or legal sense. prevents all privity between them and me". in any legal sense. men. then. and in n manner to prevent my knowing them individually. The fact that they had designated me $ecretly. authentic contract with me. But being. in any 3 . who have secretly. either openly or secretly." because neither the whole. for it is impossiole that I can pledge my faith. Individually unknown to me. And being no pledge of faith to them. So far as I am concerned. nor any large proportion of the whole. nevertheless. whose instrument for plunder ing and murdering other people." are. on general principles of law and reason. on general principles of law and reason. of no validity as a p. robbers. nor hare any means of knowing.that is. and therefore void. women and children . but they are also void for the further reason that they are given to nobody. or pledge of faith. through some other agent. and having no open. individually. If to support the Constitution. my oath is. or even permitted. they are given to " the people of the United States. They are not only criminal in themselves. At most. and murderers. three. It cannot be said that. designated me as their agent. It is mere idle wind. The great body or the people .33 people. or fire thousand persons are a secret band of robbers and murderers. it iii no pledge of faith to anybody. And it has no other obligation than a similar oath given to any other unknown body of pirates.ledge of faith to them. it is only a pledge of faith to an unknown band of.

that there exists. in favor of their appointment.jt is generally understood in the country that none Lut male persons. Who these men are. and (in certain cases) even persons of foreign birth.und (in some localities) certain amounts of property. having a tacit uuderstanding with each other/and calling themselves" the people of the United States. and all other persons in the country. so far as they can." whose general purposes are to control and plunder each other. Hence they ordinarily have no mode either of exercising. born in the country. or. They are apparently as much afraid of being individually known to each other. and give no open. or of making known. The'number of these secret . either openly or secretly. individually. authentic evidence of their individual membership. by giving their votes secretly for the officers or agents of the band. scattered throughout the country. their choice or wish on the subject. three-fourths. viz. and. It is also generally understood that all malo per:sons.. of the age of twenty-one years and upwards. a Land of men. Dut although these men are individually unknown. of all who are thus permlued to become members of the band. But it appears that usually not more than one-half. in some cases. both to each other and to other persons. for they sign no papers. ever exercise. the only mode in which they ordinarily can exercise or prove it. I have no certain means of knowing. are permitted to be members. can be members. their actual membership. is simply this: Each one can say Ior himself: . otherwise than by giving their votes secretl!} for certain agents to do their will. as of being known to other persons. having certain complexions. their individual memborship. I have evidence satisfactory to myself. The mo~t that these members of Congress can say.34 formal nianner. or consequently prove. and to kill every man who shall attempt to defend his person and property against their schemes of plunder and dominion. They are not known individually even to each other. in. even in neighboring countries. two-thirds.

that all the persons so selected. we have no means of knowing. or what purports to be their gl'OSSnumber. it would appcar that one-half two. The gross number of these secret vote~. is a merely pro tempo-re affair with those who choose to act with it for the time being. thus tending to prove that the band. who are themselves appointed for that purpose by the same secret process by which all other officers and agents of the band are selected.thirds or three-fourths actually did vote. and never had any obligation. majority. so far as we hare any account of them. instead of being a permanent organization. and according to my best knowledge of the whole number of male' persons "in my district. however. and doubtless much tho largest number of those who voted for me and the others. According to the reports of these receivers of votes (for whose accuracy or honesty. to support the Constitution of the United States.35 votes. hshed. never even saw it." who (it Is supposed) were permitted to vote." the receivers reported that I had a. They are understood to be received and counted by certain men. Nevertheless/it is often spoken . Who the men were. on earning together at the City of Washington. It is generally supposed that great frauds are often committed in depositing them. or now pretend to know what it means. I have no knowledge. -WhethCl' these reports are accurate or not. It is understood among those who sent me here. I cannot vouch). or at least a larger number than any other one person. varies greatly from year to year. and apparently has no obligation. will. in different localities. who cast these votes. as a contract. few persons eyer read it. take an oath in each other's presence . indidduall!/." By this is meant a certain p3per that was drawn up eighty years ago. And it is only by virtue of such a designation that I am now here to act in concert with other persons similarly selected in other parts of the country. for the whole thing was done secretly.. In fact. is occasionally pub. But of the secret votes thus given for what they call a " member of Congress. It was never signed by anybody.

