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Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 6, No. 4, November 1991

Wilsun W. Xu Member, IEEE Powertech Labs Inc. 12388-88th Avenue Surrey, B.C. Canada V3W 7R7 Hermann W. D o m e 1 Fellow, IEEE Jose R. Marti Member, IEEE

Department of Electrical Engineering University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1W5

ABSTRACT: A synchronous machine may generate harmonics under unbalanced operating conditions. These nonlinear effects also complicate the response of the machine to harmonics from other sources. A three-phase synchronous machine model is developed in this paper for unbalanced harmonic load flow analysis and for initializing EMTP transient simulations. Two nonlinear effects, the frequency conversion and saturation, are represented in conjunction with the machine load flow constraints. The model is in the form of a frequency-dependent three-phase equivalent circuit. It can therefore be easily incorporated into existing harmonic programs for system-wide harmonic analysis. KEYWORDS: synchronous machine, harmonic load flow, component harmonic model, three-phase, phase unbalance.

machine itself to generate harmonics. Second, it complicates the machine’s reaction to the harmonics from other sources. The saturation of the excitation circuit is yet another cause of harmonic distortion. It interacts with the frequency conversion process, and therefore, adds extra complications to the problem. Recent works on the unbalanced harmonic behavior of synchronous machines are reported in references [6] and [7]. In these works the frequency conversion effects were studied by solving a harmonically-coupled admittance matrix equation. In the present paper, a synchronous machine model is developed for three-phase harmonic load flow analyses and for initialization of the EMTP (Electromagnetic Transient Program [SI). This model can represent both the frequency conversion and the saturation effects under various machine load flow constraints. The model is in the form of a frequency-dependent three-phase circuit. It can therefore easily be incorporated into existing harmonic programs for system-wide harmonic analysis. The proposed machine model has been built into the MHLF program of reference [5]. Thus the generation of harmonics by synchronous machines under various load flow conditions and the harmonic interaction between machines and other harmonic sources can readily be analyzed.

1. INTRODUCTION The increased concern for harmonic pollution in power systems has made the modelling of synchronous machine harmonic behaviour an important and timely subject. It is relatively easy to model a synchronous machine for balanced (single-phase) harmonic analysis [l]. However, a number of observations indicate that harmonics are very sensitive to three-phase network or source unbalances and, as a result, unbalanced harmonic analysis is essential for many harmonic studies [2, 31. A three-phase frequency scan technique [4] and a Multiphase Harmonic Load Flow (MHLF) technique [5] have been developed to address this problem. The success of these studies depends on the three-phase harmonic models of the power system components, including the synchronous machine. The response of a synchronous machine to unbalanced conditions is complicated by the following factors:
1. Frequency conversion process; 2. Saturation of the excitation circuit; and 3. Machine load flow constraints.

2‘ EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT MODEL In three-phase fundamental frequency load flow analysis, a synchronous machine can be modelled as a set of positive sequence voltage sources behind a known admittance matrix [9]. In harmonic studies, the machine can be represented by a known harmonic admittance matrix as suggested in reference [l]. This equivalent circuit can easily be incorporated into the three-phase network load flow equations. The unknown voltage sources of the model are adjusted by the load flow solution process to satisfy the machine’s load flow constraints [5]. The above model, however, can not include the frequency conversion and saturation effects. To model these effects and also to maintain an equivalent circuit representation, a three-phase harmonic Norton equivalent circuit is developed in this work. This circuit is shown in Figure 1.

With three-phase unbalance, a machine may experience a negative sequence current in its armature. This current may induce a second order harmonic in the rotor. The rotor harmonic in turn may induce a third order harmonic back into the armature, and so on. This is the process of frequency conversion which takes place for higher order unbalanced harmonics as well. The effects of frequency conversion are two fold. First, the process causes the
91 WM 210-5 PWRS A paper recommended and approved by the IEEE Power System Engineering Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society for presentation. at the IEEE/PES 1991 Winter Meeting, New York, New York, February 3-7, 1991. Manuscript Submitted August 23, 1990; made available for printing January 3, 1991.



