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A complete introduction to Six-Phase Transmission System, Components and modifications required to construct a new Six-phase line or Converting the Existing Structures of three-phase double circuit transmission lines to six-phase system. Each of the merit and demerit of Six-Phase transmission is explained by simulations and data from the actual experiments. Cost analysis is performed for New construction as well as conversion. Further research topics related to Six-phase system are also proposed

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READ: In the name of your LORD Who created, created man from a clot Read: and your lord is most Bounteous Who taught by the pen Taught man that which he did not know. Taught man that which he did not know. Surah Al-Alaq (Al-Quran) Verse # (1-4) Chapter # 30

Simulation and Analysis of Six-phase Power Transmission System

**Session 2008-2012 Group Members
**

Safdar Rasool Muhammad Kashif Nadeem Muhammad Awais Rafique Aamar Iqbal 2008-RCET-ELECT-02 2008-RCET-ELECT-06 2008-RCET-ELECT-16 2008-RCET-ELECT-22

Project Supervisor Engr. Rehan Arif

**Department of Electrical Engineering Rachna College of Engineering and Technology, Gujranwala
**

(A Constituent College of University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore)

i

Simulation and Analysis of Six-phase Power Transmission System

Submitted to the faculty of the Electrical Engineering Department of the University of Engineering and Technology Lahore in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of

Bachelor of Science in

Electrical Engineering

Approval on _________________

External Examiner

External Examiner

External Examiner

Internal Examiner

**Department of Electrical Engineering Rachna College of Engineering and Technology, Gujranwala
**

(A Constituent College of University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore)

ii

except where explicitly stated otherwise. Kashif Nadeem M. Awais Rafique Aamar Iqbal 2008-RCET-ELECT-02 2008-RCET-ELECT-06 2008-RCET-ELECT-16 2008-RCET-ELECT-22 _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ iii . Safdar Rasool M. In addition this work has not been submitted to obtain another degree or professional qualification.Declaration We declare that the work obtained in this report is our own.

inspiration and strength during the completion of this project. helping friends. talented teachers. His sweet behavior. respect and ‘Darood-O-Salam’ are due to His Holy Prophet(P.B. keen interest. loving parents. encouragement. We express our most sincere gratitude. the creator of this universe.H) Whose blessings and exaltations flourished our thoughts and thrived our ambition to have cherished fruit of our modest effort in form of this write-up. iv . personal involvement and criticism for the betterment were all the real source of courage. The Gracious and compassionate whose bounteous blessings gave us potential thoughts. co-operative sisters and brothers and opportunity to make this humble contribution and all praises to. Rehan Arif for his excellent supervision.Acknowledgment All glory to Almighty Allah. knowledge delivering. We would not have been able to complete our project without his supervision.U. hearty sentiments and thanks to our project advisor Engr.

Dedicated to… GREATEST REFORMER HAZRAT MUHAMMAD (PBUH) OUR PARENTS WHO‟S PRAYERS ARE FOR US OUR TEACHERS WHO ENCOURAGED US AT EVERY POINT OUR BROTHERS AND SISTERS WHO’S INNOCENT SMILES ARE FUEL FOR OUR LIFE. v .

.............................................. xvii Chapter 1 Introduction .....5 2......... 13 Higher Power Transfer Capability .........................................................3........................................................................1 1..........................................................................2 1..................................................5 Research Background .............................................................................................................................................................4 2....................2 2..................................................................... 1 Literature Assessments ..........5............................................................................................... 9 Phase-to-Phase Voltage ......................................... 1 1............... v List of Figures..................Table of Contents Declaration............ 11 Phase-to-Cross phase Voltage .......... 13 vi 2..................................................... xv Abstract ....... 12 2.........................................................................................4 1.... 8 Phasor Relationship in Three-Phase System ................................................................................. iv Dedicated to… ....................3 2..............................3.......... 6 2.................................................................................... 7 Phasor relationships ....3................................... 4 Thesis structure ......................................................... 10 Phase-to-Group Voltage ................................................................................................................................................ 8 Phasor Relationship in Six-Phase System ..................................................................................... 12 Advantages of Six Phase Power Transmission . x List of Table ................................ 6 Voltages in Six Phase System .1 ........................................................................................................... xiv List of Symbols and Acronyms .............................................................................3..............................................4 2..2 2....3.1 2.................................................... 5 Chapter 2 Six-phase Power ..................................................................................5 Power in Six Phase System..........................1 2...........................3 Introduction ........................ iii Acknowledgment................. 2 Objectives and Scope ..........................................................................................

.... 21 Y-Y Connection ................................................................. 24 ∆-∆ Connection ..........................2.............................. 15 Lightning Performance ............................................................................................................................................1 3..4....................3 2................. 17 3........................4..............................................3............................................ 14 Smaller Structure .1 3......... 19 3................................6 2......................................3.......5....................2 3...............5 3..................................4 3...............................................1 3........................................ 31 3...................................................................................3 3...............5..........2 2..............5...................7 2... 15 Lower Corona and Field Effects ......................................... 16 Summary ............. 18 Three-phase to Six-phase conversion .................. 26 ∆-Y and ∆-Inverted Y .............................4 3........................5 2.................................................................................................................... 15 Feasibility ........ 25 Y-Y and Y-Inverted Y ............................................ 22 Y-∆ Connection ...........3........................5 Power Transmission Line ....................5........ 33 Surge Impedance Loading..6 2....5......................................................................................... 27 Diametrical ...............2 3..................................5..... 29 Double-Wye ........................... 16 Chapter 3 Production of Six Phase Power and System components ...................................4...................................................5.......1 3.......................................... 15 Better Stability Margin ..............................................................2 3.......1 Production of Six phase ......................... 19 Three-Phase Transformer Connections ............ 23 ∆-Y Connection ................ 33 vii 3...........4 2.....1...................4 Six-Phase Transformer Connections................................................................ 18 Direct Six-phase Generation ....2 .......... 28 Double-Delta .......................4................................................. 25 3.......................4............................................2 3.............................3 Power Transformer ..................7 Increased Utilization of Right-of-Way....5.....................................3 3......... 31 Surge Impedance .......... 14 Lower Insulation Requirement .......................................................................1...............3.............

...................................................5............. 38 Modeling of Three-phase double circuit line on Simulink .....................5....... 57 5...............................................................................................................2.................2................................... 59 Computer Program for calculation of Magnetic Fields ...................................... 58 Application of Ampere’s Law to infinitely long.. 44 4.. 46 4....................4 5.... 55 Summary .... 57 Basic Concepts: ...........4 3.............................................................................6 Line Loadability ................................................................................................... 62 Magnetic Field of Six-phase Line with same load .................. 62 Magnetic Field of Three-Phase Double Circuit Line......3 5.... 35 Chapter 4 Modeling of six-phase Transmission System in MATLAB® ..................................................3 3..........................................................................2 4............... 36 4............. 36 SimPowerSystems .......2 conductor ........ current carrying 5.....................................5 The Role of Simulation in Design ..................... 56 Chapter 5 Electromagnetic Field Gradients ....2 4.........................................................1............1.......2...3 5.........2 Application to Transmission Lines ..................................3..................4 viii ................... 64 Results and Conclusion ................................................................. 58 5........................2 5..............5.................................1..... 65 5...........................1 Transformation block for wye-wye wye-inverted-wye ...... 50 Voltage Drop Comparison ......................1 4................................................1 5...........................................................1 Magnetic Field Basics.6 4. 63 Magnetic Field of Six-phase Line with Increased load ...............................4 4... 34 Stability Performance .....................................5..........1 5.7 Delta-wye Delta Inverted wye configuration ................................. 40 Modelling of Six-phase Transmission System .............1.2...................................... 59 Magnetic field strength for Six-phase Line .....3 4........................ 35 Summary ....... 36 Overview of SimPowerSystems Libraries ..............................

..................................................2 6...........................3 5................. 80 Results ....................5 Summary ......................................................... 82 Chapter 6 System Modifications and Cost Analysis...................................................................1......................................2 6................ 84 Six-Phase Conversion Transformers ...4 6.......................3 Analysis of transmission line conductor surface voltage gradients computations .......................................................... 90 Chapter 7 Conclusions and Future Recommendations .....................................................................3 Cost Analysis .........................2 Results and Conclusions .......................3.....................................................................................1...................5 6........................................................................1 System Modifications ............................................................. 85 Transmission line Modifications .................. 67 Computer Program for calculation of Electric Fields ......................................................... 85 Protection.... 84 Six Phase Positioning .....................................................2 5.............................................. 76 Corona ............... 83 6.....................................................................................................................1 7...........................................................3.................................4......................................... 86 Tower Structures ................... 98 ix .................................. 93 References ............. 86 Right of Ways .......................1........................................1 6......... 79 Corona Precautions for Compact Lines .........1.....................................1............................................................................................................................. 91 Project Limitations and Future Recommendations .................. 91 7....... 82 5......................................................... 78 Corona loss Calculations ............................ 87 6............................................8 6.1 5......4 5...7 6..............................................................3 6.......... 86 Insulation Requirements.......2 5.............................. 84 Six-phase Bays ..6 6... 95 Appendices ....................1............ 87 Summary .................4.......4............ 66 5................................................................4 Basic Equations ....................1.....................5......1................................................................................

..1: Machine Power Vs No...5: Potential between phase A and phase C………………………………11 Figure 2.……22 Figure 3...5: Schematic diagram of Y-Y connected three-phase transformer….6: Y-∆ connected three-phase transformer………………………………23 Figure 3...17 Figure 3.22 Figure 3......7: Determining power density…………………………………………..8: ∆-Y connected three-phase transformer………………………………24 Figure 3......………......1:Phasor Diagram of Six-Phase System………………………………….10: ∆-∆ connected three-phase transformer…………………………….28 Figure 3.....….......………18 Figure 3...14: ∆-Y and ∆-Inverted Y connected three-to-six-phase conversion Transformer……………………………………………………………………….....4:Y-Y connected three-phase transformer………………………….......16: Diametrical connected three-to-six-phase conversion transformer………………………………………………………………………....List of Figures Chapter 2 Figure 2.23 Figure 3...27 Figure 3.6: Potential between phase A and phase…………………………………12 Figure 2........…………9 Figure 2....2: DGC Triangle representing relationship between Vphase and Vline….11 Figure 2..12: Y-Y and Y-Inverted Y connected three-to-six-phase conversion Transformer……………………………………………………………………….......28 x .7 Figure 2...9: Schematic diagram of ∆-Y connected three-phase transformer………24 Figure 3.13: Schematic diagram of Y-Y and Y-Inverted Y connected three-to-sixphase conversion transformer..2: Six-Phase double wye Synchronous Generator……………….15: Schematic diagram of ∆-Y and ∆-Inverted Y connected three-to-sixphase conversion transformer…………………………………………………….…….....27 Figure 3....4: Potential between phase A and phase B………………………...7: Schematic diagram of Y-∆ connected three-phase transformer……...3 Phasor diagram of three phase system……………………….14 Chapter 3 Figure 3..3: 20 MVA three-phase transformers……………………….11: Schematic diagram of ∆-∆ connected three-phase transformer…......…..26 Figure 3...25 Figure 3....8 Figure 2. of Phases…………………………………….20 Figure 3....25 Figure 3..........

Figure 3.17: Schematic diagram of Diametrical connected three-to-six-phase conversion transformer……………………………………………………………29 Figure 3.18: Double-Delta connected three-to-six-phase conversion transformer………………………………………………………………………...29 Figure 3.19: Schematic diagram of Double-Delta connected three-to-six-phase conversion transformer……………………………………………………………30 Figure 3.20: Double-Wye connected three-to-six-phase conversion transformer………………………………………………………………………...30 Figure 3.21: Schematic diagram of Double-Wye connected three-to-six-phase conversion transformer……………………………………………………………31 Figure 3.22: Lossless line terminated by its surge impedance.................................33 Figure 3.23: Surge impedance loading characteristic curve………………………34

Chapter 4

Figure 4.1: Nonlinear Simulink Blocks for SimPowerSystems Models…………..39 Figure 4.2: Simulink Library Browser…………………………………………….39 Figure 4.3: Display block for numeric display of input values……………………40 Figure 4.4: Block diagram of Three phase transformer …………………………..40 Figure 4.5: Block Diagram and Connection Diagram of Three Phase T/F……..…41 Figure 4.6: Transmission Line…………………………………………………….41 Figure 4.7: Waveform of Phase Voltages………………………………………....42 Figure 4.8: Waveform of Line Voltages………………………………………..…42 Figure 4.9: Hierarchy of Measurement blocks for Phase Voltages…………….….43 Figure 4.10: Hierarchy of Measurement blocks for Line Voltages………………..43 Figure 4.11: Complete model of Three Phase double circuit Transmission System.......................................................................................................................44 Figure 4.12: Three-Phase RLC load………………………………………………44 Figure 4.13: Y-Y Y-Inverted Y Configuration of Transformers………………….46 Figure 4.14: Waveform of Phase voltages………………………………………...47 Figure 4.15: Waveform of Line Voltages…………………………………………47 Figure 4.16: Source Voltages………..…………………………………………….48 Figure 4.17: Voltages across Load……………………………………………...…49 Figure 4.18: Complete System for Six Phase Transmission Using Y-Y, Y-Inverted Y Transformer configuration……………………………………………………...49 xi

Figure 4.19: Hierarchy of Delta-Wye Delta-Inverted Wye Transformation block………………………………………………………………………………50 Figure 4.20: Waveform of Phase Voltages………………………………………..51 Figure 4.21: Waveform of Line Voltages………………………………………....51 Figure 4.22: Three-Phase RLC Load……………………………………………...52 Figure 4.23: Six Phase Transmission System using Delta-Wye Delta-Inverted Wye Configuration of Transformer……………………………………………………..53 Figure 4.24: Diametrical Configurations……………………………………….…53 Figure 4.25: Block Diagrams………………………..……………………….........54 Figure 4.26: The connection diagram of Diametrical conversion transformer……54 Figure 4.27: Input parameter of transmission line………………………………...55

Chapter 5

Figure 5.1: The BiotSavart Law…………………………………………………...58 Figure 5.2: Magnetic field of aconductor along Z-axis carrying current I………...59 Figure 5.3: Magnetic Field of a single conductor…………………………………59 Figure 5.4: Magnetic field of a multi-conductor line……………………………...60 Figure 5.5: Relation between the lengths and Tower Geometry……………..........61 Figure 5.6: Magnetic Field Profile of Three-phase Double Circuit Transmission Line…………………………………………………………………..……………62 Figure 5.7: Magnetic field of three-phase double circuit transmission line….........63 Figure 5.8: Magnetic field Profile of Six-phase line with same Load…………….64 Figure 5.9: Magnetic Field Profile of Six-Phase with increased load……………..65 Figure 5.10: Plot of Magnetic field of six-phase line……………………………...65 Figure 5.11: Vector addition of field due to two charges…………………….........68 Figure 5.12: Potential difference between two points a and b…………………….69 Figure 5.13:Linear path in nonunform electric field……………………………....69 Figure 5.14: Transmission line of n-conductors…………………………………..71 Figure 5.15: Electric fireld produced by source and image conductor……………73 Figure 5.16 n-conductor system………….………………………………………..75 Figure 5.17: Electric field profiles………………………………………………...77 Figure 5.18: Plot of Electric Field versus Distance for Three-Phase……………...77 Figure 5.19: Plot of Electric Field versus Distance for Six-Phase………………...78

xii

Chapter 6

Figure 6.1: Plot of Total Line Costs for Six-phase and three-phase double circuit lines. ……………………………………………………………………………....89

xiii

2 Voltage Drop across the length of transmission lines for three-phase and six-phase with 73% extra load...2: Input Data for Six-phase line with same load………………….1: Input data for three-phase Double Circuit Transmission Line……….3: Input Data for Six-phase line with 73% increase in load………………64 Table 5.56 Table 4.………63 Table 5.79 Table 5.……………46 Table 4.16 Chapter 4 Table 4..5: Results for corona loss…………………………………………………80 Chapter 6 Table 6..56 Chapter 5 Table 5..4: Line Configuration and Conductor Data……………………………….89 xiv .1 Goudy-Oakdale lightning performance flashovers per year for 2.2: Cost of the equipment for upgrading of three-phase double circuit line.62 Table 5.………………………………………………….3 Voltage drops across the length of transmission line for Six phase with same load as three-phase…………………………………………………………..4 km of line ………………………………………………………………………………..1 Transformer configuration ……………………………….1: Cost for the Equipment to be installed in Six-Phase line………………88 Table 6.List of Tables Chapter 2 Table 2..

degree Angular displacement.New York State Energy Research and Development Authority TPDC.Three Phase double Circuit PReal power xv .Generator step-up HPO .Allegheny Power Services Corporation DOE . turns.Matrix laboratory software MATPOWER .List of Symbols and Acronyms αδθπωaAC CDC EfGHAngular acceleration. radians/second Transformer turn ratio or 1 ∠ 120° in polar number Asynchronous current Capacitance. μF Direct current Excitation voltage Frequency. MVA Inertia constant or Height. etc.A MATLAB™ Power System Simulation Package Nn– Number (of phases/phase conductors.1416 radians or 180° Angular velocity. mH Angular momentum.New York State Electric and Gas Corporation NYSERDA . Hz Machine rating in.Department of Energy EHV . m APS . radians 3.Extra-high voltage GSU . radians/second² Angle difference between the voltages.High phase order HVDC-High-voltage DC ILMCurrent Inductance. joule-sec/radian MATLAB .) or Neutral Speed NTDC.National Transmission and Dispatch Company WAPDA-Water And Power Development Authority NYSEG .

