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The Sator Square: How did Romans Handle Messiah?

One clue that early Romans converted to Christianity can be attributed to a mystical symbol called the Sator Square. The Sator Square is a remarkable ancient inscription found throughout the Roman Empire (1st to 4th Century ace) containing five words read as a perfect palindrome or mirror-like inscription, not only readable in forward and reverse, but also up and down.

Figure 1: Sator Square in Oppede, France

Why was the Sator Square buried under the volcanic ash of Pompeii?
The inscriptions are believed to be carved by Roman soldiers who had converted to the Christian faith. They carved this secret mystical code to testify to their faith without being discovered as traitors to the Roman deified Caesar. The following map lists the earliest locations in the Roman Empire where the Sator Square has been found:

Figure 2: Location of Sator Square in Roman Empire

Of the map above, the Sator Square was found in four separate inscriptions at Dura-Europos on the Euphrates, an outpost for Roman soldiers. In Pompeii there are two inscriptions which were found buried in volcanic ash with other Christian symbols in the home of a retired Roman soldier. Given the extremely liberal atmosphere in 1st Century ace Pompeii, the soldier turned baker likely used the Sator Square as a warning talisman or prayer against the corrupt

atmosphere of Pompeii. Given that Pompeii was buried in 79 ace, the dating of the Pompeii Sator Squares point to roughly 70 ace. Along with these ancient finds, the square was adopted by medieval Christians as the names of the five crucifixion wounds of Christ. Another reason it is believed to have been engraved by Christians is that the letters unfold as follows:

Figure 3: The Sator Square and the Pater Noster

How does the Pater Noster of Christ relate to Jupiter of the Romans?
So far scholars have identified several early Christian symbols on the Sator Square. There is the symbol of the Cross formed by the word TENET; the unusual sentence likely hiding the words of the Christians‟ Jesus‟ prayer, Pater Noster (Latin for Our Father); and there are the letters A and O possibly representing the Greek letters Alpha and Omega which John the Christian apostle ascribed to Jesus when he wrote the book of Revelation: See, I am coming soon; my reward is with me, to repay according to everyone‘s work. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end. Revelation 22:12-13 Consider the above Pater Noster, the Latin form of the name Jesus used to address his heavenly Father. Interestingly, the name Jupiter is a contraction of Iou (Jove) and pater (father) and Jupiter (Zeus, in Greece) was the reigning deity of the Romans. Jove is god of the sky, making Jupiter to mean Sky Father or Heavenly Father. In Christian sacred text, Jesus taught his disciples to pray: Heavenly Father Hallowed be your name… Matthew 6:9 Is the Hebrew Messiah embracing the name of a foreign god in Jupiter, Heavenly Father? Abraham embraced the name of the Canaanite god, El Elyon, God Most High, while receiving a blessing of Melchizedek, King of Salem, Canaan (Genesis 14:18-22). The easy answer is that

these names specify basic attributes through the Hebrew faith in the one true God. But perhaps from God‟s point of reference there is no competition or fear and that the Messiah and his prophets are merely planting seeds toward the purification of the Divine Covenant with humanity. When the sky heavy with clouds saturates the earth, does the rain not also seep into the manure to crack life into the hard dead seed? On the Sator Square, the word TENET appears to form a cross, a primary symbol of the Christian faith. Making the square into a sentence, it reads: sator arepo tenet opera rotas. Sator means sower or farmer; Arepo is perhaps intended for an unknown personal name; Tenet in the shape of the cross, means to hold (lit. he holds), to stretch (as sinews), to maintain, to hold in mind, to commemorate or to understand; Opera means to work (I know what you‟re thinking: lala-la-laaaaaaa, not that Opera, okay maybe); Rotas means the wheels, movement or motion. Most scholars interpret the Sator Square from Latin to mean: The sower Arepo holds the work of the wheels or The farmer Arepo holds the wheels with care. The above verse from Revelation makes total sense if AREPO is the Alpha and Omega coming to repay according to everyone‘s work. Why is he a farmer and what are the wheels? Are they wheels of a plow for the sower or a chariot for a soldier? More clues are needed.

What Sator Square symbols can be found elsewhere in the Roman Empire?
The following diagram separates the Christian symbols of the TENET cross and the A O or alpha and omega abbreviation from the 4 remaining letters. Interestingly, the Roman Military Standards of the 1st Century ace primarily contained these letters PR (or SPQR) and SR.

Figure 4: Mystical Abbreviation of the Sator Square

Upon clarifying these words and abbreviations on Roman coins of the day, the mystery of the Sator Square appears less mystical and more intentional. Is this the end of the mystery, the Sator Square has been the design of a Christian Roman Soldier? According to Eusebius, Emperor Constantine‟s official historian, Constantine converted to Christianity in the 4th Century ace when he saw the sign of X P (Chi-Rho, the first two Greek letters in the name of Christ) in the sky together with the Greek words EN TOUTO NIKA (In This Conquer). Notice that the abbreviation for the Greek, In This Conquer, ETN, are the three letters needed to complete the abbreviations on the Sator Square:

Figure 5: Mystical Abbreviation of the Sator Square

How does Constantine’s sign in the sky share meaning with the Sator Square?
So far the research into the insignia and abbreviations on the Sator Square has produced the following results: At first glance the Sator Square contains a somewhat meaningless sentence. The TENET cross appears to be the first clue that it may represent a Christian inscription. That the square is a palindrome (mirror inscription) hints toward a greater riddle or hidden meaning behind the words. Upon unscrambling the PATER NOSTER with Alpha and Omega abbreviation the riddle appears to be loosely solved. But if the square is divided into three sections, beginning with the TENET cross, convincing abbreviations of Roman military standards can be identified. Remarkably, these abbreviations come from two sets of insignia, those designed by Emperor Augustus, living at the time of the birth of Jesus of Nazareth, and those of Emperor Constantine, who officially granted Christianity freedom in the Roman Empire. The conversion of the Roman Empire to Christ during Constantine‟s reign is a matter of debate outside the scope of this research.

Also, SPQR, (PR in later usage) Senatus Populus Que Romanus meaning the Senate and People of Rome appeared on Roman coins, military standards, monuments and official documents of Rome. SR for Signis receptis, (The Reception of the Signposts) marks the return of the military standards of the Roman Army from the Parthians who retained them after repelling a Roman invasion in 53 bce. Augustus and Tiberius not only liberated the standards by diplomacy, they freed a number of slaves who were among the army of Mark Anthony‟s failed attempt.

Figure 6: Coins of military standards with Mars and his Temple returned from Parthia; Augustus minted 19-14bce

In summary, this Sator Square represents the peaceful struggle to raise the standard of the Cross of Christ who was sent by Pater Noster, Our Heavenly Father, to release the Roman People from slavery, sufferings, failures and death.

Does Sator Arepo Tenet Opera Rotas actually mean anything?
As translated above, Sator arepo tenet opera rotas means the Sower, Arepo holds the work of the wheels. There is still certain obscurity to the words for sower, Arepo and wheels. If the inscriber of the Sator Square is a Christian under a self-deified Roman Emperor, his pounding out the faith on stone would mean certain death were it not for this obscure surface meaning. Much like Jupiter is a contraction of Jove Pater, consider the name Arepo as a contraction. But a contraction of what? Ares (Mars in Rome) is the Greek god of War, and it was to the temple of Mars that these Military Standards were retrieved from Parthia by Augustus. Arepo matches the contracted Greek name of Areios Pagos (Latin: Areopagus), meaning Ares Rock (Mars Rock). Areopagus is a hill located in Athens, Greece where people were tried for murder. According to mythology, the first murderer to be tried there was Mars himself, but he was acquitted by the Olympian gods since he committed the crime in defense of his daughter. Is the author of the Sator Square carving a metaphor for the judgment of the Roman Soldiers who crucified the Christ (in roughly 27 ace) and laid waste to Jerusalem in 70 ace? Perhaps, but it was this very Areopagus that Paul of Tarsus stood before the 1st Century Athenians to defend his faith in the Christ (Acts 17; Supplement 1: Paul‟s Defense on Areopagus). Who is the Christ? Paul had to be careful, since the Roman Emperor was regarded as the living embodiment of divine intervention for the Romans (Supplement 2: Ten Emperor Gods in the 1st Century ace).

