You are on page 1of 16

Our Lady of the Rosary of Manaoag (Filipino: Ang Aming Ina Ng Manaoag; Spanish: Nuestra Señora del Santísimo

Rosario de Manaoag (Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary of Manaoag); is a 17th-century Roman Catholic ivory image of the Blessed Virgin Mary placed in the high altar of a shrine in Manaoag, Pangasinan Philippines. Under that invocation, Mary the mother of Jesus is locally venerated as the patroness of the town and is often referred to in both the Pangasinense and Ilocano dialect as Apo Baket (English: "Venerable Madam")[1]. The image is one of the most venerated Marian images in the country, and held by believers to possess healing powers as patroness of the sick, the helpless and the needy. The Manaoag Shrine is located approximately 200 kilometres north of Manila, and is administered by the Dominican Order under the Archdiocese of LingayenDagupan. Today, it is an active parish serving Manaoag and the surrounding towns. Tradition holds the town itself was born from the Virgin Mary’s call or "taoag" to the young man. The term manaoag was derived from this, and means "She Calls". The original image was brought to the area by Augustinian friars who spiritually administered Manaoag from 1590-1613 in accordance with Royal Spanish decree. In 1614, the Dominicans assumed spiritual leadership under the patronage of Saint Monica.[2] In the early 17th century, the ivory image was brought to the Philippines by Padre Juan de San Jacinto from Spain via Acapulco.[2] Documents dating back to 1610 attest that a native man walking home heard a mysterious female voice. He looked around and saw on a cloud-veiled treetop an apparition of the Blessed Virgin Mary, holding a Rosary in her right hand and the Child Jesus in her left. The man fell on his knees and later told others of the miracle. On the spot where St Mary appeared to the man, a chapel was built, and the present-day town quickly grew around it.[2] A huge crowd attended the canonical coronation of the image on 21 April 1926 by the then-Papal Nuncio, as authorised by Pope Pius XI. After surviving Japanese bombing during World War II, the church was rebuilt, and it celebrated the Diamond Jubilee of the image's coronation on 1 January 2000. Cardinal Bernard Francis Law, Archpriest of the Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major in Rome, with permission of Pope Benedict XVI granted a plenary indulgence[3] to visitors equal to that received when visiting a papal basilica in Rome. This was confirmed by the prelate (now Archbishop) of the Lingayen-Dagupan Diocese, Socrates B. Villegas, in a circular dated 13 June 2011. Within the country, only the Manaoag Shrine currently holds this status. Pope Benedict XVI canonically approved the grant of the plenary indulgence on 21 June 2011. The official document and a shrine official who was among the priests who went to Rome confirmed the plenary indulgence may be obtained on each visit to the shrine subject to three conditions for each occasion: (1) going to confession immediately before or after the pilgrimage; (2) receiving the Eucharist during the pilgrimage; and (3) praying for the intentions of the Pope; each done in a spirit of detachment from the attraction of sin. On 22 July 2011, a special mass was held to affirm the spiritual bond of affinity between Manaoag Shrine and the Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major in Rome. On August 24, 2012, a three-foot copy of the statue was donated and travelled to Guam[4] where it was hosted at Saint Anthony and Victor's Catholic Church. Our Lady of Manaoag has a long history of renowned miraculous and pious events, with some of the earliest are replicated in the murals within the church, These include the miraculous sparing of the town from a wildfire, the origin of the basilica and the parish, and the original apparition. Devotees visiting the shrine usually pray for good health or cure for diseases, among other intentions. One story recounts how in the early days of Spanish colonisation, animist mountain tribes burnt down newly-converted Christian villages. The town of Manaoag was among the settlements set afire, and the initial thatch-roofed church was the locals' last refuge. The leader of the pillagers climbed over the compound's crude fence and shot flaming arrows into all parts of the church, but the building miraculously did not ignite. The statue's miraculous powers became famous in the 1940s. During World War II, the Japanese dropped several bombs within the church's vicinity, with the structure itself suffering moderate damage. Four bombs were released above the church, with three landing on the plaza and the façade, destroying both. The last bomb fell in the church sanctuary, but it remained intact and did not explode. The original icon of Our Lady of Manaoag is considered priceless, as is its bejewelled crown. There have been several attempts to burglarise the Manaoag Shrine due to the jewels sewn into the icon's dress and regalia. Several golden crowns and haloes are deposited at the shrine's museum, which were donated by both Filipino and foreign devotees. An expensive collection of liturgical vestments that have been used by the image

One day. the case was reopened in 1991 and is pending investigation by the Holy See while the Metropolitan Archbishop Ramon Arguelles of Archdiocese of Lipa find "no objection in the veneration of Mary and its doctrine" under this title.[2] Presently. The next day. Every year. [5] Our Lady of Mediatrix of All Graces is an alleged Marian apparition that took place in the Carmelite Monastery of Batangas. Again at 5:00 pm. The feast of Our Lady of Manaoag is on the third Wednesday after Easter. The sisters were also ordered by their bishop to . Teresita came to the spot. "Anytime your Mother Prioress wants. to which the pontiff was photographed and exclaimed ''La Madonna!" in a surprised happy gesture. knelt down and intended to say the Hail Mary prayer. a life-sized Mediatrix statue brought by Filipino bishops was publicly displayed in the general Wednesday papal audience at Pope Paul VI Audience Hall.[5] According to the account. the Most Reverend Alfredo Obviar. After touching the mantle and praying. One of Chicago's Polish cathedrals. Then she heard a woman's voice who had told her to visit the garden for 19 consecutive days. A large array of lavishly elegant perfumes is likewise showcased. The Mother Prioress heard a woman's voice telling her to kiss the postulant's eyes will recover her sight. On September 14. decided to consult His Excellency. According to an interview with the Prioress of the Carmelite Monastery. constructed a staircase that rises to the second floor behind the altar.m. a fire from the basement burnt a 15 by 3-foot hole under the altar. the Mother Prioress. 1948. Initially declared by a local bishop as non-supernatural in 1951. On March 9. novena booklets. Mother Mary Cecilia of Jesus. It also celebrates the universal feast day of Our Lady of the Holy Rosary every first Sunday of October. In April 2008. Masses for petitions and thanksgiving may be offered during the regular schedule. Teresita Castillo noticed a vine shaking without the presence of wind. and III (Central Luzon). I forbid you to forget the incidents of these fifteen days. 2011. Sr. There are staunch devotees coming from Metro Manila who remarkably hear Mass every week. On the other hand. and people queue to kneel at the alcove behind the image's shrine. September 13 at 5pm. the girl recovered her sight. total blindness affected the Teresita. 2011. Bishop Obviar no longer doubted the claims of her apparition. Philippines.m. rose petals began to shower within the monastery. some bearing religious Catholic imagery which believers hold to be miraculous. the auxiliary bishop of Lipa and spiritual director of Carmel.and the Dominican priests are also on display. wind came and the garden vine moved when a beautiful lady appeared. Immediately. Mother?" asked Teresita." Then the lady vanished. on what to do on the alleged apparition of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Supplicants place their hands through bars and touch the lower part of the image's mantle.[3][4] On March 3. The archdiocese. Holy water is dispensed free to those with receptacles ready. In the middle of the prayer. to kiss the earth. The 4 a. in the presence of Bishop Obviar. to a religious postulant. the mother prioress lifted the veil of the postulant and imparted a kiss to Teresita's eyes. The bishop instructed the Mother Prioress to demand from the ady a proof that she is from Heaven. destroying the statue brought by devotees. on September 12. the Marian veneration is tolerated and endorsed by the Archdiocese of Lipa and the Archdiocese of Manila. A replacement statue has been sent in its place. This touching gallery has pews. Pope Benedict XVI was presented a Mediatrix statue by Bishop Guillermo Afable during the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines Ad Limina visit. II (Cagayan Valley)." "At what time. reckoning the Filipino custom of touching a venerated image or its clothing. my child. rose petals. St Hedwig's Roman Catholic Church has a shrine of Our Lady of Manaoag in a side altar. Teresita Castillo. The blessing of religious articles and vehicles is performed at the back of the church grounds after every Mass. and may deposit prayers in a small box on the kneeler's surface. and any religious paraphernalia pertaining to the apparition.[1] The apparition is known in the Philippines for the rose petals which showered within the vicinity of the monastery. Days after the first shower of rose petals. the lady appeared once more at the vine and said "I wish this place to be blessed tomorrow. Mass is well-attended by pilgrims mostly from Metro Manila and from Regions I (Ilocos). Mother Mary of the Sacred Heart and Sister Mary Balthazar were ordered to burn several boxes containing leaflefts. Some of the religious sisters living in the convent began to notice rose petals outside their hallways. these were donated by devotees and pilgrims from around the world as ex votos or presents to the image. thousands of pilgrims continue to flock to the Manaoag Shrine. devotees pass through the religious souvenir shop on their way out. The image of is fully secured with bulletproof glass panels enclosing it on three sides above the old high altar. procession and dawn rosary every first Saturday before the 5 a. while Masses for the dead may be offered on any Friday.