Ω Leakage Reactance as seen from winding 1.Phase-to-neutral voltage at primary side VPS . Ω Positive-sequence surge impedance of the line.Phase-to-phase voltage at primary side VLS .Phase-to-phase voltage at secondary side VPP .Power Technologies Incorporated SKVA-Three-phase apparent power.Delta-Wye connection of the transformer winding Δ-Δ . Ω Generator synchronous reactance.Delta-Delta connection of the transformer winding zZc Impedance. Ω Admittance.Wye-Delta connection of the transformer winding Δ-Y . m Positive-sequence impedance.Ultra-high voltages VLP .Wye-Wye connection of the transformer winding Y-Δ . kVA SIL . Ω xvi .Surge Impedance Loading Ta VVP VL Torque.Power System Computer Aided Design/ Electromagnetic Transient for Direct Current PTI .Phase-to-neutral voltage at secondary side Wxxe xs XL yWide. Nm Voltage Phase-to-neutral voltage Phase-to-phase voltage UHV .Pa Pe Pm - Accelerating power Electrical output of machine Mechanical power input of machine PSCAD/EMTDC. Ω System reactance. mho Y-Y .

However. load flow results shown the voltage levels and voltage phasors are also discussed. From the simulation results. it has been shown that the Test Systems with six-phase single-circuit transmission has a better stability limits compare to the three-phase double-circuit transmission in the sense of power transfer capability and voltage drops. So. Besides. Six-phase transmission appears to be the most capable solution to the need to increase the capability of existing transmission lines and at the same time. In the end justifications are made for the extra cost of conversion and inversion units for generation of six-phase power in transmission systems. These studies have been performed in sufficient detail to determine how the six-phase conversion will affect steady state operation and system stability. In this project. Constrains on the availability of land and planning permission for overhead transmission lines have renewed interest in techniques to increase the power carrying capacity of existing right-of-ways (ROW). EHV systems have been growing rapidly and widely throughout the world because of their efficiency and economy but EHV systems might have adverse impacts on environment like corona loss. which is undergoing rapid industrialization. audible noise and formation of noise. this conversion will have impacts on the power system operations.Abstract Electricity is considered as the dynamo for a country. One of the main advantages of six-phase transmission is that a six-phase line can carry up to 73% more electric power than a three-phase double-circuit line on the same right-of-way of transmission line. investigation is made in time domain considering conversion of three-phase double-circuit to six-phase single-circuit transmission system by using SimPowerSystems in MATLAB/Simulink® program. xvii . effects of electric and magnetic fields are also included in this project. radio interference. respond to the worries related to electromagnetic fields.

Pandya. Its need for industrial use is increasing day by day. increasing of transmission operating voltage will produce strong electric and magnetic fields at ground level with possible biological aspect and environmental effects which necessitate large Right-of-Way (ROW). engineers are looking for some alternative i. One of the main advantages of 6-Φ transmission is that a 6-Φ line can carry up to 73% more electric power than a 3-Φ double-circuit line on the same transmission 1 . In high phase order. However. Kelkar [1]. R.B. In the past. the enhanced power system capability with the increase in 73% load was discussed by A. Due to the high costs involved in the installation of new transmission lines.Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 1 Introduction 1. Barnes. to enhance the power transfer capability in the existing system. Since then. 6-Φ transmission is proved to be most reliable for increasing the capability of existing transmission lines and at the same time it deals with electromagnetic fields as well. That requires new generators and transmission systems to be installed.1 Research Background Electric power has become a basic need of humanity. D.e.C. Among the HPO techniques.S. The increased interest in HPO electric power transmission over past thirty years can be traced on a CIGRE paper published by L. the concept of HPO transmission has become vast and it is being described in several papers and reports. With the increase of energy demand as rapid growth of World’s economy has caused an increased on the demand of electricity supply and load currents of transmission lines. Barthold and H. increase in power transmission capability has been accomplished by increasing system voltages.

for the length about higher then 160KM. Right of ways 4.Venkatetal. Mr.Chandraserkharanetal. reactive power limit in 6 phase is increased at each point of receiving end voltage [3]. 1.Subramanyam. Six phase transmission is conceived as a technique to increase the power transfer capability of existing ROW space. Power transmission capacity 2.K. Magnetic fields 3. six phase transformers These analyses will be performed on various test systems which include IEEE Test Systems in detail using simulation program like MATLAB. S. During 1993-94 Mr.2 Literature Assessments A lot of work is done on high phase order as during 1981-83 Dr P. as they are applicable to a particular simple system. carried transient stability analysis of a 6Φ line using the standard Byrd & Pichard equation which yields closed form expressions and lacks the generality. Moreover. how much 6-Φ conversion will affect steady state operation. Cost effectiveness 5. It was found that conversion of an existing 3-ɸ double circuit to 6-ɸ single transmission line results in line inductance increment and capacitance decrement. the current research results to have a better picture and clearer understanding of the 6-Φ power transmission system.S.Chapter 1 Introduction [2]. investigated and found different methods of 6Φ systems. For this reason. maximum power at the receiving end will progressively enhance maintain the voltage stability at various power factors of load. fault current duties. and system stability. and calculations of inductance and capacitance values for 6Φ lines. 6-ɸ single line conversion. study of the analysis of six phases is accomplished during normal operating conditions for electric power system considering 3-Φ-to-6-Φ conversions of selected transmission lines in an electric energy system. 1. However the minimum line length at which power transfer capability is limited by voltage stability concern is dramatically decreased in 6-ɸ single line compared to 3-ɸ double circuit due to conversion transformers reactance effect. Also.S.A. Following analysis will be performed to know. mathematical modeling of 3Φ/6Φ transformers. 2 .Mishra. In this research. it is found that voltage stability as a recent challenging subject was analyzed..

much has been added to the available knowledge base on HPO transmission primarily in the areas of feasibility considerations. Lower capital and operating costs of transmission. C. Allegheny Power Services Corporation (APS) in cooperation with West Virginia University began seriously investigating the details of an HPO designed in1976. 5. Smaller line-voltage drops 3. The DC transmission tie line acts as an asynchronous link between the two rigid systems eliminating the instability problem inherent in the AC links. Since this corner stone work. DC transmission is especially advantageous when two remotely located large systems are to be connected.Chapter 1 Introduction The incentives for increasing transmission voltages have been: 1. it may be economical to convert the EHV AC to EHV DC. Increment in transmission distance and transmission capacity For the purpose of transmitting power over very long distances. showed that the HPO transmission should be considered as a viable alternative to the conventional 3 . Reduction in line losses 4. analysis of system characteristics and system protection. One variable which relates to that efficiency is the number of phases. HVDC lines have no reactance and are capable of transferring more power for the same conductor size than AC lines. Clark[6] in 1943. the first modern High-Voltage DC (HVDC) transmission line was put into operation in Sweden between Vastervik and the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea. This is based on the fact that. Reduction in ROW 2. The work had focused the industry on the practical aspect of concepts that were first explained by Fostesque [5] in 1918 and E. In the late 1970s. W. using converters we first convert AC to DC and invert it back to AC at the other end. The main disadvantage of the DC is the production of harmonics which requires filtering. Guyker [7] extended the transmission concept by describing fault analysis methodologies and symmetrical component theory. Their studies. the EHV DC has lower losses in transmission line and also has no skin effect [4]. In 1954. They also assessed the feasibility of upgrading an existing 138kV line to 6-Φ to increase the power transmission capability by 73% while reducing conductor field gradients and improving system stability which potentially could obtain public acceptance the nominal voltage of the line would remain unchanged. funded partly by the National Science Foundation. and a large amount of reactive power compensation required at both ends of the line.

and load flow and system stability. Some of the advantages of using the 6Φ transmission system are increased transmission capability. it has been shown that the 6-Φ transmission system can provide the same power transfer capability with lower ROW or can transfer 73% more power for the same ROW as compared to the 3-Φ double-circuit system. in addition to enhanced power transmission capability. 4 . Further. but stopped short of actually demonstrating the technologies on an operating line. Experiences with the use of the PSCAD/MATLAB software have been positive and have enhanced the quality of research and teaching. provides low voltage gradients. thus eliminating the incentive to pursue increased power transfer capabilities. however through their initiative. Six-phase transmission. In this project the models of 3-Φ double-circuit transmission and 6-Φ single-circuit transmission models by has been developed using MATALB program. APS covered the way for future research. lower corona effects. corona and field effects. They completed detailed analysis of HPO designs and protection philosophies. 1.Chapter 1 Introduction 3-Φ transmission system. Besides. According to new idea the feasibility of 6-Φ transmission system is represented in terms of insulation performance. Load projections for their service area were reduced. radio noise and audio noise from the 6-Φ overhead lines. the simulation based approaches proved to be very effective. Simulation has been performed on these two transmission lines. This study has given verification to available methods for the calculation of electric and magnetic fields. lower insulation8 requirements and better voltage regulation. increased utilization of ROW. Comparative studies for 3-Φ double-circuit and 6-Φ single-circuit transmission lines have been implemented to get better one out of the two for future projects. smaller tower structures reduce the right of way requirements. The project was abandoned.4 Objectives and Scope The objective of this project is to provide a solution for the limited Power Transmission Capability of existing transmission lines and to eliminate the legal and environmental constraints involved in the construction of new transmission lines in the form of Electric and Magnetic field Gradients and Right of Ways respectively.

we establish the methods of production of Six phase power and components used Six phase power Transmission system that include six phase generator. Eventually. Power and Phasor Relationships. 5 .Chapter 1 Introduction 1. In chapter 3. Also it is concluded that electric field is less for 6-ɸ than 3-ɸ. Here we have established the definitions for system Voltages. modeling. In this chapter 2 we have discussed the six-phase power system in detail. corona loss. In this chapter 6. Chapter 5 states that size of insulator required in six phase transmission towers will be less as compared to the three-phase double circuit and size of tower will also be compact as ground clearances and mid span clearances will be reduced. Later a cost analysis is performed in which a 500kV six-phase line is compared for relative economics with a 500 kV three-phase double circuit design. we first discuss the modifications required in conversion of a three-phase double circuit transmission line to a six-phase line and discussing the savings/expenses in terms of cost in all the equipment. and analysis of simulation of 3-ɸ to 6-ɸ conversion of selected transmission line in electric power system. 5 and 6th. In chapter 4 modeling and comparison of three-phase double circuit and six-phase single circuit are performed in Simulink /MATLAB®. All the work is this research is presented in chapter 4 . Load flow analysis and power transfer capability comparisons are also performed. six phase transformer and six phase transmission line. TV interference and formation of ozone due to corona will also reduce as electric field strengths are diminished.5 Thesis structure This thesis is primarily concerned with the understanding. radio interference.

Chapter 2 Six-phase Power Chapter 2 Six-phase Power 2. [8] However. For a Six-phase this becomes six equal magnitude voltage vectors spaced 60o between adjacent phases and so on. Here we have established the definitions for system Voltages. 6 . increase in power transmission capability has been accomplished by increasing system voltages. Power and Phasor Relationships. Six phases have attained more importance than other HPO systems because of its feasibility in application on existing system that is a Three Phase Double Circuit (TPDC) Transmission Line can be converted into a six phase line without making extraordinary modifications. In consideration of the fundamental limits on power transfer capability in a restricted ROW led to the concept of increasing the number of phases in a transmission line system circuit also known as Multiphase system or High Phase Order (HPO) Transmission system. increasing of transmission operating voltage will produce strong electric and magnetic field at ground level with possible biological aspect and environmental effects which necessitate large Rightof-Way (ROW). [9] For three phase system. HPO is defined by number of phases of having equal magnitude of voltage but equally spaced in time. the key to the benefits of HPO transmission system lie in the Line and Phase voltage relationships. In the past.1 Introduction In recent years. Availability of power at generation stations has caused an increase in load currents of transmission lines to supply the growing load. As discussed earlier. this means three equal magnitude voltage vectors spaced 120o from each other. rapid growth of World’s economy has caused an increase on the demand of electricity supply. In this chapter we have discussed the six-phase power system in detail.

VBD. the voltage system can be classified into four discrete voltages. Within each group. The equation of Vline and Vphase can be derived by determining the resultant of DGC triangle in Fig 2. Figure 2. having such a Voltage on all the phases which is equal in magnitude but spaced at an electrical angle of 60o from each other. In the groups I and II the voltages are spaced 60o.Chapter 2 Six-phase Power 2. VBE.1) .2 Voltages in Six Phase System In six phase power system. VEF. in the group III and IV the voltages are spaced 120o and 180o respectively: (i) Group I (phase-to-ground voltage): VAG. VBC. Voltage between phases separated by one intermediate phase. VDF.1. that are Phase-to-ground Voltage. VCE.1. VEA. VCD. Phasor diagram of phase-to-phase and phase to ground for a six phase system is shown in Figure 2. VDG. VAD.1: Phasor Diagram of Six-Phase System From Fig 2. VFA (iii) Group III (between phases separated by one intermediate phase) VAC.2 [10]: VCD = 2 x VCG’ = 2 x VCG Cos θ 7 (2. VFB (iv) Group IV (between opposite phases). So with this commitment voltage of group I and II belongs to the Vphase and Vline respectively. VBG. VFG (ii) Group II (between adjacent phases) VAB. there are six phases. all the voltages have identical magnitudes. VDE. VCG. and Voltage between opposite phases. VEG. VCF Here we define Vline as the voltage between the adjacent phases and Vphase as the voltage between a phase and ground. Voltage between adjacent phases.

The phase-to-phase voltage is 3 of the phase-to-neutral voltage. Vphase = Vline (adjacent) in the following topic. their phasor diagrams and relationships are discussed in detail 2. (2. VAB = VAN 0°.3.2) Figure 2.6) VBN = VBN -120° VCN = VCN 120° Assuming the VAN = VBN = VCN = VP (i.3.4) (2. Generally phase-to-neutral voltages.2: DGC Triangle representing relationship between Vphase and Vline Hence. we can obtain the relation of phaseto-phase Voltage and phase-to-neutral voltage. e.VBN -120° 8 (2.1 Phasor Relationship in Three-Phase System A typical balanced three-phase system has 120o electrical degrees between each phase as shown in Figure 2. From Figure 2.3) The rest of voltages. 2. if VAN is assumed as reference can be described as: VAN = VAN 0° (2. so we first establish a phasor relationship for three phase system and then extend our discussion to six-phase power system. it can simplified that Vline (adjacent) = VCD = 2 x Vphase Cos60o (2.7) .Chapter 2 Six-phase Power Angle θ for adjacent phase-to-phase is 60o.3 Phasor relationships As we have to carry out our discussion for three phase double circuit transmission line side by side with the Six-phase transmission line.3. Voltage Magnitudes of all the phsors are same).5) (2.

VL b) Phase-to-group voltage. VBD. Generally phase-to-neutral voltage. VL-Group : VAB. VL-Cross phase : VAD.866) = 3 VP 30° (2. the relationship between phase-to-phase voltage and phase-to-neutral voltage is given as follow: VL = 3 VP 30° (2. VDE. VBE. VCD. VBC. VDF.9) A three-phase system. So in this way three different groups of voltage related with other voltages arise as way have already discussed in above article. The voltage relationship for the phases in a six-phase system represented by above three groups refers to the phase shift between all six lines. VEF.866)) = VP (1. 3 phase-to-neutral voltage and always leading phase-to-neutral voltage by 30°. If the phase-to-phase voltage is 132 kV. VAN is assumed as reference. In general.1 -120°) = VP (1+j0 .2 Phasor Relationship in Six-Phase System A balanced six-phase system has 60o electrical degrees between each phase as shown in Fig 2.5 . then the phase-to-neutral voltage is 76. VCE.(-0. VFB.3. VFA. second group has 120° and last group has 180° phase shift between phases.8) Figure 2. 9 . : VAC. VEA.j0. c) Phase-to-cross phase voltage.Chapter 2 Six-phase Power = VP (1 0°. with 120° between phases has a phase-to-phase voltage equal to kV.1. VCF. The groups are as follows: a) Phase-to-phase voltage.2 2. First group has 60°.3: Phasor Diagram of three-phase system The same correlation is applies for phase-to-phase voltage VBC and VCA.5 + j0.

Assuming the VAN = VBN = VCN = VDN = VEN = VFN =VP.3. VAB = VAN = VP (1 0°.11) 10 .(0. VBC.10) The same correlation is applied for phase-to-phase voltages VAB. In general. Now we obtain the same using an alternate method.4 shows the potential between phase A and phase B.j0.866) = VP 60° (2.VBN 0°. the magnitude of phase-to-phase voltage is equal to the magnitude of the phase-to-neutral voltage and phase-to-phase voltage always leading the phase-to-neutral voltage by 60°. VDE. VCD.3 Phase-to-Phase Voltage We have already obtained a relationship between phase-to-phase voltage and phaseto-neutral voltage for a six-phase system mathematically. the relationship between phase-to-phase voltage and phase-to-neutral voltage is given as follow: VL = VP 60° (2. VEF and VFA.866)) = VP (0. Fig 2. For a six-phase system.1 -60° -60°) = VP (1+j0 .5 + j0. Phase-to-phase voltage is a potential between adjacent phases where their phase difference is 60°.Chapter 2 Six-phase Power VAN = VAN VBN = VBN VCN = VCN VDN = VDN VEN = VEN VFN = VFN 0° -60° -120° -180° -240° -300° 2.5 .