No one can come forward and say to him: 1 appointed you my attorney to act for me. by which be can identify a single one of those who pretend to have appointed him to represent them. No single individual can say this. Of course his oath. or pledges his faith to anybody. I am therefore ready to take this oath. This is the most that any member of Congress can say in proof that he has any constituency. . You promised U8 that you would . professedly given to them. to act for us. that his oath It to support the Constitution. you would support the Constitution. you would support the Constitution. as our attorney. or responsible association. It to support the Constitution. and all with whom I act. on general principles of law and reason. will swear to carry this Constitution into effect. It pledges his faith to nobody." i8 given to anybody. can como forward and say to him ~ We appointed you our attorney. and say to him. He has no open. He has no such legal knowledge as is required in all other cases. or body of men. as my attornej. not a single person can como forward.do so. avowed. or respoaslble assoclation. and now' you have forfeited the oath you gave to me. written. No open. and to co-operate with all others. He has no written power of attorney from any single individual. No open. an oath given to nobody. and now you have forfeited the oath you gave to us. the men who sent me here. 01' other authentic evidence. similarly selected. If he fails to fulfil his oath. you have betrayed me. such as is required in all other cases. ire required you to swear that. that he represents anybody. avowed. who are ready to take the same oath. that he was ever appointed the agent or representative of anybody." is. or broken faith with me. You promised me that you would do 80.36 of in the country as "the Constitution of the United States j" and for some reason or another. seem to expect that I. I required you to swear that. or body of men.

or you may not. Let him produce. or as an association. there is any such association. U ntil all this can be shown. given only to the idle winds. and who. that.37 can say this to him. and all pretended associations of individuals. who should accuse him of a breach of faith to them: I never knew you. Where is your evidence that you. if he can. as your attorney. For the same reasons. to all individuals. or that he ever gave his oath to them. therefore. written. either Indlvidually or collectively. appoint their agents by a secret ballot. who act in secret. I repudiate you altogether. the oaths of all the other pretended azents of this secret band of robbers and murderers are. or it was idle wind. appointing him as their agent. cannot claim that they have any agents. who keep themselves individuall!l unknown even to the agents they thus appoint. and making themselves individually. If anyone should assert that there is such an association. or pledged his faith. in any legitimate sense. if he can. Begone I XII. forming themselves into an association. ever appointed me your attorney? that you ever required me to swear to you. or ever pledged his faith to them. On general principles of law and reason. it would be a sufficient answer for him to say. signed or agreed to by these men. or that any of their pretended agents ever gave his oath. who compose it. responsible for his acts. let him prove. or other authentic contract. making themselves known as such to the world. any open. ~Iy oath was given to others.• on o . I would support the Constitution? or that I have lIOW broken any faith I ever pledged to you? You may. to them. done by their authority. or that he is their agent. with whom you have nothing to do. be members of that secret band of robbers and murderers. no one can say that. because there is no such association or body of Olenin existence.

and for my own profit. I never gave my oath to you. The oaths of the tax-gatherers and treasurers of the band. H would be a sufficient answer for him to say to them: I never knew you. either to such agents. of no validity. and refuse to part with it. If you expected me to pay it over to you. I committed my robberies on my own account. As I took all the risk of my robberies. and now I propose to keep it. If yon thought I was fool enough to allow you to keep yourselves concealed. or you may not. If you are members of that band. on general principles of law and reason. )'OU were particularly simple. I never knew you. as well as villains. But I really gave it to nobody. and broken faith with UI. If I gave my oath to anybody. you relied only upon that honor . be members of that secret band. tho members of tbis band could not say to him : You collected that money as our agent. I gave it to other persons than you. but onl1 to the winds. Begone 1 You are fools. and of course never promised' you that I would pay over to you the proceeds of my robberies. You never made yourselves individually known to me. who appoint agents to rob and murder other people. or to those whom their agents are commissioned to rob. You have betrayed us. It enabled me to get the money I was after. or to those we should appoint to receive it. but who are cautious not to make themselves individually known. and for our uses. I only gave it to the winds. They are given to nobody. as individuals.38 general princlples of law and reason. arc. or that I would take all the personal risk of the robberies. I propose to take all the profits. equally destitute of obligation. you have giv~n me no proof of it. for example. and use me as your tool for robbing other persons. and you swore to pay it over to us. should put the money be receives into his own pocket. and you have no proof that you ever commissioned me to rob others for your benefit. If any tax gatherer. It answered my purposes at the time. and pay over the proceeds to you. You may. as individuals.