An initial investigation report in 1951 was signed by six Roman Catholic bishops and declared the Lipa apparitions as a fraud and "non-supernatural". Batangas endorse Marian veneration under this title and are not expressly prohibited by the archdiocese in the Philippines as long as it does not counter the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church.[8] On April 17. Local bishops often tolerate the veneration of Mary under this title in Batangas province. Empress of Latin America. According to an interview with Teresita Castillo.[1] the peasant Juan Diego saw on the slopes of the Hill of Tepeyac a vision of a girl of fifteen or sixteen years of age. in her honor. The religious image described and sculpted according to the vision of Teresita Castillo is licensed and approved by the Archdiocese of Manila for public veneration in various Filipino religious communities. one of the most visited Marian shrines. which he refused[6].[2] The icon is now displayed in the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe. as well as former president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. also known as the Virgin of Guadalupe (Spanish: Virgen de Guadalupe) is a celebrated Roman Catholic icon of the Virgin Mary. The Virgin told Juan Diego to gather flowers from the top of Tepeyac Hill.[8] the Virgin Mary told Juan Bernadino. her dress was simple and pure white held in the waist by a narrow cloth belt. who instructed him to return to Tepeyac Hill. which was written in the Nahuatl language around 1556. Mary's hands clasped on her breast. bearing the titles: the Queen of Mexico. at times even with the participation of local Filipino celebrities and politicians. which the Virgin arranged in his peasant tilma cloak. 2005. slightly stooping."[9] In 1675. and ask the lady for a miraculous sign to prove her identity. Fray Juan de Zumárraga. Ramon Arguelles. one in Spanish. Former Philippine president Corazon Aquino had a close religious affinity with the Carmelite Monastery in Lipa and visited often. Her face. the flowers fell to the floor. the uncle of Juan Diego.[9] The Archdiocese of Lipa. The papal nuncio strongly disapproved. the Nican Mopohua. and Protectress of Unborn Children[5][6][7] under this Marian title. tell how.destroy the statue of the Virgin Mary but instead hid it out of religious devotion. one in Nahuatl. Castillo cried tears and begged for his blessing. There is much debate over the original name given to the apparition. Bishop Versoza and Bishop Obviar. Juan Diego found at the usually barren hilltop Castilian roses. miraculously imprinted on the fabric. Holy Mary of Guadalupe. more than a hundred years later. Her feet were bare and resting on clouds about two feet above ground. Speaking to him in Nahuatl. while walking from his village to Mexico City in the early morning of December 9. The apparitions have to this date have not received approval from the Holy See and are still pending under investigation. In a televised interview with ABS-CBN network communications.[2] Our Lady of Guadalupe (Spanish: Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe). Luis Becerra Tanco . Pope John Paul II proclaimed the Virgin Mary Patroness of the Americas. and a new investigation was opened in 1991. she asked that a church be built at that site. called her the Devil and asked her to leave his presence and tried to shove her out the door. The personal diary of Castillo was also consumed in the fire. 1531 (then the Feast of the Immaculate Conception in the Spanish Empire). one bishop later recanted on his deathbed. she had met Cardinal Egidio Vagnozzi in 1951 and expressed to him that she had left the Carmelite monastery to seek medical treatment. When Juan Diego opened the cloak before Bishop Zumárraga on December 12. Although December was very late in the growing season for flowers to bloom. A current petition to approve the apparition once again is currently going underaway in Rome. Diego told his story to the Spanish Archbishop. indescribably beautiful. Two accounts. According to the earliest account of the apparition. In 1999. two of the bishops in the commission were forced to leave the investigation due to their lack of jurisdiction of Lipa. that the image left on the tilma was to be known by the name "the Perfect Virgin. not native to Mexico. was radiant.[3] The icon is Mexico’s most popular religious and cultural image. However.[4] and was once proclaimed Patroness of the Philippines (but later revised) by Pope Pius XI in 1935. Juan Diego recognized the Lady as the Virgin Mary. causing its immediate rejection[7]. from her words. and in their place was the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe. Filipino Archbishop Ramon Arguelles issued a circular finding no objection to the devotion under this Marian title. Arguelles noted that not a great deal of documents reached the Holy See in 1951. surrounded by light. the local language. published in the 1640s. According to the Archbishop of Lipa. According to Castillo. a golden rosary hanging in her right hand. The title "Mediatrix" is used in Roman Catholic Mariology to refer to the intercessory role of the Blessed Virgin Mary as a mediator in the salvific redemption by Jesus Christ and that her son bestows graces through her.

"she who banishes those who devoured us. nor anywhere else before the mid-17th century. was the Archbishop himself. a text about the Virgin which contains the story of the apparition and the supernatural origin of the image. in a confidential report on the Lady of Guadalupe for Bishop Labastida. and much information was gathered."[10] Becerra Tanco based his argument on the fact that the "g" and "d" sounds do not exist in Nahuatl. was very hesitant to support the story of the apparition and stated his conclusion that there was never . plus two other sections.suggested in his work Felicidad de Mexico that the panish must ha e misunderstood uan ernardino and uan iego. The growing fame of the image led to a parallel interest in Juan Diego. In 1987. Newly converted Indians continued to come from afar to worship there. where certain miracles had lately been performed. in this city is greatly harmful for the natives. At this point historians and theologians began to question the quality of the evidence regarding Juan Diego. being declared “protector and ad ocate of the indigenous peoples.[10] Three reasons in favor of the original name "Guadalupe" include the fact that Juan Diego and Juan Bernardino would have had to be familiar with the "g" and "d" sounds to pronounce their baptismal names. This tract contains Nican mopohua ("Here it is recounted"). a temple of the mother-goddess Tonantzin at Tepeyac outside Mexico City. was published in 1649 by Luis Lasso de la Vega. meaning “the one who crushes the serpent” and that it may be referring to the feathered serpent Quetzacoatl. The Franciscans repeated their claim that the image encouraged idolatry and superstition. and the number of documents written by contemporary Spaniards and Franciscan Friars arguing for the name of the Virgin to be changed to "Tepeaca" or "Tepeaquilla.[16] The first extended account of the image and the apparition is in Imagen de la Virgen Maria. There is no mention of him or his miraculous vision in the writings of bishop Zumárraga. who delivered a sermon before the Viceroy expressing his concern that the Archbishop was promoting a superstitious regard for a painting by a native artist. Tecuatlanopeuh [te atɬa'nopeʍ]. head of the Colony's Franciscans and guardians of the chapel at Tepeyac. and in 1723 a formal investigation into his life was ordered. a diocesan priest of Mexico City. which has close affinity with Sánchez's narrative. and Tecuantlaxopeuh [te antɬa'ʃopeʍ]."[14] Appearing before the Dominicans. Huei tlamahuiçoltica ("The Great Event").[11] There i s a general consensus among ahuatl specialists and historical anthropologists that the word does not ha e an indigenous origin. 1990. In 1666 the Church. and testified that it was painted by "Marcos the Indian. Marcos Cipac de Aquino: The devotion that has been growing in a chapel dedicated to Our Lady. describing fourteen miracles connected with Our Lady of Guadalupe. and on May 6. an account of the Virgin in New Spain. a guide to the cult for Spanish-speakers published in 1648 by Miguel Sanchez.[13] The first record of the painting's existence was in 1556. historian and biographer of Zumárraga.[17] A 36-page tract in Nahuatl language. in regards to a painting in the chapel at Tepeyac. was equivocal. into whose hands he delivered the miraculous image." with December 9 as his feast day. with the aim of establishing a feast day in his name. which omits him entirely. Following the Spanish Conquest in 1519–21. "she whose origins were in the roc y summit". preached a sermon commending popular devotion to Our Lady of Guadalupe. Madre de Dios de Guadalupe. o tlaxopeuh [ oa tɬa'ʃopeʍ]. The object of their worship. there is no evidence to show that the Virgin was called anything else before Becerra Tanco's proposal. a Dominican. and Nican tlantica ("Here ends").[14] The next day Archbishop Montufar opened an inquiry. as they continued to address the Virgin Mary as Tonantzin. The matter ended with the Franciscans deprived of custody of the shrine[15] and the tilma mounted and displayed within a much enlarged church. Nican motecpana ("Here is an ordered account"). began gathering information from people who reported having known him." which indicate that indeed the original name was "Guadalupe" and not a native name otherwise there would have been no controversy. under Pope John Paul II. who took a special interest in saints and in non-European Catholics. the Congregation for the Causes of Saints declared him "venerable". Doubts as to his reality were not new: in 1883 Joaquín García Icazbalceta. called of Guadalupe. because it makes them believe that the image painted by Marcos the Indian is in any way miraculous. however. and proposed two alternati es in ahuatl that sound similar to " uadalupe". who favored allowing the Aztecs to venerate the Guadalupe. when Archbishop Alonso de Montufar. he was beatified by the Pope himself during Mass at the asilica of Our Lady of uadalupe in Mexico ity. t has also been suggested that the name is a ispani ed ahuatl term that the Virgin used for herself. nor in the record of the ecclesiastical inquiry of 1556. Days later he was answered by Francisco de Bustamante. was destroyed and a chapel dedicated to the Virgin built on the site.