5 + j0. VEA and VFB. VAC = VAN = VP (1 0°.j0.4: Potential between phase A and phase B 2.VCN ∠ -120° 0°.13) Figure 2.4 Phase-to-Group Voltage Phase-to-group voltage is a potential between phases where the phase difference is 120°.Chapter 2 Six-phase Power Figure 2.5 .5 shows the potential between phase A and phase C.(-0.1 -120°) = VP (1+j0 . In general. the relationship between phase-togroup voltage and phase-to-neutral voltage is given as follow: VL-Group = 3 VP 30° (2.neutral voltage by 30°.12) The same correlation is applies for phase-to-phase voltages VAC. Fig 2. VCE. VDF. The magnitude of phase-to-group voltage is 3 times the magnitude of the phase-to-neutral voltage and phase-to-phase voltage always leading the phase-to.3.5: Potential between phase A and phase C 11 .866)) = VP (1.866) = 3 VP 30° (2. VBD.

(-1. Pthree-phase-double-circuit = 2 (3 Vphase-to-neutral Iline) = 6 Vphase to neutral (3 phase) Iline Whereas power in Six-phase line can be calculated as: PSix-phase = 6 Vphase to neutral (6 phase) Iline equal to Vphase to neutral (6 phase).Chapter 2 Six-phase Power 2. The magnitude of phase-to-cross phase voltage is two times the magnitude of the phaseto-neutral voltage.3. but the 12 .15) Figure 2. In general.0 + j0)) = VP (2) = 2VP 0° (2.14) The same correlation is applies for phase-to-phase voltages VAD.4 Power in Six Phase System Assuming unity power factor power in a three phase double circuit transmission line can be calculated using following formula. the relationship between phase-to-crossphase voltage and phase-to-neutral voltage is given as follow: VL-Crossphase = 2VP 0° (2.5 Phase-to-Cross phase Voltage Phase-to-crossphase voltage is a potential between phases where the phase difference is 180°.6: Potential between phase A and phase 2.16) (2. (2. VBE and VCF. keeping Vphase to neutral (3 phase) there is no increase in power.VDN 0°.6 shows the potential between phase A and phase D.17) If a three-phase double circuit line is upgraded to a six phase line. Fig 2. VAD = VAN = VP (1 0°.1 -180° -180°) = VP (1+j0 .

from equation 2. That is. Therefore. As seen by the phasor relationship.16 can be written for six phase power as: PSix-phase = 6 Vphase to neutral (6 phase) Iline = 6( 3 Vphase to neutral (3 phase) ) Iline = = 3 (6Vphase to neutral (3 phase) Iline ) 3 Pthree-phase-double-circuit 3 (or 1.1 Higher Power Transfer Capability Power transmission capability is directly proportional to phase-to-phase voltage. These benefits are among the reasons why power system engineers are consistently pursues knowledge on the power system technology. for the same phase-to-phase voltage as in the threephase system. Increase in power can be evaluated as: Since. the Right of Way (ROW) requirement is reduced due to the reduction in electric and magnetic field gradients. The following subtitles show the advantages of six-phase transmission line. Vphase to neutral (6 phase) = Vline to line = 3 Vphase to neutral (3 phase) So.73 Pthree-phase-double-circuit Because Vphase to neutral (6 phase) is hence. the power capability is increased by 73%. it can be observed that.5. sixphase transmission offers several advantages over conventional three-phase doublecircuit networks. = 1. a six-phase system has a 73% increase in phase-to-neutral voltage. consuming the same ROW and having same electric and magnetic field strengths. This 13 . 2. On the other hand. if a Vphase to neutral (6 phase) is increased to Vline-to-line (3 phase). there is 73% increase in power. when a three-phase double-circuit line is converted to six-phase line.Chapter 2 Six-phase Power increase is in power density. This also results in smaller supporting structures.5 Advantages of Six Phase Power Transmission With the growing concern over the environmental effects of power system. less conductor spacing and low insulation requirement. the main advantage of a six-phase transmission line is that it can carry it can carry up to 73% more electric power transfer capability compare to a threephase system at the same operating voltage. 2.73) times higher than Vphase to neautral (3 phase).

The smaller structures provide increased power transfer for a given ROW.3 Smaller Structure The phase-to-phase voltages between adjacent phases in a six-phase system are lower than the phase-to-phase voltages for a three-phase system for a given phaseto-neutral voltage. Thus.5. This is especially important since ROW is becoming more difficult to obtain and increasingly expensive [12].2 Increased Utilization of Right-of-Way Six-phase transmission increases power density. This advantage permits smaller towers for the same power rating.73 times that of three-phase double circuit transmission line. Besides the troubles caused by the wind induced movements and visual impact can be reduced.Chapter 2 Six-phase Power phenomenon has already been proved in article 2. the minimum spacing between conductors on the six-phase transmission tower is reduced.7: Determining power density Refers to Fig 2. Figure 2. Power density refers to the amount of power that can be transmitted down a given window of ROW assuming there are environmental and technical constraints that limit size of ROW. 2. These two troubles increase the 14 . the correlation between power density and ROW is given as follow: ( ) ( ( ) ) 2. these lines can transfer more power over a given ROW than equivalently loaded three-phase lines [12]. As a result.7.5.4 that power in six-phase is 1. The six-phase lines intrinsically have a lower likelihood of incident lightning strikes because of the smaller structure.

2. utilities can save on various insulating materials for various components of transmission system [13]. sometimes may cause the danger of life [12].5. Thus. the total flashovers are so close before and after conversion that there will not be any noticeable difference in lightning performance at the line. 2. there is an increase in the shielding failure rate and a reduction in the back flash rate. The reduction in electric field can be utilized in either of two ways: a) Increase the phase-to-neutral voltage until the conductor surface electric field is a maximum for corona thus increasing the power handling capacity of the line. 2. Table 2. radio and audio noise can be reduced which in turn leads to lesser television and radio interference.4 km.7 Lightning Performance When the line is converted to six-phase operation. b) Maintain the same phase-to-neutral voltage and decrease the conductor spacing until the conductor surface electric field is a maximum for corona. thus making the line more compact.phase counterpart [11]. [11] 15 .5.5.5. Thus. 2.1 presents the results of the lightning calculation in flashovers per year referred to a line length of 2. Conductor gradients decrease as the number of phases increases for a given conductor size and tower configuration.5 Better Stability Margin A six-phase line can be operated at a smaller power angle than a three-phase line.4 Lower Insulation Requirement For a six-phase system. resulting in a net reduction in the trip out rate.6 Lower Corona and Field Effects Conversion from three-phase double-circuit to six-phase single-circuit has the effect of reducing electric field at the conductor surface for the same phase-to-neutral voltage. This means that the six-phase line offers better stability margin than its three. the insulation required to support one phase from an adjacent phase is equal to that required to support a phase from the zero potential point. However.Chapter 2 Six-phase Power cause of maintenance for the structures of the transmission line and which.

6 Feasibility The aim of improving efficiency of transmission network is indeed the driving factor for electrical utility engineers to consider the six-phase transmission. Terminal expenses can be quite high for six-phase lines.1: Goudey-Oakdale lightning performance flashovers per year for 2. Complexities in voltage in six-phase are discussed. A six-phase line would require conversion transformers that would cause the terminals to be more costly.127 2. the economy factors have to be considered. six-phase have a great deal of advantages over threephase transmission system.029 0. Moreover. They are categorized depends to the phase difference between phases which is 60°. 16 . phase-to-phase voltage is equal to 3 phase-toneutral voltage. 2. For a three-phase system. Basic idea in six phase power transmission is introduced. the phasors relationship can be divided into three categories. In a six-phase system. As proves that discussed in this chapter.4 km of line [11] Configuration 115 kV three-phase 93 kV six-phase Shielding Failures 0. phase-to-group voltages and phase-to-cross phase voltages.049 Back flashes 0.126 0. However. The phase-to-phase voltages always lead the phase-to-neutral voltage by 30°.Chapter 2 Six-phase Power Table 2.7 Summary This chapter describes the basics about six phase power and also gives an insight to its advantages and benefits.155 0.077 Total 0. 120° and 180°. the phasors relationship for both three-phase and six-phase system is discussed in detail. The high cost of terminals is offset by reduced tower and lower foundation costs. ROW cost and losses. Sixphase transmission system offers the opportunity to meet the increasing demands for power yet at the same time meet the environmental and regulatory constraints. These categories are phase-to-phase voltages.

With AC power being generated at 3 phase it was logical to transfer that power in a similar manner and hence the three phase power transmission system was born. As stated earlier. it was first proposed as part of an international electrical committee study in 1973.1: Machine Power Vs No. The idea was relatively straight 17 . [12] Figure 3. of Phases The concept of using transmission systems that carry power with more than three phases is a relatively new idea. Generating power with electrical angles less than 120 degrees between phases does not result in a corresponding increase in power output (see Fig 3.1). . Historically this came about because threephase AC is the most efficient way to generate power.Chapter 3 Production of Six Phase Power and System Components Chapter 3 Production of Six Phase Power and System components Bulk power transmission systems in world are majorly utilizing AC transmission to transfer power do so via three phases.

[14] Figure 3. the devices/components to be used in Six Phase power system should be analyzed. the generation in three-phase is the most efficient way to generate electric power [12].Chapter 3 Production of Six Phase Power and System Components forward. A double wye six-phase generator is shown in Fig 3. the methods of production of Six phase power and components used Six phase power Transmission system are analyzed that include six phase generator. 3. In this chapter. six-phase power can be directly generated using a six-phase synchronous generator. They may be constructed as a double delta. This process would allow for some unique benefits that are described in previous chapter. The construction of six phase generators may be thought of as two sets of three phase windings in the same physical housing. However. or one wye plus one delta.2: Six-Phase double wye Synchronous Generator 18 . Six-phase transmission would alter the power generated into 6 phases.1. six phase transformer and six phase transmission line. 3.2. Before moving on the modeling and detailed analysis. a double wye.1 Production of Six phase Six phase power can be produced in multiple ways. Instead of transmitting power with the same number of phases as it was generated. Two major methods for the production of Six phase are: i) ii) Direct Six-phase Generation 3-phase to 6-phase conversion Detail of each method is given below.1 Direct Six-phase Generation As discussed earlier.

First. primarily 19 .2 Three-phase to Six-phase conversion The other and most feasible method for the production of six phase is by using three phase to six phase conversion transformer bank. The power transformer is a major power system component that permits economic power transmission with high efficiency and low series-voltage drops. such as a neighboring utility. Power transformers are selected based on the application.2 Power Transformer A transformer is defined as a static electrical device. It establishes the definition of transformer. and interconnections within the system or with nearby systems. Since electric power is proportional to the product of voltage and current. discussed three-phase transformer and then leads to the six-phase transformer and its connection. involving no continuously moving parts. Power systems typically consist of a large number of generation locations. The term power transformer is used to refer to those transformers used between the generator and the distribution circuits and are usually rated at 500 kVA and above.1. six identical single phase two winding transformers may be connected to form three to six-phase transformer bank. distribution points. It finds its application in speed control of drives and renewable energy generation. with the emphasis towards custom design being more apparent the larger the unit. Following article deals with the Power Transformer to be used in Six-phase Transmission. used in electric power systems to transfer power between circuits through the use of electromagnetic induction. six-phase generator does not have its practical applications for power generation in bulk due to its higher complexity and less efficiency than three-phase generation machines. three identical single phase three winding transformers may be connected together to form three to six-phase transformer bank. Power transformers are available for step-up operation. A six-phase to three-phase or three-phase to six-phase conversion transformer can be constructed by two techniques. 3. low current levels (and therefore low I²R losses and low IZ voltage drops) can be maintained for given power levels at the expense of high voltages.Chapter 3 Production of Six Phase Power and System Components However. 3. Voltage and current magnitude depends on the windings connections. The details about transformer connections and their characteristics are discussed in the next articles. Secondly.

The primary winding of a single-phase transformer can be connected between a phase conductor and ground or between two phase conductors of the primary system. opposite of the voltage as (3. Figure 3. not all of the flux couples between windings. mainly used to feed distribution circuits. The example of outdoor liquidimmersed transformers has been shown in Fig 3.3. so the voltage is more accurately described (3. the voltages on the input and the output are related by the turn’s ratio of the transformer and given as below: (3. 20 . with transformers intended for indoor use primarily dry-type but also as liquid immersed transformers are used and for outdoor use usually liquid immersed transformers are used. In an ideal transformer. The construction of a transformer depends upon the application.3) Single-phase transformers can be connected into banks of two or three separate units.Chapter 3 Production of Six Phase Power and System Components used at the generator and referred to as step-up transformers (SUT). Each unit in a bank should have the same voltage ratings but need not supply the same kVA load.3: 20 MVA three-phase transformers A transformer is two sets of coils coupled together through a magnetic field.1) In a real transformer. and for stepdown operation. Power transformers are available as a single-phase or three-phase apparatus.2) The current also transforms by the turns ratio. This leakage flux creates a voltage drop between windings.

This is especially true of three-phase transformers using common core structures. while wound cores have a total of four loops creating five legs or vertical paths: three down through the center of the three coils and one on the end of each outside coil.Chapter 3 Production of Six Phase Power and System Components 3. B and C respectively.or five-legged core.4 have been labeled as A.4) There are two ways that can be used to construct a three-phase transformer. One end of each primary lead has been labeled as H1 and the other 21 . Secondly.1 Y-Y Connection The three transformer windings in Fig 3. Wye-Wye. i. First. The kVA rating for a three-phase bank is the total of all three phases. ∆-∆. Stacked cores have three or possibly four vertical legs. ∆-Y. iii. ii. The advantage of three-phase electrical systems in general is the economy gained by having the phases share common conductors and other components. direct buried. There are four common combinations used in three-phase transformer which is. usually on a three.3 Three-Phase Transformer Connections Three-phase transformers have one coaxial coil for each phase encircling a vertical leg of the core structure. The primary or secondary sides of the three-phase transformer may be connected by using either Wye (Y) or Delta (∆) connections. or in a vault or building or manhole) are normally single units. Three-phase transformers for underground service (either pad mounted. three identical single-phase two-winding transformers may be connected to form three-phase bank. The use of three versus four or five legs in the core structure has a bearing on which electrical connections and loads can be used by a particular transformer. a three-phase transformer can be constructed by winding three single-phase transformers on a single core. Threephase transmission line terminal transformer services are normally constructed from three single. The full-load current in amps in each phase of a three-phase unit or bank is: √ (3. (Y-Y) Wye-Delta (Y-∆) Delta-Wye (∆-Y) Delta-Delta (∆-∆) 3.3. Y-∆.phase units. Y-Y. iv. Voltage and current magnitude depends on the windings connection used at the primary and the secondary sides of that three-phase transformer.

4.2 Y-∆ Connection Fig 3. The relation of phase-to-neutral voltage and phase-to-phase voltage on secondary side is given by VLS =√3VPS [3]. For a three-phase transformer with Y-Y connection. Furthermore. one end of each secondary lead has been labeled as X1 and the other end has been labeled as X2. The three transformer windings have been connected to form a three-phase transformer with Y-Y connection as shown in Fig 3. Turn ratio of a transformer is generally written as ‘a’. The relation between phase-to-neutral voltage and phase-to-phase voltage for primary and secondary side is given by [3]: 22 .5. √ √ (3.3. The schematic diagram for Y-∆ connected three-phase transformer is shown in Fig 3.6 shows the three-phase transformer with Y-∆ connection.5) Figure 3. Primary phase-to-neutral voltage relates to secondary phase-to-neutral voltage by number of winding turns.4: Y-Y connected three-phase transformer Figure 3.5: Schematic diagram of Y-Y connected three-phase transformer 3.Chapter 3 Production of Six Phase Power and System Components end has been labeled as H2.7. The schematic diagram for Y-Y connected threephase transformer is shown in Fig 3. voltage relation on primary winding for all phase is given by VPP = VLP/√3.

7: Schematic diagram of Y-∆ connected three-phase transformer.9.8 shows the three-phase transformer with ∆-Y connection.6) Figure 3.Chapter 3 Production of Six Phase Power and System Components VLP =√3VPP & VLS =VPS √ √ (3.3.3 ∆-Y Connection Fig 3.6: Y-∆ connected three-phase transformer Figure 3. 3. and secondary side is given by [3]: VLP =VPP & VLS =√3VPS The relation between phase-to-neutral voltage and phase-to-phase voltage for primary √ 23 . The schematic diagram for ∆-Y connected three-phase transformer is shown in Fig 3.

