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Ang nobelang El filibusterismo (literal na "Ang Pilibusterismo") o Ang Paghahari ng Kasakiman[1] ay ang pangalawang nobelang isinulat ng pambansang bayani

ng Pilipinas na si José Rizal, na kaniyang buong pusong inialay sa tatlong paring martir na lalong kilala sa bansag na Gomburza o Gomez, Burgos, at Zamora.[2] Ito ang karugtong o sequel sa Noli Me Tangere at tulad sa Noli, nagdanas si Rizal ng hirap habang sinusulat ito at,[3] tulad din nito, nakasulat ito sa Kastila. Sinimulan niya ang akda noong Oktubre ng 1887 habang nagpapraktis ng medisina sa Calamba. Sa London, noong 1888, gumawa siya ng maraming pagbabago sa plot at pinagbuti niya ang ilang mga kabanata. Ipinagpatuloy ni Rizal ang pagtatrabaho sa kaniyang manuskrito habang naninirahan sa Paris, Madrid, at Brussel, at nakompleto niya ito noong Marso 29, 1891, sa Biarritz. Inilathala ito sa taon ring iyon sa Gent. Isang nagngangalang Valentin Ventura na isa niyang kaibigan ang nagpahiram ng pera sa kanya upang maipalimbag at mailathala ng maayos ang aklat noong Setyembre 22, 1891.[kailangan ng sanggunian] Ang nasabing nobela ay pampulitika na nagpapadama, nagpapahiwatig at nagpapagising pang lalo sa maalab na hangaring makapagtamo ng tunay na kalayaan at karapatan ng bayan. Ito ang mga tauhan sa El filibusterismo ni Jose Rizal.[4] Simoun - ang mayamang mag-aalahas, na nakasalaming may kulay, na umano'y tagapayo ng Kapitan Heneral ngunit siya ay si Juan Crisostomo Ibarra na nagbalik upang maghiganti sa kanyang mga kaaway. Isagani - ang makatang kasintahan ni Paulita, pamangkin ni Padre Florentino. Basilio - ang mag-aaral ng medisina at kasintahan ni Juli. Kabesang Tales - ang naghahangad ng karapatan sa pagmamay-ari ng lupang sinasaka na inaangkin ng mga prayle. Tandang Selo - ama ni Kabesang Tales na nabaril ng kanyang sariling apo. Senyor Pasta - Ang tagapayo ng mga prayle sa mga suliraning legal. Ben Zayb - ang mamamahayag sa pahayagan. Placido Penitente - ang mag-aaral na nawalan ng ganang mag-aral sanhi ng suliraning pampaaralan. Padre Camorra - ang mukhang artilyerong pari. Padre Fernandez - ang paring Dominikong may malayang paninindigan. Padre Salvi - ang paring Franciscanong dating kura ng bayan ng San Diego. Padre Florentino - ang amain ni Isagani Don Custodio - ang kilala sa tawag na Buena Tinta Padre Irene - ang kaanib ng mga kabataan sa pagtatatag ng Akademya ng Wikang Kastila Juanito Pelaez - ang mag-aaral na kinagigiliwan ng mga propesor; nabibilang sa kilalang angkang may dugong Kastila Macaraig - ang mayamang mag-aaral na masigasig na nakikipaglaban para sa pagtatatag ng Akademya ng Wikang Kastila ngunit biglang nawala sa oras ng kagipitan. Sandoval - ang kawaning Kastila na sang-ayon o panig sa ipinaglalaban ng mga mag-aaral Donya Victorina - ang mapagpanggap na isang Europea ngunit isa namang Pilipina; tiyahin ni Paulita.

Paulita Gomez - kasintahan ni Isagani ngunit nagpakasal kay Juanito Pelaez. Quiroga - isang mangangalakal na Intsik na nais magkaroon ng konsulado sa Pilipinas. Juli - anak ni Kabesang Tales at katipan ni Basilio. Hermana Bali - naghimok kay Juli upang humingi ng tulong kay Padre Camorra. Hermana Penchang - ang mayaman at madasaling babae na pinaglilingkuran ni Juli. Ginoong Leeds - ang nagtatanghal sa perya. misteryosong Amerikanong