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-re 1: A synchronous machine model with nonlinear effects.
0885-895O/91$01.00@ 1991 IEEE

Step 3. To include the usual load flow conditions.[V. If the obtained harmonic current sources are sufficiently close to the previous ones. Following the indicated Park’s transformation. . Compute the new current source [Inl(h)] for the machine equivalent circuit using the newly obtained network voltages and currents. In this circuit. The model reduces to the traditional three-phase machine model if h)] is zero and [Y( h ) ]is computed according to reference [I].[ v m ] ) } = Pspectfced I[Tl([VkI . (1) if Vk-b h # 1. and H represent transpose.l)l = Vspectftedr where superscript denotes conjugate transposed.i(h)] in the model is only known approximately. Since the current source is known. where [Ikm] + [In~(h)l the fundamental and harmonic frequencies. 3. Ikm-eIT (2) = [Ikm-a Ikm-b [ v k ] = [vk-a Vk-cIT Vm-cIT [vm] = [vm-a [Inl-a e-j243 1 Vm-b [E] = [Ep a2Ep aE. (6) above constraint equations and the machine structure equa(1) iointlv define a three-phase machine model with nonlinear effects. and the process is redirected to Step 2. Harmonic Current Source Computation. C. This iteration process is performed as follows: Step 1. The constraints are the three-phase active power output and the magnitude of the positive sequence voltage at the machine terminals. Since Park’s transformation is an orthogonal transformation.[ E ( h ) l ) [ E ( h ) ] = 0. Otherwise. the model is linear and harmonicallydecoupled. The iteration numbers are also initialized to zero. . The simplifications made here follow the general guidelines indicated in reference [lo]. it follows that [PI = ([P]-’)~ = [ ~ ] ~ e [~ j ]~ ~e ~. p. however. the determination of the machine equivalent [Inl(h)l = [I/(h)l + [I. Convergence Check. This is explained in the following sections. and conjugate transpose respectively. The constraints are the magnitude and the phase angle of the positive sequence voltage at the machine terminals.IT [Inl] = a = Inl-b &I-clT and h indicates the harmonic order. and 6 is the angle between d-axis and the real axis in the network phasor frame. The iteration is then stopped.]~ + + where superscripts T .1531 The new model can be described by the following equations: [Ikm(h)l = [ Y ( h ) l ( [ V k ( h ) l . conjugate. the nonlinear effects are represented as a harmonic current source [Inl(h)]. the following Park’s transformation can be used to transfer the machine quantities from abccoordinates into dqo-coordinates: PV machine. (3) where [TI= (1/3)[1 a a’]. R e a l { -FkmlH([Vk] . a machine model including the effects of both frequency conversion and saturation can be derived.’ ” [D ~ . The harmonic source L l ( h ) ] is a known current source. a model with only frequency conversion is developed first. Replace the synchronous machines with their harmonic Norton equivalent circuits and solve the network equations for matrix [PI-’ can be simplified as: [PI-’ = [D]ejwt + [DIce-jut + [Do] . a convergence criteria has been reached. that the current source [I. and the This model will give machine’s admittance matrix [Y(h)] equivalent harmonic current source pf(h ) ] that result from the frequency conversion process. Network Solution.. Under this assumptions.[Vm]) = ( P + jQ)spectfred. For clarity. Step 4. Set the harmonic current source [Inl(h)] to zero.[IkmIH([Vk] . It can therefore be solved with network equations in a way similar to the traditional machine model.[ V m ( h ) l . It must be noted. The constraints are the three-phase active and the three-phase reactive power output.’ komdining these equations with other network equations leads to a multiphase load flow equation for the whole system [ 5 ] . 700. Defining + PQ machine. as detailed in reference [ 5 ] . Step 2. An iteration process is therefore needed for the correct harmonic solution. The remaining problem is Step 3. It is determined from the machine load flow conditions. (4) (5) 8 = w t 6. the following constraints can be specified at the fundamental frequency ( h = 1): Slack machine.(h)l circuit with the given load flow conditions. It is estimated from the machine terminal voltage conditions prior to the current source being applied. MACHINE MODEL WITH FREQUENCY CONVERSION To incorporate a synchronous machine model in a general purpose harmonic analysis program reasonable simplifications must be made to the detailed machine model. Initialization. [T]([Vk] . The system is then solved by the Newton-Raphson method at each frequency. the equivalent circuits and the iteration numbers are updated. This current source includes the harmonic effects from frequency conThe network load flow solution and the harmonic iteration version ( p r ( h ) ] ) and the harmonic effects from saturation ([IS(h)]): processes have been built into the MHLF program [5].[ v m ] ) = Vspecified.