10 shows the three-phase transformer with ∆-∆ connection.4 ∆-∆ Connection Fig 3. The relation between phase-to-neutral voltage and phase-to-phase voltage for primary and secondary side is given by [3]: VLP = VPP VLS = VPS (3.7) Figure 3.8) 24 . The schematic diagram for ∆-∆ connected three-phase transformer is shown in Fig 3.11.3.Chapter 3 Production of Six Phase Power and System Components √ (3.9: Schematic diagram of ∆-Y connected three-phase transformer 3.8: ∆-Y connected three-phase transformer Figure 3.

10: ∆-∆ connected three-phase transformer Figure 3. First. Furthermore.4. 3. C.Chapter 3 Production of Six Phase Power and System Components Figure 3. One end of each primary lead has been labeled as H1 and the other end has been labeled as H2. 3. three identical single-phase three-winding transformers may be connected together to form three-to-six-phase bank. There are five common connections and combinations that can be used to form a three-to-six-phase conversion transformer which is Y-Y and Y-Inverted Y. Double-Delta and Double. D. Secondly.1 Y-Y and Y-Inverted Y The six transformer windings in Fig 3.12 have been labeled as A.Wye.11: Schematic diagram of ∆-∆ connected three-phase transformer. Voltage and current magnitude depends on the windings connection used on the primary and the secondary sides of the three-to-six-phase conversion transformer. The primary or secondary side of the three-to-six-phase conversion transformer may be connected by using any combinations of either Wye (Y) or Delta (∆) connections. E and F respectively. B. one end of each secondary lead has been 25 . six identical singlephase two-winding transformers may be connected to form three-to-six-phase bank. there are two types of single-phase transformers that can be used to build a three-to-six-phase conversion transformer. Diametrical. ∆-Y & ∆-Inverted Y.4 Six-Phase Transformer Connections As discussed earlier.

L3. L2. The schematic diagram for Y-Y and Y-Inverted Y connected three-to-six-phase conversion transformer is shown in Fig 3. the second three-phase transformer is used Y-Inverted Y connection and produced another three phase line on the secondary side name as lines L2. Neutral line name as N is the common for all neutral lines of transformers.9) That means in Y-Y and Y-Inverted Y connection. Figure 3. Combination of all these line will produce six-phase line name as L1.13.12 shows the Y-Y and Y-Inverted Y connected three-to-six-phase conversion transformer. L4. VLP = √ VPP & VLS =VPS √ √ (3.13.Chapter 3 Production of Six Phase Power and System Components labeled as X1 and the other end has been labeled as X2. From Fig 3. L5 and L6.12 and Fig 3. on secondary side.12: Y-Y and Y-Inverted Y connected three-to-six-phase conversion Transformer 26 . At the other hand. L3 and L5. we can see that the first three-phase transformer is used Y-Y connection and produced three phase line on the secondary side name as lines L1. L4 and L6. line voltage decreases and becomes equal to phase voltage. Fig 3.

14: ∆-Y and ∆-Inverted Y connected three-to-six-phase conversion Transformer.10) That means in ∆-Y and ∆-Inverted Y connection.15. phase voltage increases and becomes equal to line voltage.14 shows the ∆-Y and ∆-Inverted Y connected three-to-six-phase conversion transformer.phase conversion transformer. 3.13: Schematic diagram of Y-Y and Y-Inverted Y connected three-to-six. 27 . The schematic diagram for ∆-Y and ∆-Inverted Y connected three-tosix-phase conversion transformer is shown in Fig 3.4. on secondary side.2 ∆-Y and ∆-Inverted Y Fig 3. Figure 3.Chapter 3 Production of Six Phase Power and System Components Figure 3. VLP = VPP & VLS = VPS (3.

16: Diametrical connected three-to-six-phase conversion transformer VLP = VPP & VLS = VPS (3. The schematic diagram for Diametrical connected three-to-six-phase conversion transformer is shown in Fig 3.15: Schematic diagram of ∆-Y and ∆-Inverted Y connected three-to-six.phase conversion transformer.4.Chapter 3 Production of Six Phase Power and System Components Figure 3. 3.16 shows the Diametrical connected three-to-six-phase conversion transformer.3 Diametrical Fig 3.11) 28 . Figure 3.17.

Figure 3. phase voltage increases and becomes equal to line voltage. 3.18: Double-Delta connected three-to-six-phase conversion transformer VLP = √ VPP & VLS =VPS √ 29 . on secondary side.4 Double-Delta Fig 3.19.Chapter 3 Production of Six Phase Power and System Components That means in diametrical connection. The schematic diagram for Double-Delta connected three-to-six-phase conversion transformer is shown in Fig 3.18 shows the Double-Delta connected three-to-six-phase conversion transformer.4. Figure 3.17: Schematic diagram of Diametrical connected three-to-six-phase conversion transformer.

5 Double-Wye Fig 3. 3. Figure 3.20 shows the Double-Wye connected three-to-six-phase conversion transformer.Chapter 3 Production of Six Phase Power and System Components √ (3.4.12) That means in Double Delta connection. on secondary side.21. The schematic diagram for Double-Wye connected three-to-six-phase conversion transformer is shown in Fig 3.20: Double-Wye connected three-to-six-phase conversion transformer. VLP = VPP & VLS = VPS 30 . Figure 3.19: Schematic diagram of Double-Delta connected three-to-six-phase conversion transformer. line voltage decreases and becomes equal to phase voltage.

220 kV. underground cables are used for electric energy transmission. Transmission voltage lines operating for NTDC system are standardized at 132 kV. on secondary side. In congested areas within cities. phase voltage increases and becomes equal to line voltage. The three-phase system has three phase conductors while six-phase system has six phase conductors. 31 . The overhead transmission lines are used in open areas such as interconnections between cities or along wide roads within the city. The underground transmission system is environmentally preferable but has a significantly higher cost.5 Power Transmission Line The purpose of an overhead transmission network is to transfer electric energy from generating units at various locations to the distribution system which ultimately supplies the load. Figure 3. but also the transfer of power between regions during emergencies. Transmission lines also interconnect neighboring utilities which permits not only economic dispatch of power within regions during normal conditions. The operating frequency is 60 Hz in the U. and part of Asia. Pakistan is one of the Asian countries that use 50 Hz as the operating frequency. and 50 Hz in Europe. Transmission voltages above 220 kV are usually referred to as extra-high voltage (EHV). Australia.21: Schematic diagram of Double-Wye connected three-to-six-phase conversion transformer.Chapter 3 Production of Six Phase Power and System Components (3.13) That means in Double-wye connection. 3. The cost per mile of overhead transmission lines is 6% to 10% less than underground cables [3].S. Standard transmission voltages are established in by NTDC in Pakistan. 500 kV and 765 kV line-to line.

One of each pair of transformers has reverse polarity to obtain the required 60° phase shift. This section will discuss the concepts of surge impedance and surge impedance loading for lossless lines. Moreover. This combination were selected as appropriate for determining short circuit currents because the delta open circuits the zero sequence network and simplifies the fault analysis [15]. For the reason of this fact. the most suitable one is by using two pairs of identical delta-wye three-phase transformers. When line losses are neglected. these will give the impedance and admittance as follows [3]: z = jωL Ω/m y = jωC Ω/m Characteristic impedance Zc is given by [3]: (3. simpler expression for the line parameters are obtained and above concepts are more easily understood. There are several combinations of identical three-phase transformers that can be used to form three-to-six-phase and six-to-three-phase conversion transformers. 3. Conversion of an existing three-phase double-circuit overhead transmission line to a six-phase operation needed phase conversion transformers to obtain the 60° phase shift between adjacent phases. A rule of thumb estimate of power-handling capacity of a transmission line is given by line-surge-impedance loading. three-tosix. A three-phase double-circuit transmission line can be easily converted to a six-phase transmission line by using three-to-six-phase conversion transformer. This will make the idea of transmitting power using six-phase transmission system much easier because six conductors of three-phase double-circuit transmission line can be converted to six-phase transmission line. R = G = 0. More accurate calculations can then be made with computer programs for follow-up analysis and design.1 Surge Impedance System limitations on power flow include among other considerations voltage drop and stability.Chapter 3 Production of Six Phase Power and System Components A three-phase double-circuit AC system is used for most transmission lines. However. the equations and concepts shows here can be used for quick and reasonably accurate hand calculations leading to initial designs. For a lossless line.phase and six-to-three-phase conversion transformers that forms by using this combination has been used throughout this study. Since transmission and distribution lines for power transfer generally are designed to have low losses.5.15) 32 .14) (3.

22 shows a lossless line terminated by a resistance equal to its surge impedance. which is based on rated terminal voltages and an angular displacement δ = 90° across the line.5. is pure real-that is.23. The relation of line loadability to SIL as a function of line length is given in Fig 3.22: Lossless line terminated by its surge impedance. power line are not operated to deliver their theoretical maximum power. The reactive power flow is zero.Chapter 3 Production of Six Phase Power and System Components √ √ √ √ ⁄ (3.17) 3. When developing three. Fig 3. it is a useful way of visualizing the impact of a conversion which allows an increase of line voltage with small change in surge impedance. The real power along the lossless line at SIL remains constant from the sending end to the receiving end.and six-phase transmission line alternatives. Figure 3.2 Surge Impedance Loading Surge Impedance Loading (SIL) is the power delivered by a lossless line to load resistance equal to the surge impedance √ ⁄ . resistive. 3. Because SIL is a function of square of the phase-to-neutral voltage. it is possible to develop six-phase lines with comparable thermal or surge-impedance loading characteristics to the three33 .16) is commonly called surge impedance for The characteristic impedance a lossless line. SIL is that loading at which VARs generated in the line capacitance cancel the VARs absorbed in the line inductance and is equivalent to the case of an impedance-matched line.3 Line Loadability In practice.23. This line represents either a single-phase line or one phase-to-neutral of balanced threephase or six-phase line. While a transmission system would not be constructed according to the curve in Fig 3. At rated line voltage.5. the real power delivered (SIL) is given by [16]: (3. an increase in voltage can have a significant impact on the line SIL.

4 Stability Performance The power flow through any transmission line. The appropriate comparison to use is related to the specific application. the power decreases with increasing angle. Increasing phase-to-neutral voltage by a six-phase conversion increases the per-unit positive-sequence impedance.5. which results in a greater system disturbance in the event of a line trip.23: Surge impedance loading characteristic curve [16] 3. 34 . thus generally enhancing system stability in the same manner as system stability is enhanced by any conversion that results in a higher line operating voltage. a condition of voltage instability.Chapter 3 Production of Six Phase Power and System Components phase alternative.18) The power flow is maximum when δ = 90°. this statement is somewhat of an over simplification. especially whether the line limits the system or the system limits the line. Of course. System changes which reduce δ for the same power enhanced the system stability. If the angle δ exceeds 90°. because there is additional margin for the system to swing without exceeding the 90° limit. The basic effect of a six-phase line on system stability is similar to the effect of a higher-voltage three phase line and must be evaluated by the same type of stability analysis. neglecting the effect of line resistance is given by [16]: (3. Figure 3. because a higher-voltage line generally carries a greater load.

6 Summary This chapter deal with the components in involved in Six-phase transmission system. transmission line have been viewed. In the end. Methods of production of six-phase have been discussed followed by a detailed analysis of three to six-phase conversion transformers.Chapter 3 Production of Six Phase Power and System Components 3. the theoretical aspects involved in the conversion of a three-phase transmission line to a six-phase 35 . Voltage relationships of primary (three-phase side) and secondary (six-phase side) of the conversion transformers are also derived.

A common attribute of these systems is their use of power electronics and control systems to achieve their performance objectives. It uses the Simulink environment. but your analysis of the circuit can include its interactions with mechanical. Requirements for drastically increased efficiency have forced power system designers to use power electronic devices and sophisticated control system concepts that tax traditional analysis tools and techniques. steam. Land-based power generation from hydroelectric. control.2 SimPowerSystems SimPowerSystems software is a modern design tool that allows scientists and engineers to rapidly and easily build models that simulate power systems.Chapter 4 Modeling of six-phase Transmission System in MATLAB® Chapter 4 Modeling of six-phase Transmission System in MATLAB® 4.1 The Role of Simulation in Design Electrical power systems are combinations of electrical circuits and electromechanical devices like motors and generators. Engineers working in this discipline are constantly improving the performance of the systems. This is possible because all the electrical parts of the simulation interact with the extensive Simulink modeling library. and other disciplines. Since Simulink uses the MATLAB® computational engine. Further complicating the analyst's role is the fact that the system is often so nonlinear that the only way to understand it is through simulation. designers can also use MATLAB® 36 . or other devices is not the only use of power systems. allowing you to build a model using simple click and drag procedures. Not only can you draw the circuit topology rapidly. 4. thermal.

Following are the Key Features of Simulink®: Extensive and expandable libraries of predefined blocks Interactive graphical editor for assembling and managing intuitive block diagrams Ability to manage complex designs by segmenting models into hierarchies of design components Model Explorer to navigate. and consumption of electrical power.2 Model and simulate electrical power systems SimPowerSystems provides component libraries for modeling and simulating electrical power systems. video processing. and test a variety of time-varying systems. SimPowerSystems software belongs to the Physical Modeling product family and uses similar block and connection line interface. electric drives. including communications.Chapter 4 Modeling of six-phase Transmission System in MATLAB® toolboxes and Simulink block-sets. You can use these components to model the generation.1 Simulation and Model-Based Design Simulink® is an environment for multi domain simulation and Model-Based Design for dynamic and embedded systems. and wind power generators. implement. transmission. controls. distribution. flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS). enabling you to assess the impact of switching events on system-level behavior. 37 . parameters.2. and image processing. configure. and search all signals. It includes models of three-phase machines. and generated code associated with your model Application programming interfaces (APIs) that let you connect with other simulation programs and incorporate hand-written code MATLAB® Function blocks for bringing MATLAB algorithms into Simulink and embedded system implementations Graphical debugger and profiler to examine simulation results and then diagnose performance and unexpected behavior in your design 4. properties. simulate. 4. Abstracted models of power electronics components are also included. create. signal processing.2. It provides an interactive graphical environment and a customizable set of block libraries that let you design.

a large North American utility located in Canada. including common AC and DC electric drives. there are also self-learning case studies. The capabilities of SimPowerSystems software for modeling a typical electrical system are illustrated in demonstration files. 38 . and power electronics. and wind-power generators Ideal switching algorithm for fast simulation of power electronic devices Functions for obtaining equivalent state-space representations of circuits Tools for computing load flow and for initializing models of three-phase networks with machines Demonstration models of key electrical technologies 4. machines.3 Overview of SimPowerSystems Libraries SimPowerSystems libraries contain models of typical power equipment such as transformers. And for users who want to refresh their knowledge of power system theory. powerlib. and also on the experience of École de Technologie Supérieure and Université Laval.Chapter 4 Modeling of six-phase Transmission System in MATLAB® Harmonic analysis. [17] The SimPowerSystems main library. SimPowerSystems models can be discretized to speed up simulations and configured for phasor simulation. The main powerlib library window also contains the Powergui block that opens a graphical user interface for the steady-state analysis of electrical circuits. Key Features of SimPowerSystems are [17]: Application-specific models. type powerlib in the MATLAB® Command Window. organizes its blocks into libraries according to their behavior. Double-click a library icon to open the library and access the blocks. lines. flexible AC transmission systems. and other key electrical power system analyses are automated. To open this library. calculation of total harmonic distortion (THD). The powerlib library window displays the block library icons and names. These models are proven ones coming from textbooks. load flow. which helps you determine the transient stability of electrical power systems. and their validity is based on the experience of the Power Systems Testing and Simulation Laboratory of Hydro-Québec.

type Display in tab and press ENTER. the following window will appear 39 . Then expand the Simscape entry in the contents tree.1 Nonlinear Simulink Blocks for SimPowerSystems Models The nonlinear Simulink blocks of the powerlib library are stored in a special block library named powerlib_models. These masked Simulink models are used by SimPowerSystems software to build the equivalent Simulink model of your circuit.2 Simulink Library Browser To search any block type the name of block in Searching Tab e. Figure 4.g. click the Library Browser button in the toolbar of the MATLAB desktop or Simulink model window: Alternatively. To access Block Libraries you can also access SimPowerSystems libraries through the Simulink Library Browser.Chapter 4 Modeling of six-phase Transmission System in MATLAB® Figure 4. you can type simulink in the MATLAB Command Window. To display the Library Browser.

3 Display block for numeric display of input values Select your desired element and connect it in the system.Chapter 4 Modeling of six-phase Transmission System in MATLAB® Figure 4.5 shows the internal connections of the transformation block. 4. Figure 4-4 Block diagram of Three phase transformer 40 .4.4. Fig.4.4 Modeling of Three-phase double circuit line on Simulink First of all. a model of three-phase double circuit line was built in Simulink. A three phase source at voltage level of 220kV was taken and then it was stepped up. up to 500kV and also converting it to double circuit line by using transformation block as shown in fig.

6 Transmission Line Again using a transformation block similar to that used for step up is used for step down purpose. with the only difference that primary and secondary connections are interchanged.Chapter 4 Modeling of six-phase Transmission System in MATLAB® Figure 4. 4-6. The wave shapes of voltages are shown in fig. 41 . Figure 4.5 Block Diagram and Connection Diagram of Three Phase T/F Then power is transferred towards load by using two circuits of transmission lines as shown in fig. 4-7.