[19] Neither were they welcome: as recently as 1996 the 83 year old abbot of the Basilica of Guadalupe. produced a deer skin codex. including the irises.[26] Summary conclusions ("contra" indicates a contrary finding) (1) Support: The material of the support is soft to the touch (almost silken: MC. MC. methods of painting sargas (MC. (5) Condition of the surface layer: The three most recent inspections agree (i) that significant additions have been made to the image.[24] PC – in 1979 Philip Callahan. (7) Binding Medium: R provisionally identified the pigments and binding medium (distemper) as consistent with 16th c. some of which were subsequently removed. took numerous infrared photographs of the front of the tilma. with the name of Saint Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin. observed that the image had soaked through to the reverse of the tilma. the traditional understanding is that it is ixtle. Miguel Cabrera. placing it within the lifetime of those who had known Juan Diego. four technical studies were conducted between 1751–2 and 1982. or just certain areas – such as those areas of the tilma extrinsic to the image – where PC agrees had later additions. (4) Brush-work: R suggested (PC contra) there was some visible brushwork on the original image. Antonio Valeriano and Bernardino de Sahagún. and (ii) that the original image has been abraded and re-touched in places. thus verifying its contents. (Codex Escalada). Luke and signed by St. Although the very existence of this important document had been previously unknown. "the tilma") has ever been analyzed using the full range of scientific resources available to museum conservationists. drawn by St. were published in 1981.such a person." R does not clarify whether his observed "irregular" application entails that majorly the entire tilma was primed. PC contra for different reasons). apparently applied by a brush"). the findings of three have been published. The binding medium is generally animal . published a report entitled "Maravilla Americana" containing the findings made by himself and six other painters in 1751 and 1752 from ocular and manual inspection. is unprecedented. Studies conducted between 1751–2 and 1982 MC – in 1756 a prominent artist. Guillermo Schulenburg. and – at low magnification – a stereo microscope of the type used for surgery. specializing in Infrared imaging. and in every case the investigators had direct and unobstructed access to it.[22] but Diego was declared a saint.[23] G – José Antonio Flores Gómez. formerly director of the Center for the Conservation and Listing of Heritage Artifacts (Patrimonio Artístico Mueble) of the National Institute of Fine Arts (INBA) in México City.[27] (3) Under-drawing: PC asserted there was no under-drawing. or at passages considered to be later additions). with progress towards sanctification at a stand-still. but the color values and luminosity are exceptional. was forced to resign following an interview with the Catholic magazine Ixthus. describing the discovery of the Codex as "rather like finding a picture of St. though with primer "applied irregularly. or a hemp and linen mixture (R). it bore the date 1548. an agave fiber."[20] In 1995. Father Xavier Escalada. (6) Varnish: The tilma has never been varnished. or Primer: R asserted (MC and PC contra) by ocular examination that the tilma was primed. Of these. Paul's vision of Christ on the road to Damascus. although such a survival from the 16th c. This interview was interspersed with extracts from a report R had written in 1982 of the findings he had made during his inspection of the tilma that year using raking and UV light.[21] Some scholars remained unconvinced. with photographs. an art restorer. and bore the signatures of two trustworthy 16th century scholar-priests. a Jesuit writing an encyclopedia of the Guadalupan legend. His findings. something like cotton: G) but to the eye it suggested a coarse weave of palm threads called "pita" or the rough fiber called "cotense" (MC). discussed in a 2002 interview with the Mexican journal Proceso (magazine) certain technical issues relative to the tilma. but at best in only one minute area of the image ("her eyes. when he said that Juan Diego was "a symbol.[25] R – "Proceso" also published in 2002 an interview with José Sol Rosales. Neither the fabric ("the support") nor the image (together. Some flaking is visible (mostly along the line of the vertical seam. in 2002. All were commissioned by the authorized custodians of the tilma in the Basilica. illustrating the apparition and the life and death of Juan Diego. The technique of painting on fabric with water-soluble pigments (with or without primer or ground) is well-attested. have outlines. alternatively. Peter". (2) Ground. on which he had worked in 1947 and 1973. biophysicist and USDA entomologist. not a reality. Nevertheless.

and in 1966 Pope Paul VI sent a Golden Rose to the shrine."[34] the source of the sacred beverage pulque. commonly found in human eyes. but images of all the witnesses present when the tilma was first revealed before Zumárraga in 1531. 1999 (with the result that her liturgical celebration had. In 1992 he dedicated to Our Lady of Guadalupe a chapel within St. Philip Serna Callahan.[50] that it repaired itself with no external help after a 1791 ammonia spill that did considerable damage. when Guadalupe became the secondary "Patroness of the Philippines" when Pope Pius XII installed the Immaculate Conception as the Principal Patroness of the Filipino people through the Papal Bull Impositi Nobis. and mantle had been painted in one step. and a cross-shaped image symbolizing the cosmos and called nahui-ollin is inscribed beneath the image's sash.[53] Dr. Pope Pius X proclaimed her patron of Latin America in 1910."[22][30] and she is also described as a representation of the Immaculate Conception. but left the icon unharmed. Today. he named Our Lady of Guadalupe patron of the Americas on January 22.[53] Numerous Catholic websites repeat an unsourced claim[54] that in 1936 biochemist Richard Kuhn analyzed a sample of the fabric and announced that the pigments used were from no known source. and later that year included in the General Calendar of the Roman Rite. considered as a type of sarga. whether animal. 1754. later enlarged an image of the Virgin's eyes by 2500x and claimed to have found not only the aforementioned single figure. the Pope canonized Juan Diego before a crowd of 12 million. On July 31. Pope Leo XIII granted new texts in 1891 and authorized coronation of the image in 1895. described her as the Woman of the Apocalypse from the New Testament's Revelation 12:1. the Blessed Virgin Mary under this title of Our Lady of Guadalupe is especially invoked by the Catholic bishops and laypeople who oppose the legalization of abortion and the passage of the Reproductive Health Bill.[5][57][58] This was revised in September 12. "clothed with the sun. with no sketches or corrections and no visible brush strokes. With the Papal Brief Non Est Equidem of May 25.[31] Her blue-green mantle was the color reserved for the divine couple Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl. and that on 14 November 1921 a bomb damaged the altar.[33] She was called "mother of maguey. Pope Benedict XIV declared Our Lady of Guadalupe patron of what was then called New Spain. father. 1942. and again when he beatified Juan Diego there on May 6. the author of the 1648 tract Imagen de la Virgen María. the liturgical celebrations of Saint Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin (December 9) and Our Lady of Guadalupe (December 12). and approved liturgical texts for the Holy Mass and the Breviary in her honor.[51] That in 1929 and 1951 photographers found a figure reflected in the Virgin's eyes. . Pope Pius XII declared the Virgin of Guadalupe "Queen of Mexico and Empress of the Americas" in 1945.[32] her belt is interpreted as a sign of pregnancy. and the moon under her feet. and upon her head a crown of twelve stars. upon inspection they said that the reflection was tripled in what is called the Purkinje effect.[34] Roman Catholic sources claim many miraculous and supernatural properties for the image such as that the tilma has maintained its structural integrity over nearly 500 years. At the request of the Special Assembly for the Americas of the Synod of Bishops.[52] An ophthalmologist. Such an artifact is variously discussed in the literature as a tüchlein or sarga. Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli (later Pope Pius XII). Pope Pius XI declared Our Lady of Guadalupe to be the Heavenly Patroness of the Philippines and was signed and attested by Vatican Secretary of State.[56] In July 16. Dr. 1935. as optional memorials. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican. declared from his photographs that portions of the face. Jose Aste Tonsmann. while replicas normally last only about 15 years before suffering degradation. referring to her as Mother and Teacher of the Faith of All American populations. the rank of solemnity). is by no means unique. hands. Pope John XXIII invoked her as "Mother of the Americas" in 1961. 1979.glue or gum arabic (see: Distemper). but its state of preservation is remarkable. though her feast day is still widely celebrated in the archipelago. 1990. mineral or vegetable. Pope John Paul II visited the shrine in the course of his first journey outside Italy as Pope from January 26– 31. in the center of the Virgin's eyes. and "Patroness of the Americas" in 1946. throughout the Americas. 2002. and visited the shrine again on the following day. The iconography of the Virgin is impeccably Catholic:[29] Miguel Sanchez.[22] Yet despite this orthodoxy the image also had a hidden layer of coded messages for the indigenous people of Mexico which goes a considerable way towards explaining her popularity.[36] and the rays of light surrounding her doubled as maguey spines. plus a small family group of mother. robe. fourteen people in all. corresponding to Spanish Central and Northern America. and a group of children.[28] The tilma. who photographed the icon under infrared light.[35] "the milk of the Virgin".