and h 2 in abc-coordinates. the dqo-voltages and currents have to be converted into phase quantities using Park's transformation. IO 0 . It can be seen from the above equation that the harmonic voltage of order h . (11) with the rest of the network. The results are similar to Eq.(h)]eJhwt }.2 Harmonic Machine Model in ABC-coordinates 0 . From Eq. * v d Id v. This is the result of frequency conversion. . h .1532 Eq. If I9 . 3. the voltage of the f-winding is no longer zero. Nontheless. . the negative sequence voltage [D][V&(h)] generates harmonic currents of order h 2 + + 0 0 0 ZZl(h) Zzz(h) ID - . this model consists of a simple admittance matrix relating the dqo-components. . the same operations can still be performed.w o W O 0 0 0 0 0 [F]= 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 MgQ 0 0 MgQ 0 LQQ - To interconnect the machine model of Eq.z(h) 1 . .IQ- m Figure 2: Process of frequency conversion.&(h)]. .2. ' . (11) defines the harmonic machine model in dqo-coordinates. In the case of harmonic order h = 0 (DC components). Assume that the machine voltage [v&(t)] vector consists of a harmonic component of order h: [vabc(t)] = Real{ fi[v. The corresponding dqo-voltage vector is obtained by Park's transformation as: -Ld 0 0 [L] = Mdf 0 Lq 0 0 Mw MdD 0 MqQ 0 Mdf 0 0 LOO 0 Lff 0 0 0 MfD MdD 0 Mqg 0 0 0 0 MfD Lgg 0 0 LDD MgQ 0 Note that one harmonic abc-voltage introduces three harmonics in the dqo-coordinates. The machine's dqo-model can now be used to obtain the dqo-currents. v a Zdh) = .b. [V. ' Z. can generate harmonic currents of order h . This voltage source is a function of the DC excitation voltage vf. As shown in this figure. The conversion process is shown in more detail in Figure 2. As expected. (11) except that there is an equivalent DC voltage source in series with the [Ydqo] matrix. ( l l ) .

4. With the transformation matrix [PI.3 Summarv It has been shown that simple matrix operations are sufficient to compute the admittance matrix [Y(h)] and the equivalent current source p. Assuming that [Idqo-s(h)] includes harmonics of all orders. Following a similar process. The system states may settle down quickly to the distorted steady-state if the deviations between the approximate and the actual steady-state conditions are small. Park’s transformation can now be applied to obtain the machine’s model in abc-coordinates. All these observations are consistent with the revolving magnetic field theory [12]. 2.1. into the abc-coordinates. 1. while the positive sequence voltage [D]c[vabc(h)]generates harmonic currents of order h . Compute the saturation current. (11)): where pdq~-~(h)] is a known current vector representing the effects of saturation. For a given set of machine terminal voltages. CASE STUDIES 5. The processing of the first part of Eq. the harmonic terminal voltages that result in currents of the same harmonic order h can be grouped and described in phasor form as: 4. Compute [If(h)] according to Eq. MicroTran is an implementation of the EMTP for .[Vm(h)]).(h)] can be summarized as follows: 1.(h)] according to Eq. Eq. [Idqo-s(h)]. The second part (current source [Idqo-s(h)])is discussed next. only the effects of air-gap flux saturation are considered here. Assuming that the voltage vector [vabc(t)]includes all harmonic components. 5. h and h 1. the equivalent DC voltage source of the dqo-machine model at harmonic order h = 0 becomes a set of positive sequence fundamental frequency voltage sources in abccoordinates. This current vector is generated from the conversion of voltages of different harmonic orders. Correspondingly. The zero sequence voltage [Do]pabc(h)] generates only the harmonic current of the same order. The transient simulation starts from an approximate linear steady-state condition. INCLUSION OF SATURATION EFFECTS It is well-known that the saturation of the air-gap flux in a synchronous machine has significant effects on the machine’s operation [ll]. vector [I+O-s(h)] is obtained through a process of subiterations. as described in Appendix A. also introduce It can be seen here that the dqo-currents [Idqo-s(h)] three separate harmonic components. The MicroTran program was used to obtain the transient solutions.2 Saturation Effects in ABC-coordinates With the machine model including saturation effects in dqocoordinate. where [vabc(h)] is the machine voltages obtained from the load flow solution of the previous iteration. Therefore. 2.1 Saturation Effects in DQO-coordinates It is shown in Appendix A that the effects of air-gap flux saturation can be represented as a current source in parallel with the dqo-machine model developed in the previous section (Eq. This process can be summarized as followings: The above equation defines the final machine model used for the harmonic load flow studies. (12) also indicates that there are three particular harmonic voltages which can generate harmonic currents of the same order.1533 and h. The process of computing [I. the values of these voltages are determined in conjunction with the load flow constraints. the particular dqo-harmonics that produce harmonic currents of the same order in abc-coordinates can be grouped together in a phasor form as: + This is the current that is needed to represent the effects of saturation in abc-coordinates.(h)] needed in the harmonic machine model. The independent current vector [If(h ) ] describes the harmonic coupling of frequency conversion effects. As explained earlier. (17) has been explained in the previous section.2 and h. (15). Other saturation factors either are negligible from a network study point of view or have little contribution to harmonic load flows [12]. The validity of the new machine model and the model’s compatibility for EMTP initialization can be verified by comparing the results from the harmonic solution with the results from EMTP simulation.1 Comparison with EMTP Transient Simulations 4. using the subiteration process described in Appendix A. the admittance matrix [Y(h)] correlates harmonic voltages to harmonic currents of the same order. (18) for all harmonics of interest. the dqo-harmonic current of order h appears in abc-coordinates as: If we substitute [Y(h)l = + This equation defines the machine model shown in Figure 1 (where [Lbc(h)] = [Ikm(h)]7 [vabc(h)] = [vk(h)] . The complete machine model with both the frequency conversion and saturation effects included can then be described by 3. of order h . Compute [Y(h)]according to Eq. Compute [I. (14) whenever the machine admittance matrix needs to be added to the network admittance matrix in the frequency scan process.