Only a few years before the birth of the Christian Messiah, Jesus of Nazareth, it was Virgil who wrote of a coming Christ or Messianic figure: Muses of Sicily, we must sing with a greater cry: for if we sing of the garden forest, not everyone delights in shrubs and common vines; until there is a tree of life desired by the highest lords. Here and now is the final age of the Cumaean Sibyl prophecy: the great wheel of seasons is born again. Here is the Maid returning with Saturn‘s reign and with them descends a purified generation from highest heaven. And a child is born ending the Iron Kingdom replaced by the Golden Age across the earth we plea most gracious Lucina. O Radiant, O Apollo lead forth the restoration from moon to moon of this glorious age, forgive us and set us free from all fears toward immortality. This child will grow in strength and wisdom of the gods whom with heroes finally dwell. His virtuous father planted the seeds of peace to encourage the world and the son of this prophet will completely guide the earth. O Child, because of you the earth shall bring forth fruits and harvest sown only from above like a new Eden. She-goats without shepherd will pour forth milk upon the land amidst great lions where your own cradle sooths in swaying branches. Venomous snakes will perish with the poisonous vine, while Assyrian spice grows amply high and low. Child, as you grow to read of the glorious heroes and your father‘s deed, enlightening true mother Virtue, surely the plain with golden with corn, the grape shall redden the trail and the oak drip with honey. Still a trace of evil shall linger with warship, walled city and armed trenches. Then Tiphys‘ twin shall rise and another Argo with choice heroes sail to face the rumored wars and once more Achilles sent to Troy. Virgil‘s Eclogue IVa To both Virgil and the Christian Roman Soldiers carving the Sator Square, this Golden Age involved the birth of a redeeming child. Virgil was looking for a heroic Emperor of Rome, while the Christians pointed to Jesus of Nazareth born in Bethlehem signaled by a Star from the East (Christian Text - Matthew 2:1-12; Hebrew Text - Micah 5:2). It was only a generation prior to Jesus‟ birth that Virgil spoke of this child of the Golden Age, and so the Christians regarded him as their only pagan prophet. What did Virgil, the Magi from the East (Zorastrian/Persian) and the Roman soldiers see to the East regarding Christian Messianic hopes?

Figure 7: the Messianic Sky Chart of the Three Magi (before the death of Herod in 4 bce).

Is Saturn and Mars conjunct at the birth of Jesus an inspiration for SATOR AREPO (Saturn Mars) of the Sator Square? Concerning this Star of the Three Magi, the Christian‟s sacred text of the Gospel of Matthew reads: In the time of King Herod, after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, wise men from the East came to Jerusalem, asking, ‗Where is the child who has been born king of the Jews? For we observed his star at its rising, and have come to pay him homage.‘ Matthew 2:1-2 Notice the star involves the Golden child of Saturn in battle against Jupiter, ruler of the Iron Age. They rise in the East facing each other in celestial combat. When King Herod heard this, he was frightened, and all Jerusalem with him; and calling together all the chief priests and scribes of the people, he inquired of them where the Messiah was to be born. They told him, ‗In Bethlehem of Judea; for so it has been written by the prophet: ―And you, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, are by no means least among the rulers of Judah; for from you shall come a ruler who is to shepherd* my people Israel.‖‘ Matthew 2:3-5 Herod was half Jewish and trusted the knowledge of the Hebrew priests regarding the coming Messiah. Then Herod secretly called for the wise men and learned from them the exact time when the star had appeared. Then he sent them to Bethlehem, saying, ‗Go and search diligently for the child; and when you have found him, bring me word so that I may also go and pay him homage.‘

Matthew 2:6-7 Herod may have been telling the Magi what they already learned of Bethlehem from the sacred Hebrew texts. Yet his secretive meeting against the Temple Priests reveal Herod‟s devious motivations to protect his own interests. When they had heard the king, they set out; and there, ahead of them, went the star that they had seen at its rising, until it stopped over the place where the child was. When they saw that the star had stopped, they were overwhelmed with joy. Matthew 2:8-9 That the star had stopped confirms the way planets appear to wobble in a triple conjunction. Jupiter and Saturn first met in Pisces to the East on May of 7 bce; and each planet pulled back, stopped and returned to the second conjunction in September. In December, Saturn and Jupiter met for the third time, but all the while moving slowly westward closer to Aries. In moving West, the planets were taking the three Magi from Mesopotamia to Israel. Finally, February 6 bce Saturn and Jupiter met with Mars and the Crescent Moon to the West in the constellation Aries. To the Magi traveling from the East, these wandering stars and moon were setting in the West over Bethlehem. Completing the mythical battle between Saturn and his father, Jupiter, the stone wrapped in swaddling clothes is represented by the dark side of the moon wrapped in its own bright crescent; the Moon appeared to be cast at Jupiter by his son, the Golden Child, Saturn; and Saturn has a good omen by his side, Mars, the sign of war. On entering the house, they saw the child with Mary his mother; and they knelt down and paid him homage. Then, opening their treasure-chests, they offered him gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh. And having been warned in a dream not to return to Herod, they left for their own country by another road. Matthew 2:10-12 Was this truly the star of Bethlehem? The Emperor of Rome was well aware of this star, claiming himself to be the Divine Golden Child when he minted these coins (Supplement 3: Star of Bethlehem Coins).

Figures 8/9 Planet over Crescent Moon and Coin of Augustus Minted in Alexandria 10-5 bce

On these coins, the Emperor was advertising his claim to be divine, where Rome and its soldiers would be reminded of their god in the flesh who ruled over them. Hoping for a truly divine relationship, these Roman soldiers carved the symbol of the Sator Square to secretly identify whom they believed to be true God in the Flesh. Their inscription included a representation of

the Greek god of war, Ares (Roman Mars), to express the Christian belief in a spiritual battle. Though the blood of the martyrs is indeed being spilled, the enemies of Christians are not of flesh and blood. Three Centuries after Augustus ruled Rome, Emperor Constantine the Great was doing his own soul searching. He was eager for an answer to the turmoil in Rome, while marching there in 312 ace. His rival, Maxentius, occupied the city with twice the army protected behind its great walls. Maxentius had been consulting the Sibylline Oracles and discovered that the enemies of Rome would be defeated on October 28th, his very birthday. Constantine must have been pondering, „Who exactly are the enemies of Rome in such a violent civil war?‟ It had only been a year when another rival to the throne, Galerius, had perished of a miserable bowl infection. It was Galerius who was particularly venomous in his persecution of the Christians. Constantine would have been aware that Galerius turned to the Christians for their prayers just a few days before he died by writing a peace bond enabling the Christians to worship freely. Marching upon a hilltop Constantine would have seen Rome in the distance. Was it his fear of death being so outnumbered before the Legions of Rome or his love of Rome that so inspired his heart to plea: God, I do believe that you exist. Will you reveal yourself to me? based on Eusebius, Constantine‟s biographer Legend has it that as he stretched his hand to heaven the Sun shone with the Chi-Rho sign (for the first two Greek letters of Christ) and the Greek, „ἐν τούτῳ νίκα‟, (transcribed: en touto nika; Latin: In hoc singo vinces) in this sign you will conquer. Eusebius also recorded that in the same night Constantine had a dream that Jesus Christ reassured Constantine that his vision was true. Constantine placed the ChiRho sign (the Labarum) on the shields of his soldiers and went on to defeat Maxentius.

Figure 10: Legendary Vision and Dream of Constantine on October 28, 312 ace.

Did Constantine defeat Maxentius? History says so. Was Christianity born again from the freedoms spurred on by Constantine? Years following this epic battle and vision, Constantine and later Roman Emperors minted this symbol onto Roman coins.

Figure 11: Roman Coins with the Symbol of Christ

The Sator Square is all about this restoration of the Golden Age under the Christian Messiah Jesus of Nazareth. In this context, a full understanding of sator arepo tenet opera rotas can be expressed:

Conclusion: Saturn is the deity of the original Golden Era and the Golden Age to come. The day of that Golden Age has been marked by the Creator of the Universe from the onset of human history We know that the Sator Square identifies the Christ of the Roman Christian soldiers and is confirmed by the experiences of Constantine in his own meeting with Christ by way of dreams and visions. Given the context of the 1st Century Roman Empire which looks forward to a new Golden Age ruled by Saturn (see Virgil‟s Eclogue above), the research has expanded this to mean: Saturn, the sower and Golden Child in Jesus Christ, on Areios-pagos, (Mars Hill, Athens of Judgment for Murder Trials), holds the work of redemption in the Wheels of Human Destiny.

Supplement 1: Paul’s Defense on Areopagus to the People of Athens In fact, Paul equated the Athenians‟ „Unknown God‟ to his own belief in Jesus of Nazareth as the Messiah risen from the dead: For as I went through the city and looked carefully at the objects of your worship, I found among them an altar with the inscription, ‗To an unknown god.‘ What therefore you worship as unknown, this I proclaim to you. Acts 17: 23 With a view of Athena‟s great temple, the Parthenon atop the acropolis, Paul made a defense of his encounter with Christ: The God who made the world and everything in it, he who is Lord of heaven and earth, does not live in shrines made by human hands, nor is he served by human hands, as though he needed anything, since he himself gives to all mortals life and breath and all things. From one ancestor he made all nations to inhabit the whole earth, and he allotted the times of their existence and the boundaries of the places where they would live, so that they would search for God and perhaps grope for him and find him—though indeed he is not far from each one of us. For ‗In him we live and move and have our being‘; as even some of your own poets have said, ‗For we too are his offspring.‘ Acts 17:24-28 Paul uses the words to grope for in describing the soul‟s search for the Divine. In fact, when on the road to Damascus to execute Christians, Paul (at the time named Saul) confronted the Divine Light and was blinded (Acts 9:3-9). Similarly, it was the beauty of Athena that caused Tiresias to go blind. Like Paul, the Divine Light did not abandon him for his faults, but rather Tiresias was taught the language of the birds who could warn humanity of future events.