Located in the Philippines. It is the largest place of worship in Africa. but it is generally believed to have been originally brought by Don Juan Nino de Tabora from Mexico via the galleon El Almirante. The statue is one of the most celebrated images of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the Philippines. and stopped the attack. Rizal. Mexico. There are three famous statues of Our Lady of Peace located in Paris and Honolulu. EDSA. Edward's University in Austin. The original is a wooden carving located at a convent of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary in France. The statue was first taken to the Jesuit church in Intramuros called Saint Ignatius Church (Spanish: San Ignacio Church). In fear that the statue would be destroyed. as a reaction to the horror and devastation caused by the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. Today. near the highway that intersects major highways. The statue survived its burning ship and was given its present title due to this event. Queen of Peace or Our Lady Queen of Peace is a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the Roman Catholic Church. informally or locally known as Virgin of Antipolo (Tagalog: Birhen ng Antipolo). Pope John Paul II consecrated and dedicated the Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro to Our Lady of Peace. is a 16th-century Roman Catholic celebrated dark wooden statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary venerated by Filipino Roman Catholics. Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage (Spanish: Nuestra Señora de la Paz y Buen Viaje). having been immortalized through several records during the Spanish era and folktale recollections taught in public elementary schools. 1906 by the Archbishop of Paris in the name of Pope Saint Pius X. Her official memorial feast is celebrated on January 24 each year in Hawaii and some churches in the United States. founded by Peter Coudrin in Paris during the French Revolution. the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary have celebrated the Feast of Our Lady of Peace. Ireland.Our Lady of Peace. When the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary established the Catholic Church in Hawaii. Instead. Queen of Peace. there are parish churches named in honor of Our Lady of Peace in various forms. They erected the first Roman Catholic church in Hawaii to her. a change of plans came and the statue was moved to Cavite where it was transiently venerated. a sacred prayer in liturgy. Pious legends claim that it was once found on top of a Tipolo tree. Elsewhere throughout the world. . the statue was donated to the Jesuits for enshrinment in the present church of Antipolo. 1626. symbols of peace. they consecrated the Hawaiian Islands under the protection of Our Lady of Peace. which meant Epifanio De Los Santos. EDSA Shrine is a shrine dedicated to Our Lady of Peace. most notably by Jose Rizal in his nationalistic writings. Elsewhere. especially in Ireland and the United States. also meant. Every July 9 since then. Mother of Peace. On March 25. Co. France is dedicated to Our Lady. the memorial feast is celebrated on July 9. In that street. A larger replica in bronze was hoisted above the altar and sanctuary at the Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace. A notable example is the Queen of Peace church in Bray. On board was the Governor of the Philippines Don Juan Niño de Tabora. Don Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera ordered the statue be transferred back to Manila. Pope Benedict XV added Our Lady of Peace to the Litany of Loreto. the Chinese rose in revolt. Texas is also dedicated to Our Lady Queen of Peace. Wicklow. the Gathering of the Saints. the Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace in Honolulu is the oldest Roman Catholic cathedral in continuous use in the United States. She is represented in art holding a dove and an olive branch. The original statue of Our Lady of Peace was ceremonially crowned on July 9. When the Governor Tabora died in 1632.[1][2] The statue is reputedly famous for having crossed the Pacific Ocean six times[3] back in forth via Manila to Acapulco. During the troubled years of World War I. the galleon trading ship "El Almirante" arrived from Acapulco. A third stands outside the cathedral on a pedestal. Mexico without any damage or losses. The statue is enshrined in the Cathedral of Antipolo. Filipinos have said that Our Lady of Peace appeared unto the tanks and the military personnel that would attack on the quiet protesters in 1986 (See EDSA Revolution). The chapel at St. Our Lady of Peace is the patroness of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary religious order. In 1639. burning the Antipolo town and church. under the titular patronage of the Immaculate Conception of Mary in Antipolo. who brought with him the statue from Mexico. The Foujita chapel in Reims. Philippines.

The diocese of Antipolo was created on January 24. The institution of the feast may have come in the wake of the vindication of their title "Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary" at Cambridge. the head sacristan Procopio Angeles wrapped the image in a thick wool blanket and placed it in an empty gasoline drum. A royal decree from the King of Spain in May 19. the curias of Antipolo. The first Carmelites were Christian hermits living on Mount Carmel in the Holy Land during the late 12th and early to mid 13th centuries. where it resides today. Our Lady of Mount Carmel is the title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary in her role as patroness of the Carmelite Order. 1824 and 1883.Don Sebastian ordered the statue removed in 1648. In 1944. The statue. England in 1374. 1926. Rizal. the statue was returned on October 15. Alexis. it was sent to Santolan then to Pasig city. 1983 and was canonically erected on June 25. having a statue of a saint on the ship served as a patroness or protector of the Acapulco trade. Michael J. by virtue of being under the jurisdiction of Antipolo became owned by the Augustinian recollect priests. Its object was thanksgiving to Mary. The liturgical feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel is celebrated on 16 July. The altercation of the Japanese and the combined American and Filipino soldiers caused Procopio and other devotees to transfer the statue to a hill between Antipolo and Angono called Kulaiki. Carmel is also the patron saint of Chile. At the time. 1983 at the Shrine Parish of the Immaculate Conception in Antipolo. The statue was then transferred to the Ocampos family compound at Quiapo. The church was greatly damaged during the Chinese uprising of 1639 and in the earthquakes of 1645. 1945 to the present Antipolo shrine. for the benefits she had accorded to it through its rocky early existence. the first missionaries of Antipolo city were the Franciscans. He then buried the statue under the kitchen. The date chosen was 17 July. Mary is said to have given the Scapular to an early Carmelite named Saint Simon Stock. Our Lady of Mount Carmel was seen in the apparitions at Fatima to Lucia dos Santos during the miracle of the sun and at Mount Carmel to Simon Stock. Notable Filipino historians such as Pedro Chirino and Pedro Murillo Velarde ministered in the shrine. Fearing for the statue." Our Lady of Mt. The statue boarded several Acapulco trade ships. the Japanese Imperial Army invaded the town and turned it into their garrisons. when it was transferred from its Cavite shrine and was shipped back to Mexico. Traditionally.[5] According to the marker erected at the statue's cathedral shrine. the statue was canonically crowned by the Archbishop of Manila.[2] The solemn liturgical feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel was probably first celebrated in England in the later part of the 14th century. On November 26. on the European mainland this date conflicted with the feast of St. the patroness of the Carmelite Order. From this location. They built a chapel in the midst of their hermitages which they dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. whom they conceived of in chivalric terms as the "Lady of the place. popular devotion to Our Lady of Mount Carmel has centered on the Scapular of Our Lady of Mount Carmel also known as the Brown Scapular. The Jesuits then followed and administered the church from 1591 to 1768. necessitating a shift . namely the following Galleons: El Almirante — (1626) San Luis — (1648–1649) Encarnacion — (1650) San Diego — (1651–1653) San Francisco Javier — (1659–1662) Nuestra Señora del Pilar — (1663) San Jose — (1746–1748) All routes taken by the statue were between Manila to Acapulco to Manila routes from 1648 to 1748. Rev. Taytay and Morong were tuned over to the Agustinian Recollects. The shrine itself is placed under the patronage of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Manila and was later transferred to the Quiapo Church. while the shrine was turned into an arsenal.[1] Since the 15th century. a sacramental associated with promises of Mary's special aid for the salvation of the devoted wearer. O'Doherty.[4] After the war from the Japanese and combined American-Filipino ground troops in the invaded and liberated in Antipolo. 1864 ordered that the curias of San Nicolas de Tolentino be turned over to the Jesuits and in exchange.