or organizatlon. can come forward witlt any proof that the oaths were given to them. XIII. 011 coming here. authentic. not to pay it over to such villains aa JOu. it is to give back the money to those from whom I took it. They cannot he said to be given to any man." having ever been formed by any open. or body of men. or organization. to which they can join themselves] or to whom. because no mau. they can pledge their faith. as indivlduals. arc of no validity.'" and that thcy will act in concert in subjecting the remainder of the people of the United States to their dominion j but that they will keep themselves personally co~cealed by doing all their acts secretly. . on general principles of law andreason. They are necessarily given to nobody. no such association. there is." or consequently to prove that the oaths of for. written. that. 111e oaths which for. I trust you may become wise enough to never rely upon it again. elgners take.And all oaths that purport to be given to such an associatlon are necessarily given only to the wlnds. as "the people of tho United States. is wholly insufficient. To say that there is a tacit understanding among a. . in existence. or body of men.l that that is a very poor reliunce.39 that is said to prevail among thieves. they will call themselves " the people of the United States. or voluntary contract. cigners were given to any such association. On general principles of law and reason. as individuals. as" the peopIe of the United States. portion of the male adults of the country. anti being" naturalized" (as it is called). If I have any dut!) in tho) matter. authentic association. on general principles of law and reason. to prove the existence of any such association.h association. because there is no open. as individuals. You now undcrstan. or to any association or which they are members. or organization. No suc.

must consist of certain known individuals. and the like. uho can prote. let him state who were the individuals that composed it. A. such as is required to prove membership ill other legal corporations. asaociation." to whom the oaths could have been given. Therefore. legitimate association.dy. not only because they were extorted by military power. and how and when they became a corporation. but also because they were given to nob·. there were no" United States. authentic. On general principles of law and reason. every corporation. B. can prove by any legitimate evidence. known as "the United States. authentic proof? There is none. and threats of confiscatlon. there was no open. or any other man whom ho can name.t js to say." Not a. where are their signatnres? Where the evidence of their membership? Where the record? Where the open." But being nominally given to "the United States." to whom the oaths could be given. Were Mr. their membership. support the Union. is . have been given by Southern men. in all the Northern States. avowed." they were necessarily given to nobody. that he himself. that they will obey the laws of Congress. C members of it? If so. man of them. are of no validity. Tha. since the war.40 XIV. by legitimate and reasonable evidence. all the oaths which. and because they are in contravention of men's natural right to do as they please about supporting the government. or body of men. Such oaths are invalid. and Mr. and legitimate corporate rights. on general principles of law and reason. or organized body of men. They were nominally given to "the United States. having a legitimate corporate existence. If anybody says there was such a corporation. because. corporation. thoro was no such corporation. Mr. or body of me~. But nothing of this kind can be proved in regard to the corporation. who call themselves "the United States." or as "the people of the United States. On general prlnciples of law and rea~on. in law and reason.

Independently of the criminality of an oath. or nation. without exercising his Own judgment or conscience as to the justice or necessity of such killing. there is this further reason why a soldier's oath is of no obligatlou. that they will serve a given number of years. that they will bear true allegiance to the government. consequently. conseq uently. are of no obligation. that they will obey the orders of their superior officers. On general principles of law and reason." and extorted those oaths. given number of years. the treaties. who called themselves "the United States." or. in no legitimate sense. that." nor. xv. such nation or government. But that certainly is not enough to prove that tho oaths are of any obligation. and so forth. And since no such corporation can be proved to exist. so called. On general principles of Jaw and reason. it cannot of course be proved that the oaths of Southern men were given to any such corporation" The most that can be claimed is that tho oaths were given to a secret band of robbers and murderers." or II the people of the United Siates. Consequently such oath or contract can be of no obligation. viz. any such corporation. like all the other oaths that have now been mentioned. or a contract made with. by . it il gixen to nobody. any such government as" the governmont of the United States. the oaths of soldiers. which purport to be entered into with other nations. that. There being. XVI." a soldier's oath given to. as " the United States.41 a member of any corporation or association called It the United States. in any legitimate sens~. that there is any such corporation. is necessarily an oath given to. or contract made with. he will kill all whom he may be commanded to kill. nobody. for n.

masters. On general principTes of law and reason. sovereigns. queens. responsible bolly of men. with whom our pretended ambassadors. formed themselves into any bona fide. or to bind them. These so-called ambassadors. responsible body of men. or other authentic contract with each other. calling themselves by that name. nor any open. by such treaties. avowed. Our pretended treaties. written. secretaries." or any other open. there are no such U nations. or representatives of the different peoples whom they assume to govern. queen. as the rightful rulers. or other representative to make treaties in their name." or any other open. wlio claim to be the agents of. presidents. kings. or binding upon anyone of. and on behalf. by any open. or representatives of nations. ever. being made with no legitimate or bona fide nations. secretaries. or other authentic evidence that either the whole It people of the United States." as they are called. secretaries. are as mucb myths as our own." the people of the United States. or other authentic evidence that either the whole It people of the United States." for making these treaties. or authorized any king. and the like. ever authorized these pretended ambassadors and others to make treaties in the name of. calling themselves by that name. and others. calling themselves emperors. ever authorized these pretended ambassadors. responsible body of men. to represent. presidents." That is to say. to recognize certain other persons. neither the whole people of England. wrltten." Neither can they show uny open. and to bind. calling themselves by that name. avowed. written. for example. can show no open. It the people of the Uuited States. presidents and senators profess to make treaties. of" the people of the United States. The It nations. avowed. in the name. and being . either individually. an~ senators. then. and senators of the United States. or as an association." are of no validity. in their name and behalf. legitimate association or organization.42 certain persons calling themselves ambassadors. secretaries.