To be called the offspring of God, Paul draws a parallel between the rebirth of the human soul to the flight of Athena who sprang heavenward from the head of Zeus. And so her symbol was the Owl of wisdom, carrier of souls through the underworld at death. Paul acknowledged he was a murderer worthy of the Areopagus judgment and so was deeply aware of the compassion and mercy of God to be counted among the Apostles (1 Corinthians 15:8; Galatians 1:16). Such a restoration required a cleansing rite akin to the Plinteria, or Feast of Adorning. This sacred mystery involved a procession of the wooden statue of Athena down to the sea to be washed. She was returned cleansed with ointments and in new bright clothes to the Parthenon. To convince the Romans, Paul must offer himself up to be washed with the mystery of the genuine body and blood of Christ (Ephesian 1:3-10) producing the redemption of his own soul: Since we are God‘s offspring, we ought not to think that the deity is like gold, or silver, or stone, an image formed by the art and imagination of mortals. While God has overlooked the times of human ignorance, now he commands all people everywhere to repent, because he has fixed a day on which he will have the world judged in righteousness by a man whom he has appointed, and of this he has given assurance to all by raising him from the dead. Acts 17: 29-31 There were some ancient Athenians who scoffed at Paul, but others wanted to hear more. A certain Areopagite (Priest of Ares atop the Hill of Judgment), named Dionysius, a woman named, Damaris, and others believed in Paul. Damaris, means „famous bearer‟ reflecting the mythology of Ganymede, the shepherd drawn to heaven by the Eagle of Zeus (Jupiter) to become the immortal cup bearer to the gods. This myth developed in Mesopotamia, where King Etana rose to heaven as a shepherd on an eagle to gain a son from the plant of life. Dionysius was the ancient deity who died and was risen, was deity of the vineyard and worshipped as liberator of foreigners with new customs. In the Roman Empire, foreigners with new customs were secondary to the Roman military culture of the Iron Age. Rome was about conquest where a military settlement was established in each outlying conquered region. The people were taxed and Roman merchants brought in to regulate the local economy. From the military outpost a Roman colony would flourish into a city. Those who embraced the Roman culture would benefit, even becoming quite wealthy. However, those indigenous to the colonized or conquered territory were subjects of Rome. To be a liberated foreigner with new customs was unusual or suspect, especially if the authority of the Emperor was being called into question. Paul, who preached the higher authority of Christ, would experience this iron hand with 5 whippings, imprisonments and martyrdom at the hand of the soldiers in Rome.

Supplement 2: Ten Emperor Gods in the 1st Century ace Did Christianity have a bumpy start under the persecutions of the Roman Empire? In the early Roman historical source called the Annals of Tacitus written in 116 ace, Tacitus describes Nero‟s persecution of the Christians:

Nero … inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace. Christus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus… Tacitus Annals 15.44 Tacitus, being true to the original Roman state and religion describes Christianity as a wayward religious sect not only hated for their abominations, but also an evil of the most mischievous superstition. He names the Christian Messiah using the Greek, Christus, and is the first historian outside of the Christian circle to record the Christian sect branching out from Judea to Rome even after the crucifixion of their leader. Tacitus recalls how Nero used the Christians as scapegoats for the Roman fire of 64 ace: ….an immense multitude was convicted…. They were mocked as they died; some were covered in animal skins and torn to pieces by dogs, others were crucified, and others were burned as torches to provide illumination after the daylight failed. Tacitus Annals 15.44 Tacitus‟ bias in made clear when he accuses Christians for hatred of mankind, which tells of the mood of the general Roman populous toward Christians in the 1st and 2nd Centuries ace. Roman historian Suentonius, who in 122 ace wrote the Lives of the Twelve Caesars also tells of Nero‟s attack on the Christians. Pliny the Younger in his 111 ace Epistulae 10.96 describes to Emperor Trajan his arrests of Christians having them re-embrace the religion of Rome. Also, an early Christian philosopher, named Origin (184-253 ace) wrote a response to Celsus, the Greek philosopher who wrote The True Word against the Christian sect: The first point which Celsus brings forward… that the Christians entered into secret associations with each other contrary to law… to bring into disrepute what are termed the "love-feasts" of the Christians. Origin, Against Celsus 1.1 According to Origin, this Christian love-feast celebrated a legitimate mystery-rite of the one true God in contrast to a Greco-Roman pantheon of false gods and superstitious worship of mere stone images. Origin presents the Scythians, an enemy of the Romans and regarded as heathen to the Christians and Romans alike, to exemplify how the Roman conscience can justify defying certain laws for the sake of the true Logos, Origin‟s Christ: …. if truth is to decide, the laws of the heathens… (like) "Scythian" laws…. It is not irrational, then, to form associations in opposition to existing laws, if done for the sake of the truth. Origin, Against Celsus 1.1

An example of persecutions over this secret Christian love feast appears on a 3rd Century ace Christian martyr‟s tomb. On the tomb is carved a poem by Damasus, 4th Century Bishop of Rome honoring Tarsicius in reference to the first martyr, Stephen. Damasus concludes his eulogy: The Sacraments of Christ being carried by Saint Tarsicius, When a profane gang would have overwhelmed the wholesome things, He willed to release his soul by being cut down Rather than give up the celestial members to rabid dogs. Damasi Epigrammata, Maximilian Ihm, 1895, n. 14 Far from being a perverse sect, these early Christians followed closely the spiritual rites of the Romans and the Hebrews by withholding the most sacred objects from the uninitiated. The Christians also refused to worship Nero, but they were cautious at identifying him as their enemy in open letter. In Revelation 13, the Christian Apostle John calls the evil beast by the numbers 666. The number system of the day used letters to identify numbers, therefore, by the process call Gametria, 666 can be translated into letters. The name of Nero in Latin (Neron) unravels as follows: N 50 + E 6 + R 500 + O 60 + N 50 = 666 Also in Hebrew (‫ )נרון קסר‬Nero Caesar reveals the same outcome: Resh 200 + Samekh 60 + Qoph 100 + Nun 50 + Vav 6 + Resh 200 + Nun (50) = 666. The earliest writing of the Book of Revelation have the number of the Beast as 616, but a dropping of the letter „n‟ (50, from 666 – 616) would produce the same results in either language. Christians were persecuted and martyred essentially for their denial to worship the Roman Emperor and his gods. The first 10 emperors from Christian beginnings, therefore, were viewed as self-claimed false gods and recorded by John the Apostle as the Beast of 10 horns and 7 heads with the number 666 (Revelation 13:1, 10). And I saw a beast rising out of the sea, having ten horns and seven heads; and on its horns were ten diadems, and on its heads were blasphemous names. One of its heads seemed to have received a death-blow, but its mortal wound had been healed. In amazement the whole earth followed the beast. Revelation 13:1-3 Each beast has a name representing the emperor and the seven heads may represent the 7 hills of Rome. John likens this beast who thinks he is a god to the antichrist who denies the Father and the Son (1 John 2:18-22). John clarifies the difference between a believer in Christ and an Emperor who thinks he is god:

Many deceivers have gone out into the world, those who do not confess that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh; any such person is the deceiver and the antichrist! 2 John 1:7 The Beast rising out of the sea (Revelation 13: 1-2; Daniel 7:3) is a metaphor for the Emperor and corrupt state of Rome rising out of the people. But there is another parallel John is drawing: The beast was given a mouth uttering haughty and blasphemous words, and it was allowed to exercise authority for forty-two months. Revelation 13:5 John is drawing a parallel between the Genealogy of Jesus in Matthew from Abraham to Jesus, which consists of generations also numbering 42. John is distributing the weight of the world across all time over the entire earth, not just on the 1st Century ace Emperors. In ancient Egypt this number 42 amounted to the number of deified laws, Maat, the goddess of truth and justice used at the gates of the Underworld to determine if a soul was worthy to pass through. Is this in context with the Christian Messiah‟s victory over Satan who had dominion over wayward souls by way of the law? Consider the relationship between the Beast of John‟s Revelation and whether or not the first 10 Roman Emperors were truly regarded as the Christ, God in the flesh: Tiberius (14-37 ace) From Tacitus, Annals VI.50, VI.51, news of the death of Tiberius brought cheers to the Roman crowd. Upon hearing that he suddenly recovered the crowd became silent. John records that one of the beasts mortal wound had been healed (Revelation 13:12-13). The Emperor was promptly smothered by his own generals (Tacitus, Annals VI.50). The news raised once again a festive mood among the Romans who shouted he should have a dishonorable burial: To the Tiber with Tiberius! Tacitus Annals 6.50

Caligula (37-41 ace) Emperor Caligula encouraged the masses to worship him in public. He went so far as to have the heads of statues of the gods removed so that a likeness of his head could be placed. Before he could have a statue of his likeness placed in Jerusalem, he was assassinated by members of the Praetorian Guard. (Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.26–28. Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to GaiusXXX.203. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.10, XIX.1.14). False messiahs and false prophets will appear and produce signs and omens, to lead astray, if possible, the elect. But be alert; I have already told you everything. Mark 13: 22-23 Claudius (41-54 ace)