42 .8 Waveform of Line Voltages These graphs show that line voltages are √ times greater than the phase voltages.Chapter 4 Modeling of six-phase Transmission System in MATLAB® Figure 4. The block diagram and internal connections of phase voltage and line voltage are shown respectively. Two measurement blocks are formed for phase voltage measurements and line voltage measurements separately.7 Waveform of Phase Voltages Figure 4.

9 Hierarchy of Measurement blocks for Phase Voltages Figure 4.Chapter 4 Modeling of six-phase Transmission System in MATLAB® Figure 4.10 Hierarchy of Measurement blocks for Line Voltages 43 .

12 Three-Phase RLC load 4. For this modal of power system a Three-Phase RLC load of following settings is used Figure 4.5 Modeling of six phase transmission system 44 .Chapter 4 Modeling of six-phase Transmission System in MATLAB® Figure 4.11 Complete model of Three Phase double circuit Transmission System The line current is almost 156A.

There are different transformer configurations used for this type of conversion and these configurations are shown in the table 4. at an angle of 60°.Chapter 4 Modeling of six-phase Transmission System in MATLAB® Power system model for six phase transmission lines is similar to that shown in figure 4-10 but the only difference here is that connections of transformers in transformation blocks are such that three phase voltages of source are stepped up and are also converted into six phase and all the phases are equally displaced from each other i. Type of Connection Wye-Wye Wye-Inverted-Y Schematic Diagram Delta-Wye Delta Inverted-Y Diametrical 45 .e.1 [18].

5.1 Transformation block for wye-wye wye-inverted-wye The internal configuration of six single phase transformers in transformation block of power system is shown in fig.Chapter 4 Double Delta Modeling of six-phase Transmission System in MATLAB® Double Wye Table 4.1 4. 4-13 Figure 4.13 Y-Y Y-Inverted Y Configuration of Transformers 46 .

4-15. Hence this configuration cannot be used for enhancement of power capability of transmission lines. The wave shapes of voltages are shown in graphs of fig. Figure 4. 4-14 and fig.15 Waveform of Line Voltages 47 .Chapter 4 Modeling of six-phase Transmission System in MATLAB® Simulation results show that in this case phase voltage is not increased to line voltages but line voltage is decreased to phase voltages.14 Waveform of Phase voltages Figure 4.

we can conclude that magnitude of line voltage is reduced to the phase voltage in case of six phase line. equal to line voltages and phase difference between two consecutive phases is 60°.16 Source Voltages After the conversion of six phases back into three phases the wave shapes are shown in fig. The above graphs also clearly indicate that magnitude of phase voltages are approx. Source voltages or voltages before the conversion blocks / transformation blocks the three phase voltages are shown in fig.Chapter 4 Modeling of six-phase Transmission System in MATLAB® By comparing these graphs with the graphs of three phase double circuit graphs. 4-16. Figure 4. 4-17 48 .

17 Voltages across Load The overall power system modeling is shown in fig. 4-18.Chapter 4 Modeling of six-phase Transmission System in MATLAB® Figure 4. Y-Inverted Y Transformer configuration 49 . Figure 4-18 Complete System for Six Phase Transmission Using Y-Y.

Figure 4.2 Delta-wye Delta-Inverted wye configuration for conversion into six phase transmission The internal connections of transformation / conversion blocks are as shown below for delta-wye delta-inverted wye configurations. 50 .Chapter 4 Modeling of six-phase Transmission System in MATLAB® 4. 4-20 and 4-21.5. In this configuration phase voltage is increased to the line voltage in contrast to the wye-wye wye-inverted wye configuration where line voltage is reduced to the phase voltage.19 Hierarchy of Delta-Wye Delta-Inverted Wye Transformation block Voltage phasors can be viewed by connecting scopes at line and phase measurement blocks. The results of simulation are shown in fig. So in this configuration power transfer capability of transmission line is also increased up to √ times.

21 Waveform of Line Voltages If we carefully examine the above two graphs it would be clear that the phase voltage has increased to line voltage.Chapter 4 Modeling of six-phase Transmission System in MATLAB® Figure 4. Magnitude of line voltage is equal to phase voltage in magnitude but line voltage leads the phase voltage by 60°. 51 .20 Waveform of Phase Voltages Figure 4. Assuming the VAN = VBN = VCN = VDN = VEN = VFN =VP. Phase-to-phase voltage is a potential between adjacent phases where their phase difference is 60°. It is theoretically can be verified as.

Chapter 4

Modeling of six-phase Transmission System in MATLAB® VAB = VAN ∠ 0°- VBN ∠ -60° = VP (1 ∠ 0°- 1 ∠ -60°) = VP (1+j0 - (0.5 - j0.866)) = VP (0.5 + j0.866) = VP ∠ 60°

Using this configuration 73 % extra loading of transmission lines is permissible. So, for the same current in line power of RLC series load is multiplied by 1.73 i.e. active, inductive, capacitive powers are multiplied by factor of 1.73. So, capability increases √ times but current in a conductor is almost same as it was in three phase double circuit (157A). Settings of RLC load are shown in Fig. 4-22.

Figure 4- 22 Three-Phase RLC Load

The whole power system is shown in Fig. 4-23.

52

Chapter 4

Modeling of six-phase Transmission System in MATLAB®

Figure 4-23 Six Phase Transmission System using Delta-Wye Delta-Inverted Wye Configuration of Transformer

**4.5.3 Diametrical configuration for six phase Transmission
**

Following fig shows schematic diagram for diametrical configuration of phase conversion.

Figure 4-24 Diametrical Configurations

53

Chapter 4

Modeling of six-phase Transmission System in MATLAB®

In Simulink we used same power transmission system shown in fig. 4-22 with the only difference that transformation blocks are replace with the following blocks;

Figure 4-25 Block Diagrams

The internal structure of the above blocks is shown in fig. 4-26;

Figure 4-26 The connection diagram of Diametrical conversion transformer

54

This line is converted to Six-Phase Single Circuit (SPSC) transmission line and the voltage drops across a length of 30km transmission line are observed and also shown in Table 4. Following parameters are entered for both of three-phase double circuit and six-phase transmission lines.5.L).2 lists the voltage drops along the length of transmission line for a ThreePhase Double Circuit (TPDC) Transmission Line (T.2. Line Parameters entered here are in per unit and are those obtained from National Transmission and Dispatch Company’s (NTDC) for a nominal 500kV transmission line. Line length is taken to be 30km.6 Voltage Drop Comparison In this section we compare the voltage drops of six-phase transmission system with that of three-phase double circuit transmission line. shown in section 4.Chapter 4 Modeling of six-phase Transmission System in MATLAB® The results of diametrical configurations are exactly same as that of delta-wye delta-inverted-wye configurations. 4.3. Figure 4-27: Input Parameters of Transmission Line Table 4. 55 .

This may be due to the increased load i.L Voltage Drop 1249 Vrms 1249 Vrms 1249 Vrms 1249 Vrms 1249 Vrms 1249 Vrms So we note here that the six-phase power transmission line has poor voltage regulation than that of three-phase double circuit transmission line.3: Voltage drops across the length of transmission line for Six phase with same load as threephase. No. we have again listed the voltage drops in six-phase transmission line that are due the line with same load as that of three-phase double circuit line. Sr. Sr. To verify.7 Summary In this chapter modeling and comparison of three-phase double circuit and sixphase single circuit transmission lines are performed in Simulink/MATLAB®. 4.3 lists the voltage drops across a 30km long 500kV three phase double circuit and six-phase transmission line for the same load. 56 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 Phase A/A B/B C/C D/A’ E/B’ F/C’ SPSC T. Quantity of power flow or power transfer capability and voltage drops for both the transmission line is compared. This table verifies that the voltage drop across the six-phase transmission line is greater than that of three-phase double circuit transmission line that is a demerit of six phase transmission line. Table 4.Chapter 4 Modeling of six-phase Transmission System in MATLAB® Table 4.L Voltage Drop 3342 Vrms 4177 Vrms 3961 Vrms 3342 Vrms 4177 Vrms 3961 Vrms TPDC T.73 times that of three phase double circuit transmission line.e 1.L Voltage Drop 1862 Vrms 2366 Vrms 2261 Vrms 1862 Vrms 2366 Vrms 2261 Vrms TPDC T.L Voltage Drop 1249 Vrms 1249 Vrms 1249 Vrms 1249 Vrms 1249 Vrms 1249 Vrms It is quite easily observable that the voltage drops in six-phase transmission line are greater than those in three-phase double circuit transmission line. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Phase A/A B/B C/C D/A’ E/B’ F/C’ SPSC T. Table 4.2: Voltage Drop across the length of transmission lines for three-phase and six-phase with 73% extra load.

construction of new electrical power transmission lines are strongly constrained by the Right of Way Requirement. The up-gradation of existing three-phase double circuit transmission line to sixphase transmission line eliminates the construction of new line and hence ROW requirement. Increasing cost of land and legal issues involved in the acquiring land have compelled electric design engineers to look for alternatives to transmit power to the distribution stations. In the calculation 57 . Moreover. the construction of new six-phase transmission line using compact structures requires less land for its construction.1 Magnetic Field Basics An electric charge has an electric field. Basic definitions and equations are described first followed by the case study of six-phase transmission line. Now we start from calculating the magnetic field. The magnetic field is considered as static in case of DC transmission and quasi-static in the case of AC transmission lines. Both of these elements directly depend on the electric and magnetic field gradients around a transmission line.Chapter 5 Electromagnetic Field Gradients Chapter 5 Electromagnetic Field Gradients In the recent era the. while an electric current produces a magnetic field. ROW requirement directly depends upon the size of tower structures and electromagnetic field limits imposed by the Environment Safety Authorities. A MATLAB program has been developed for the calculation and plotting of Six-phase transmission line electric and magnetic field. In this chapter we analyze the Electric and Magnetic field across a Six-phase transmission line and compare it with the three-phase double circuit transmission line under same tower structures. 5. One of the major advantages of six-phase transmission is less ROW requirement.

The relation of the magnetic field direction to the current direction can be determined by means of the right-hand rule. By symmetry inspection. ∮ symmetry in the problem. i. there is no H variation with Z as shown in Fig 5. The summation leads to the integral form of the Biot-Savart law [19]: ∮ (5. Current elements have no separate existence. current carrying conductor The conductor is positioned along the Z-axis and carries a current I. First we establish the basics by calculating a magnetic field for a single conductor line.3) In order to use Ampere’s law to obtain H there must be considerable degree of 5.e.2 Application of Ampere’s Law to infinitely long. (5. Using the Biot-Savartlaw it is possible to conclude that the direction of dH is perpendicular to the plane 58 . The contour may close at infinity. All elements making up the complete current filament contribute to H.1. the current flows in Z direction in a cylindrical coordinate system.1: (5.Chapter 5 Electromagnetic Field Gradients of magnetic field for transmission lines. Ampere’s Law states that the line integral of H about any closed path is exact equal to the current enclosed by the path. 5.2) The closed line integral simply requires that all current elements be included in order to obtain the complete H. and must be included. Biot-Savart Law states that the differential magnetic field strength is independent of the medium and is expressed in vector notationas shown in Fig 5.1 Basic Concepts: A conductor carrying a current I has a magnetic field surrounding it. some assumptions are involved.1.2.1) Figure 5-1: The BiotSavart Law The distance R is from the center of the current element to the point at which dH is to be determined.

the conductor depth is very large. about 1 km.3 Application to Transmission Lines First.1. The results obtained are extended for the multi-conductor case.5) The soil resistivity is usually in the order of 100 or 150 ohm-meters and. The Ampere’s law becomes: (5. 5. the depth of the equivalent conductor is given by: √ ⁄ Where.2: Magnetic field of aconductor along Z-axis carrying current I To simplify the integral form. Figure 5.Chapter 5 Electromagnetic Field Gradients [20]. Hence the only containing dL and R and hence is in the direction of component of H is .4) In case of unbalanced faults to ground or unbalanced loads with return through ground. the influence of the return conductors through ground can be neglected in practical magnetic field calculations. Thus. integration is done along the circle of radius r. Figure 5. the single conductor case is reviewed as shown in Fig 5. (5.3: Magnetic Field of a single conductor 59 .3. and it is only a function of r radius. therefore for power frequency (50 Hz) currents.

current magnitudes with phasors and the space (set of points) in which the magnetic field is to be evaluated.11) ∑ ∑ (5. This equation can be plotted against the points (xp.6) (5.yp) to have a graphical picture of the magnetic field.Chapter 5 Electromagnetic Field Gradients If current I is given as a phasor.[19] Figure 5. The output of the program is the value of magnetic field strength.14) Eq.12) ∑ | | √ ∑ (5.1.7) (5.14 gives the magnitude of the electric field strength vector.13) (5.4 can be used: | | √ | | | | (5. i represents the conductor number and Iirepresents the current in conductor i as a phasor as shown in Fig 5.4: Magnetic field of a multi-conductor line ∑ ∑ √ (5. 5. 5. The input to the program is the geometry of the tower.4 Computer Program for calculation of Magnetic Fields A program in MATLAB is written for the calculation of magnetic field.9) In case of a multi-conductor line.8) (5.10) (5. a plot of magnetic field 60 .4. 5. then Eq.

…. This function is called again and again for 501x501 points to evaluate magnetic field. The resultant matrix is then plotted against the x and y arrays to form a magnetic field profile in the form of contours. Tower geometry to the program is given by the six points. y2).5. (x2. One of the functions is called by the other function gives magnetic field strength against a single point input in the form of x and y coordinates of the point.. y6). Tower geometry representing these points is given in Fig 5. y1). Figure 5. (x1.Chapter 5 Electromagnetic Field Gradients strength versus distance from transmission line and a complete profile of transmission line magnetic field strength. The program is divided into two functions.5: Relation between the lengths and Tower Geometry 61 .(x6.

1.1 Magnetic Field of Three-Phase Double Circuit Line Here we suppose an infinite 220kV three-phase double circuit transmission line delivering a total load of 1320MVA.86 21. Figure 5.1 6.6: Magnetic Field Profile of Three-phase Double Circuit Transmission Line 62 .1: Input data for three-phase Double Circuit Transmission Line Sr. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Xi (m) 6.2. The input data to the computer program is given in Table 5.38 22.2 Magnetic field strength for Six-phase Line Here we present the plots of six-phase transmission line and compare them with those of three phase double circuit transmission line. Electromagnetic Field Gradients 5.38 Current I (A) 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 Phasor (Degrees) 0o 120o 240o 0o 240o 120o The overall magnetic field profile drawn by the program for three-phase double circuit transmission line is given in Fig 5.34 21. No.1 Yi (m) 24.Chapter 5 The computer Program is listed in Appendix A.34 22.1 6. The current in a single conductor is 1000A.1 6. 5.6. Table 5.1 6.86 24.1 6. We start with the plotting the magnetic field strength for three phase double circuit transmission line and plotting them.

5.38 22. 63 .8.1 6.Chapter 5 Electromagnetic Field Gradients While moving away from the transmission line the magnetic field decreases.38 Current I (A) 577 577 577 577 577 577 Phasor (Degrees) 0o 60o 120o 180o 240o 300o The overall magnetic field profile drawn by the program for six-phase single circuit transmission line is given in Fig 5.2.1 6.34 21. but delivering same amount of total load of 1320MVA.2.86 21.1 Yi (m) 24.86 24.1 6.1 6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Xi (m) 6. converted to six-phase.34 22.7: Magnetic field of three-phase double circuit transmission line.2: Input Data for Six-phase line with same load Sr. Figure 5. Table 5.1 6.2 Magnetic Field of Six-phase Line with same load We have the same transmission line as above.7. the plot of magnetic field strength versus the distance along a slope of 2 is plotted in Fig 5. The current in a single conductor is 577A. The input data to the computer program is given in Table 5. No.

Table 5.34 21.3.2.1 6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Xi (m) 6.Chapter 5 Electromagnetic Field Gradients Figure 5.1 Yi (m) 24.38 Current I (A) 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 Phasor (Degrees) 0o 60o 120o 180o 240o 300o The overall magnetic field profile drawn by the program for six-phase single circuit transmission line is given in Fig 5.86 24.10. converted to six-phase. 64 . The input data to the computer program is given in Table 5. The load is 2283MVA and the current in a single conductor is 1000A.38 22.3: Input Data for Six-phase line with 73% increase in load Sr.1 6.1 6.1 6.3 Magnetic Field of Six-phase Line with Increased load We have the same transmission line as above. No.86 21.34 22.1 6. but delivering 73% extra load than delivered by three-phase double circuit line.8: Magnetic field Profile of Six-phase line with same Load 5.