" and authorized their agents to contract debts in their name. neither the whole people ot the United States. there is in existence no such firm. have intrinsically no more validity than a pretended treaty made by the Man in the Moon with the king of the Pleiades. How. or his properly authorized attorney." or " the people of the United States. by persons who have no legitimate authority to act for us. corporation. nor any number of them. can be binding upon forty millions of people collectively. XVII. or other authentic and voluntary contract. On general principles of law and reason. Certainly. these . Certainly." or of "tho people 01' the United States. and having corporate property with which to pay these debts. then. that debts that are binding upon nobody individually. or association as "the United States. "It is utterly absurd to pretend that debts to the amount of twenty-five hundred millions of dollars are binding upon thirty-five or forty millions of people. ever contracted to pay one cent." or" the people of the United States. on any general principle of law or reason. by any open. neither the whole people of the United States. united themselves as a firm. when there is not a particle of legitimate evidence . on our part. ever separately or individually contracted to pay a cent of these debts. also.made. iii it possible. on general and legitimate principles of law and reason." formed by nny open. ever. that either he. nor any number of them." are of no validity. by the name of "the United States.such as would be required to prove a private debt __ th1. written. Certainly.t can be produced against any one of them. debts contracted ill the name of " tho United States. too. corporation. or other authentic and voluntary contract. written. or association. when.

in the name of "the United States? n Why. and who consequently can prove no contract with each other. any corporate existence 7 Who. because its members have never entered into any open." &c. that is. who contracted these debts in their name. by robbery and threats or murder (and real murder. secret band of robbers and murderers. therefore. created these debts. at most. aud cannot now.44 forty millions of people neither have." but who really represented only 0. then. nny corporate property 7 never made any corporate or individual contract 7 and neither have. The money. for purposes or robber! and murder. and for this reason the con tracts were all intrinsically void. were selected (if selected at all) for that purpose secretly (by secret ballot). or even to each other. or authentic contract. Furthermore. nor to those who lent the money. written. . was all borrowed and lent in the dark j that is. only a few persons. borrowers and . and these principals were really known individually neither to their pretended representatives who con-tractcd these debts in their behalf. who wanted money to carryon the robberies and murders in which they were then engaged. nor erer had. or know each other's names j who could not then. who pretended to represent" the people of the United States. and who intended to extort from the future people of the United Stales. nor ever had. who were the real principals in contracting these debts. the means to pay these debts. by men who did not sec each other's faces. by which they may be individually known to the world. This band of robbers and murderers. and in a way to furnish evidence against none of the principals indioidually. the money was all lent and borrowed for criminal purposes. if that should prove necessary). and would have been so. identify each other as principals in the transactions. avowed. is a secret one. calling themselves " members of Congress.Their real or pretended representatives. even though the real parties.

in return. this secret band of robbers and murderers are really bankrupt. taking. and made their contracts openly. at the time the money was lent. that the money should be repaid only from the proceeds of these future robberies and murders. Individually they furnished money for a common enterprise. Having no corporate property with which to pay what purports to be their corporate debts. or the • atmosphere and the sunlight. in their own proper names . Furthermore. They have nothing to pay with. having DO legitimate corporate existence. They themselves were not only part and parcel. who were the real borrowers of this money. In fact. they do not propose to pay their debts otherwise than from the px:oceeds of their future robberies and murders. of this secret band of robbers and murderers. . if for no other. The only excuse they had for taking these so-called corporate promises of. what purported to be corporate promises for individual loans.. this secret band of robbers and murderers.And it was. They borrowed and lent money from and to themselves. borrowers and lenders. therefore. these apparently two classes. to pay the debts of . These are confessedly their sole reliance. had come face to face. and to hold them. for individual loans by. ~n fact. and between the Gulf of Mexico and the North Pole. They do indeed pretend to own large tracts of wild lands. . who borrowed and spent the money. but the very life and soul. they might as well pretend to own the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans themselves. the contracts were void from the beginning. and were known to be such by the lenders of the money. For this reason. virtually a part of the contract. lying between the .Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.45 lenders. and dispose of them. the same parties. have no corporate property with which to pay these debts. was that they might have some apparent excuse for tho future robberies of the band {that is. 'Werereally one and the same class. But. for the payment of these debts. on general principles of law and reason.