Claudius expelled all Jews from Rome in 49 ace because of disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus (the Christ). Suetonius, Catharine Edwards. Lives of the Caesars(2001) ISBN 0192832719 pp. 184, 203 Nero (54-68 ace) The early Christians believed Nero would return bringing death and destruction as the AntiChrist even after his death (Sibylline Oracles 5.361–376, 8.68–72, 8.531–157). In 310 Lactantius referred to the Oracles of Sibyl in describing the public superstitions that Nero at his sudden death was conveyed to a distant region (and) is still reserved alive. Lactantius, Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died II. From non-Christian sources, Tacitus relates torture and execution of Christians by Nero after the fire of Rome in 64 ace (Tacitus Annals XV.44) Suetonius also records that Nero punished the Christians, who were given to a new and mischievous superstition (Suentonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero, chapter 16. Galba (68-69 ace) Suentonious records that Galba sentenced many Christians to death (Suetonious. The Twelve Caesars. Penguin. pp. 242–254). Otho (69-69 ace) Otho committed suicide in a civil war over his throne. His last words were: It is far more just to perish one for all, than many for one ( Cassius_Dio/63*.html#64-13.2 Dio, LXIV.13). Vitellius (69-69 ace) Civil strife continued under Vitellius. He was defeated and executed by Vespasian's soldiers in Rome in 69 ace ( Vespasian (69-79 ace) Vespasian completed the Jewish war and conquered Jerusalem in 70 ace. The prolonged siege of the city included a mound surrounding the city built by forced labor with crucifixions all around the top of any Jew wandering the country-side. This awful horror was set up by the Roman Emperor to prevent Jews from leaving the city without being seen and to break the heart of the people under siege. As Jesus came out of the temple … Truly I tell you, not one stone will be left here upon another; all will be thrown down… So when you see the awful horror standing in the holy place, as was spoken of by the prophet Daniel (let the reader understand), then those in Judea must flee to the mountains…. For at that time there will be great suffering…. Then if anyone says to you, ―Look! Here is the Messiah!‖ or ―There he is!‖ do not believe it. For false messiahs and false prophets will appear and produce great signs and omens, to lead astray, if possible, even the elect.

Matthew 24: 1-2, 15-24. Both Tacitus and Josephus wrote the false claim that Vespasian was predicted in Hebrew sacred text to be the Christ, the Messiah (War of the Jews 6.5.4 Tacitus, Histories 5.13). Vespasian died in 79 ace, the year the eruption destroyed Pompeii. His last words in jest were, Oh! I think I‘m becoming a god! Cassius Dio Roman History 66.1. Titus (79-81 ace) As a general, it was Titus who made the Awful Horror of a mound with crucifixions around the Temple of Jerusalem, which Titus completely leveled stone upon stone (Josephus, The Wars of the Jews V.11.1; VI.6.1.). His last words were: I have made but one mistake. He was referring to not killing his brother who perhaps assassinated him, but what about the Awful Horror? (Cassius Dio, Roman History LXVI.25-6; Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Titus 10). Domitian (81-96 ace) Emperor Domitian deified his only son who died at the age of three with this commemorative coin:

Figure 12: Domitian coin minted 88-96 ace with his son deified as Jupiter with 7 Stars.

He completed a temple for the worship of his deified father Vespasian and brother Titus (Jones, 1992, p. 93) and he persecuted many Jews and Christians (Eusebius from Brown, Raymond E. (1997). An Introduction to the New Testament. New York: Doubleday. pp. 805–809). Before Domitian died he had a fateful dream his patron goddess Minerva said that Jupiter forbade her to protect him (Suetonius, Life of Domitian 15). Not a good omen for a devout self-proclaimed Roman god and Emperor. In 96 ace Nerva became Emperor of Rome, he was known for his reign of relative peace for Christians. This was about the time John wrote the book of Revelation. Nerva was the 11th Emperor to reign from the Crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth.

Supplement 3: Star of Bethlehem Coins Augustus was the Emperor of Rome when Jesus of Nazareth was born. Augustus birth sign was Capricorn (the goat-fish) as his coins represent:

Figure 13: Birth Sign Coins of Emperors Augustus and Tiberius

The second coin also displays the Scorpion, birth sign of Tiberius, since it was minted in the reign of Tiberius. Why does the sign of Augustus remain on the coin of Tiberius? If an emperor fulfilled his duties and was loved by the people, his name would live on. 20th Century scholar, Ethelbert Stauffer, confirms the renown of Augustus: He was remembered at every prayer at table, and by men on their deathbeds… after his conquest of Egypt an inscription was set up on the island of Philae… ‗The emperor, ruler of oceans and continents, the divine father among men, who bears the same name as the heavenly father–Liberator, the marvelous star of the Greek world, shining with the brilliance of the great heavenly Savior. E. Stauffer, Christ and the Caesars - Historical Sketches, p. 99. The gift of Augustus was to use diplomacy instead of weapons. He travelled throughout his empire offering gifts to Roman citizens and freedom to those formerly conquered. Virgil confirms that the Romans looked highly of him even as their Savior: …this is the man, so often foretold you in promise, Caesar Augustus, descended from God, who again shall a golden Age in Latium found,... his coming, foreshadowed by omens from heaven… Virgil's Aeneid, Book VI.ii 789-800, 847-853 These omens presenting Augustus as the new Golden Child were minted not only on his coins, but those of future Roman Emperors. Yet these coins do not use the birth signs of the Emperors, but rather the star of Bethlehem (see Figure 7 above) in Aries, the Ram, constellation of Judea, which the Magi followed in 6 bce:

Figure 14: Star of Bethlehem Coins representing Emperors‘ Claim to be Saturn‘s Golden Child

Notice Zeus (Jupiter), ruler of the Iron Age, appears on the first coin, just as Jupiter appears with Aries in the Magi‟s night sky on 6 bce (Figure 7 above). The second coin contains the crescent moon with the star in Aries, just as the three Magi witnessed. Tyche (Fortuna in Rome) is goddess of fortune, whom the saying, the Wheels of Fortune, can be attributed from the mid-1st Century bce. Are these the wheels (Rotas) of the Sator Square? Even the Parthians claimed the Star of Bethlehem as their own sign of authority:

Figure 15: Parthian mint 2 bce to 4 ace equating Mithra with Zeus/Jupiter who Eyes Crescent and Star

Though there are numerous Roman coins with the crescent moon and star symbol, there are curious alternate examples:

Figure 16: Comet, 5 Star and 7 Star Coins

The face of the first coin represents Apollo (Sol), god of the sun, representing enlightenment and constant life for the Roman Empire. The reverse of the coin contains the crescent with seven stars, similar to the 1st Century Domitian coin of the deified son (see figure 12 above). The second Geta coin has only five stars. Five represents the number of visible planets representing the deities Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. The addition of moon and sun complete the number 7. Since the moon and sun are already represented on the first coin, perhaps the Pleiades or Ursa Major are intended. How specifically do the crescent and seven stars on the Trio coin represent Jupiter as followed by the Three Magi? This is how the one roaming star, Jupiter, becomes the three, which becomes the seven. In fact, Trio is an abbreviation of Septus Triones, the Seven Ploughing Oxen, an early Roman name for the Ursa Major (the Great Bear). The mythology tells of Zeus (Jupiter) pursuing the beautiful Callisto who is turned into a bear by Hera (Juno), the wife of Zeus. Yet, Callisto already had a son by Zeus, she named Arcas. He was a great hunter, likely inherited from his mother who in ancient times was named Artemis Calliste, in some regions considered both divine huntress and a great bear. Zeus placed them both in the sky to prevent Arcas from mistaking his mother for a hunting trophy. Thus, the constellations Ursa Major and Ursa Minor were born. Thou Arcas was first named Arctophylax, the Guardian of the Bear. Earlier than Ursa Major, the Big Dipper was named Plaustrum, for the Wain or Large Wagon from the Sumerian original, Margidda-anna, the Wagon of Heaven (or the Wagon of the Queen of Heaven). Since Zeus (Jupiter, Marduk and/or Enlil) is associated with the thunder cloud, the wagon represents the produce gathered due to the beneficial rains of this god of plenty. The wheels of this celestial wagon are the Zodiac (Ecliptic) and the Celestial Equator.