10. Magnetic field around six-phase transmission line with same load is less than three-phase double circuit transmission line. 65 . the plot of magnetic field strength versus the distance along a slope of 2 is plotted in Figure 5.2. following results are obvious: 1.9: Magnetic Field Profile of Six-Phase with increased load While moving away from the transmission line the magnetic field decreases. Magnetic field of three-phase double circuit transmission line is concentrated near the conductors and has greater strength between the conductors.Chapter 5 Electromagnetic Field Gradients Figure 5. Figure 5-10: Plot of Magnetic field of six-phase line 5.4 Results and Conclusion From above plots. 2.

so less conductor spacing is required in six-phase conductors. Magnetic field around three-phase double circuit transmission line vanishes rapidly and disappears completely after a distance of 20m from line. 4. 6. and then it decays slowly. the electric field is considered as quasi static although they vary sinusoidally with time at power frequency. 5. But its strength between conductors in less than that of three-phase double circuit line.1 Introduction of Electric fields The voltage applied to the conductor of a transmission line produce electric field in the region around the conductor and of course between the conductor and ground. Magnetic field strength between the conductors is less for a six-phase transmission line as compared to that of three-phase double circuit transmission line. even after 20m from the center of the line it sustains a little amount of magnetic field strength. 3. but it has a benefit that compact structures can be made that require less conductor spacing. six-phase transmission line have no trouble in feasibility regarding magnetic field concerns. Magnetic field around six-phase line is decreases rapidly in start.3. but the value is less than 2A/m which is environmentally safe. 7. 2.3 Analysis of transmission line conductor surface voltage gradients computations 5. Magnetic Field of a six-phase line with increased load is greater than magnetic field in three-phase double circuit line. So. Magnetic field strength between the conductors of six-phase line is less than that of three-phase line. For DC transmission line the electric field is purely static field in case of AC transmission line. Thus the frequency of variation of the field is sufficiently low to permit the consideration of the electric field 66 . 5. even after 20m distance from the center of line. From above statements following conclusions can be made: 1. Magnetic field of the six-phase line sustains a very small value.Chapter 5 Electromagnetic Field Gradients 3. Six-phase line magnetic field is less concentrated but sustains long as we move away from transmission line.

The analysis of transmission line conductor surface voltage gradients requires an understanding of the basic assumption and theorems. The horizontal spacing between the conductors remains constant at a specified value and the height above ground of each conductor is an average value equal to H + 2/3 s.3.2 Basic Equations It has been found experimentally that the force between two stationary electric point charges Qa and Qb a) acts along the line joining the two charges. infinitely long circular cylinders parallel to each other and to the ground plane. certain basic assumptions are involved in all existing methods for calculating the electric field in the vicinity of transmission line conductors. finite ground conductivity etc. 5. The influence of the conductor support structures and of any objects in the vicinity of the conductors is neglected. conducting plane surface. let’s start with coulomb’s law for electrostatic forces because it is fundamental. where H is the height above ground at the support point and S is the conductor sag corresponding to the mean annual temperature. The calculation of the electric field produced by transmission lines is a complex problem because of the following practical aspects: conductor sag. uneven conductor and ground surface. coulombs 67 . horizontal. Before beginning the study of electromagnetic fields by investigating those fields that originate from stationary electric charges. proximity of towers. The conductors are assumed to be smooth.15) Where F = force. b) is proportional to the product Qa*Qb c) is inversely proportional to the square of the distance ‘’r’’ separating the charges. It is used then to derive Laplace’s equation which makes it possible to calculate the electric field strength and voltage produced by transmission lines one of the most useful tools used in these. The results of this experiment are described by coulomb’s law and given by: ⃗ ̂ (5. Newton ̂ = unit vector pointing in direction Qa. The ground is assumed to be an infinite. Qb = charges.Chapter 5 Electromagnetic Field Gradients independently of each other and calculation on the basis of static field concepts.

17) Referring to the Fig 5. It is proportional to the electric field strength E and to the distance the charge is moved parallel to the field. farads/meter r = distance between charges. and resultant E is simply the vector sum of the entire individual E’s by the principle of superposition. The electric potential is defined as the work required moving it per unit charge. Consider a test point charge Q that can be moved from a to b in an electric field E. The direction of E is distance from i to a test point where is defined as pointing away from a positive charge and towards a negative charge as Figure 5.17) is measured.Chapter 5 = permittivity of the medium.3 is angle between E and 68 . Thus ⃗⃗ Where shown ∑ ̂ (5.16) is If the electric field is produced by more than one charge each one produces its own filed. The total field E is the vector addition of field due to individual charges. meters The interaction between point charges consiered as an interaction between Electromagnetic Field Gradients and in coulomb’s law can be or vice versa.The and the field of electric filed intensity E is defined to be the force per unit charge exerted on a test charge in the field. That is ∫ ∫ ∫ (5.11: Vector addition of fields due to two charges. Thus the electric filed intensity due to the point charge ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗ ⁄ (5.

18) Figure 5.from a positive point charge. ∫ (5.19) This is called the absolute potential of the point 69 due to the charge Q.a test charge is moved from radius r2 to radius r1.15 become (5.The potential difference between the points is given by inseritng Equation (5.17).14) that the electric field E is given by the negative rate .13:Linear path in nonunform electric field The potential at r1 can be calculated from Equation 5.the electric field E is radial and is inversaly propotional to squre of the distance r from the source charge.15 by placing r2 at infinity.12: Potential difference between two points a and b In case of a nonuniform field.16) into (5.This gives a zero potential at r2 and Equation 5.it was pointed out in Equation (5.As shown in Fig .Chapter 5 Electromagnetic Field Gradients Figure 5.

In rectangular coordinates (5.21) In cylindrical coordinates (5.Chapter 5 Electromagnetic Field Gradients of charge or the negative gradient of potential reduces most rapidly. and D is flux density.20) (5. (5. Since Equation 5. The del operator is then defined as a vector operation. it can be 70 . The general problem of finding the electrical potential V corresponding to a given charge distribution amounts to finding a solution of either Laplace’s or Poisson’s equation that will satisfy the given boundary condition. And is called either electric field strength or voltage gradient. Gauss’s law stated in integral form is written as ∫ Where ∫ (5.22) (5.25) Applying the divergence theorem if we replace E by in above equation the. Gauss’s law provides us with a powerful method for calculating the electric field intensity E of simple charge distribution. This statement is abbreviated to expression E=-grad V or V.27) In the region of field where the charge density 𝝆 is zero (5. The Laplace operator gives (5.24 can be rewritten as ∮ ∮ (5.23) According to gauss’s law the flux of E through a closed surface equals the total charge enclosed within the surface. When Laplace’s equation is applied to a transmission line.26) This is Poisson’s equation.28) This is Laplace’s Equation.24) charge density is is the volume enclosed by the surface S.

Chapter 5

Electromagnetic Field Gradients

solved either directly or numerically to give the voltage near line. The simplification used because virtually no loss of accuracy and computational difficulty is reduced greatly [20]. 5.3.3

Conductor Surface Electric field strength

Considering now a n-conductor transmission line. It can be represented by n infinitely-long cylindrical conductors or radii r1 r2…. Rn, placed parallel to and at heights of h1, h2,….hn above the ground plane, as shown in figure 2.8. by using the ground plane for imaging, the problem is transformed into that of solving the electric field of pairs of parallel cylindrical conductors in finite space with equal and opposite voltage applied to them. The analysis shows that the charge distribution on each conductor can be represented by means of a line charge located at a small distance away from the center of the conductor. The distance is a direct function of H/r. for large values of H/r, as in the case of practical transmission line configuration the line charge is located very close to the center of the conductor. (⃗ ) Here V = column vector of n complex line-to-line voltages, volts Q = column vector of n complex line charges, P = n x matrix of potential coefficients, (⃗ )

Figure 5.14: Transmission line of n-conductors

71

Chapter 5

Electromagnetic Field Gradients

In order to simplify the inherently complex problem of calculating the electric field 1. The ground is assumed to be infinite horizontal 2. Conductor are assumed to be equipotential Generally, a practical high voltage transmission line conductor can consist of several sub conductors. In this case, each conductor bundle is replaced by a single conductor with an equivalent capacitance the radius of the equivalent conductor for a regular bundle of n sub conductors is

Where n = number of sub conductors r = sub conductor radius, meter R = bundle radius, meter The simplification will not affect the accuracy of results at or near ground level, even though accurate calculation of voltage gradients at the conductor surface cannot be made using this model. As we have discussed is the previous section the electric field strength at radius r from an infinite line. ∫ ∫ (5.29)

Considering the system in fig based on the theory of images the ground plane may be replaced by an image conductor of radius r located at a distance H below the ground. The heights of conductor above ground as well as the distance between the individual conductors are very large compared to radii of conductors. Therefore the charge on each conductor is then represented by a line charge located at its center. The potential at a point on the surface of conductor in Fig is expressed as that produced by the line charge Q and its image charge –Q.

72

Chapter 5

Electromagnetic Field Gradients

Figure 5.15: Electric fireld produced by source and image conductor

The electric strength at any point p (Xp,Yp) near the ground plane can be determined as that produced by the line charge Q and its image –Q. From equation the electric field component E1 produced by +Q is directed along the line joining the centre of conductor and point P and has a magnitude | | (5.30) (5.31)

Where (5.32)

X and Y components of E1 are obtained as | | | | (5.33) (5.34)

Similarly the electric field components is E2 produced by the image charge –Q and has magnitude | Where, | (5.35)

73

.Y1).H2. √( ) ( 74 ) (5.-Y2).42) (5..-Qn.44) ) ( ) ) (5.-Q2..Hn.Yn).39) (5. (Xn. Now we expand the system in Fig 5.-V2.….………Qn be line charges representing and located at the center of conductor.…………….……. ( √( Where.40) And the magnitude and direction of | | √ are .. (Xn. (5. (X2..V2.Rn and placed parallel at heights of H1.Y2).9 to n conductor of radii R1.…….-Y1).-Yn) and having potential of –V1. The image conductor are expressed by line charges of –Q1.in case of AC line the voltage varies with time (5.41) Where effective value of voltage and w is is angular velocity.38) Thus the resulting electric field Ep at point P is obtained by adding the X and Y components.43) .37) (5.Chapter 5 √ | | | | Electromagnetic Field Gradients (5.….Vn be voltage applied and Q1.R2. With reference to arbitrary coordinate system the coordinate of n conductor are represented by (X1.. Let V1.31) we can write equation for conductor potential. applying theory of image the ground plane is replaced by image conductor located at (X1.…. Using the principle of superposition and equation (5.36) (5. (X2. above the ground plane as shown.……-Vn. ̅̅̅ For the DC line the potential V is contents and the electric field at any point is defined by a space vector having a constants magnitude and direction as given below .Q2.

49) (| | | 75 . Equation (5.Chapter 5 Electromagnetic Field Gradients Figure 5.45) (5.42 the X and Y components of the electric field strength at any point P(Xp. produced by the line charge Qi and its image are obtained ̅ (| ̅ | | | ) | (5.15 and 5.46) In equation 5.45.16: n-conductor system Rewritten in matrix form. conductors. for bundle Following equ.47) is replaced with .Yp) between the conductor and the ground. Since the line voltage are generally known .5.48) ) (5. the bundle equivalent radius.and the potential coefficient can be determined from the line geometry by using equ.5.45 and 5.46 the line charges Q can be obtained by solving equation = (5.42) is same as Equation (⃗ ) (⃗ ) The formula for diagonal and off diagonal elements of the potential coefficient matrix P is (5.

The computer Program is listed in Appendix B.5. This function is called again and again for 501x501 points to evaluate magnetic field.. y1). The overall electric field profile drawn by the program for three-phase double circuit transmission line and six-phase single circuit line is given in Fig. Electromagnetic Field Gradients For n conductor the resultant X and Y components of the electric field strength at P are then obtained as ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ̅( | | | | ) | (5. the resultent potential and electric field strength at P are ∑ √ ∑ (| | | | (5.52) ) (5. Tower geometry representing these points is given in Figure 5. voltage magnitudes and the space (set of points) in which the electric field is to be evaluated. (x2.(x6.4 Computer Program for calculation of Electric Fields A program in MATLAB is written for the calculation of electric field.…. (x1. One of the functions is called by the other function gives magnetic field strength against a single point input in the form of x and y coordinates of the point.Chapter 5 Where are defined as in Equation 5.53 is the required equation for calculation of electric field at a pont P. The output of the program is the value of electric field strengths.53) Equation 5.3. y2). Tower geometry to the program is given by the six points. a plot of magnetic field strength versus distance from transmission line and a complete profile of transmission line magnetic field strength. y6). The program is divided into two functions.17 76 .42. 5. The input to the program is the geometry of the tower.50) ) (5. The resultant matrix is then plotted against the x and y arrays to form a magnetic field profile in the form of contours.51) ̅( | | | Finally. 5.

18: Plot of Electric Field versus Distance for Three-Phase In case of six-phase single circuit transmission line becomes equal to the . Figure 5.Chapter 5 Electromagnetic Field Gradients Figure 5.17: Electric field profiles In case of three phase double circuit the So by using v=500 in the MATLAB code the electric fields magnitudes graph is shown below. 77 . reduces by √ times and So by using 500/√ in MATLAB code the following plot appears.

19: Plot of Electric Field versus Distance for Six-Phase The geometry of the tower is same as it is given in Table 5. such as using new updating space charge densities along electric field lines.Chapter 5 Electromagnetic Field Gradients Figure 5. however. Boundary Element Method. In previous method programming calls for two loops to convergence.4 Corona One of problem associated with HVDC and HVAC transmission lines is corona power loss. In this method only one loop is needed for convergence of space charge density. etc. and Finite Element Method. The latest method for corona power loss calculation is FEM method that is used in this paper.1 that has also been used for the calculations of magnetic fields. one for convergence of potentials and another for convergence of electric field at conductor surface. 5. but some innovations. instead of using flux-tube and writing continuity current equation along it. The present method implements the potentials and electric field at conductor surface as boundary conditions. for updating space 78 . this of course reduces the complexity if computation and leads to reduction of the number of iterations. But none of them has been taken in account the effect of the diffusion coefficient as function of electric field and climate temperature and air density. in previous method deal only with the potentials in conductor and ground plane and check the field on conductor surface later. Many attempts were made to solve ionized field using Charge Simulation Method (CSM).

00 HZ BASE POWER= 100.Chapter 5 Electromagnetic Field Gradients charge densities around the conductor. 𝛿= (a) where b = atmospheric pressure (cm of mercury) T = atmospheric temperature (°C) The equation for = ( √ ) m (1+ √ ) (b) where m = conductor surface factor.12 (wet) to 0.4: Line Configuration and Conductor Data CONDUCTOR DESIGNATION Horizontal Spacing (FT) Height at Tower (FT) 68. Basic System Description Data: SYSTEM VOLTAGE= 138. 79 . 0. which is valid for three-phase lines also. OF GROUND WIRES= 2 EARTH RESISTIVITY= 100. OF CIRCULTS= 1 NO. 5.1 Corona loss Calculations The corona loss in a six-phase line can be obtained using the following empirical formula.00 KV NO. the rung-kutta integration method is used to calculate charge densities along electric field lines.00 MVA BASE VOLTAGE= 138.00 KV Table 5.4.96 (dry). using flux-tubes along electric field lines [21]. Mid-Span Clearance (FT) 56. Radius (FT) GMR (FT) A - 0.00 OHM-METERS FREQUENCY= 60. = (f+25) √ ( kW/mile/conductor where f = system frequency (Hz) GMD = Geometric mean distance (cm) = 15th root of all fifteen combinations of distance between the conductors of a sixphase line E = Maximum surface gradient (kV/cm) 𝛿 = Relative air density given by (a) r = outside radius of conductor (cm) = Corona initiation gradient (kV/cm) given by (b) Now. varying between 0. whereas previous method. OF PHASES= 6 NO. OF SUBCONDUCTORS PER PHASE= I TOTAL NO.

4587 24. 1111 21. 0484 0.4. 2000 76. 0000 67.8939 1. indicating greater than expected corona activity. 0940 18. 1111 21.a computer program for six-phase transmission line design [22]. 2000 76. 0000 56. 5000 0. 0000 68. 2000 76. 0143 0. 1111 21. 1000 67.5000 F 11.0000 77. 0484 0. 2000 0. 6000 0.2 Corona Precautions for Compact Lines When the Goudey-Oakdale line was first energized at 93 kV six-phase.6815 68. 0484 0. 0386 0. 5. 0386 0.3502 0 0 0 0 The above results are obtained using the EPPC. 6823 5. 3000 0. 0386 0. 0019 Barometric pressure (CM of HG) 76. 0470 10. 0000 GR1 -6. 1411 914. 1111 0. 3647 8. 2000 76. 1000 0484 0. 4000 0. 2000 76. 1111 21. 7764 21.0000 0000 55. 2000 76. 0000 43.7129 243. 0000 42. 1111 21. 0484 0. 0000 E 14 . 2000 76. 9000 2.0000 D 11. 2000 Temperature (°C) Surface Factor (CONSTANT) Critical Gradient (KV/CM) Corona Loss (KW/Mile) 21. 80 .0000 B 14. 0000 30.5000 C 11. 1000 0.9880 525. 0000 42. 1111 21.Chapter 5 11.5: Results for corona loss Electromagnetic Field Gradients 0000 43. 7000 0. 0000 55. 1111 21. the measured 1 megahertz (MHz) radio noise was higher than expected based on preconstruction calculations. 0143 0386 0. 0386 0. 0019 0. 0484 0. 0386 0.0000 77. 2000 76. 8000 0. 1111 21. 4117 16. 5000 Table 5. 7294 13. 0000 30. 5000 GR2 6.

but may have excessive corona in actual operation. a piece of hardware may test successfully in the laboratory. Thus. because the electric field stress is actually more typical of a 345 kV line than a 115 kV line I ' The conductor shoes used on the original Wshaped spacers installed in the compact section were of the standard design with screw threads and nuts protruding from the bottom of the clamps. it is not a complete test. With the bucket alongside the spacer. At this elevation unaided audible noise could be heard in fair weather coming off the line. It was not possible to determine which conductors were primarily contributing to the sound heard by ear. not electric field. An ultrasonic sound detector and VHF radio receiver were used to verify that the spacer hardware and fiber optic cable were contributing to the elevated noise levels. Also. Traditional laboratory tests for corona acceptability involve setting up a specimen in a laboratory and energizing at some percentage above normal operating voltage to check for corona inception. Using the ultrasonic detector from the bucket between the tower and the first in-span spacer. instead of the corona-free variety. because it is based on voltage. There was also a little noise off the upper four phases which seemed to be coming from the ends of 81 . These tests were performed from a bucket at approximately 45 feet above the ground. However. the electric field is greater for the same voltage. The bottom two phases clearly manifested significantly greater electrical discharge of a different type than the other four phases.Chapter 5 Electromagnetic Field Gradients Corona is a function of the electric field at the surface of the conductor and hardware. Measurements with these types of instruments taken in the compact section revealed the following: The ultrasonic detector revealed a raspy sound from the bottom two phases similar to gap discharges. This method has worked well for many years. the ultrasonic noise was greatest off the bottom phases. with the maximum at the spacers. It is frequently necessary to specify EHV-type corona free hardware for use on compact 115 kV lines. When conductors are more closely spaced than conventional design. fiber optic cable was initially wrapped on the bottom two phases the entire length from Goudey to Oakdale. These were suspected of contributing to the elevated radio noise levels. the noise was greater pointing at the spacer than at the tower.