. the program was run for three different levels of harmonic truncation. In general. Its results are suitable to initialize EMTP simulations. If harmonics are not included. Significant harmonics are observed even for cases when the machines are operated within an acceptable range of unbalance.observations suggest that the proposed harmonic machine model is accurate and efficient.0857 +j0. DCG/EPRI EMTP and ATP). the voltage and current harmonics in a machine will be influenced by the conditions in the external network. The load consists of a lpu resistance in phase A.g. MicroTran represents the machine as a symmetrical voltage source behind a 3 by 3 impedance matrix with Z J e / j= (Z. The loads were calculated so that the machine’s current unbalance a t fundamental frequency is around the normal tolerance of 10% [14].3. .. 2. the ratio of the fundamental frequency voltage to the fundamental frequency current obtained by the harmonic analysis. a straightforward operating condition is considered. is supplying a Y-grounded RLC load.2 Comparison with Theoretical Results The negative sequence impedance of a synchronous machine is important for the modelling of the machine’s performance under unbalanced conditions.2164 I I H=1.Zneg. the effects of the frequency conversion on the equivalent negative sequence impedance is studied using the developed harmonic machine model. a lpu indLctance in phase B and a Ipu capacitance in phase C. a I -4! v Harmonic Solution . The machine. as shown in Figure 4. In the general case of unbalanced machine operation.3066 0.0655 +j0.2164 I I v I - a As shown in this table. The two test conditions commonly accepted to define the machine’s negative sequence impedance are used here. A profile of harmonic contents of the machine currents and voltages was calculated for two test machines.0859 +j0. It can be seen from the figure that the transients in the transient simulation disappear quickly for this case. 41 Tests current definition voltage definition I 11 Exact 0. . (2) Effects of A connection. The validity of the proposed machine model is again justified by the close agreement between simulation and exact results.2165 11 11 H=l 0. the machine’s negative sequence impedance is neither the one from the V-definition nor the one from the I-definition. The effects of these harmonics could easily be magnified if voltage resonance takes place. To simplify the interpretation of the results. Further inspection indicates that the effects of harmonic truncation in harmonic analysis are not noticeable. the proposed machine model corresponds to the impedance of V-definition. The second test is to connect a negative sequence voltage source and record the current (V-definition). and C loads. The second column displays the exact impedance values computed from theoretical formulas. W 0 : 3 2 0 w l 0 5 > U W 7 -2 2 . The first test is to connect the machine to a negative sequence current source and record the negative sequence terminal voltage (I-definition). -MicroTran --------I I 0 5 10 1 5 20 TIME (pu) 3. which is consistent with the observation made in reference [6]. The correct machine response can only be fully evaluated with harmonics included. All these.and V.3067 0. these results also constitute a good test of the accuracy of the proposed model. Once the transients are over.3066 0. the machines are assumed to be connected in grounded Y with unbalanced R. The difference between the machine impedances calculated from the I.5 0. The contribution of the 5th harmonic is negligible. 4.2165 0. The combination of the load flow constraints with harmonic solutions is therefore the best approach in such situations. The results for a test machine have been listed in Table 1. which represent the synchronous machine as a set of balanced current sources for initialization. From these results and the results of the previous subsections. The test case corresponds to a highly unbalanced condition. in the sense that it is different depending on whether negative sequence currents or negative sequence voltages are used to determine the impedance [12].)/3 and Zmutual = ( Z . For this experiment. however.0858 tj0. Table 1: Values of negative sequence impedance.0655 +j0. The results are shown in Table 2 for the voltage harmonics and for the frequency-conversion-induced equivalent current source Ij(h). This inconsistency may lead to different results in the load flow distributions in synchronous machines.3 Unbalanced Harmonic Analvsis (1) Harmonic profile study. This model allows MicroTran’s solution to settle to the final steady-state very rapidly while the BPA-based EMTP’s require a long time to reach the final condition.3 0.0856 tj0. 5. This assumption was tested by assuming the generator Figure 3: Waveforms from harmonic solution and MicroTran. the harmonic load flow results match very well the waveforms from MicroTran. The following observations can be derived from this table: 1. as illustrated in reference (71. Note that the harmonic magnitudes decrease quickly in the higher orders. These two test cases were run by using the MHLF program with the proposed machine model. The value of this impedance is somewhat arbitrary. The harmonic results were calculated up to the 7th harmonic. L. it may be concluded that only 3rd and 5th harmonics need to be included in synchronous machine’s representation for harmonic studies. The impedance resulting from the test is .0655 +j0. 5. Since analytical formulas are available for calculating the exact impedance [12].0859 +j0.)/3. + I The results of this test are shown i n Figure 3. connected in Y-grounded (data listed in Appendix B). It is generally believed that the flow of third harmonics in lines can be prevented by connecting the three-phase equipment in delta. but in contrast to EMTP versions based on the code from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) (e.definitions is caused by the 3rd harmonic.1534 personal computers [13]. The inconsistency was identified to be caused by the frequency conversion process.2166 I I H=1... In what follows. 2Zne9.