is surely not unnatural or unreasonable. a model of virtue. Mary's soul is a sanctuary reserved for God alone. and this central Carmelite feast day. John Cheron.[12] The Stella Maris Monastery on Mount Carmel. Amen. Our Lady wants us to resemble her not only in our outward vesture but. Thus." associated with the Brown Scapular of Our Lady of Mount Carmel. She is seen as the one who points Christians most surely to Christ. I humbly beseech you from the bottom of my heart to succor me in necessity (make request). and the scapular devotion.to 16 July. Carmel is the symbol of the contemplative life. In 1642. Gabriel of St. Fr. pray for us who have recourse to thee (say three times). even in the Carmelite proper. splendor of Heaven. A sign of belonging to Mary. Mary Magdalene de' Pazzi. wrote that devotion to Our Lady of Mount Carmel means: a special call to the interior life. as well as the person who was closest in life to Jesus Christ."[14] A 1996 doctrinal statement approved by the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments states that "Devotion to Our Lady of Mount Carmel is bound to the history and spiritual values of the Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel and is expressed through the scapular. Oh Star of the Sea. "Peter Swanington". The Feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel as well as that of Saint Simon Stock came under scrutiny after Vatican II due to historical uncertainties. the widely popular devotion originating with the Carmelites. Queen of Heaven and earth. uninterrupted oblation to God. a revered authority on Carmelite spirituality. assist me in my necessity. a pledge of her motherly protection.] Those who want to live their devotion to Our Lady of Mt. wholly orientated towards intimacy with God. Historians conclude that this letter was forged. As a sign. conceived without sin. But the liturgical feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel did not originally have a specific association with the Brown Scapular or the tradition of a vision of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 'Queen and Splendor of Carmel'. Blessed Mother of the Son of God. and today neither of these liturgies. an early prior general of the Carmelite Order.[11] The Carmelites see in the Blessed Virgin Mary a perfect model of the interior life of [prayer] and contemplation to which Carmelites aspire." Carmelites look to the Virgin Mary as a Spiritual Mother. prayer. I place this prayer in your hands (say three times). Holy Mary. not only in this life but after death. The Latin poem Flos Carmeli (meaning "Flower of Carmel") first appears as the sequence for this Mass. published a document which he said was a letter written in the 13th century by Saint Simon Stock's secretary. Carmel.[8][9][10] It was nevertheless uncritically embraced by many promoters of the scapular devotion. we shall see that grace in her has flowered into a spiritual life of incalcuable wealth: a life of recollection. A tradition first attested to in the late 14th century says that Saint Simon Stock.[3] The Feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel is known to many Catholic faithful as the "scapular feast. far more. The forged document's claim of 16 July 1251 as the date of the vision (16 July being the date of the Feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel) subsequently led to a strong association between this feast day. a Carmelite named Fr. There are none that can withstand your power. make reference to the scapular.[5] That there should be a connection in people's minds between the scapular. promising that those who died wearing the scapular would be saved. the life wholly dedicated to the quest for God. "Do whatever he [Jesus] tells you. Oh Mary. fruitful vine.[4] had a vision of the Blessed Virgin Mary in which she gave him the Brown Scapular which formed part of the Carmelite habit. it is a . where no human creature has ever left its trace. [. saying to all what she says to the servants at the wedding at Cana. Oh Holy Mary. responding to scholarly criticism that Saint Simon Stock's vision may not have historically occurred (these doubts are echoed by historians today [6][7]). and the one who has best realized this highest of ideals is Our Lady herself. whoever receives the scapular becomes a member of the order and pledges him/herself to live according to its spirituality in accordance with the characteristics of his/her state in life. a devotional sacramental signifiying the wearer's consecration to Mary and affiliation with the Carmelite Order. If we gaze into Mary's soul." [15] According to the ways in which the Church has intervened at various times to clarify the meaning and privileges of the Brown Scapular: "The scapular is a Marian habit or garment. in heart and spirit. Immaculate Virgin. which remains the Feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel throughout the Catholic Church. It is both a sign and pledge. help me and show me you are my Mother. and intimate union with him. OCD. continual contact." [13] "Oh most beautiful flower of Mt... this association with the scapular was also reflected in the liturgy for that day. Mother of God. and in the intervening years until the late 1970s. likely by Cheron himself. named after a traditional title of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Carmel to the full must follow Mary into the depths of her interior life. is considered the spiritual headquarters of the order. which is preeminently a Marian life. where love and zeal for the glory of God and the salvation of mankind reign supreme.

It is also common to see a combination of these titles. particularly with regard to possible world war and the conversion of Soviet Russia. who plead for her mediation. What happened then became known as "Miracle of the Sun". devotion to and trust in her Immaculate Heart. Portugal. performed self-flagellation using stinging nettles. The children subsequently wore tight cords around their waists to cause themselves pain. due to errors being preached about certain privileges ascoiated with the Brown Scapular ("the Sabbatine Privilege").[citation needed] Lúcia. so that all would believe. do not focus on the Sabbatine Privilege. chastity. the provincial administrator and anticlerical Freemason. The three children were Lúcia dos Santos and her cousins Jacinta and Francisco Marto.[6] That month. especilly her aid to those who devoutly wear the Brown Scapular. Thousands of people flocked to Fátima and Aljustrel in the following months.000. second. starting on May 13.[18] Today. Witnesses later spoke of the sun . the woman exhorted the children to do penance and Acts of Reparation. gathered at the Cova da Iria. especially dear to Mary. A crowd believed to number approximately 70. The title of Our Lady of the Rosary is also sometimes used to refer to the same apparition (although it was first used in 1208 for the reported apparition in the church of Prouille). were first consoled by the inmates. 1917. and offered to ask the Lady for permission to tell the Administrator the secrets.[4] Artur Santos[5] (no relation to Lúcia Santos). abstained from drinking water on hot days. On May 13. In 1613.[7] including newspaper reporters and photographers. but Lúcia told him everything short of the secrets. The incessant rain had finally ceased and a thin layer of clouds cloaked the silver disc of the sun. These occurred on the 13th day of six consecutive months in 1917. Portugal. The children refused.[2] The reported apparitions at Fátima were officially declared "worthy of belief" by the Catholic Church. Lúcia described seeing a woman "brighter than the sun. at nearby Valinhos. because the children related that the apparition called herself "Lady of the Rosary". In the process. in the course of her appearances. now known as the Three Secrets of Fátima. consecration to Mary.e. believing that the events were politically disruptive." [16] Our Lady of Mount Carmel has been related with Purgatory from centuries ago. In some cases. she is shown accompanied with angels and souls wearing Brown Scapulars.conventional sign signifying three elements strictly joined: first. instead of the usual apparition in the Cova da Iria on the 13th.[17] That privilege appears in mentioned Decree of the Holy Office (1613). while upset. ten year old Lúcia dos Santos and her cousins Jacinta and Francisco Marto were herding sheep at a location known as the Cova da Iria near their home village of Fátima. and to make sacrifices to save sinners. and commending devotion to Mary especially on Saturdays which are dedicated to her. drawn by reports of visions and miracles. saying he would boil them in a pot of oil. Witnesses said later it could be looked upon without hurting the eyes. Carmel descending into purgatory to be made. the Feast of the Assumption. called out to the crowd to look at the sun. one by one unless they confessed. In these. i. belonging to a religious family particularly devoted to Mary. above all her humility. the Carmelite Order. he threatened the children. According to Lúcia's account. On August 19. European Portuguese: [ˈnɔsɐ sɨˈɲɔɾɐ dɨ ˈfatimɐ][1]) is a famous title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary as she reportedly appeared in apparitions to three shepherd children at Fátima."[3] Further appearances were reported to have taken place on the thirteenth day of the month in June and July. and performed other works of penance. the woman confided to the children three secrets. and later led them in praying the rosary. shedding rays of light clearer and stronger than a crystal ball filled with the most sparkling water and pierced by the burning rays of the sun. Prisoners held with them in the provincial jail later testified that the children. while encouraging a belief in Mary's general aid and prayerful assistance for their souls beyond death. The administrator interrogated the children and tried unsuccessfully to get them to divulge the contents of the secrets. moved by what she said was an interior impulse. the Church forbade images of Our Lady of Mt. The events at Fátima gained particular fame due to their elements of prophecy and eschatology. and later was inserted in its entirety (except for the words forbidding the painting of the pictures) into the list of the indulgences and privileges of the Confraternity of the Scapular of Mount Carmel. intercepted and jailed the children before they could reach the Cova da Iria that day. the Carmelites.[3] As early as July 1917 it was claimed that the Virgin Mary had promised a miracle for the last of her apparitions on October 13. third an incitement to become like Mary by imitating her virtues. and spirit of prayer. the children reported that they saw the Virgin Mary on 15 August. 1917. Our Lady of Fátima (Portuguese: ossa enhora de Fátima. Our Lady of the Rosary of Fátima (Portuguese: Nossa Senhora do Rosário de Fátima).