4. It was not possible to distinguish the relative level of noise from the different phases [23]. That is. TV interference and formation of ozone due to corona will also reduce as electric field strengths are diminished. No noise was detected from the ends of the armor rods. 5. The results are in favor of six-phase transmission line. 245 MHz noise peaked with a directional antenna pointed at the in-span spacers from the bucket located between the tower and the first spacer. sixphase line has lower electromagnetic fields and corona loss. on the basis of electric field. 5. 82 .18 clearly indicates that magnitude of electric field in case of six-phase transmission is relatively smaller in magnitude. Eventually. 5. 5.5 Summary In this chapter electromagnetic field gradients of a transmission line have been discussed. corona loss.Chapter 5 Electromagnetic Field Gradients the conductor clamps of the spacers. corona loss in the transmission line is determined.3 Results Fig. From this it can be concluded that size of insulator required in six phase transmission towers will be less as compared to the three-phase double circuit and size of tower will also be compact as ground clearances and mid span clearances will be reduced. Finally. radio interference.17 and fig. Computer programs are written in MATLAB and are used for plotting the profiles of electric and magnetic fields in both three and six-phase transmission lines.

it must be economically as well as technically beneficial. audio noise. For reduction of corona effect. Later a cost analysis is performed in which a 500kV six-phase line is compared for relative economics with a 500 kV three-phase double circuit design. Studies performed prove that transmission line with six phase system has several advantages as high phase transmission line. television and radio interference and magnetic field giving good impact to the environmental. Six phase transmission line system get enhance the capability delivery as many 73% over with double circuit three-phase system. 83 . has been extensively studied in the last ten years. However. In this chapter. it found affordable to enhance the capability overhead line space on it system advantages. the six phase system is one an alternative to replace double three phase circuit.Chapter 6 System Modifications and Cost Analysis Chapter 6 System Modifications and Cost Analysis High phase order. the modifications required in conversion of a threephase double circuit transmission line to a six-phase lines are discussed and discussing the savings/expenses in terms of cost in all the equipment. A number of papers and reports have presented technical characteristics and benefits to be obtained by the use of more than three phases. Increased power transfer over existing rights of way and reduced electrical environmental impact are two of these benefits. After power transmission been analyzed by using the six phase system. Number phase increase will cause reduction gradient conductor surface. the use of more than three phases for power transmission. Six-phase has already been shown to be an economic uprating tool for double circuit lines. it can be concluded that. By implement small development structure on the system use. for a technology to be applied.

In vector the two sets are 180o out of phase. In practical conversion of three-phase double circuit transmission line to six-phase line requires the installation of new six-phase transformers.Chapter 6 System Modifications and Cost Analysis 6. At high voltage levels usually three-single phase transformers are used to form the three-phase transformer.2 Six Phase Positioning Design of Substation modifications for six phase transmission requires careful attention to detail regarding the phasing arrangement. it will result in vector displacement of 60 degrees between adjacent phases. 6. So in using the existing transformers in forming the six-phase conversion bank there is saving of three single phases (or a three phase) transformers. 6. but when electrically configured into a six phase system. so in six-phase conversion. three more transformers need to be installed. then another three-phase need to be purchased.1. It can either be constructed by using two three-phase transformers or six single phase transformers. [18] However depending upon the life. since it will have greater than normal impact on the physical arrangements. the most suitable way for the production of six-phase is by using three-phase to six-phase conversion transformer. the transformer required must be of higher rating to meet the enhanced power flow. In case a three phase transformer is installed. Further.1 System Modifications In this section major modifications required in the power transmission system in conversion of a three-phase double circuit transmission line to a six-phase transmission line are discussed. the existing transformers can be used in forming a transformer conversion bank.[24] Proper phasing is exercised to ensure that each three phase conductor subset of the six-phase system is connected to the 84 . the transformers of higher rating are always needed even if the method of power transfer capability enhancement is other than six-phase transmission. So.1.1 Six-Phase Conversion Transformers As discussed in chapter 3. one set comprised of phase 1-3-5 and the second comprised of phase 2-4-6. the installation of new three-phase transformers is justifiable. Since the six-phase configuration is mostly achieved through the use of two three-phase transformers using Delta-Wye and Delta-Inverted Wye configurations. As the power transmission capacity is being enhanced. the phasing arrangement of the six phase system (1-2-3-4-5-6) can be visualized as being built with subsets of two three phase systems.

6. So. Seeking the complexity of protection in six-phase transmission system it must be given attention. 2. Provision of phase transposition buses on top of the takeoff structure.3 Six-phase Bays Apart from the need for the positioning structures transformer and switching bays are required for six-phase at high voltages. Phase transposition from the transformers to the first transmission tower of the six phase line could have been achieved in one of two ways: 1.73 pu or 2 pu as discussed in chapter 2. So it requires space and structures for the said purpose at the substation with extension is the ground grid that ultimately appears in the form of increase in cost.1. adequate clearances are maintained during phase transposition of conductors at the secondaries of transformers since the voltage difference between adjacent phases conductors could be 1 pu or 1. foreign scholars have conducted some research on the six-phase transmission system faults. it requires the installation of intelligent and sophisticated protection equipment for current differential line protection and appropriate 85 . These structures are similar to that of the phase positioning structures and also have a similar impact on cost.4 Protection The concept of protection in six-phase is entirely different from that of three-phase transmission system. 6. the number of significant faults in six-phase is 23 whereas in three-phase are only 5. Currently. Reference [26] accurately expressed the symmetrical arrangement electromagnetic coupling sequence and derived the fault current expression based on the analysis of various fault types of six-phase system. Faults in six-phase transmission lines are much more complicated than that of three-phase transmission lines. This was a critical issue for the conductor connections between the transformer take-off structure and first tower of transmission line. Further.Chapter 6 System Modifications and Cost Analysis appropriate transformer terminals at each end of the line. [25] These bays provide housing for the six-phase transformers and circuit breakers respectively. Phase transposition at the transmission tower itself utilizing additional insulator strings and cross over jumpers to achieve the designated vector configuration. In addition.1. and the types of shortcircuit faults are as many as 120 in species that is only 11 in three-phase system.

73% power enhancement is achieved. tower weight is a primary parameter in the economic analysis. That is the power transferring is under the same structures. [28] Transmission towers are designed to carry the load of the conductors hanged with the insulators.1. Three-phase double circuit transmission line to six-phase transmission line reduces the requirements of supporting structures. that is the line to line voltage is reduced to phase to ground voltages. there is no need to reconductoring nor are the excessive insulators required. Also requires specially modified auto reclosing and synchronizing relays. there is no change in the line currents. It is proved in chapter 4. Thus. This is again saving in terms of cost.5 Transmission line Modifications In uprating three-phase double circuit transmission line to six-phase transmission line. the phase to ground voltage increases to line to line voltage. This is a costing factor in six-phase system. that even after converting a threephase double circuit transmission line to six-phase single circuit transmission line. As in three-phase to six phase conversion.1. So.1. and metering. breaker failure protection for each line breaker. 6. Each tower was fully designed and all members properly sized.u. Further. 6. the insulation requirements considerably reduce due to reduction in the system voltage.6 Insulation Requirements We know that in six-phase transmission line. due to 86 . pole disagreement protection.Chapter 6 System Modifications and Cost Analysis transformer protection. there is no need to provide extra insulators on transmission line. Thus the system voltage is again the same as in three-phase double circuit transmission line.7 Tower Structures Transmission towers are priced according to their weight. Calculations done in chapter 2 showed that the maximum potential that exists between any two phases in a six-phase transmission system is not more than 2 p. Research shows that if proper [27] positioning of all the six-phases is done on an existing three-phase double circuit transmission tower. So. If the load is not increased in conversion from three-phase double circuit transmission line to six-phase transmission line. 6. which is the major cost saving in six-phase transmission system. there is no need of re-conductoring. as a result the steel structures required to carry the conductor and insulators reduced. The currents in each phase have the same magnitudes as before in three-phase double circuit transmission line conductors.

6. the cost of ROW varies widely for different locations and areas. the less spacing requirement between the six-phase conductors results in the smaller arms of transmission tower.Chapter 6 System Modifications and Cost Analysis lesser electric field in six-phase power transmission. and are not included in the general case. The ROW requirements of EHV high phase order lines are less than those of three-phase double circuit transmission lines.2 Cost Analysis In this section we introduce a transmission line carrying a specific amount of load.8 Right of Ways The required width of Right of Way is based on electrical system parameters. cost differences for the candidate lines studied are presented only as a single illustration. it is assumed that there is a double circuit 500 kV line between two substations which requires an increase in power flow capability. For this Economic Analysis. The existing line was assumed to be constructed with 795 kcmil ACSR (Drake) conductors. The system was assumed to require uprating to carry an additional 900 MVA. in constructing a new transmission six-phase line in comparison to three-phase double circuit line has a lot of saving in terms of capital required. For the assumed 87 . As discussed in previous chapters that electric and magnetic field gradients of a threephase to six-phase converted transmission line are within the limits governed by the health authorities. it would not be correct to assume that all utilities would use the minimum. 6. making it difficult to assign a meaningful dollar-per-acre ROW cost. the re-conductoring of existing line with a conductor having greater thermal capacity. Further. The existing substation was assumed to be a 500 kV breaker and a half arrangement with 1200 ampere rated equipment. While there is a minimum required width for any transmission line. One option to obtain a rating increase would be to reconductor the line with 795 kcmil ACSR conductor by bundling with the existing conductor. So. the Right of Way span required for six-phase power transmission line is not greater than that of three-phase transmission line. For these reasons.1. reduced electromagnetic field gradients results in compact structures allow a lot of saving in constructing a new six-phase transmission line. and can result in a significant cost advantage [29]. the options considered are the sixphase conversion and other cheapest possible i. So. with combined capability for the two circuits of 1400 MVA. Which is to be uprated to carry some extra load. Also.e.

So it appears to be more feasible for long length transmission lines. 88 .1: Cost for the Equipment to be installed in Six-Phase line Sr. reinforcement of tangent structures. and the six-phase conversion increased the thermal capacity to 2420 MVA. there is a saving in the transmission line equipment. In which three single phase transformers are assumed to form three-phase transformer formerly. It is quite easily observable from the two tables that the terminal equipment in sixphase line is more costly in than a three-phase line. using two three-phase (six single-phase) transformers for phase conversion at each end. Re-conductoring increased the line's thermal capacity to 2800 MVA. the six already used transformers at both ends are used. which may be a consideration for longer lines.Chapter 6 System Modifications and Cost Analysis line and substations. Both options therefore gave similar thermal ratings. Table 6. No. These costs were available in South African Rand and are converted to US dollars. Costs of for different equipment are listed below. Now for the sake of comparison we also take the uprating of an existing three-phase double circuit transmission line to enhance the power transfer capability. So. These costs are obtained from the reference [30]. However. The other option was to convert the line to operate at 500 kV six-phase. this option do require substation modifications. replacement of dead end and angle structures. The six-phase conversion would result in higher surge impedance loading. by reconductoring the line. and new line hardware. 1 2 3 Equipment Line Feeder Bay (4) Transformer Bay (4) Single Phase Transformers (6) (400MVA Each) Cost (Per Unit) $ 382075 $ 280550 $ 541600 Total Cost $ 1528300 $ 1122200 $ 3249600 4 Line ( km) $ 73500/km $ 73500 $ 5900100 + 73500 Total Cost This is a typical up gradation cost of three-phase double circuit transmission line to six-phase transmission line. in this cost analysis. The cost of the equipment to be installed is given in the following table. only six new transformers are installed three at each end.

2: Cost of the equipment for uprating of three-phase double circuit line. This is the minimum length for which the six-phase line is beneficial. for this particular line the six-phase configuration of transmission line capability is enhanced only if the line has a length greater than 9km. No.1: Plot of Total Line Costs for Six-phase and three-phase double circuit lines. So. These equations are equated to give the breakeven distance. 1 2 3 Line Feeder Bay (2) Transformer Bay (2) Three.Phase Transformers (2) (400MVA Each) 4 Line ( km) Equipment System Modifications and Cost Analysis Cost (Per Unit) Total Cost Table 6. the total cost equation for six-phase and threephase double circuit transmission line is given. $ 520150 $ 376584 $ 1992700 $ 1040300 $ 735168 $ 3985400 $ 90780/km $ 90780 $ 5760868 + 90780 Total Cost At the end of the two tables above.Chapter 6 Sr. Figure 6. Figure shows that breakeven distance occurs at 9km. i. the length of line where the cost of six-phase line is equal to that of three-phase double circuit transmission line.e. 89 .

protection equipment and lines are discussed.Chapter 6 System Modifications and Cost Analysis 6. At the end a cost comparison of six-phase transmission line made with a three-phase transmission line and it was found that a 500kV transmission line has a benefit is uprating to six-phase line in terms of cost if the line length is more than 6 km.3 Summary In this chapter various system modifications are discussed that are needed in uprating an existing three-phase double circuit transmission line. Saving and costs in substation equipment. 90 .

Moreover.1 Results and Conclusions Following results and conclusions can be made from the calculations. where the complexity in different voltages in six-phase system is discussed in detail. 1. The conclusions are made and limitations of this study are discussed and finally recommendations are made for further study in this field. In this chapter the results of all the analysis performed are summarized and discussed. six-phase transmission line is modeled in MATLAB Simulink and SimPowerSystems. methods have been established for the production of six-phase power and analysis has been performed on the three-phase to six-phase conversion transformers. Where analyses have been performed for the power enhancement capability. In three phase to six-phase conversion. Electric and Magnetic Field Gradients in a transmission line are discussed and analyzed. analyses and simulation performed in this project.Chapter 7 Conclusions and Future Recommendations Chapter 7 Conclusions and Future Recommendations This thesis provides a base for the six-phase transmission system and it explains some basic rules about the six phase power. line to line voltage can be made equal to phase to ground voltage or alternatively phase to ground voltage 91 . checked and verified the voltage and phasor relationships developed earlier. 7. After establishing basics. Later on. A comparison of three-phase double circuit transmission line with six-phase transmission line is done. The voltage drop along the length of a six-phase transmission line is also discussed as a comparison with three-phase double circuit transmission line.

5.Chapter 7 Conclusions and Future Recommendations This voltage level transform can be increased to line to line voltage. between phases separated by one intermediate phase and between opposite phases. between adjacent phases. 3. 8. 4. Out of five common transformer configurations. 7. increased power density. magnetic fields are less than three-phase double circuit transmission line. Diametrical and Double Y configuration phase to neutral voltage is increased to line to line voltage. whereas in ∆-Y & ∆-Inverted Y. depends upon conversion transformers. Magnetic field plots of six-phase line show that under the same loads of as of a three-phase double circuit transmission line. increased utilization of right of way. 6. Electric field plots of six-phase transmission line are also less than those of three-phase double circuit transmission line. But with 73% power enhancement magnetic fields are a bit increased but are far less than the limits set by the Environment and Health Authorities. Double Delta and Y-Y & Y-Inverted Y configuration decrease line to line voltage to make equal to phase to neutral voltage. Four different types of voltages exist in Six-phase system those are phase-to-ground voltage. Six-phase transmission line parameters such as SIL. Voltage Drops across the six-phase transmission line are greater than threephase transmission line and has poor voltage regulation and poor voltage stability with increase in distance and power flow respectively. lower corona and field effects and better lighting performance. Simulation results show that power transfer capability is enhanced in sixphase transmission in comparison to three-phase by 73% with the same line current and same line-to line voltage. 92 . Line Loadibility and stability can be computed by using the same techniques as used for threephase transmission line. that gives a room for the compaction of transmission structures and also provide cost saving for insulators. 2. better stability margins. smaller line structures. Six-phase transmission have several advantages over the three-phase transmission that include higher power transfer capability. This is a drawback of six-phase power transmission line. less insulation requirements.

