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Freire: One of the most important ideas of the community newspaper is the fact that the idea of a vertical relation between professor and student is transformed in the idea of persons showing each other their personal “saberes” (knowledge) in order to help the production of the newspaper. This idea is connected with Freire´s approach according to which the oppressed people have “fear of freedom” (1996: 28) in the sense that within a society where oppression exists, people might believe that there are better “saberes” than others. In this sense, they can feel embarrassed because of what they know or they can even think that what they know is not worth at all. As Freire affirms, this “fear” comes also from the oppressors who do not want to horizontalize the “saberes” and want to keep some high and enlightening “saberes” and, in the opposite side, low and degrading ones. As we can see, this idea of knowledge underscores a Manichean dualism that prevents an enriching and honest reciprocity (Andes textile) between the “saberes”. For this to happen, each person should recognize the artificial division of “saberes” that and oppressive society has created (Freire 1996: 28); this labor should be made together with the members of all our textiles; it is important not to replace one idea with another (the idea of subject/individual with the idea of person), but the most important and fruitful thing is to arrive to the idea of person together with all the textiles while we are working towards the final intervention of the Community Newspaper. In fact, the idea of person as relation should not be an a priori but a point of arrival experienced while the project is being done1. No doubt, this understanding of the Community Newspaper involves two human features: love and faith. Faith is important because we believe in the possibility that the isolated subjects become relational persons; this latter is not only the privilege of an elite, but the right of every body (Freire 1996: 71). Last but not least, Community Newspapers consider, similarly but differently to Freire, that education for emancipation is radically (it is rooted in) an act of love. Freire affirms that love is dialogical; we think that too, but we thinks that human beings are relations with different persons and that their life depends on these different persons without which we simply are no, we do not exist. Understanding ourselves as relational persons (Christian phenomenology) is an act of love because we acknowledge that each one and everybody is as important as us and, in consequence, can become a weaver of the Community Newspaper that is the basis of an Educative City as Andean textile. Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Translated by Myra Bergman Ramos. New York: Penguin Books, 1996.

In this sense, Dewey affirms that one of the limitations of aesthetic theories is that they try to “spiritualize art out of connection with the objects of concrete experience.” (1934: 11) As a consequence, the Community Newspaper wants art, and the “saberes” involved with it, to be experienced in the process of producing/creating the intervention. In fact, the Community Newspaper strives to recover the “continuity of aesthetic experience with normal process of living” (10). Art and culture are not isolated in a higher and privileged place of society; on the contrary, they are experienced by each of the persons of the community. Consequently, experiencing art and culture as part of our lives gives us the possibility of imagine and build consciously an educative city as Andean textile.

For Benjamin. The Community Newspaper. New York: Minton. strives to be a simultaneous textile where all “saberes” contribute for the creation of an Educative City. In this sense. defamiliarization and shock belong not only to art. both of them make us aware of the automatisms of our everyday life and give us tools to think of alternatives and solutions. all these languages are invited to participate and cooperate in the project. to increase the difficulty and length of perception because the process of perception is an aesthetic en end in itself and must be prolonged. a poetic image that connects diverse spheres of reality that may have lost meaning. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.” (1989: 783-784) The Community Newspaper strives to be this chance. Shklovsky. and that only some people. As a consequence of this this unfamiliar connection. it is enriching to connect Shklovsky´s defamiliarization and Benjamin´s shock. Art as Experience. In Russian Formalist Criticism. Benjamin The idea of irruption or shock in Benjamin is connected with the idea of defamiliarization (as “alienation effect”) which is present in the theatre of Bertolt Brecht. to make forms difficult. Translated by Lee T. 3. but to every moment of our lives as members of a political community. a Community Newspaper has the task of de-familiarizing the conception that there is high and a low “saberes” opposed to each other. 1965. this would . a new meaning (or the awareness of the loss of this meaning) appears as an irruption and can be seen and heard. John. Brecht´s idea is related to Russian formalism´s concept of “defamiliarization”. Quechua. 1934. For the revolutionary thinker. the “Teacher” with capital “T”. this possibility of reunderstanding and re-imagining our existence as persons. If any participant wants to organize Quechua or Amazonian languages workshops. According to Shklovsky. they are part of the Community Newspaper textile. Reis. This project sees in Spanish just a point of departure for understanding among the different participants. or any activity related to them. In addition.Dewey. 2. Lemon and Marion J. are the authorized individuals to share the high knowledge. Bilingualism: It is important to mention that the idea of “saberes” is multilingual. Victor. Balch & Company. that is.” (1965: 12) In this sense. Four Essays. “there is not even one instant which does not carry within itself its revolutionary chance –which only requires to be conceived as an specific chance. “Art as Technique”. Shock is generated by the power of dialectical images. Benjamin´s close friend. that is. as intervention. “the technique of art is to make objects “unfamiliar”. However. Peruvian reality has many languages (Spanish. Amazonian languages). in consequence. the appropriated revolutionary chance comes from a given political situation. as a radical new chance of a solution prescribed by a task radically new.