In summary, Jupiter is deity of Thunder bringing rain as a seasonal provision for the earth. This perpetual promise is signified by the Big Dipper, which is seen from Rome and the northern regions on a continual basis. That is, Ursa Major never sets. Also worthy of note, the final coin of figure 14 above is the Comet of Julius Caesar. This comet appeared for seven days on Caesar‟s birth month only 4 months after his assassination. His nephew Augustus along with the rest of superstitious Rome took this as the omen of Caesar‟s vindication. As well the 7th month of the Julian Calendar may be intended by the seven stars, since this is the month of Jupiter. When Julius designed his calendar in 45 bce, the month Quintilis moved from 5th place to the 7th month and was named July after Julius‟ birth. In 1582 it was replaced by the Gregorian Calendar. Since this 5/7th month is the month of the birth of Julius Caesar, the same month this greatest comet in history appeared in 44 bce, these five and seven star coins may be sparking a memory regarding humanities effort to alignment our time with the perfect knowledge of the gods. There is another ancient belief about the seven… Magnus Annus: Great Year. The astronomers call the great year in which the seven wandering stars, each having finished its individual course, are gathered together again. Festus Lexicon, Volume 11

At the completion of the Great Year all of the stars return to their places and begin the next cycle of identical movements. If the movements of the stars are repeated, it follows that everything that happened will recur again, since it is obvious that everything is determined by the motions of the stars. For this reason Vergil says that the Golden Age will return and everything that happened before will be repeated. Servius: Vergil's Eclogues: Poem4 Do the seven stars and crescent moon as the Star of Bethlehem confirm or help disprove Jesus of Nazareth was the actual Christ? Is there a time in the Christian era when the sun, moon and five planets return to their places during what is considered a Great Year for Christianity? Consider the moment of Constantine‟s vision, 12:00 Noon, Tuesday, October 28th, 312, the constellations and planets unseen behind the daylight sky were as in order as follows:

Figure 17: Constantine‘s Vision with Planetary Locations

Neptune and Uranus were not known to the early Romans. It is interesting that the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn and Mars appear to have returned to their places. That is, they are lined up between the noonday sun and the Eastern horizon, rendering only the Sun visible. But where is the moon? The sky at night during Constantine‟s dream of Jesus would have appeared as follows:

Figure 18: Night Sky During Constantine‘s Legendary Dream and Vision of Christ

Why are there no planets? They are all lined up with the sun according to ancient Roman cosmology (see Festus and Servius quoted above). The moon appears like an egg in Pisces, the Constellation representing the fish, symbol of Christ and his followers. Does this egg shaped moon mean anything? The Christians‟ Magi who followed the star over 300 years earlier, knew the constellation Pisces as the Great Swallow (western fish) and the Maid/Queen of Heaven (northern fish). The Greco/Romans built upon this mythology by calling them Eros/Cupid, the Dawn and Aphrodite/Venus, goddess of love. The two changed into fish to escape Typhon/Mars in the river Nile (or Euphrates). The Magi saw this as a sign of the coming of a great king to transform the Great Swallowing of the West (death) into new life and love from the Eastern dawn (the Golden Age). What is remarkable, that of the Euphrates mythology, Aphrodite (meaning Sea-foam) was

hatched by doves from the egg rolled to shore by these fish of Pisces. Is this the egg shaped moon in Pisces on the night of Constantine‟s vision and dream of Christ?

Figure 19: Hadrian Star and Crescent above the Temple of Aphrodite Paphia will cult stone, dove and torch.

Also, with the hook of Leo rising (beginning) and the cross of Cygnus setting (ending), the Chi/Rho sign is formed. This symbol of Christ (the Alpha and Omega) was minted by Constantine with the Alpha and Omega signs confirming that the Christ represents a combination of Leo and Cygnus. Leo is the Alpha or first constellation on 312 ace to rise at mid-night, while Cygnus is setting like the last Omega. Jesus as the Christ is Leo, the Lion of the tribe of Judah and Cygnus, the Swan who dives into the underworld to save his friend on the Cross.

Figure 20: Roman Coin minted 353 ace, containing Constantine‘s Sign of Christ flanked by Alpha and Omega

The Constellation Cygnus appears like the Greek Letter X (chi) of which Plato related represents the two bands of the World Soul or Anima Mundi. The Constellation Leo contains the Anima Mundi. Regarding this World Soul, Plato wrote: Therefore, we may consequently state that: this world is indeed a living being endowed with a soul and intelligence ... a single visible living entity containing all other living entities, which by their nature are all related. Plato, Timaeus, 29/30; 4th century BCE If Jesus of Nazareth was the Christ, would he not have been able to predict the day the Roman Emperor would acknowledge the sign of Christ? Perhaps Jesus did in the way he acknowledge the sign of the Roman Emperor: When they reached Capernaum, the collectors of the temple tax came to Peter and said, ‗Does your teacher not pay the temple tax?‘ He said, ‗Yes, he does.‘ And when he came home, Jesus spoke of it first, asking, ‗What do you think, Simon? From whom do kings of the earth take toll or tribute? From their children or from others?‘ When Peter said, ‗From others‘, Jesus said to him, ‗Then the children are free. However, so that we do not give offence to them, go to the lake and cast a hook; take the first fish that comes up; and

when you open its mouth, you will find a coin; take that and give it to them for you and me.‘ Matthew 17:24-27 In summary, all of the planets representing the Greco-Roman pantheon were hidden in daylight, only the sign of Sun with the sign of Christ could be seen. These planets were lined up just as the Roman historians predicted would mark the Great Year. Only a true Messiah could have arranged such a mystical history of Rome.

Supplement 4: Greco-Roman and Judeo-Christian Mythology These Greco-Roman myths of Dionysius‟ resurrection and the cupbearer Damaris draw a parallel with ancient Hebrew legend, namely of the son of Jacob, Joseph, who was liberated from prison by the cupbearer of the Pharaoh. After the cupbearer was raised back to the Pharaoh‟s court, the Pharaoh had a strange dream and the cupbearer said: A young Hebrew was there with us (in prison), a servant of the captain of the guard. When we told him, he interpreted our dreams to us, giving an interpretation to each according to his dream.… Then Pharaoh sent for Joseph. Genesis 41: 12-16 Here the Egyptian cupbearer, like Dionysius, is liberator of a foreigner with new customs. Joseph himself would become liberator of Egypt from a severe famine. Other names of Roman converts to Christianity include Aquila, of Corinth and Apollo, in Ephesus (Acts 18: 2, 24). Aquila is the mythical Eagle constellation and Apollo is the Sun, symbolized also by the constellation Leo, the lion. Are these symbolic of the Lion of Judah and the Eagle of Rome? Interestingly, Corinth, founded by Corinthos, a descendent of Helios (the Sun) had a Temple to Apollo. As a Roman city, it consisted mostly of freed slaves. The city was located at the narrows of the Greek isthmus and was a necessary portage for east-west Roman trade. Therefore, the land transfer taxes gave Corinth the reputation of the city where slaves became free and very wealthy, much like Ganymede taken to Olympus by the Eagle of Zeus, Aquila. Ancient myth tells of Sisyphus, leader of a race of ancient kings in Corinth, attempted to trick death and Zeus caused him to endlessly role a stone up a hill where the stone fell before reaching the top. Such a myth is likened to the rising and setting of the sun and the human condition of cyclical birthing and dying. Aquila later joined Apollo to help the Christians in Ephesus. In Athens there was the Temple to Athena, where the Corinthian acropolis housed the Temple of Aphrodite and Ephesus is the site of the ancient wonder of the world, the Temple of Artemis. Artemis (in Rome, Diana) was huntress and patron of wild animals, childbirth, women and virginity. Her Temple in Ephesus was built in the 8th Century bce and destroyed by a flood less than 100 years later. In the silt remains of the flood was found a pottery shard depicting a griffin – the world famous Lion Eagle – eating the nectar of the gods from the tree of life. Here again is

the Lion – Eagle image related to the Acts Aquila-Apollo characters. It may be pure coincidence that the Christians used these names, were it not for that fact that Apollo and Aguila were among the first converts to introduce Paul to the cities of Corinth and Ephesus. Also worthy of note, that the Lion headed Eagle of ancient Mesopotamia, Ninurta, god of war, was likened to Nimrod, the earliest Hebrew conqueror. Artemis (Roman: Diana, meaning light) is twin of Apollo, the sun, represents dawning light and/or enlightenment of the wilderness, honor of women and the natural environment. Eos, as goddess of dawn and her brother Helius, the sun, are related to Artemis and Apollo in that they symbolize the sun. In a contest to reach an island with her powerful Bow and Arrows, Artemis mistakenly kills Orion floating in the distant ocean. Artemis as huntress on the earth appears in triple form, including Selene in the sky and Hecate in the underworld. This Temple of Artemis is Ephesus impacted the spiritual understandings of the ancient world for 8 Centuries prior to the arrival of the Christian Apostle Paul. Artemis was a goddess and a woman who was to be respected in her decision not to have a husband. Such a lasting devotion to such a divine woman developed in Ephesus an authentic spirituality and sacred mysteries that would be swept away by transient preachers eager to challenge the norm. It this impression of a transient preacher that caused the artisans of Ephesus raise complaint against Paul to the Roman authorities. As early as 50 ace the purchase of statues and related icons of Artemis had fallen, all due to the words of Paul. He understood the mysteries of Ephesus and offered a bridge to his own beliefs: With all wisdom and insight he (God) has made known to us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure that he set forth in Christ, as a plan for the fullness of time, to gather up all things in him, things in heaven and things on earth. Ephesians 1: 9-10 The hope of Paul was to transfer the spiritual enthusiasm toward Artemis, this light of heaven and goddess of earth‟s wilderness, toward his belief in the higher authority of his Messiah or Christ, Jesus of Nazareth (see Ephesians 1:20-21; 3:8-10). The Ephesians were Roman Citizens of Gentile beliefs saturated with devotion to their world renowned temple and goddess. Paul does not tear them down nor their temple, he builds up what he believes is a more remarkable and remarkably accessible temple of the celebrated Hebrew (and now Gentile) mysteries and Paul‟s choice of the Messiah: So then you are no longer strangers and aliens, but you are citizens … of the household of God, built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the cornerstone. In him the whole structure is joined together and grows into a holy temple in the Lord; in whom you also are built together spiritually into a dwelling-place for God. Ephesians 2: 19-22

