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EXPERIMENT NO : 4

AIM : Determine the moisture and ash content in a given coal sample. THEORY : Coal is a fossil fuel which occurs in layer in the earth crust. It has been formed by the partial decay of plant material accumulated million’s years ago and further altered by the action of heat and pressure. Coal is highly carbonaceous matter and an important fuel. The process of conversion of wood into coal can be represented as – WOOD → !"T → #I$%IT! → &IT'(I%O'! → "%T)*"CIT!

The coal is classified accordingly to the ran+ which measure of the change it has undergone in the transition from wood to anthracite. eat, the youngest phase has the lowest ran+ and anthracite has a high ran+. The classification according to ran+ is largely based on the carbon content. The composition of coal varies widely and hence it is necessary to analy-e and interpret the results from the point of view of commercial classification, price fi.ation and proper industrial utili-ation. The following methods of analysis can be used for the selection of coal. 1. THE PROXIMATE ANALYSIS : Which includes the determination of moisture, volatile matter, ash and fi.ed carbon. This gives /uic+ and valuable information regarding commercial classification and determination of suitability for a particular industrial use. 2. THE ULTIMATE ANALYSIS : Which includes the estimation of ash, carbon, hydrogen and sulphur, nitrogen and o.ygen. The ultimate analysis is essential for calculating heat balance in any process for which coal is employed as a fuel. SIGNIFICANCE OF PROXIMATE ANALYSIS : a) MOISTURE: Increases the transport cost. *educes the calorific value. Considerable amount of heat is wasted in evaporating the moisture during combustion. )ence, high 0 of moisture is undesirable.

- c) ASH : "sh is useless and non combustible matter. It may forms clin+ers during burning. 2or manufacturing metallurgical co+e.ture of gaseous and li/uid products resulting from the thermal decomposition of the coal substances. smo+e forming tendency and the ignition characteristic. metal composition and conse/uently its prime consideration in selecting the flu. mi. It decreases the heating value of a coal. handling and disposal of ash. usually consists of silica. )ence the volatile matter content of coal influences the furnace design. - )igh volatile matter content coal is preferable in coal gas manufacturing and in carboni-ation plants.ed carbon is preferred.3 b) VOLATILE MATTER : The volatile matter is not a constituent of coal. high smo+e and relatively low heating values. but consists of a comple. Thus the higher volatile matter content the larger the combustion space re/uired.ide and small /uantity of lime. particularly when the main ob1ective is the by – product recovery. )igh volatile matter coal gives long flames. magnesia etc. alumina.. volatile matter 0 gives some idea about co+ing property of the coal . iron o. clin+ers may bloc+ interspace of the grate on which coal is being burnt. It also increases the cost of storage. its composition is of considerable importance in metallurgical operations. It is important to note that. "s it affects the slag. The volatile matter content of a coal is related to the length of the flame. a coal with low volatile matter content and high fi. Coal with low volatile matter content burns with shorter flame. .

MOISTURE : (oisture is generally determined by heating a +nown /uantity of air dried coal from 456 to 445 5C for one hour and calculating the loss in weight as percentage. lace the crucible without lid on a pipe clay triangle and heat carefully in muffle furnace at 755 ± 65 5C until all the carbonaceous matter is burnt off8 stir the residue and ignite it for 95 minute. Cool first in air and then in a desicator and weight. ASH : Weight about 4 gm of the finely powdered air dried coal sample in a previously weight silica crucible. cooling and weighing till a constant weight is obtained. The loss in weight corresponds to the moisture. )eat the partially covered silica crucible in an electric oven at a temperature of 456 to 445 5C for one hour. *epeat ignition. 2. 2rom fi.9 - It also causes early wear of furnace wall and burning apparatus. Cool the crucible first in air and then in a desicator. %ote the constant weight. Weight the crucible. Ta+e about 4. 1.ed carbon greater is its calorific value and better the /uality of coal.5 gm of the air dried coal sample in a previously weighted silica crucible. d) FIXED CAR ON : )igher the 0 of fi.. furnace can be decided.ed 0 of carbon design of fire bo. PROCEDURE FOR PROXIMATE ANALYSIS : .

W? . ∴ 0 of ash . ∴ 0 of moisture . <<<<<<<<<<<< 0 D. after heating . <<<<<<<<<<gm. W6 – W@ > W6 – W? . W3 . W@. <<<<<<<<<<<<gm. 455 . Weight of the crucible = Coal sample . <<<gm. A . Weight of the crucible = Coal sample. W6. Weight of the crucible = Coal sample . Weight of the crucible = Coal sample. 455 . W3 – W9 > W3 – W4 . after heating .%I$)OT B #!CT'*!* I% C)!(ICT*D : . W4 . ASH : iv: v: vi: Weight of the empty crucible .? O SERVATION AND CALCULATION : 1. <<<<<<<<<<<<gm. <<<<<<<<<<gm. <<<<<<<<<<<<<< 0 RESULT : 4: 3: ercentage of moisture . <<<gm. MOISTURE : i: ii: iii: Weight of the empty crucible . <<<<<<<<<<<< 0 ercentage of ash . W9 . <<<<<<<<<<<<<< 0 2.