can enrich the project. One of the actors of the Community Papers should be these churches: their knowledge of the community is of vital importance to the project. for this to happen we need an educative city where all “saberes” relate reciprocally. 4 On the contrary. Additionally. The Community Newspapers are a first step to this goal. the aim of the project would be that these linguistic “saberes” talk (share) among them reciprocally in order to build. “Nature demands Multiplicity”. Catholic and non-Catholic churches have been always involved in the education of the poorest areas of Lima and Peru. on the contrary. In fact. community churches are a different textiles whose “saberes”. this idea enriches Habermas project. it is the empirical. families and young people. In other words. More than just workshops. Textile that is simultaneous and always changing depending on the necessity of the participants and the community. Christian Churches and public schools Historically. 4. Doubtless. The long term aim would be to become a bilingual or multilingual society2. it is interesting to mention his Excursus about Schiller´s Letters. for him. Of course. This approach is important because imposing monolingualism. it is not the State the one who must impose linguistic policies in a community. Schiller Regarding Habermas. bilingualism and multilingualism should not be dogmas. some of the schools in the communities are run by these churches. That is why Habermas thinks that Schiller´s letters are a precursor of a communicative-reason (and politics). For Habermas too every difference is accepted within his public sphere. Spanish should be seen as a possibility of understanding among the participants and not as an imposition. diversity is important but within the State. in Peru. these churches have the infrastructure3 within the communities and the connections with authorities. the Textile 3 for the intervention. Spanish should be transformed by the different “saberes” involved in the project. Schiller strives for an aesthetic State where art becomes “a means of communication and participation (intersubjectivity) whose goal is to give harmony to society”. It would be interesting to think of these churches as one more fabric (Textile). to form. reciprocally shared. the approach to language issues must come from the decision of the particular community depending on what they need. 3 In fact. My question is the following: is there any 2 This fact is really complex because bilingualism and multilingualism should not be a dogmatic a priori but it must answer to the necessities of the particular communities. In fact.enrich our textile. we should not overlook the fact that his idea of a unified State of Reason (“Reason demands unity”4) subordinates art to that purpose. . but democratically and communitarian reached decisions. 5. art in this sense is a mediation between the unified reason and the particularity of feeling. however.

62-67. the Community Newspapers strive to the collective and creative formation of the community (within this process. Consequently. I would like to be clear with this: I am not an anti-liberal or an anti-capitalist.A.” En El discurso filosófico de la Modernidad. politics and society. we must recognize that liberalism and capitalism are only two choices. (Spanish Edition) 5 In Schiller´s and Habermas´s projects the idea of progress is recurrent. not the only or the best ones). . but I recognized their limitations and I do not debar the actual possibility of different and simultaneous ways of understanding economy. Madrid: Santillana S. while Habermas and Schiller strive to the consolidation of a liberal aesthetic State. Schiller talks about the “savages and barbarians” whom we must overcome and Habermas talks about the irrationality of myth and religion.. In fact. Jurgen. “Excurso sobre las cartas de Schiller acerca de la educación estética del hombre. but on the radical independence and freedom of the community as a relationship of “saberes”. 1993. pp. Habermas.possibility of not being included in the aesthetic state?5 Is there any alternative to the communicative public sphere? The Community Newspapers strive to enrich Schiller´s aesthetic State putting the emphasis not in the constitution of the unified State of Reason.