It was no small achievement to set up a temple greater than the Temple of Artemis. As the Griffin on the vessel testified, within this temple were offerings of nothing less than the nectar of the gods. The great columns around her temple represented these fruitful trees of the Eden of the former Golden Age. Artemis was Queen of this Eden, now a foreign wilderness to humanity. Paul did not challenge this devotion, he highlighted it to reveal the entire human journey: Therefore be imitators of God, as beloved children, and live in love, as Christ loved us and gave himself up for us, a fragrant offering and sacrifice to God. Ephesians 5:1-2 John the Apostle writes to the angel of the church of Ephesus (is this angel not the Griffin?) with this sensitivity to local understandings of Artemis and her Eden-like temple: To the angel of the church in Ephesus write: These are the words of him who holds the seven stars in his right hand, who walks among the seven golden lampstands:… Let anyone who has an ear listen to what the Spirit is saying to the churches. To everyone who conquers, I will give permission to eat from the tree of life that is in the paradise of God. Revelation 2:1,6b. In Greek mythology, Artemis was granted this wish by Zeus, to be Light-Bringer and that in her aspect as Selene, Moon Goddess, she fell in love with a shepherd, Endymion, granting him eternal life though as a sleeper hidden in the cave of Mount Latmus where she would visit him with a kiss each midnight. Paul must have been aware of this legend when he wrote: …but everything exposed by the light becomes visible, for everything that becomes visible is light. Therefore it says, ‗Sleeper, awake! Rise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you.‘ Ephesians 5: 13-14. Remarkable the legend appears to come to life in the 3rd Century ace when 7 Christians were walled up in a cave by the Ephesians. After 200 years they rose out of the cave to confirm the Christian doctrine of the resurrection of the dead. To this day the Ephesian Church honors these Seven Sleepers. Artemis requested from Zeus that she always remain a virgin while also being patroness of childbirth. She was also granted the wish of having a choir of daughter who would constantly sing her spiritual songs. Is Paul not honoring this tradition when he writes: Do not get drunk with wine, for that is debauchery; but be filled with the Spirit,19as you sing psalms and hymns and spiritual songs among yourselves, singing and making melody to the Lord in your hearts, 20giving thanks to God the Father at all times and for everything in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. Ephesians 5: 18-20

Much like the Sator Square was designed for the Roman Soldier, Paul writes with an awareness of the warrior spirit in these sons of adept and skillful Artemis: Finally, be strong in the Lord and in the strength of his power…. take up the whole armour of God, so that you may be able to withstand on that evil day, and having done everything, to stand firm. Stand therefore, and fasten the belt of truth around your waist, and put on the breastplate of righteousness. As shoes for your feet put on whatever will make you ready to proclaim the gospel of peace. With all of these take the shield of faith, with which you will be able to quench all the flaming arrows of the evil one. Take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. Ephesians 6: 10-17 The name of Artemis as Light Bringer, must have been close to the heart of Paul, who earlier as persecutor of the Christians, saw a remarkable light on his way from Jerusalem to capture Christians at Damascus: Now as he was going along and approaching Damascus, suddenly a light from heaven flashed around him. He fell to the ground and heard a voice saying to him, ‗Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me?‘ He asked, ‗Who are you, Lord?‘ The reply came, ‗I am Jesus, whom you are persecuting. But get up and enter the city, and you will be told what you are to do.‘ Acts 9: 3-7 During the event, Saul, later renamed Paul, became blind during the event and was only able to see when he followed the instructions of fellow Christians from Damascus. Could a voice truly come from heaven? Given the context of the event, perhaps this was just the beginning of a sequence of miracles to take Roman‟s down the path of their own mythology to the Messiah. The road from Jerusalem to Damascus involved a constant view around Mount Hermon, the mountain of the Transfiguration of Jesus of Nazareth, where his disciples Peter, James and John witnessed the divine light shining with Jesus together with Moses and Elijah (Matthew 17:1-9). Another voice was heard during this vision in the cloud on Mount Hermon: And a voice came out of the cloud saying, ‗This is my beloved son, listen to him‘. Luke 9: 35. What does this have to do with Roman mythology? The name the Greeks and Romans attributed to Mount Herman was the Mountain of Pan. Pan is the goat-man god likened to the constellation Capricorn and was one of the few dying and rising deities of the Greek Pantheon. There was a Greek historian named Plutarch who wrote The Obsolescence of Oracles where he writes of a voice from heaven that came to the sailor Thamus: Thamus, are you there? When you reach Palodes, take care to proclaim that the great god Pan is dead. De defectu oraculorum

In response to the news, the people of Palodes (current Istanbul) wept and mourned. This voice was heard by Thamus in the Reign of Tiberius. Was this the day of the death of the Messiah? The legend at least draws mythologies together, since Thamus, meaning True Son, is also deity of ancient Mesopotamia, the shepherd god who died and rose again. Then he brought me to the entrance of the north gate of the house of the LORD; women were sitting there weeping for Tammuz. Then he said to me, ‗Have you seen this, O mortal? You will see still greater abominations than these.‘ Ezekiel 8:14-15 Though Ezekiel appears to denounce weeping to Tammuz, in retrospect is this not a prophecy of the suffering and death of the Messiah with an appropriate call to mourn? Athena (Roman: Minerva) resembles Artemis in her ability to influence the underworld. It was Athena‟s bright shield that Perseus used to behead Medusa, (the boar headed, snake haired underworld Gorgon, whose glare turned people to stone). This Medusa head was put on Athena‟s shield as a reward to assist her in battle. Where Artemis is the personification of light as twin of Apollo, Athena is the personification of wisdom born from the split head of Zeus. While Artemis of the wilderness provides the nectar of the gods, Athena is provides civilization with the Olive tree. The owl is her symbol representing wisdom and fearlessness of the underworld.

There is yet another Olympian woman named Demeter, also a goddess of agriculture and her symbol is corn. Attributed to Demeter is the highest Greek spiritual practice of the Eleusinian Mysteries. The mysteries took place in part in Athens and also in the town of Eleusia. The 8 day celebration involved fasting, prayers, songs, sacred objects and secrets and a reenactment of the play involving the loss of Demeter‟s daughter Persephone, in a forced marriage with Hades, god of the Underworld. Persephone (Roman: Proserpina) was rescued, but since she ate of the underworld pomegranate seeds (likened to Eve and the fruit of knowledge of good and evil), she was forced to stay in the underworld for a portion of the year. Therefore, the festival became a yearly memorial of the rising and dying of the agriculture season. On the fourth day of the festival, prayers to Asclepius, god of healing, were said to forgive those who were late in their honor of Demeter. Asclepius staff, would be likened here to the tree of life, where Ascalaphus was underworld gardener who saw Persephone eat the forbidden fruit. Persephone‟s underworld name became Kore, meaning the Maiden, likened to the constellation Virgo with Spica (the Corn Star). This underworld mourning rite of Demeter and Persephone, can be likened to the loss of Cassiopeia‟s‟ daughter, Andromeda (as well as, Isis loss of her loved one, Osiris, and Ishtar‟s loss of Dummuz). Since the New Testament authors are drawing parallels between their Messiah and Greco-Roman mythology, is it a stretch to regard the Sator Square as a Christian symbol containing also the mythology of the Roman culture?