7. Corona Loss in Six-phase is also less due to low electric field profiles. a three-phase double circuit transmission line can be converted to six-phase line on the existing transmission structures. only modifications required are to be made at terminals. PSSE etc. In future research can be performed on the professional tools that give three dimensional plots of field gradients with more accurate results such as EMF WORKSTATION. 11. Professional power software should be used in future for more accurate results like PSCAD.Chapter 7 Conclusions and Future Recommendations 9. electric and magnetic fields constraints due to health hazards and provides a cost effective solution of upgrading existing transmission lines to six-phase lines. Cost comparison of power capability enhancement of three-phase double circuit transmission line by reconductoring to that converting to six-phase show that six-phase is more economical if line length is more than 9 kilometers. radio interference. 10. Seeking these benefits. For the calculations of magnetic and electric fields. TV interference etc. the simulation of six-phase power transmission line is performed on MATLAB Simulink and SimPowerSystems.2 Project Limitations and Future Recommendations Following are the project limitations and future recommendations for six phase power transmission system: 1. 2. 3. A more detailed 93 . corona loss. So 73% more power can be transferred by the existing transmission lines without any modifications in transmission lines but the modifications are made at sending and receiving end of transmission line in the form of conversion and inversion transformer. All these results have been verified with the help of simulations performed on Simulink® and MATLAB™ programs. So it is concluded that six-phase transmission is a solution to the limitations offered in three-phase power transfer capability enhancement due to unavailability of right of ways. dedicated tools are developed in MATLAB by our own that provide the two dimensional profile of the fields. In this project. The accuracy of MATLAB is limited. For the same load. In this project transformer connections and their primary and secondary voltage levels are analyzed for six-phase conversion banks. are reduced due to which clearances required from the tower or in other sense size of tower is reduced to much extent.

g.Chapter 7 Conclusions and Future Recommendations studied is needed for six-phase transformers and its characteristic under sixphase operation. NTDC should consider six-phase transmission lines for future transmission line construction. 94 . 4. Research should be done at practical level by the Transmission companies by implementing hardware on a long length of transmission line e.

Malaysia Nov 2010. IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery. M. “Method of Symmetrical Coordinates Applied to the Solution of Poly-phase Networks”. „‟An Innovative Transmission Alternate-High phase order Transmission system” A Paradigm to Enhance Power System Capability Proc. [6] [7] Clark. S. F. Ahmad and H. Vol. M. R. S and Thomas L. D. Shareef.Faried. Vol.. Oct 2004.S. and Sarma. Edition 2009. Fostescue. J. Mansour. L. “138kV 12-Phase as an Alternative to 345kV 3-Phase”. Mohsen Akbari “Voltage Stability Analysis in Conversion of Double Three phase to Six phase Transmission” Kuala Lumpur. Vol.Talaat. M.A. Pandya. Golkar. R. E.O. Conference IPBC 2005. 413-419. I. 37. M.. W. No. [10] Hussein Ahmad and Jambak. [3] M.A. Hyderabad. H. Inc..13. Institute of Science and Technology. C.References References [1] A. “Composite System Reliability Evaluation Incorporating a Six-Phase Transmission Line”.Vol. [8] Billinton.-Generation Transmission Distribution. I..M.4.New York. 3rd Ed. Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical & Computer Engineering. Ammar A. 150.. [4] [5] Glover. S. and Firuzabad.N. Nov-2005. IEE Proc. R. R. Mustafa.B Kelkar. M. National Conference on recent trends in power system at S. “Power System Analysis and Design” USA: Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Companies. October 1998.. 2002.Reza Shariatinasab. IEEE power engg.1918. [2] M. H. 2003. “Fault analysis on double three-phase to six-phase converted transmission line”. Hajjar.. “Advanced Laboratory Scale Model of High Phase Conversion Power Transmission Line” 2nd IEEE International 95 . AIEE Transactions. 2002.. Faried.E. O. S. “Circuit Analysis of AC Power System” John Wiley & Sons. 1027 1140. “Distance protection for six-phase transmission lines based on fault induced high frequency transients and wavelets”. [9] James.

Malaysia. [13] Stewart.A MATLAB™ Power System Simulation Package. “Analysis and Simulation of a Six-Phase Generator/Rectifier System” IEEE power engg.. M. Power Systems Engineering Research Center (PSERC).. MALAYSIA. [14] W. MATPOWER. “Transient Stability Analysis of Power System with Six-Phase Converted Transmission Line”. 1044-1050. Mohammadi. Mohd. 1980. Final Report on Grant No. 1990. Prof Madya Dr. 2006. M. pp. “Reliability and Economics Analysis of Higher Phase Order Electric Transmission System”. [16] Mustafa. the Ohio State University.Y. and Brown. Malaysia. F. Environmental and System Analysis of Existing Double Circuit Line Reconfigured to Six-Phase Operation” IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery.References Conference on Power and Energy (PECon 08). December 1-3. R... Carlos. “Corona Losses Calculation in HVAC Transmission Lines Using FEM and Comparison with HVDC Corona 96 . E.. “Analysis Of Six-Phase System For Transmission Line” The 2nd International Power Engineering and Optimization Conference (PEOCO2008). Binghamton.J. NY. [12] Dorazio. Vol. 2008. No. Thesis. R. W. Version 3.mathworks. PECon 2006. and Gan. Selangor. School of Electrical Engineering. G.. Ithaca. R. New York. Putra Jaya. Cornell University. “Improved solution for the field near bundle conductors”. D. Vol. Sc.. [15] Zimmerman. “High Phase Order Transmission”. No. M.com/ [18] Siti Amely Binti Jumaat. J. L. S. [20] Jong Sen Hsu. T. and Ahmad. 2006. C. king. 110.0b1. [21] M. 1628-1633. First International Power and Energy Conference. NYSEG. T. 74 ENGR 10400. Thomann. F.. Vol. IEEE No. [11] Venkata. Tucker. 6.. Oppel. M. [19] S. NSWC Caderock Division. Dorazio. 262-266. R. Columbus.1. Johor Baharu. 2004. L... “Transmission Line Conductor Surface Voltage Gradient and Magnetic Flux Denrity Computations”. 90TH0313-7. User‟s Manual. D. IEE (London). 1997. Proc. S. M. 3. 7. “Insulation Coordination. Shah Alam. T. 4-5 June 2008. Conference IPBC 2005. [17] http://www. 1992.Ebrahimi.

and Ibrahim. R. 5(5): 833-843. “Economics Of EHV High Phase Order Transmission” Transaction on Power Apparatus and Systems. Vol. R. “High Phase Order Transmission – A Feasibility Analysis: Part II – Overvoltages and Insulation Requirements” IEEE Transaction on Power Apparatus and System. 8. [26] Badawy. Brown. 1998. 4. PAS-103. K.S. Stewart.3. November 1984.Sc Student Thesis.R. 7 July 1982. Oppel. El-Sherbiny. 1992. 1. L. Vol. No. R. “Power System Stability and Control”. R. “Transmission Line Compaction using High Phase Order Transmission” University of Witwatersrand. 11.J. 2007. [23] J. 1139-1145. and Wilson..C. M. J. Juhannesburg. Inc. Vol. “Corona and Field Effects Experience on an Operating Utility Six-Phase Transmission Line” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. “Mechanical And Electrical Characteristics of EHV High Phase Order Overhead Transmission” IEEE Transaction on Power Apparatus and Systems. 97 . [27] Stewart. D.. January 2003. Vol. “A Method of Analyzing Unsymmetrical Faults on Six-Phase Power Systems” IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery. [22] S. Vol. Kallaur. J. [30] Jacob Bortnik. No. New York. No. Rebbapragada “Design Modification and Layout of Utility Substations for Six Phase Transmission” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. E. Kondragunta. M.References Losses”. D. R. J. Vol. November 2004.. [28] I. Venkata. PAS-103. “EPPC . Richeda. P. A. No.. PAS-101. McGraw-Hill.2001. 2308-2317.. No. No. W. 6. 13. Stewart. Stewart. No. S. H. 6.V. [29] J.. Guyker. 2011. ISSN 1991-8178. A. Vol. E. October 1998. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. Grant.J. [24] M. 11.T. [25] Kundur. Johannesburg.A computer program for six-phase transmission line design” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems. PAS-97.

R1= R2= R3= R4= R5= R6= Ir1 Ir2 Ir3 Ir4 Ir5 Ir6 sqrt(power((xp-x1).2)+ sqrt(power((xp-x6).86. y4=21. ). -1*I. y6=24. Ii6=b*I. b=sqrt(3)/2. a=1/2. ). Ii1=0*I.2)+ sqrt(power((xp-x4).1. power((y2-yp). I*a. ). power((y3-yp). 98 .38.86. Ii5=b*I. ). x1=-6. power((y6-yp). y1=24. x4=6. x5=6. -a*I. Ii3=-b*I. power((y1-yp). ). power((y5-yp). x2=-6.1.1.34. y5=22.2)+ sqrt(power((xp-x3). -a*I.34. y2=22. Ii2=-b*I. y3=21.1.Appendix A MATLAB Function for magnetic field calculation Appendix A MATLAB function for magnetic field calculations A. yp=0.2)+ sqrt(power((xp-x5).1. x3=-6. power((y4-yp).2)+ = = = = = = I*1. x6=6.38. Ii4=0*I.1 Function for magnetic fields xp=0.1.2)+ sqrt(power((xp-x2). I=1000. 2) 2) 2) 2) 2) 2) ). a*I.

Hpxi = Hpxi1 + Hpxi2 + Hpxi3 + Hpxi4 + Hpxi5 + Hpxi6 . Hpyi1 Hpyi2 Hpyi3 Hpyi4 Hpyi5 Hpyi6 = = = = = = Ii1*(xp-x1)/(2*pi*power(R1.e).Appendix A Hpxr1 Hpxr2 Hpxr3 Hpxr4 Hpxr5 Hpxr6 = = = = = = MATLAB Function for magnetic field calculation Ir1*(y1-yp)/(2*pi*power(R1. y=0:0. Ii3*(xp-x3)/(2*pi*power(R3. 2)).1:25. Hpxr = Hpxr1 + Hpxr2 + Hpxr3 + Hpxr4 + Hpxr5 + Hpxr6 . 2)). Ii5*(xp-x5)/(2*pi*power(R5. 2)). 2)). y(1. 2)).1:50. Hpxi1 Hpxi2 Hpxi3 Hpxi4 Hpxi5 Hpxi6 = = = = = = Ii1*(y1-yp)/(2*pi*power(R1. Ii2*(xp-x2)/(2*pi*power(R2. Ir5*(y5-yp)/(2*pi*power(R5. H=zeros(501. 2)). Ii5*(y5-yp)/(2*pi*power(R5. 2)).y. 2)). 2)). Hpyr1 Hpyr2 Hpyr3 Hpyr4 Hpyr5 Hpyr6 = = = = = = Ir1*(xp-x1)/(2*pi*power(R1.501). Hpyi = Hpyi1 + Hpyi2 + Hpyi3 + Hpyi4 + Hpyi5 + Hpyi6.d)). Ir3*(y3-yp)/(2*pi*power(R3. 2)). 2)). 2)). 2)).e)= magnet14 (x(1. 2)). 2)). Ii4*(xp-x4)/(2*pi*power(R4. Ir6*(xp-x6)/(2*pi*power(R6. Hpyr = Hpyr1 + Hpyr2 + Hpyr3 + Hpyr4 + Hpyr5 + Hpyr6. Ii6*(xp-x6)/(2*pi*power(R6. Ir5*(xp-x5)/(2*pi*power(R5. Ir4*(xp-x4)/(2*pi*power(R4. Ii2*(y2-yp)/(2*pi*power(R2. end end H figure contour(x.H.2000).1:50 x=(y-22. 2)). for d=1:501 for e=1:501 H(d. Ir2*(y2-yp)/(2*pi*power(R2. Ir6*(y6-yp)/(2*pi*power(R6. Ii3*(y3-yp)/(2*pi*power(R3. 2)). 2)). 2)). Hpx = Hpxr + j*Hpxi Hpy = Hpxr + j*Hpyi Hx=[Hpx Hpy] A. 2)).86*(ones(size(y))))/(-2). 99 . 2)). 2)).2 Function for Plotting Profiles x=-25:0. 2)). 1. Ir4*(y4-yp)/(2*pi*power(R4. 2)). Ir2*(xp-x2)/(2*pi*power(R2. Ir3*(xp-x3)/(2*pi*power(R3. Function for Plotting Characteristics y=0:0. Ii6*(y6-yp)/(2*pi*power(R6. Ii4*(y4-yp)/(2*pi*power(R4.

end H plot(R.1) = abs(magnet14 (x(1.H).86-y(1. 100 .d))). 2) ).d)=sqrt(power(x(1.d)). y(1.1) for d=1:501 H(d.2)+ power((22.d). R(1.Appendix A MATLAB Function for magnetic field calculation R=zeros(size(x)) H=zeros(501.d).

21. 21. -6.38.38. ri=0.1.1)-x(e.e)= sqrt((x(d.1)-xp)^2+ (y(d.e)= sqrt((x(d.1))^2+ (y(d.8e-12))*(log(2*y(d. lip=Lip.e)=(1/(2*pi*8. l(d. if d ~= e P(d.1. x=[-6.34. v*exp(1i*4*pi/3). 6.e))).1). 6.e)/l(d.1)-x(e.1)= sqrt((x(d.86. P=L.86.025. 101 . yp ). Q=inv(P)*V. v*exp(1i*1*pi/3).1.1)+yp)^2 ).1))^2+ (y(d. Ep=0. v*exp(1i*5*pi/3)].1))^2 ).1. v*exp(1i*2*pi/3). Lip=zeros(6. y=[24.1]. 24.1)/ri)).1)+y(e.73.8e-12))*(log(L(d.Appendix B MATLAB function for electric field calculations Appendix B MATLAB function for Electric field calculations B. end end end V = [v*exp(1i*0*pi/3). l=L.1 Function for six-phase function [ Ep ] = elect( xp.34]. for d=1:6 Lip(d.1))^2 ). 22. v=500/1. for d=1 : 6 for e= 1 : 6 L(d. v*exp(1i*3*pi/3).1)-y(e. L=zeros(6. 6. else P(d.d)=(1/(2*pi*8.1. 22.6). -6.

Lip=zeros(6. 6.1)+yp)^2 ).1]. v*exp(1i*3*pi/3).1). 24.8e12))*Q(d. Ep = Ep + (-1/(2*pi*8. Q=inv(P)*V. 6.38.8e-12))*(log(2*y(d. lip(d. L=zeros(6.1)-xp)^2+ (y(d.1)-x(e. P=L. end 102 . 21.1.e)/l(d.6).1)))^2))). y=[24. if d ~= e P(d.Appendix B MATLAB function for electric field calculations lip(d. l=L. 6.1.1)-xp)^2+ (y(d.e)= sqrt((x(d. v*exp(1i*5*pi/3)].1.1))/((abs(lip(d. -6.e)= sqrt((x(d.1.86.1. x=[-6.1)= sqrt((x(d.1)-xp)^2+ (y(d.1)/ri)).1)+y(e. Ep=0.1)))^2) (Lip(d.1)= sqrt((x(d.e)=(1/(2*pi*8. yp ). ri=0.1)-yp)^2 ). Ep = Ep + (-1/(2*pi*8.025. end Ep=abs(Ep).34. 21.1)-x(e.d)=(1/(2*pi*8. else P(d.86.1)))^2))). v*exp(1i*2*pi/3). for d=1:6 Lip(d. v=500.34]. 22. -6.8e12))*Q(d. lip=Lip.1))/((abs(lip(d.1)/((abs(Lip(d.1)= sqrt((x(d. 22.1)*((lip(d.e))).2 Function for three-phase function [ Ep ] = elect( xp.38. End B.1))^2+ (y(d.1))^2 ). v*exp(1i*1*pi/3). v*exp(1i*4*pi/3).1)))^2) (Lip(d.1))^2+ (y(d. l(d.1)-y(e.1))^2 ). end Ep=abs(Ep).1)-yp)^2 ). for d=1 : 6 for e= 1 : 6 L(d.8e-12))*(log(L(d. end end end V = [v*exp(1i*0*pi/3).1)*((lip(d.1)/((abs(Lip(d.

d).501).d)).1:25. 2.d)=sqrt(power(x(1. 2) ).86-y(1. y(1. end end figure contour(x.H.y. R(1.e). for d=1:501 for e=1:501 H(d.Appendix B MATLAB function for electric field calculations 1. H=zeros(501.e)= elect(x(1. x=(y-22. end figure plot(R. Function for Plotting the Field Strengths y=0:0. y(1. R=zeros(size(x)).2)+ power((22. y=0:0.1).2000).H). for d=1:501 H(d. 103 .1:50. H=zeros(501. Function for Plotting the Profiles x=-25:0.d))).d)).1) = abs(elect (0.1:50.86*(ones(size(y))))/(-2).

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