if these debts had been created for the most innocent and honest. and consequently in a way to make no one openly responsible for the acts of their agents. other persons. written. XVIII. and there being no other open. and it being well known that none but male persons. and shoot us down by the hundreds of thou. and that all those who do Tote. The Constitution having never been signed by anybody. so called. and no property but their own. if we resist? How shall we find these mell? How shall we know them from others? How shall we defend ourselvesand our property against them? Wbo. 01' belonging to. who rob us of our property? Restrain us of our liberty? Subject us to their arbitrary dominion? And devastate our homes. is maintained. arc allowed any voice in the government.46 the corporation). and in the most open and bonest manner. or authentic contract between any parties whatever. Finally. by virtue of which the United States government.all these things being known. by the real parties to the contracts. purposes. sons seldom or nevcr vote at all. of twenty-one years of age and upwards. do so secretly (by secret ballot). and no property subsequently created by. the reslJonsible men. and that they might also know what shares they were to be respectively entitled to out of the proceeds of their. of our neighbors. future robberies. They could have bound nobody that should have come after them. . sands. the questions arise: Who compose the real governing power in the country? Who are the men. or even to each other. either to the world. and it being also well known that a large number of these adult per. and in a way to prevent their individual votes being known. or representatives. are members of this secret band of robbers and murderers? How . these parties could thereby have bound nobody but themselves.

are anything but the real rulers of their respective countries. and the means of acting in concert. em- . though with very little money or other wealth. that only those who have the will and the power to shoot down their fellow men. that we may kill them. than themselves. enslave. mere physical strength. enslave. And among both savages and barbarians. necessary consequence. disciplined. or kill another body of men. and other instrumentalities of war in any requisite' amount. Among barbarians. are the real rulers in this. and consequently tho question of power. may. It is so in ~urope. mere want may sometimes compel one man to sell himself as a slave to another. and it is so in this country. among whom knowledge. the quostion of war. that wo may burn or domolish them? Which their property. on the part of one man. enslave. or enslaved.47 can we know which are their houses. are the real rulers. But with (socalled) civilized peoples. before men can be free i before they can protect themselves against this secret band of robbers and murderers. mere physical strength. is little else than a mere question of money. as in all other (so called) civillzed countries i for by no others will civilized men be robbed. those who stand ready to furnish this money. enable them to rob. can always be had for money. have become diffused i and who have invented such weapons and other means of defence as to render mere physical strength of less importance i and by whom soldiers in any requisite number. as numerous. the' nominal rulers. or perhaps even more numerous. on the part of a body of men. wealth. and destroy them. who now plunder. that we may destroy it? Which their persons. In Europe. The answer to these questions is. under some circumstances. may enable him to rob. Among savages. They are little or nothing else than mere tools. and rid the world and ourselves of such tyrants and monsters? These are questions that must be answered. or kill another man. As 0. the emperors and kings and parliaments. and acting in concert.

years to come j to control all their trade and industry.. for twenty or fifty years to come. who call themselves governments. and at the highest rate of interest. tho Emperor of France. fifty. it will enable them to murder twent. Tho Rothschilds.y. or none at all. for simply seeking their liberty and their rights j knowing also that neither the interest nor the principal will ever be paid. knowing that it is to be expended in murdering their fellow men. say to themselvese If we lend a hundred millions sterling to the Queen and Parliament of England. and to extort from them largo amounts of money. or India j and the terror inspired by such. will enable them to keep the whole people of those countries in subjection for twenty. Ireland. to be' expended in shooting down those who do not submit quietly to being robbed and enslaved. Or.stand ready. at all times. . if we lend this sum to the Emperor of Austria. . and extort money from them. for example. .or a hundred thousand people in England. for purposes of honest industry. and (if need be) murder those who have less wealth.wholesale murder. upon the most ample security. unless. to lend money in unlimited amounts to those robbers and murderers. it will enable him to murder so many of his people as to strike terror into the rest.48 ployed by t10 wealthy to rob. except as it will be extorted under terror of the repetition of such murders as those for which the money lent is to be expended. They lend their money in this manner. the Rothschilds.men who never think of lending a shilling to their next-door neighbors. and that class of money-lenders of whom they are the representatives and agents. These money-lenders. And they say the same in regard to the Emperor of Russia. under the name of taxes j and from the wealth thus extorted from them. the King of Prussla. . or perhaps fifty. they (the Queen and Parliament) can afford to pay us a higher rate of interest for our money than we can get in any other way. and thus enable him to keep them in subjection. enslave.