Consider the name of Achilles as translated from the Greek to mean Grief of humanity. The mythological context suggests that Troy is the city of the enlightenment of humanity eternally facing a foe called Human Grief (Achilles, the Undefeated) who has been dipped in Styx, the River of the Dead. That is, death is the constant grievous foe of humanity. Turning to the Milky Way as the River of the Deceased, consider how the quotation of Virgil and the Sator Square now correspond to the dawn sky of December 21, 2012. Virgil speaks of the most monstrous aspect of Mars being Typheus, whose greatest weapon is the Hurricane (Typhoon/Monsoon). During the GA, Mars rests in the constellation Capricornus, the Goat/Fish, representing in mythology the Gate of the Gods where human beings were able to enter the highest heaven. This Gate of the Gods rising at GA corresponds to Virgil‟s purified generation from heaven. The Constellation Cancer, the Crab, is known as the Gate of Humanity, which enable human beings to come to earth. During the GA, Cancer is setting in the West and represents the human condition of death. This death sentence is assigned to those convicted at the tribune referred to on the Sator Square of Arepo (Areopagos/Mars Hill), the Hill of Judgment in Athens. Just as the Sator Square refers to Saturn and Mars (Ares), Virgil‟s Eclogue IV begins with the reign of Saturn towards a new Eden and Virgil adds Mars/Ares in his most monstrous aspect as Tiphys (Typheus/Typhon). The Eclogue continues with a final battle spurred on by a veteran soldier named Achilles. Achilles name from the Greek means Grief of Humanity. Achilles is supported by daughter of Zeus, Athena (Minerva), who with Achilles fight the Trojans. The brother of Athena, Ares (Mars), fights against them to defeat the Spartans. Athena, representing wisdom, finally defeats Ares by hurling a large stone at him. The epic battle represents the human condition in facing death and the judgment. The stone of Athena is the mountain hurled into the sea that enables a rebirth of humanity, griefstricken by Achilles and the burning of Troy. This rebirth is expressed by the primary GrecoRoman myth involving the battle of Jupiter (Zeus) of the Iron Age vs. his father Saturn (Cronus) of the Golden Age. At first Saturn is defeated as he swallows this stone wrapped in swaddling clothes so his newborn son, Zeus, can escape. According to Virgil and the Sator Square, the cycle must continue back to the Golden Age when Saturn once again holds the wheels of the universe. They saw a triple conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn in the constellation of Pisces in a seven month span in the year 7 bce. The triple conjunction, if viewed over its entire span, makes the appearance of a caduceus, the two snake staff of Hermes/Asclepius representing healing and medicine. Jupiter and Saturn, gods of the current era were coming together to usher a reign of healing or a transition from the brutal Iron Age to a New Golden Age of peace and liberty.

By the time the Magi had arrived in Bethlehem, they saw another portent in the western sky. On February 20, 6 bce, Jupiter, Saturn, Mars and the Moon appeared together, but this time on the Western horizon, and in the constellation beside Pisces, called Aries. Aries is the Ram and symbolizes an offering. In ancient Egypt, this constellation was the Ram headed, Amon-Ra,

since Aries rose at the Vernal Equinox, Amon-Ra was the spring sign to celebrate the rebirth of the Sun. The Sumerians originally regarded Aries as a Herdsman or Farmer, which evolved in the 2nd Millenium bce into a combination of Ram and Herdsman. There appears to be a correlation between Abraham‟s exchange between his son Isaac and the Ram and the development of this constellation in Mesopotamian history. This correlation is confirmed in Greek mythology by offering to Zeus (Jupiter) of the Ram of the Golden Fleece, which was sacrificed in exchange for Athamas offering his son Phrixos. Consider the diagram of the Magi above in terms of Greco-Roman mythology. The mythology tells of Saturn/Cronus eager to swallow his children in order to prevent any competition to his throne. The mother of Jupiter/Zeus hid the child and gave Saturn a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes to eat instead. The Golden Fleece of Aries offered to Zeus in place of a human son verifies that the Messiah was expected to be both divine and human. It is this swallowing of the stone that defeats the hungry parent and enables his children to live in peace. This stone is the dark side of the moon wrapped in its bright crescent symbolic of the swaddling clothes and the Golden Fleece in front of Aries beside Jupiter (Zeus) and Saturn (Cronos). Consider the Roman feast of Saturnalia, where in the Temple of Saturn the cloth wrapping the feet of the wooden statue of Saturn in removed (see diagram below). The planet Mars beside Saturn represents the bad omen for the parent, while the moon representing the stone about to be swallowed. The story corresponds to the violence of Herod and the escape of the Christian Messiah, Jesus of Nazareth, toward the Nile of Egypt. Capricornus, Constellation of the Goat-Fish, also known as the Gate of the Gods, where human beings pass to heaven when they die, where Cancer is the Gate of Men, where the hand of God reaches down to create humans for the earth. Pan was the Goat-Fish, since the mythology tells of the gods fleeing to Egypt to escape Gaia‟s wrathful Typhon, the monstrous aspect of Mars, god of war. The gods changed into animals to flee from Typhon, Pan jumped in the Nile, as a goat and a fish. The lovely Styinx turned into reeds by the shore to escape his advances, there Pan, made her into the reed-pipes which sang the tune of heaven. Capricorn as the Goat-Fish is associated with Pan, the nymph/goat-man (consider also Dionysius, the horned-man). Pan was the son of Hermes/Mercury, which at the GA rises just before raising Capricornus. Pan (meaning pasture) is the herdsman and flute playing god of woodland mountains regions, namely Arcadia, Greece. In the above GA diagram, Pan (as Capricorn) enters the woodland of Esquiline Hill known for its Oak trees and gardens, including the Lotus Tree Garden of Lucina; Lucina meaning Bringer of children into the light, an aspect of Juno, Roman Goddess of child-bearing. When Saturn‟s mother Rhea hid him in a mountain cave so his father, Uranus (Kronos) would not swallow him, it was Pan (as the nymph Amaltheia) who nursed Saturn (see GA West View of Roman Sky below). While in Egypt, Pan (as Aegipan) rescued the gods by convincing them to become animals to hide from the monster Typhon (Mars/Ares). At this time, it was Pan who became Capricorn, the goat-fish by standing in the Nile River, since (as confirmed by GA diagram) he panicked due to Typhon being in closest pursuit.

Supplement 5: Sky Observations of Today Related to the Sator Square There is another Christian verse in Paul‟s speech from Areopagos that may draw light upon the Sator Square‟s relationship to the true Messiah or Christ. …because he has fixed a day on which he will have the world judged… Acts 17:31a It was the year after Titus destroyed Jerusalem (70 ace) that the Sator Square was carved in Pompeii. Before the decade was up, Mount Vesuvius covered Pompeii is 20 feet of ash (79ace). By way of war or natural death, every human being has to face that final day. The Sator Square‟s cross formed by the word tenet (to hold) tells a compassionate Heavenly Father not only aware of human suffering, but also willing to embrace it. Is there a fixed day on the Sator Square? Consider Ares/Mars, the mythical God of War seeking out a day in celestial history to judge the earth. Saturn was the Roman deity who ruled over the original Golden Age where humanity lived in peace and liberty. After humanity fell the Iron Age of war and punishment was governed by Jupiter. Yet, Saturn was appointed to return on a certain day to reestablish a New Golden Age of peace. This is the purpose of the word sator, for Saturn, on the Sator Square. Saturn was not only Roman god of the Golden Era, but also of the Capitol and of agriculture (the sower – sator). If the meaning of sator arepo tenet opera rotas – the Sower Arepo holds the work of the wheels, refers to a celestial event, then the wheels refers to the Zodiac and the path of the Sun and planets. Consider the following Saturn – Mars (sator arepo) celestial event which took place on December 21st, 2012:

Diagram 4: Looking East from Rome, December 21, 2012

This prediction of the Galactic Alignment including the position of the Sun, Moon and Planets on the Zodiac by the Classical Romans requires proof of astronomical and mechanical genius of the day. Consider the Greek mathematician and astronomer Archimedes of Syracuse (287212bce). The 1st Century bce philosopher, Cicero, speaks of an astronomical device made by Archimedes: …the figure of the sphere, which displayed the motions of the Sun and Moon, and the five planets, or wandering stars, could not be represented by the primitive solid globe. And that in this, the invention of Archimedes was admirable, because he had calculated how a single revolution should maintain unequal and diversified progressions in dissimilar motions. Cicero‘s De re publica No doubt Cicero is talking about such machines as the Antikythera Mechanism, which is the gear box found in the 1st Century bce shipwreck off the coast of Greece. Modern scholars have reproduced the machine, which confirms an in depth knowledge of ancient Babylonian, Egyptian and Greek astronomy as well as how to predict future celestial events, including the motion of sun, moon and planets and their locations on the Zodiac. Even if these machines are imperfect in design, it stands to reason that the inventers were aware of the mathematics and astronomy necessary to complete the predictions listed in this research. These predictions are the specific locations of the planets on the Zodiac during the December 21, 2012 Galactic Alignment.

Referring to the above GA diagram, notice that before the Sun rises, Saturn rises and just after sunrise Mars follows. Is this the moment Saturn rules over the final Golden Age? The view of this December 21st, 2012 sky map is from the Temple of Jupiter, Capitoline Hill, Rome looking toward Esquiline Hill to the Eastern Sunrise. This moment is called the Galactic Alignment (GA), an actual celestial event that occurs once every 25 800 years precisely when the Precession of the Sun around the Zodiac lands in Sagittarius beside the Dark Rift and in the Centre of the Milky Way Galaxy. That is, the path of the Earth around the Sun taking a year is called the Ecliptic. The path of the stars behind the Sun that we view from Earth is called the Zodiac. Since there are 12 constellations in the 360 degrees of the Zodiac, each constellation enjoys the presence of the Sun for about 30 degree of its yearly path. However, the Earth‟s revolution around the Sun is slow by one degree every 72 years. Therefore, the Sun appears to adjust its position against the backdrop of the Zodiac. This process, called precession, is very slow, where it takes the Sun about 2700 years (72 years times 30 degrees) to move through each constellation and about once every 25800 (72 years times 360 degrees) years to make an entire revolution backwards around the Zodiac. This Galactic Alignment occurs when the Sun precession lands at the center of our Milky Way Galaxy during the Winter Solstice with Sagittarius and the Dark Rift behind. It is most easily understood as a set of wheels in the sky. One wheel involves this ecliptic celestial path traveled by the Sun and planets during one year (360 degree cycle) as seen from the Earth. The purpose of this path is to identify the stars behind the Sun and planets at any given time. The second wheel involves the location of the Sun on this path at a specific moment during Earth‟s yearly rotation. There are 4 unique moments in the Earth‟s rotational year. Two of them are the Spring and Fall Equinoxes, when the Sun rises and sets directly on the Earth‟s Celestial Equator. However, the Earth 23.5 degree slant affords us the season marked by the Winter and Summer Solstices, where the Sun rises and falls at the farthest reaches of the Earth‟s 23.5 degree slant. This wheel appears to wobble, but it is that very wobble that allows for unique events to occur during the year. The 2012 Galactic Alignment occurred during our Winter Solstice, and so it can be named with a specific sun rising event with the planets and Sun positioned in the backdrop of the sky as illustrated above (refer also to Virgil quote on Golden Age).