7. The differences in the phase angles are even more noticeable.9 18.without saturation.2 .0225 -152.5. Ang.6 N I. As indicated in the last column of Table 4.5 11 1 V .3 .2* -8.0125 -71. The saturation curve was modelled as piecewise linear between the data points (MMF.0090 48.9 1.1 .6 . Ang. 1.5 . b) with only frequency conversion.1535 (2.3 .3 1.4 . Mag. %dif.5 0.0607 69.0130 -36.4 0. Ang. Table 4: Harmonics with and without saturation.X) = (0.024 -120.028 120. To facilitate the interpretation of the results. Machine No.9.8 .0445 80.7 0. Angle ' 0.0131 -151. it took 5 to 8 iterations for a convergence criteria of 0.023 -120. It can be seen from these results that even through the third harmonic components are about 40% smaller in the A connection.0990 0. The external harmonics were represented as 3rd and 5th current injections to the generator-load system. Table 3: Third harmonics with Y-g and A connection.2 .0 1.4 1. This table shows the third harmonic voltages and currents for the A-connected machine and for the normal Y-ground connection. 1 N I V. 1 1 I h=l Mag. as shown in Figure 5.3 18.0336 69.7 0. The results of the case studies presented in this section were obtained by applying a harmonic iteration process to the proposed machine model.ratio of the negative to positive sequence current at fundamental frequency.5 1.3 1.1. h=3 h=5 %dif. Angle Mag. The results of this test are presented in Table 3.0* 148.2) and h=3 h=5 ~ ~~~ Figure 5: One machine test system with other harmonic sources. Table 5: Machine 1 voltages with other harmonic sources.5 1.7 0.5 0. Mag.1000 0. Table 2: Harmonic profiles of two synchronous machines. ' Mag.0022 .7 . Mag. N V b N V.0304 -171. Phase-A Phase-B Mag.3 2. Ang.8 18.0131 -151.103 1. windings to be connected in delta. Ang. The results of Table 5 further confirm the need to model the machine's nonlinearities in detail.0091 81. These results suggest that saturation can be important in harmonic analysis.8) [12]. and therefore.0022 -71.1 1. Ang.0182 75. 1.5 -44.5 1.0027 167. The number of subiterations used for solving the saturation part of the problem was between 7 to 15.6 . Ang.0724 66.8 1. cannot be locked in by A connection.3 1.0071 -40.5 0.8 0.0777 67. 1.4 . S .7* . 1.025 -121. On the average.with saturation.3 0. The iteration process converged quickly for all cases.0106 -48. simplified operating conditions were assumed. (1.4 0.6 N . there are large differences between the cases with and without saturation.0. 1.3 . (4) Cases with other harmonic sources.0002 148.103 1.1000 0.103 1. The experiment was performed for machine 1 of the previous experiments.2 0.0417 76.2 1. and c) with both frequency conversion and saturation.025 -121. Table 5 shows the results of the cases studied.0120 76. Mag. The reason for this is that the third harmonic generated by the frequency conversion process in the machine is of negative sequence and not of zero sequence.1 .0517 -52.0148 88.9).3 0.6 -11.0295 -156. : 19.022 120.0 . Ang.024 -120.4* 1 . The effects of saturation were also studied with the simplified test system.5 2.2 1.7 1.0148 88. Angle Mag.2* -99.0450 -59.4* 108. Item Figure 4: One machine test system. A Y-e h=l (3) Effects of saturation. The cases consisted of three types of machine modelling: a) with no machine nonlinearities.0001pu.1 Item h=7 h=5 h=l h=3 Mag.3* -122. . they do not cancel out.relative difference of the 3rd harmonic magnitude between N and S. .0130 -36.4 .022 120.0148 88. Ang.9 Phase-C Model Mag.1 V3 Y-g I.1 1.4' 1.1.3 0.0283 -155. The effects of machine nonlinearities were further investigated by including other harmonic sources. Table 4 lists the harmonic profiles of the machine with and without saturation.7' -90.5 1. Item Phase-A Phase-B Phase-C Mag.0078 -168.5 a NP .OM2 .0 0.7 0. Mag.0108 170.0106 -163. A detailed analysis of the convergence properties of the harmonic iteration .4 48.0539 -50.