to an emperor or a king. and murdering their fellow men. to hold as investments. they sell out the bonds taken by them. a mere question of pecuniary profit. or an emperor. so called. 4 .. They care no more for a king. for purposes of murder. and everybody. will be able.49 or any other ruler. and are now ready to lend money in the same way again to any other robber and murderer. This is the whole matter. and thus extorting money from his people in future. who are disposed to buy them at satisfactory prices. such loans pay better than any others. They pay higher rates of interest. that reverence monarchs. they dismiss him as unceremoniously as they would dis. And why are these men so ready to lend money for murdering their fellow men? Solely for this reason. They len~ morley to be expended in robbing. who should want to borrow money to save himself from open insolvency. viz. in their judgment. to keep the rest in subjection. who. called an emperor or a' king. and it is less trouble to look after them. '!'he question of making these loans is. and can pay them better interest for their money" If they doubt hi!! ability to make his murders successful for maintaining his power. in small amounts. and extort money from them. to anybody. who. on the whole. except as he is a better customer. with great profits. solely because. like the Rothschilds. with these lenders. miss any other hopeless bankrupt. by murdering a reasonable portion of his people. to pay the interest and principal of the money lent him. no superstitious fools. They are no respecters of persons. than they do for a beggar. and able to pay a good price for the money necessary to carry them on. have loaned vast sums in this way. they think. enslaving. They (the Rothschilds) thus soon get back their money. When these great lenders of blood-money. for a long time to come. that such loans are considered better investments than loans for purposes of honest industry. is likely to be successful in his robberies and murders.

50 This business of lending blood-money is one of the most thoroughly sordid. I think. And their first care is to maintain their credit with them. There are now. to be repaid out of their plunder. The enslaved people are. • When these emperors and kings. as well as to submit to all the other extortions which these murderers are employed to enforce. or chiefs. And the so-called sovereigns. or pirates that ever lived . These so-called governments are in reality only great bands of robbers and murderers. so called. disciplined. rob. as their only means of enforcing their extortions. are simply the heads. And the men who loan money to governments. enslave. ar among the greatest villains that the world has ever seen. for they know . 'eold-blooded and criminal that was ever carried on. In fact. they proceed to hire and train immense numbers of professional murderers. called soldiers. four or five millions of these professional murderers constantly employed by the so-called sovereigns of Europe. It is like lending money to slave-traders. And they as much deserve to be hunted and killed (if they cannot otherwise be got rid of) as any slave-traders. so called. It is only in this way that most of the so-called governments of Europe are maintained. of different bands of robbers and murderers. forced to support and pay all these murderers. or to common robbers and pirates. and constantly on the alert. have obtained their loans. most of them keep large bodies of these murderers constantly in their service. to any considerable extent. in these different governments. organized. for the purpose of enabling the latter to. amo~gst human beings. and employ them in shooting down all who resist their demands for money. robbers. and murder their people. And these heads' or chiefs are dependent upon the lenders of bloodmoney for the means to carryon their robberies and murders. They could not sustain themselves a moment but for the loans made to them by these blood-money loan-mongers. of course.

and majesties. by means of tariffs on-competing imports. and sit on thrones] who' deck themselves with ribbons. They also. they perhaps grant to the holders of them great moucpolies in bankisg. Most Catholic Majesties. Most Christian Majesties. and palm themselves off. on whom ~hey rely for the means to carryon their . High lIightinesses. by special authority from Heaven. sequcntly the first proceeds of their extortions are scrupulously applied to the payment of the interest on their loans. they give great monopolies to certain branches of industry.Almighty God. Thus it is evident that all these men. but that they are also the merest hangers on. and feathers." by "Divine Right. with the agreement that these banks shall furnish money whenever. and kings.that is.and potent princes. upon fools and slaves. of France. Perhaps also. and to hold them-. and who claim to rule «by the grace of God. who call themselves emperors. and the like. like the Banks of England.are intrinsically not only the merest miscreants and wretches. engaged eolely in plundering. . in which these lenders of blood-money are engaged. it may be nec~ssary to shoot down more of their people.Icugh in their sleeves. the instant their credit with them fails. in sudden emergencies. who profess to wear crowns. fawning dependents and tools of these blood-money loan-mongers. Kings.51 their end is come.. who call themselves by the high-sounding names of Emperors. Sovereigns. In addition to paying the interest on their bonds. . and surround themselves with hired flatterers and lickspittles. and of Vienna. the servile. enslaving. like the Rothschllds.crimes. obsequious. and jewels. and most serene . and. Con. These loan-mongers. arcbs. and murdering their fellow men. .whom we suffer to strut around. Most Serene and Potent Princes. and ~y to tbemselves: These despicable creatures. exempt wholly or partially the property of these loan-mongers. as sovereigns and lawgivers specially appointed by . lIon. hy unequal iaxation." . and throw corresponding burdens upon those who are too poor and weak to resist.