the silver sun. and . now raised into the air by the flames that issued from within themselves together with great clouds of smoke. The seconds seemed like hours. Similarly Meessen states that the colour changes witnessed were most likely caused by the bleaching of photosensitive retinal cells. like transparent burning embers. including some believers. and witnesses gave widely varying descriptions of the "sun's dance". and others. Francisco. Hitler seized Austria and eight months later invaded Czechoslovakia.. as if it had come through the stained-glass windows of a cathedral. They said they saw Saint Joseph and Jesus bless the people.[16][17] Just over a month later. at one moment surrounded with scarlet flame. were staring at the sun before Lúcia spoke.[13][14] Since no scientifically verifiable physical cause can be adduced to support the phenomenon of the sun. so vivid were they. including in places as far south as North Africa.. reported the following.[15] Meessen observes that solar miracles have been witnessed in many places where religiously charged pilgrims have been encouraged to stare at the sun. 1938.appearing to change colors and rotate like a wheel. where exactly the same optical effects as at Fatima were witnessed by more than 10. enveloped in the same gauzy purple light was seen to whirl and turn in the circle of broken clouds. eagerly searching the sky. without weight or equilibrium. Not everyone saw the same things. including luminous mist and the showers of flower petals seen around and above the tree during previous visitations.people wept and prayed with uncovered heads. A leading conjecture is a mass hallucination possibly stimulated by the religious fervor of the crowds expectantly waiting for a predicted sign. indicated that it was the sign foretold and so apprised her superior and the bishop in letters the following day.[8] While the crowd was staring at the sun..the sun 'danced' according to the typical expression of the people. seemed to be in an exceeding fast and whirling movement. even those expecting a miracle. Most would have been focused on the tree where the children said the lady appeared. at times appearing to be loosened from the sky and to be approaching the earth.[3] reported the following: "Before the astonished eyes of the crowd. Some people only saw the radiant colors.[11] The special reporter for the October 17. 9. an aurora borealis appeared all over the northern hemisphere.. The phenomenon is claimed to have been witnessed by most people in the crowd as well as people many miles away. floating about in the conflagration. various explanations have been advanced to explain the descriptions given by numerous witnesses.[16][17] It was the widest occurrence of the aurora since 1709[18] and people in Paris and elsewhere believed a great fire was burning and fire departments were called. Lucia. made sudden incredible movements outside all cosmic laws . the seers at Fátima indicated that the lady prophesied a great sign in the night sky which would precede a second great war. O Dia."[10] Eye specialist Dr. 1917 edition of the Lisbon daily. all blackened or burnished bronze. He has proposed that the reported observations were optical effects caused by prolonged staring at the sun. Germany (1949) as an example. looking directly at the Sun can cause phosphene visual artifacts and temporary partial blindness. and spread itself over the people who knelt with outstretched hands. Meessen contends that retinal after-images produced after brief periods of sun gazing are a likely cause of the observed dancing effects.[16][17] The first secret was a vision of hell.000 people.The light turned a beautiful blue.[15] There is no evidence that people who came to Fátima. and Jacinta said later they were seeing lovely images of the Holy Family. the sole surviving seer at the time..[9] The children were aged 10. Domingos Pinto Coelho." No movement or other phenomenon of the sun was registered by scientists at the time. in the presence of a miracle they had awaited. Not all witnesses reported seeing the sun "dance". which Lúcia describes in her Third Memoir. at another aureoled in yellow and deep purple. which was progovernment in policy and avowedly anti-clerical). as follows: "Our Lady showed us a great sea of fire which seemed to be under the earth. strongly radiating heat". now falling back on every side like sparks in a huge fire. ".[3] According to contemporary reports from poet Afonso Lopes Vieira and schoolteacher Delfina Lopes with her students and other witnesses in the town of Alburita. the solar phenomenon was visible from up to forty kilometers away. whose aspect was biblical as they stood bare-headed. and then Our Lady of Mount Carmel. the sun trembled. bright lights. He cites the apparitions at Heroldsbach.[16][17] On January 25. writing for the newspaper Ordem reported "The sun.[19] Lúcia. and 7 at the time. Catholic University of Leuven. In addition to the Miracle of the Sun. Bermuda and California. Another conjecture is a possible visual artifact caused by looking at the sun for a prolonged period. saw nothing at all. Some onlookers reported other phenomena. Columnist Avelino de Almeida of O Século (Portugal's most influential newspaper. As noted by Professor Auguste Meessen of the Institute of Physics. Our Lady of Sorrows with Jesus Christ. Plunged in this fire were demons and souls in human form..

Portugal. waiting for the Resurrection. causing wars and persecutions of the Church. Besides Lúcia's account. but Jacinta's face was intact and incorrupt. in which she said that Jesus visited her. Most significant was the apparition in Rianxo. In the end. Her mother was one of those who saw her. 1917. In 1947. I shall come to ask for the consecration of Russia to my Immaculate Heart. to take us to heaven.[24] According to the 1941 account. The war is going to end: but if people do not cease offending God. in his Apostolic Letter Sacro Vergente of 7 July 1952. famine. she seemed to be only asleep. "Yes. but you will remain a little longer. had decomposed. God wishes to establish in the world devotion to my Immaculate Heart. If my requests are heeded. How can we ever be grateful enough to our kind heavenly Mother. To save them. and there will be peace. were both victims of the Great Spanish Flu Epidemic of 1918-20. since Jesus wishes you to make me known and loved on earth. by means of war. Sister Lúcia claimed that the Virgin Mary had predicted the deaths of two of the children during the second apparition on June 13. in 1931."[20] The second secret included Mary's instructions on how to save souls from hell and convert the world to the Christian faith.[22] Sister Lúcia's cousins."[25] Exhumed in 1935 and again in 1951. 2005. It is believed this was because Sister Lúcia had continued to receive more revelations and the evidence needed to be examined in the course of proceedings for her possible canonization. The Holy Father will consecrate Russia to me. taught her two prayers and delivered a message to give to the church's hierarchy. The good will be martyred. which horrified us and made us tremble with fear. know that this is the great sign given you by God that he is about to punish the world for its crimes. This time she said she was asked to convey the message of the First Saturday Devotions. Sister Lúcia reportedly saw Mary in private visions periodically throughout her life. Jacinta is the youngest non-martyred child ever to be beatified. also revealed by Lúcia in her Third Memoir: "It have seen hell where the souls of poor sinners go. who had already prepared us by promising. Lúcia asked the Virgin if the three children would go to heaven when they died. Lúcia died on February 13. and she shall be converted. it was the first thing Jacinta told her mother when she spoke to her after the initial apparition. Sister Lúcia reported that Mary returned and repeated her request for the Consecration of Russia to her Immaculate Heart. Galicia in 1928. see Canonization). on 13 June. a worse one will break out during the Pontificate of Pius XI. This vision lasted but an instant. By her account a subsequent vision of Christ as a child reiterated this request. Galicia. Pius XII wrote. and the good odor of Paradise hung about her. the testimony of Olímpia Marto (mother of the two younger children) and several others state that her children did not keep this information secret and ecstatically predicted their own deaths many times to her and to curious pilgrims. ordered her cell sealed off. nothing was found of Francisco but his bones. all black and transparent. specifically Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (at that time. Otherwise. To prevent this. 2000 to declare them 'blessed' (a title of veneration below that of sainthood. Galicia (Spain). still head of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith). If what I say to you is done. and persecutions of the Church and of the Holy Father. the Holy Father will have much to suffer.[23] In fact. In 1929. many souls will be saved and there will be peace." [26] Francisco's body. the Vatican. When you see a night illuminated by an unknown light. According to Sister Lúcia. After her death. Sister Lúcia left the Dorothean order and joined the Discalced Carmelite order in a monastery in Coimbra.amid shrieks and groans of pain and despair. and the Communion of reparation on the First Saturdays. Sister Lúcia was transferred to another convent in Tui or Tuy. various nations will be annihilated. In 1936 and again in 1941. the siblings Francisco (1908–1919) and Jacinta Marto (1910–1920). . the Virgin Mary promised that the Consecration of Russia would lead to Russia's conversion and an era of peace. "When both coffins were opened. my Immaculate Heart will triumph. She said that she heard Mary reply. if not. He wishes also for you to establish devotion in the world to my Immaculate Heart. she [sic] will spread her errors throughout the world. I think we would have died of fear and terror. in the first Apparition. however. Jacinta's face was found incorrupt or immune from decay. The demons could be distinguished by their terrifying and repulsive likeness to frightful and unknown animals." Sister Lúcia reported seeing the Virgin Mary again in 1925 at the Dorothean convent at Pontevedra. and a period of peace will be granted to the world. I shall take Francisco and Jacinta soon. Francisco and Jacinta were declared venerable by Pope John Paul II in a public ceremony at Fatima on May 13. Pope John Paul II returned there on May 13. consecrated Russia to the Blessed Virgin Mary. Russia will be converted. at the age of 97.[3] Pope Pius XII. 1989.