Diagram 6: Ancient Rome‘s Sacred Sites

The Temple of Saturn build in 497 b.c.e. sat at the base of the Capitoline Hill and housed the Roman Treasury who Saturn protected with his wife named Ops (Rhea), meaning abundance or plenty. Her name also related to working the earth (opus), complementing Saturn (the sower) as deity of planting and expected harvest or fruitfulness. Saturn‟s wife was originally named Lua, meaning destruction or loosening, and it was to her the Roman Soldiers offered up and burned the weapons of their enemies. Together with Saturn, Lua must have been patron of the Winter Solstice festival in early Rome occurred, called the Saturnalia. A return to the Golden Age of Saturn (Kronos) was celebrated with the exchange of gifts (dolls and candles), slaves were given freedom and served upon by their masters, all work stopped and there were no prisoners sentenced or executed. Music, merriment and the raising of restrictions continued for this seven day feast (December 19th to 25th). It was the feast that celebrated Saturn‟s first appearance in Rome‟s beginning when he and Juno (Hera) collected all the wild (goat-like – Pan/Capricornus) people from the hill country and taught them to live in a Golden Age of civilization. Saturnalia was also a celebration of Saturn‟s expected return in a Golden Age of peace without labor to come. During the Saturnalia feast, in Saturn‟s Temple, his wooden statue‟s swaddling clothes wrapped around his feet were removed. This signified an eventual return of Saturn‟s reign in a new Golden Era by way of the child born to end the Age of Iron. Yet, Jupiter (Zeus), the son of Saturn, was the ruler of this Roman Iron Age, where Saturn was regarded as the sower (sator) and father of time (kronos) of the Golden Age. The Sator Square as a Greco-Roman mythical message regards the rebirth of civilization according to the design of the Judeo-Christian Messiah. The Christian Roman Soldier regards Jesus of Nazareth as the true soldier and New God of War who ends all wars as the Prince of Peace. Jesus becomes the vindicator of all believers who are being martyred by the self-proclaimed god, the Emperor of Rome. The Sator Square is written just after the fall of Jerusalem, when Zion‟s daughter is humiliated by Titus, Emperor of Rome. The parallel exists between the humiliation of Jerusalem destroyed in 70 ace and the Crucifixion of the Messiah 30 years earlier. The Sator Square is calling the Emperor to stand on Mars Hill for his Jupiter like treatment of Jerusalem. There he will be found guilty. At the same time, all humanity is being called to answer to the Crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth. And this is the primary intent of the inscriber of the Sator Square, that Jesus of Nazareth testifies on behalf of humanity standing accused on Mars Hill and like a compassionate Saturn acquits us on the judgment day at the resurrection of the dead. The fact that the Sator Square was written on the walls of Pompeii in 79 ace, just nine years after Titus leveled Jerusalem, was a fulfillment of the words of Paul standing on Areopagos: While God has overlooked the times of human ignorance, now he commands all people everywhere to repent, because he has fixed a day on which he will have the world judged in righteousness by a man whom he has appointed, and of this he has given assurance to all by raising him from the dead. Acts 17:30-31

Notice the portions of Virgil‟s Eclogue as they unfold during the dawn of this Winter Solstice 2012: Winter Solstice 2012 – Stars Above the Horizon at Sunrise Virgil Celestial Phenomena (Eastern Sky) …the great wheel of seasons is born again. The Galactic Alignment Here is the Maid … with Saturn‘s reign Saturn rises in Virgo … a purified generation from heaven. Venus rises with Antares (the heart) pierced the arrow of Sagittarius – a pure offering …a child is born ending the Iron Mercury rises to support Venus in Kingdom replaced by the Golden Age Ophiuchus, the Healer and Serpent Bearer. Mercury carried the caduceus, serpents on pole symbol of medicine. …across the earth we plea most gracious Lucina is Roman goddess of childbirth, Lucina. Her name means, She who brings children into the light. A lotus tree grove on the Seven Hills of Rome is attributed to her. O Radiant, O Apollo lead forth the Apollo represents the Sun. restoration …of this glorious age, forgive us and set us free … toward immortality. …amidst great lions…venomous snakes will perish … enlightening true mother Virtue, surely the plain with golden with corn The Constellations Leo (Lion) and Hydra (Snake) are invisible as they rose before Virgo, long before dawn. Virtue, akin to Virgo, holds Spica (Corn)

Also consider the view toward the West during the GA sunrise in Rome (see diagram below):

Diagram 7: Rome‘s Western Horizon on December 21, 2012 Galactic Alignment

Jupiter (Zeus) is setting, confirming the end of the Iron Age of Jupiter, during the birth of the Golden Age of Saturn. On myth relates Typhon (Typheus/Mars/Ares) who stole the sinews from the limbs of Jupiter. That Jupiter (Zeus) is in Taurus at GA corresponds to the myth of Pan (Aegapan) hiding in the Nile, since in Egypt, the deity of the Sun and the Nile is Osiris, associated with the Egyptian Taurus Apis the Bull of Memphis, upon whose death the spirit of Osiris was transferred, reborn. Winter Solstice 2012 – Stars Below the Horizon at Sunrise Virgil Celestial Phenomena (Eastern Sky) Still a trace of evil shall linger with Tiphys (Typhon), Hera‟s son – Mars in the warship, walled city and armed trenches. form of a monster that Zeus (Jupiter) Then Tiphys‘ shall rise again imprisoned under a mountain in the Underworld guarded by constant lightning strikes. That is, just after Sunrise Mars though invisible also rises. and again Argo with choice heroes Only the prow of Argo is visible from Rome sail to face the rumored wars and only at midnight (give and take an hour or so). Jupiter is directly above ruling this December 2012 night sky. That Jason placed the Golden Fleece from the Argo into the Temple of Zeus (Jupiter) confirms the ancients aligning their myths with the Galactic Alignment.

It is the prow of Argo that falls killing Jason, part of the story derived from Sirius, the death star, remaining visible just above the prow of Argo as it falls over the horizon. and once more Achilles is sent to Troy. But will the Galactic Alignment, reflected in the mythology of the ancient astronomers of Rome, Greece, Egypt and Mesopotamia, be a day changed world history to the new Golden Age? Saturn rises in the constellation Virgo, called the Maid by Virgil stated above. Notice that after the Sun rises, Mars, deity of war, will soon follow. Does this mean that both Virgil and the Sator Square are in fact referring to the December 21, 2012, GA? This is the entire point of this research, that the two wheels meeting in the Winter Solstice of 2012‟s Galactic Alignment are the very wheels mentioned in the Sator Square: Sator arepo tenet opera rotas – Saturn at the Areopagos holds the work of the wheels of the Galactic Alignment. For Further Study: For further study, Margidda-anna, the Wagon of Heaven, the Sumerian Big Dipper and its relation to Armageddon. The Hebrew for ar-megiddon is mountain - place of crowds (2 Kings 23:30). The Sumerian seal of the seven stars, man holding lions tail and oxen, representing the Northern Stars. Global mythology regarding the end of the fourth world and beginning of the fifth world, when the Northern stars set for the first time. Hadrian stopped a Jewish between 132 and 135 ace whose leader was Simon Bar Kochba, „the son of a star'. Hadrian's victory coin presents this star as his own.

Herod‟s Temple tribute coin presents a star between two palm branches atop a helmet and winged disk. When the Gregorian Calendar replaced the Julian Calendar in 1582, a full week of the calendar was rendered absent. For example, Saint Teresa of Avila dies October 4th (Julian) and was buried the day after on October 15th (Gregorian). In 1582 another comet appeared in Japan and China. It‟s tail reached over half the sky.

The birth of Phanes-Orpheus from the Celestial Egg.

Mithras on globe with cross-band representing the zodiac and the celestial equator.

Roman coin of 250 ace with Tyche on face and reverse with Zeus seated holding Nike in Zodiac (Ecliptic) Wheel.

Nasa Photo of Saturn Holding the Wheels

References: Dionysus; “M. TVLLI Ciceronis De re publica Liber Primvs.” Archived from the original on 22 March 2007. Retrieved 23 March 2007. D1%3Acommline%3D1 _meaning.php;wap2