" the moment their exactions . what is true in Europe. no one who claims that he and his children rule" by the Grace of God. all the danger. or sovereign. Now. and use them. strip them of their gewgaws. but who.of knowing. and power.all these miscreants and impostors know that we make them. in this country. there is no visible. or give them over to the vengeance of the people they have enslaved. but are really only the agents of a secret band of robbers and murderers. who call themselves presidents. they. and have their being. for the time being. that we require them (as the price of their positions) to take upon themselves all the labor. and have no means. and claim to be the authorized agents. XIX. or any other open." by "Divine Right." That is to say.52 selves out as the sole fountains of honors. What is important to be noticed is. who call themselves" the government." or by special appointment from Hea:ven. will openly or secretly. that. or powers of attorney. permanent head. who calls himself the state. trust. the moment they refuse to commit any crime we require of them. or chief. :There are only certain men. individually. that these so-called presidents. authentic evidence that they are so. move. and that we will unmake them. or to pay over to us such share of the proceeds of their robberies as we see fit to demand." but who can show no credentials. or' even emperor. and dignities. there is no one man. an~ all the odium of all the crimes they commit for our profit. that iu us they live. is substantially true in this country.the United States. The difference is the immaterial one. sustain them in all their usurp~tions and crimes. and wealth.. of these robbers and murderers. senators. senators. when the eriais comes. who!Dthey themselves do not know. and send them out into the world as beggars. orfor certain short periods. these pretended agents of all "the people of'. king. of all "the people of the United States. and who notoriously are not'so . and representatives. and representatives.

and on the voluntary support. And they expect to repay the loans. and thus strike terror into the rest. that the only legitimate objects of government were the maintenance of liberty and justice equally for all. if they can but shoot down flOW some hundreds of thousands of them. like their co-robbers and murderers in Europe. and . upon their pretended principals. inculcated by a servile and corrupt priesthood in Europe.. Perhaps the facts were never ma. the presidents. than in our own. that these soulless bloodmoney loan-mongers are f the real rulers.their own constituents and principals. are merely their tools.53 meet with 'any formidable resistance from any portion of "the people" themselves. socalled. so called. that they rule from the most sordid and mercenary motives. l!-s they profess to call them . senators. and representatives. justice or liberty had anything to do in inducing them to lend their money for the war. We all professed to have known long ago. for the means to sustain their power. We professed long ago to have learned that governments could rightfully exist only by the free will. All this .that no ideas of. ~n proof of all this. And they borrow their money on the same principle. if at all. and that it was consequently a religious duty on the part of the people to obey them. derived their authority directly from Heaven. of those who might choose to sustain them. to fly at once to the lenders of blood money.de more evident. that the ostensible government. and for the.who resist the robberies and enslavement which these borrowers of the money are practising upon them. look at the following facts. viz. that rulers. only from the proceeds of the future robberies. which they anticipate it will be easy for them and their successors to perpetrate through a long series of years. same purpose. to be expended in shooting down all those "people of the United States" . Nearly a hundred years ago we professed jo have got rid of all that religious superstition. in .any country on the globe. or regard for. are obliged.

to wit.war. to maintain their industrial and commercial control Qver the South . for nearly a century. the privilege of holding the slave-holders themselves in industrial and commercial SUbjection to the manufac. And these Northern merchants and manufacturers. N otwitbstanding all this. and using them as our tools for mai~ " . who were so easily kept in subjection by the frauds and force of priests and kings. been the willing accomplices of the slave-holders in perverting the government from the purposes of liberty and justice. the North said to the slaveholders: If you will not pay us our price (give us control oC your markets) for our assistance against your slaves. for a long series of years previous to the. And -it was to enforce' this price in' the future .that is. either doubting the fidelity of their Northern allies. in other words. monopolies in the future. They had been such accomplices for a purely peCltniar'!l consideration. But the slave-holders. and enslaved peoples of'Europe.. turers and merchants of the North (who afterwards furnished the money for the war). that we had learned. superstitious. would no' longer pay the price' which these Northern men demanded. monopolies for the war. were willing to continuo to be the accomplices of tho slave-holders in the futuro. to the greatest of crimes. the motives on which the money for the war 'Waslent by the North. and known. to monopolize the Southern markets. or greater.54 we bad professed for nearly a bundred years. these lenders of blood-money.and not any love of liberty or justice . for the same pecuniary consideration. chants lent some oC the profits of their former. In short.that these Northern manufacturers and mer.:wo will secure the same price (keep control of your markets) by helping ]'our slaves against you.. a control of the markets in the South. and professed. And we professed to look with pity and contempt upon those ignorant. in order to secure to themselves the same. These . these lenders of blood money' had. or feeling themselves strong enough to keep their slaves in subjection without Northern assistance.were.