127. Nov.G.T. IEEE Trans. pp. This also shows the suitability of the harmonic solutions as initial conditions for EMTP transient simulation. 1986.. Power App. Dommel for her help in MicroTran simulations. have been included. DQO-MACHINE MODEL WITH SATURATION [I] CIGRE-Working Group 36-05. Eggleston and J . Marti and H. h f d and Mq are the unsaturated mutual inductances in the d. PAS-88. The unbalanced load flow results without including harmonics may not be correct due to the ambiguous value of the machine negative sequence impedance. IEEE Trans.l Flux Linkage Equation with Saturation [3] K. Sakis Meliopoulos.W. Limebeer and E. Gross. “Digital Computer Solution of Electromagnetic Transients in Single and Multiphase Networks”. Prepared for Bonneville Power Administration.W. Heydt. New York: Pergamon Press. Jan. Thesis. Densem. 1984. Roark and C. Characteristic Parameters. “A Multiphase Harmonic Load Flow Solution Technique”. Vancouver. “Effects of Harmonics on Power System Equipment and Loads” . 388-399. Meliopoulos. J. 1989. 1990 IEEE-PES Winter Meeting. Jan. 1980. [2] G. “Basic Mechanisms of Generation and Flow of Harmonic Signals in Balanced and Unbalanced Three-phase Power Systems”. Arrillaga. [lI] H. [9] J . “Harmonics. Electra. 35-54. Syst. Dommel. respectively.N. 1. Arrillaga. Two nonlinear effects. No. B. Only 3rd and 5th harmonics need to be included for the machine’s representation in harmonic analysis. pp.C. Harley.T. thus conforming the correctness of the new model. Vancouver.J.J. 1982.1536 scheme used for the proposed machine model and the test results of multimachine systems can be found in reference [15]. PWRD-4. The results obtained with the model are in good agreement with the results of EMTP simulations. It is also assumed that the saturation curve has been scaled so that the unsaturated curve is at a 45” angle as shown in Figure 6. Christoforidis and A. IEEE Paper No. Chirricozzi. Chari et al. pp. PS2. University of British Columbia.and q-axes and are related to the unsaturated inductance matrix [L] in the following form: [LI = . Methods of Study. “Unbalanced Synchronous Machine Analysis Using Frequency Domain Methods”.R. [lo] IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms. July 1981. vol. Ortmeyer. Smith. 84 EH0221-2-PWR1 pp. A harmonic load flow problem was formed by combining the machine model with the machine load flow constraints. 2162-2170.W. “Admittance Matrix Model of a Synchronous Machine for Harmonic Analysis”. 1990. The authors would like to thank Mrs. the correct results can only be obtained by including harmonics in the three-phase load flow solution. 1-7. 90 WM 047-1 PWRD. of Electrical Engineering. PAS-100. [8] H. published by IEEE. Dept. on Power Apparatus and Systems. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems. ence Manual (EMTP Theory Book).. IEEE Tmns. vol. A. on Power Delivery. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems vol.F. Estimates of Existing Values in the Network”. C. Los Angeles.P. IEE Proc. Feb. pp. it can not be eliminated by A connections.V. “Three Phase Transmission System Modelling for Harmonic Penetration Studies”. [6] J. [I51 W. Xu. f q ( t )= Mq(iq + + 20) ig 1 (20) where f d ( t ) and f q ( t )represent the MMF’s along d. [7] A. Second Edition. pt. Xu. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The financial assistance of B. pp.. Feb. 8. Paper No.P. Dommel. 1983. thus allowing a systematic harmonic analysis for a wide range of operating conditions. 7. 77. Canada. The MMF’s at a given instant t can be expressed as: f d ( t ) = Md(id + + iD) 2 . Hydro and Power Authority is gratefully acknowledged. For such cases. 78 SM 524-1. 833-840. frequency conversion and saturation. [12] R. vol. and T. Chakravarthi. pp. CONCLUSIONS A detailed synchronous machine model for harmonic analysis has been presented in this paper. Semlyen. [5] W. PAS-103. Arrillaga.J.S.C. The most important conclusions of this study can be summarized as follows: 1. IEEE Tutorial Course: Power System Harmonics. [17] M. vol.P. Computer Modeling of Electrical Power Systems. it is assumed that all machine quantities are expressed in per-unit. Paper No. 1981. [14] A. WileyInterscience. “Load Characteristics of Synchronous Generators by the Finite-element Method” . [I61 R. Machine saturation can have noticeable effects on the harmonic distributions. “Effects of Modeling on the Accuracy of Harmonic Analysis”. vol. [4] T. Dommel. B. pp. 1969. 4. mer Power Meeting. Arnold and B. Presented a t the 1978 IEEE Sum- To facilitate the explanation.and q-axes. Bodger and J . 1977. “Comparative Study of Saturation Methods in Synchronous Machine Models”. 1987. K. 4. These effects are more significant with respect to the harmonic phase angles. Apr.D. Harker.R. 1984. New Zealand: John Wiley&Sons. REFERENCES APPENDIX A.K. University of British Columbia. 2. Aug. [13] MicroTran Power System Analysis Corporation. New York. 90 WM 098-4 PWRS. Electromagnetic Tmnsients Program Refer- 6.D. Ph.J. Hence. Olejniczak and G. 3. 310-317. 1-13. “A Multiphase Harmonic Load Flow Solution Technique” . Tmnsients Analysis Program Reference Manual (Chapter IO). Canada. Oct..A. 1990 IEEEPES Winter Meeting. CA. Analysis of Electrical Machines. P.. 21-31. J.1. 1988. The 3rd harmonic is of negative sequence and not of zero sequence. no. The validity and accuracy of the proposed machine model have been demonstrated by a number of test cases. This scaling makes the magnetomotive force (MMF) equal to the unsaturated flux.P. D.