Russia has never been specifically consecrated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary by any Pope simultaneously with all the world's bishops. Penance. Fr. the Angel cried out in a loud oice: ‘Penance. Sister Lúcia said that the ceremony did not fulfill the Virgin Mary's request. "If the consecration made by Pope John Paul II on March 25. that those who seek her protection. we saw an Angel with a flaming sword in his left hand. the Vatican published an official press release stating that it was "most probable the Secret would remain. Other ishops. it is I who receive and open all letters and respond to them. And I say that no other person responds for me. and various lay people of different ranks and positions. Father Robert J."[35][36] When 1960 arrived. he prayed for the souls of the corpses he met on his way. claiming that he had met with Sister Lúcia. was transcribed by the Bishop of Leiria and reads: "After the two parts which I have already explained. who reportedly told him. as there was no specific mention of Russia. Beneath the two arms of the Cross there were two Angels each with a crystal aspersorium in his hand. 1958. "by that time. said that Lúcia insisted to them it must be released by 1960. elevating him to archbishop in the Sistine Chapel on May 13. "I have already said that the consecration desired by Our Lady was made in 1984. 1990. having reached the top of the mountain. Paul Kramer and Nicholas Gruner. flashing. the date of the first reported apparition. where she offers her protection. and has been accepted in Heaven. and. She will help! Error and atheism will be overcome with her assistance and divine grace. forever. Priests. without making any public statement of her own to settle the issue. 2005. and since then I have said that it was made. Religious men and women going up a steep mountain.[30][31][32] However. it will be more clearly understood". she stated that the consecration had been completed. so today We consecrate and in a most special manner We entrust all the peoples of Russia to this Immaculate Heart. the mother of all. Sol de Fatima. Some believe that Sister Lúcia verified that this ceremony fulfilled the requests of the Virgin Mary. despite Lúcia's declaration that it could be released to the public after 1960. the Pope dedicates all people of Russia to the immaculate heart of the Virgin. She is the good mother. With this certainty."[34] The Vatican withheld the Third Secret until 26 June 2000. indeed in the 1990 letter in response to a question by Rev. and in the same way there died one after another the other Bishops." [28] Pope Pius XII and Pope John Paul II both had special relations to Our Lady of Fátima. Pope John Paul II again consecrated the entire world to the Virgin Mary in 1984. . Pope Benedict XV began Pacelli's church career. 1917. the Feast of Our Lady of Fátima. Penance!' And we saw in an immense light that is od: ‘something similar to how people appear in a mirror when they pass in front of it' a ishop dressed in White ‘we had the impression that it was the oly Father'. by letters of August 29. "because the Blessed Virgin wishes it so. rather than releasing the Third Secret. 1984 in union with all the bishops of the world.[27] In 1952 the Pope reminded the Russian people and the Stalinist regime that the Virgin Mary was always victorious. it was accomplished. which took place on 13 May 1981. Priests. accomplished the conditions for the consecration of Russia according to the request of Our Lady in Tuy on June 13 of 1929?" Yes. Fox. Some sources. at the left of Our Lady and a little above. in the Blue Army's Spanish magazine. afflicted with pain and sorrow. saying that. before reaching there the Holy Father passed through a big city half in ruins and half trembling with halting step. a vision of the death of the Pope and other religious figures. and it has never been heard. 1989 and July 3. including Canon Barthas and Cardinal Ottaviani. Some maintain that.[29] However. and "many bishops attached no importance to it. Our Lady of Fátima is credited by many faithful and by John Paul II himself. it gave out flames that looked as though they would set the world on fire.." Sister Lúcia died on February 13.[33] The third secret.. in the September 1985 issue. she confirmed: I come to answer your question. but they died out in contact with the splendour that Our Lady radiated towards him from her right hand: pointing to the earth with his right hand. Pius XII was laid to rest in the crypt of Saint Peter's Basilica on October 13. Archbishop Tarcisio Bertone issued a statement. on his knees at the foot of the big Cross he was killed by a group of soldiers who fired bullets and arrows at him. which is what Lúcia in the 1985 interview had said Mary had asked for.Just as a few years ago We consecrated the entire human race to the Immaculate Heart of the Virgin Mary.[citation needed] with saving his life during the assassination attempt. "The gates of hell will never prevail. Mother of God. without explicitly mentioning Russia. will not receive it. Religious men and women. in which they gathered up the blood of the Martyrs and with it sprinkled the souls that were making their way to God. according to Lúcia and Fátima advocates such as Abbe Georges de Nantes. at the top of which there was a big Cross of rough-hewn trunks as of a cork-tree with the bark." In 2001.

say 'O Jesus. I ask pardon for those who do not believe."[38] Some sources claim that the four-page. or at least not the full secret.was built by local people on the site of the apparitions. my God. the "conversion of sinners" is not necessarily religious conversion to the Roman Catholic Church.[48] It was also said that sometime later the angel returned and taught them a eucharistic devotion now known as the Angel Prayer. but are fallen into sins. Two million pilgrims visited the site in the decade following the events of 1917. On May 13. These sources contend that the Third Secret actually comprises two texts. Conversion of sinners refers to general repentance and attempt to amend one's life according to the teachings of Jesus for those True Catholics who do profess the faith truly. 1920. I hope.[46] Pope Benedict XVI explained in a rare conversation with reporters that the interpretation of the third secret did not stop with the interpretation of a prediction of the attempted assassination of Pope John Paul II in Saint Peter's Square in 1981. it is alleged that Cardinals Bertone. 2010 on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the beatification of Jacinta and Francisco Marto. where one of these texts is the published four-page vision. During his apostolic visit to Portugal between May 11 and 14. I adore you! My God. immense speculation over the content of the secret materialized. she and her cousins had several visions of an angel calling himself the "Angel of Portugal" and the "Angel of Peace" who taught them to bow with their heads to the ground and to say "O God. said Benedict XVI. which some believe contains information about the Apocalypse and a great apostasy. Lúcia said that Mary's words were "When you make some sacrifice. According to a December 2001 Vatican press release (subsequently published in L'Osservatore Romano).[49][50] Lúcia said that the Lady emphasized Acts of Reparation and prayers to console Jesus for the sins of the world.[54] An estimated 70.'" At the first apparition. widows and orphans. Lúcia later said that. and the other is a single-page letter allegedly containing the words of the Virgin Mary which has been concealed. and The Secret Still Hidden by Christopher Ferrara. Lúcia wrote.000 people assembled to witness the last of the promised appearances of the Lady in the Cova da Iria on October 13. for that would be the "conversion of heretics or apostates who are 'outside the church and alien to the Christian Faith' according to Pope Leo XIII in his encyclical on the Unity of the Church. According to the New York Times. The construction was neither encouraged nor hindered by the Catholic Church authorities."[37] After this announcement. co-authored The Message of Fatima."[51] Lúcia also said that she heard Mary ask for these words to be added to the Rosary after the Gloria Patri prayer: "O my Jesus. The widely reported miracle of the sun was a factor that led to Fátima quickly becoming a major centre of pilgrimage.[39][40][41] The content of two of these books. and in reparation for sins committed against the Immaculate Heart of Mary. particularly "sins of the flesh"[53] and "acts of injustice and a lack of charity towards the poor."[52] In the tradition of Marian visitations. willfully indulged in sinful activity.the Capelinha .[55] A small chapel . pilgrims defied government troops to install a statue of the Virgin Mary in the chapel.[47] Many Roman Catholics recite prayers based on Our Lady of Fátima. especially those in most need.under absolute seal. The Devil's Final Battle by Father Paul Kramer.[2] the document published in June 2000 by the Vatican that allegedly contains a scanned copy of the original text of the Third Secret. handwritten text[2] of the Third Secret released by the Vatican in the year 2000 is not the real secret.[43][44][45] Bertone. pardon us. it is for your love.[39][40][41][42] In particular. Ratzinger and Sodano engaged in a systematic deception to cover-up the existence of a onepage document containing the so-called words of the Blessed Virgin Mary. "has a permanent and ongoing significance" and that "its significance could even be extended to include the suffering the Church is going through today as a result of the recent reports of sexual abuse involving the clergy". I love you in the Most Blessed Sacrament. speculation over the content of the secret ranged from "worldwide nuclear annihilation to deep rifts in the Roman Catholic Church that lead to rival papacies. I believe. Lead all souls to heaven. Lúcia wrote that she and her cousins defined "sinners" not as non-Catholics but as those who had fallen away from the church or. in 1916. I adore. The Third Secret of Fátima. the ignorant and the helpless" which she said were even worse than sins of impurity. do not adore.[56] and the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass was . and I love you. are available online. for the conversion of sinners. 1917. Satis Cognitum". Lúcia told then Archbishop Tarcisio Bertone in an interview that the secret had been completely revealed and published that no secrets remained. do not hope and do not love you. The Vatican has maintained its position that the full text of the Third Secret was published in June 2000. more specifically. save us from the fires of hell. the children were so moved by the radiance they perceived that they involuntarily said "Most Holy Trinity. along with Cardinal Ratzinger." Lúcia later set this prayer to music and a recording exists of her singing it.