blood and money. black and white. and thus enslave and plunder.e peace. and at enormous rates of interest.' says: "Let us M:I.and perhaps doubly. also by such monopolies in banking as will enable them to keep control of. and unequal taxation. This programme having been fully arranged and systematized. or quadruply paid .are to be paid in full. and you can have It peace. and not from any love of liberty or justice. in. And now these lenders of blood-money demand their pay. whether ~he tools we use for that purpose be black or white. and the government." But in case you resist. And now he. and indirect. and charge him to carry their scheme into effect. will furnish the means again to subdue you. . speaking as their organ. so called. becomes their tool.industrial and commercial slavery of the great body of the people." The meaning of this is: Submit quietly to all the robbery and slavery we have arranged for you. and insist UpOD. to extort it from the labor of the enslavep. their servile. It is to be extorted hy every form of direct. slavish. triply. Not only the nominal debt and interest . and from this motive. who furnished the means to subdue the South. and are determined to secure. and be the cost.55 taining dominion over yon.enormous as the latter was . but these holders of the debt are to be paid still further. people both of the North and the South. in return for the money lent for the war. the same lenders of blood-money. villanous tool. And it was only by means of these loans that the objects of the war were accomplished. what it may. the money was lent in enormous amounts. the industry and trade of the great body of the Northern people themselves.by such tariffs on imports as will enable our home manufacturers to realize enormous prices for their commpditiea. they put their sword into the hands of the chief murderer of the war. North and South. In short. for the control of your markets we will have. is the price which theselenders of blood money demand. the . On this principle.

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" of having It preserved the union. that was not voluntary. All these cries of having It abolished slavery. is this .that it is one to which everybody must consent." of establishing " a government of consent." Their pretences that they have It Saved the Country. glorious or inglorious.58 establishing. The lesson taught by all these facts is this: As long as mankind continue to pay" National Debts. This. so long as they are such dupes and cowards as to pay for being cheated. between those who conquer.so long there will be enough to lend the money for those purposes. and those who arc flubjugated. enslaved." are frauds like all the rest oC their pretences.. and it is the dominant one. was the dominant one on which 14e war was carried on. "By them they mean simply that they have subjugated. or be shot•. or for compelling anybody to support a government that he does not want. too. Or as if there could be said to be any union between masters and slaves. transparent cheats ." are all gross.or as if any people kept in subjection by the sword (as it is intended that all of us shall be hereafter) -coilld be said to have any country. and maintained their power over. and with" that ." and of It maintaining the national honor. and murdered. shameless.so transparent that they ought to decieve no one . or for the government that has succeeded the war. an unwilling people. This they call It Saving the Country. or for now compelling the people to pay the cost of the war. is. . plundered. " as if there could be said to be any Union." and "Preserved our Glorious Union." of having It saved the country.when uttered as justifications for the war. This idea." as if an enslaved and subjugated people .that." The only idea they have eyer manifested as to what is a government of consent. and that the war was designed to establish." so-called. they call It Preserving our Glorious Union. It a government of consent. now that we have got what is called It peace.

can be hired to keep them in subjection. Nevertheless. enslaved. or another. to prove that such is the truth. it is perhaps of no importance what its true legal meaning. the writer thinks it proper to say that. plundered. But when they refuse any longer to pay for being thus cheated. by anybody. But whether the Constitution really be one thing. In either case. nor agreed to. they will cease to have cheats. He has heretofore written much. and is now binding upon.59 money a plenty of tools. and naked usurpations. and murdered. moreover. the Constitution is no such instrument as it has generally been assumed to be. as a contract. and almost wholly. and usurpers. nobody j and is. APPENDIX. . except as they may be forced to do so at the point of the bayonet. in his opinion. . the government has been made in practice a very widely. and therefore never bound anybody. and could write much more. different thing from what the Constitution itself purports to authorize. or bas been powerlcsa to prevent it. is. and murderers and blood-money loan-mongers for masters. such an one as no people can ever hereafter be expected to consent to. called soldiers. and robbers. as a contract. Inasmuch as the Constitution was never signed. but that by false interpretations. this much is cerlainthat it has either authorized such a government as we have had. it b unfit to exist.