the new flux linkage equation (Eq.kl + [Fl[Aparkl = . W P ) l = ( P V I . Amd Am. that [wpark] can be represented by a known discrete Fourier expansion n+l [wpark(t)] = Real{ h=O h [ W ( h ) ] e J h w}. there is only one MMF across the air-gap.[FI)[El[wparkl -~[Xp. (8) of Section 3 but with the additional correction term [wpark]. remains unchanged even with saturation. and which will shift to one side of the pole as A . fd fd - wd w. (7). however. A. namely the total air-gap flux.k] periodic time function in steady-state. Eq. the previously used technique of frequency analysis is a can not be directly applied. [wPark] is a nonlinear function of [ i p a r k ] .and q-axes are functions of the MMF: There are many different theories suggested to determine the expressions in Eqs. _I xm. Eq. (9) of Section 3 except for the additional term [ G ( p ) ] [ w p a r k Since ]. The saturation curve therefore becomes a function of the load angle. In general. To relate the voltages to the currents in dqo-coordinates. both air-gap fluxes Solving for [ b q O ( h ) as ] a function of [vdq0(h)] and [W(h)] yields . The mutual fluxes A. Eqs. Consequently. L D I ~+ D 0 wd * (26) LQliQ+ f q w. if A . (28) becomes a linear system with harmonic excitation. In this paper. is subjected to the saturation shown in Figure 6. where subscript 1 indicates leakages. (28) describes an nonlinear dynamic system. therefore. (22) [16]. in spite of the d. t Replacing the [wpark] term in Eq. For the case of h # 0. . (22). Equation (28) above is similar to Eq. (28) with the above expression. giving [vpap~l = = -[Rl[iporkl where ftotai(t) (-[RI .d and A . the method discussed in the paper can be applied to any form of Eqs. This shift increases the flux density because of flux concentration on one side of the pole. is very small.PILI + [ F I [ L l ) [ i p a r k I + (PVI. which is similar to Eq.Llid Lli. It can be assumed. These analyses indicate that there is only one mutual flux. [Apa~k= ] + + Loio Ljlif + Amd Lglig + L D I ~+ D L Q I ~+ Q Am.[Fl)[El (28) 1 2. this leads to where It can be seen that. JiZFGZ7 = [Z(P)l[iparkI where and [ U ] is a 7x7 unit matrix. It is noted.2 Machine Model in DQO-coordinates The machine dynamic equation.. and may well be approximated better by using separate saturation curves for the d. (23) This assumption is supported by the fact that.1). due to the saturation. Equation (27) is the flux linkage equation with saturation included. It is not completely clear at this time which one comes closest to field test results. Eq. (7) (Section 3. + [G(P)I[Wporkl. total flux and the MMF ratio: are determined from the This assumption is based on finite-element analyses of the machine [17]. (27)) is substituted into Eq. Loao Lflif Lglig + f. (22) are determined according to the total flux saturation theory [ l l ]already adopted in the EMTP for synchronous machine transient simulations: 1. However. This is not taken into account now when only the total flux is subjected to saturation.Llid + f d = Lli. increases. which lines up with the center of the pole. w d WP - Figure 6: Normalized saturation curve of a synchronous machine.and q-axes. Frequency domain analysis can again be performed. that [wpa. Only one flux.and q-decomposition. Amd - + + f. the air-gap fluxes along the d.