those who would defend the Virgin and those who would defile her. They state that since the government was controlled not by socialists but by Freemasons at the time[citation needed].[59] From the French Revolution onwards the Catholic Church had adopted an increasingly embattled world view and from the pontificate of Pius IX the Church had been waging war against the so-called twin enemies of liberalism and socialism. was actively encouraged by the Church. The 'secrets of Fatima' revealed periodically by the seer Lucia showed Mary's concern with the apostacy of Soviet Russia and the threat of communist anticlericalism. that Popes. The principal pilgrimage festivals take place on the thirteenth day of each month. The Virgin. Theologians like Karl Rahner argued however.[62][63] After a canonical enquiry. Bernadette Soubirous. The visions at Ezquioga were widely covered in the press. most government opposition to the visions would have been motivated by concern for separation of church and state. The Miracle of Our Lady of Fatima. Private revelations do not form part of the deposit of faith of the Catholic Church. not by atheistic. motivate the faithful into an acceptance of divine faith. Dramatic affirmations of feminine power were given in the apparitions of the Virgin Mary which occurred all over Western Europe from the 1840s. far from being condemned. from May to October. The largest crowds gather on 13 May and 13 October.[60] The numerical predominance of women within the Catholic Church went alongside a corresponding development of female divine symbols. The foundation stone for the present basilica was laid the next year. John Paul II and Benedict XVI all voiced their acceptance of the supernatural origin . "The Marian militancy of the Jesuit congregations divided the world into two camps. In 1935 the bodies of the visionaries Jacinta and Francisco were reinterred in the basilica. assent would normally be expected of a Catholic based on the discernment of the Church and its judgment that an apparition is worthy of belief.[57] 1930 was the year both of official church recognition of the apparition events as "worthy of belief" and the granting of a papal indulgence to pilgrims visiting Fátima.[65] Popes Pius XII. Critics[who?] held that the film overplayed the role of socialist and other leftist elements in Portuguese government as the "adversaries" of the visions. When Our Lady appeared to Catherine Labouré. Our Lady of Fatima presented a vision of a world divided. usually in the form of the Immaculate Conception."[61] The Blue Army of Our Lady is made up of Catholics and non-Catholics who believe that by dedicating themselves to daily prayer (specifically. Lúcia dos Santos at Fátima. antitheistic or Communistic ideology. the Virgin Mary was to be found leading the armies of the faithful ranged against the Godless. as were the sixteen other visitations of the Virgin to Spain in 1931. an officially sanctioned apparition. the Virgin Mary [would be] seen on Spanish soil at Ezquioga. In 1952. by authoritatively fostering the Marian veneration in places as Fátima and Lourdes. offered 'proof' of the power of heaven against "the onslaughts of secularizing governments". hospitals and other facilities have been constructed. and its members are not bound to believe in any of them. Rome. Ramona Olazabal insisted Mary had marked the palms of her hands with a sword. At the same time religion had become predominantly a female activity by the early twentieth century. of the Rosary) they can help to achieve world peace and put an end to the error of communism.first officially celebrated there in January 1924. The coronation of the statue of Our Lady of Fátima there in 1946 drew such large crowds that the entrance to the site had to be barred. when up to a million pilgrims have attended to pray and witness processions of the statue of Our Lady of Fátima. and Mariette Beco in 1933. were ranged against the Soviet Union in a struggle between the redeemed and the fallen. on the anniversaries of the original appearances. In 1927 the first rector of the sanctuary was appointed and a set of Stations of the Cross were erected on the mountain road.[64] Ecclesiastical approbation does not imply that the Church provides an infallible guarantee on the supernatural nature of the event. was released. as a matter of prudence. a transformation more strongly felt in the Western world. both during the day and by the light of tens of thousands of candles at night. Paul VI. the cult of which. and Mary. the visions of Fatima were officially declared "worthy of belief" in October 1930 by the Bishop of Leiria-Fátima. revealed herself to female seers. often children. in 1932. As the forces of the Republic gathered strength in Spain. A hostel for the sick was begun in that year. However.[58] Today pilgrimage to the site goes on all year round and additional chapels. or to the children at Beauraing later. these dramatic affirmations of divine power in an increasingly irreligious/secular age. Seers gained much credence in Integrist and Carlist circles. a feature film. Other critics have stated that only the enemies of the message propose such a belief. In the wake of the apparitions at Fatima in Portugal such a view of the world appeared to be shared by the Virgin herself. There was also the Fatima story. With the advent of the Spanish Second Republic.

1946. over the whole Church and the entire world". stating in the year 1929.[15] On May 12 and 13.[15] In 1939. Pope Pius XII. and from there. the 25th anniversary of the first apparition and the silver jubilee of the episcopal consecration of Pope Pius XII. the Pope again sent a message to the people of Portugal regarding Fátima: "May Portugal never forget the heavenly message of Fátima. the Pontiff officially and solemnly declared this consecration in a ceremony in Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome. before anybody else she was blessed to hear. The following day. (See below)[67] On December 8. he prayed at the shrine together with Sister Lúcia. the Feast of Our Lady of Fátima. parish and diocese. which.[71] In numerous additional messages. She repeated this request on December 2. 2010. "It is our wish.[68] On 1 May 1948. announced his own pilgrimage to the sanctuary on the fiftieth anniversary of the first apparition. 1940. 1942. On May 13. the Pope arrived to the Chapel of Apparitions to pray and gave a Golden Rose to Our Lady of Fátima "as a homage of gratitude from the Pope for the marvels that the Almighty has worked through you in the hearts of so many who come as pilgrims to this your maternal home". on May 12.000 pilgrims a reference to the Fátima prophecy about the triumph of the Immaculate Heart of Mary and related it to the final "glory of the Most Holy Trinity". At the end of the Second Vatican Council Pope Paul VI renewed the consecration of Pius XII to the Immaculate Heart of Mary and. She will transform into a fountain of graces. 1942. The Vatican responded with granting indulgences and permitting special Liturgies of the Mass to be celebrated in Fátima. May 13. Pope Benedict XVI had visited the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima and strongly stated his acceptance about the supernatural origin of the Fátima apparitions. this consecration be made in the various dioceses as well as in each of the parishes and families. Sister Lúcia asked Pope Pius XII to consecrate the world and Russia to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. who was consecrated bishop on May 13. the Blessed Lady requested in another apparition the consecration of Russia to her Immaculate Heart. Pope Pius XII requested the consecration to the Immaculate Heart of every Catholic family. Eugenio Pacelli. and became the Pope of Fátima. to express his gratitude to the Virgin Mary for saving his life. but also with the 'bullet' of our anxieties and sufferings". that wherever the opportunity suggests itself. in an unusual gesture. In the first day.[73][74] . consecrating the human race to the Immaculate Heart of the Virgin with specific mention of Russia. he renewed the consecration of Pius XII to the Immaculate Heart of the Virgin. the Vatican published the Message and Secret of Fátima. The Pope also recalled the "invisible hand" that saved John Paul II and said in a prayer to the Blessed Virgin Mary that "it is a profound consolation to know that you are crowned not only with the silver and gold of our joys and hopes. 1942." [69][70] On May 18. On May 13. and Ad Caeli Reginam (1954). consequently. After the local bishop had declared that (1) the visions of the three children are credible and (2) the veneration of the Blessed Virgin is permitted. in 1981. On October 31. Pope John Paul II credited Our Lady of Fátima with saving his life following the assassination attempt on Wednesday. and in his encyclicals Fulgens Corona (1953). breaking all frontiers. She promised the conversion of Russia from its errors. To keep Fátima in your heart and to translate Fátima into deeds.[72] In the second day. 1950. Cardinal Masalla. physical and spiritual graces. in a radio address. put on her. 1917—the day of the first apparition—was elected to the papacy as Pius XII. 1987. is the best guarantee for ever more graces". crowned in his name Our Lady of Fátima. the personal delegate of Pius XII. in Auspicia Quaedam. On May 13.of the Fátima events in unusually clear and strong terms. 1967. Pius XII encouraged the veneration of the Virgin in Fatima.[66] One year after World War II had started. This historic gesture further cemented the official support for Fátima.[citation needed] He followed the footsteps of Paul VI. over all of Portugal. as the Pope issued a second message about Fatima: "The faithful virgin never disappointed the trust. the Portuguese bishops approved and declared the genuine supernatural nature of the event. informed the people of Portugal about the apparitions of Fátima. Pope Benedict's homily had pronounced in front of more than 500.