E. [upark] and [Zpark]. Munich. namely [Vparkl = [z(P)l[.08 BIOGRAPHIES Wdsun Wenyuan Xu (M’9O) was born in China in 1962.08 0. According to the development in the last subsection. It was assumed in the last subsection that the discrete Fourier expansion of [wpark]was known. This solution for [ i p o r k ] is obtained with a subiteration process.t. 0.34 Rj 0.. With this assumption.Dommel was born in Germany in 1933. degrees in electrical engineering from the Technical University. 4 9 Note: kid. in the equation therefore. This process will provides the [W(h)]solution that is accurate for the given voltage conditions. This subsection describes a numerical process to determine that Fourier expansion.0 0. LIST OF MACHINE DATA where Table 6: Machine data in per-unit. 4. degree from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1974 and a Ph. From 1959 to 1966 he was with the Technical University.02 0. 0. (31) in the frequency domain.8 0. 3. a M.3 Lo 1.6 Rg = MdD = M J D 1 1. He received the Dip1. Portland.05 0. Oregon. Solve for all harmonic components of [ipark] by using Eq. in 1959 and 1962 respectively.1. The idea is to solve Eq. In 1974-77 and 1981-84 he taught power system analysis a t Central University of Venezuela. Equation (29) is the required machine model with saturation. and assume [wpaTk]= 0.01 0. (24) and (25).7 Rr.C.Eng. Canada.Sc. in 1982.D. Dommel is a Fellow of IEEE and a registered professional engineer in British Columbia. Compute fd(t).-Ing. The effects of saturation can therefore be simply represented as a known current source in parallel with the dqo-machine model developed in Section 3. degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of British Columbia in 1981.05 0. (as). Munich. a machine model in dqo-coordinates can be represented by Eq. and then compute w d ( t ) and w q ( t )according t o Eqs. the research and development subsidiary of B. Germany. Compute all harmonic components of [ups+] from the load flow results. If the obtained [W(h)]is close t o the one of the last subiteration. Since 1984 he has been with the University of British Columbia in Vancouver.08 0. Since July 1973 he has been with the University of British Columbia in Vancouver.8 1. He received a M. the nonlinear dynamic system was converted into a linear one. Canada.01 1.D. There are only two variables. as listed in the following steps.6 0.Parkl + [G(P)I[%arkl.06 0. and from 1966 to 1973 with Bonneville Power Administration.08 0. A .0 R.r(t) according t o Eqs.-Ing. degree from the University of British Columbia in 1990. Dr. then stop iteration. all point-by-point in the time domain. Martz (M’71) was born in Spain in 1948.1 2. Canada. At present. 2. The point-by-point results of w d ( t ) and w q ( t )are then analyzed using discrete Fourier transform to provide [ W ( h ) ] . (31) for the vector ( i p a r k ] in the frequency-domain given the voltage [upark] calculated in the previous load flow solution. (31) It has also been shown that [wpark] are the nonlinear algebraic function of vector [ipark]. China. he is a system studies engineer a t the Powertech Labs Inc. He received a B. degree from Xiao Jiaotong University. 0. (20) and (23). Jose R. From 1970 to 1972 he worked as a projects engineer.APPENDIX B.9 1. . . Hydro. degree from the University of Saskatchewan in 1985 and a Ph.6 0. otherwise replace [W(h)] with the newly computed results and go back to step 2. 1. fq(t) and ft. and Dr. 5. H e m a n n W. 3 A Subiteration Process .