Imuthis - ang mahiwagang ulo sa palabas ni Ginoong Leeds Pepay - ang mananayaw na sinasabing matalik na kaibigan daw ni Don Custodio. Camaroncocido - isang espanyol na ikinahihiya ng kanyang mga kalahi dahil sa kanyang panlabas na anyo. Tiyo Kiko - matalik na kaibigan ni Camaroncocido. Gertrude - mang-aawit sa palabas. Paciano Gomez - kapatid ni Paulita. Don Tiburcio - asawa ni Donya Victorina. Nagsimula ito sa isang paglalakbay ng bapor sa pagitan ng Maynila at Laguna. Kabilang sa mga pasahero ang magaalahas na si Simoun, si Isagani, at si Basilio. Labintatlong taon na ang nakalipas mula nang mamatay si Elias at si Sisa. Nakarating si Basilio sa San Diego at sa isang makasaysayang pagtatagpo ay nakita niya si Simoun na pagdalaw sa libingan ng kanyang ina sa loob ng libingan ng mga Ibarra. Nakilala niyang si Simoun ay si Ibarra na nagbabalatkayo; Upang maitago ang ganitong lihim, ay tinangka ni Simoun na patayin si Basilio. Nang hindi ito naituloy ay hinikayat niya ang binata na makiisa sa kanyang layuning maghiganti sa Pamahalaang Kastila. Si Basilio ay tumanggi dahil gusto niyang matapos ang kanyang pag-aaral. Habang ang Kapitan Heneral ay nagliliwaliw sa Los Baños, ang mga estudyanteng Pilipino ay naghain ng isang kahilingan sa Kanya upang magtatag ng isang Akademya ng Wikang Kastila. Ang kahilingang ito ay di napagtibay sapagka't napag-alamang ang mamamahala sa akademyang ito ay mga prayle. Sa gayon, sila'y di magkakaroon ng karapatang makapangyari sa anupamang pamalakad ng nasabing akademya. Samantala, si Simuon ay nakipagkita kay Basilio at muling hinikayat ang binatang umanib sa binabalak niyang paghihimagsik at mangulo sa isang pulutong na sapilitang magbubukas sa kumbento ng Sta. Clara upang agawin si Maria Clara. Subali't hindi naibunsod ang ganitong gawain dahil sa si Maria Clara'y namatay na nang hapong yaon. Ang mga estudyante naman, upang makapaglubag ang kanilang sama ng loob ukol sa kabiguang natamo, ay nagdaos ng isang salu-salo sa Panciteria Macanista de Buen Gusto. Sa mga talumpating binigkas habang sila'y nagsisikain ay tahasang tinuligsa nila ang mga prayle. Ang pagtuligsang ito ay nalaman ng mga Prayle kaya ganito ang nangyari: Kinabukasan ay natagpuan na lamang sa mga pinto ng unibersidad ang mga paskin na ang nilalaman ay mga pagbabala, pagtuligsa, at paghihimagsik. Ang pagdidikit ng mga pasking ito ay ibinintang sa mga kasapi ng kapisanan ng mga estudyante. Dahil dito ay ipinadakip sila at naparamay si Basilio, bagay na ipinagdamdam nang malabis ni Juli na kanyang kasintahan. Ang mga estudyanteng ito ay may mga kamag-anak na lumakad sa kanila upang mapawalang-sala sila, si Basilio

tumakbo sa azotea at inihagis ito sa ilog. The novel's dark theme departs dramatically from the previous novel's hopeful and romantic atmosphere. Throughout the Philippines. Abandoning his idealism. and on a larger scale. Crispín. ang mitsa. signifying the character Ibarra's resort to solving his country's issues through violent means. ang mga may matatas na katungkulan sa Pamahalaan at mga litaw na tao sa lunsod. Simoun spares Basilio’s life and asks him to join in his planned revolution against the government.ay naiwang nakakulong dahil wala siyang tagapagmagitan. After the death of his mother. the reading of both the novel and its predecessor is now mandatory for high school students throughout the archipelago. at this point. seeking revenge against the Spanish Philippine system responsible for his misfortunes by plotting a revolution. and the Philippines' own dialects.at walang sinumang maliligtas sa mga naroroon. Di-kawasa'y nanaog si Simoun upang lisanin niya ang bahay na yaong di malulutawan ng pagsabog. His true identity is discovered by a now grown-up Basilio while visiting the grave of his mother. is a graduating medical student at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila. to rescue María Clara from the convent and second. Basilio was able to go to Colegio de San Juan de Letrán where. Ipalalagay ni Simoun ang lamparang ito sa gitna ng isang kiyoskong kakanan na ipasasadya niya ang pagkakayari. Simoun insinuates himself into Manila high society and influences every decision of the CaptainGeneral to mismanage the country’s affairs so that a revolution will break out. Kapag hinagad na itaas ang mitsa upang paliwanagin. Kaagad siyang nagtungo kay Simoun upang umanib sa paghihimagsik. Mag-iikapito pa lamang ng gabi ng araw ng kasal. along with Rizal's last poem. also known by its English alternate title The Reign of Greed. kayamanang naging kasangkapan nito sa pagtatanim ng mga bukto't na Gawain ay itinapon ni Pari Florentino sa karagatan ang kahong asero na kinatataguan ng di-matatayang kayamanan ni Simoun. ay malakas na pagsabog ng dinamita sa lampara ay siyang magiging hudyat upang simulan ang paghihimagsik na pangungunahan ni Simoun. This time. ipakitaas ninyo. ang ama ni Juanito. Ito ay isang lampara na may hugis Granada at kasinalaki ng ulo ng tao. was written in Spanish. Tumakas sya sa bahay ni Pari Florentino. His two reasons for instigating a revolution are at first. Basilio declines the offer as he still hopes that the country’s condition will improve. and a confidant of the CaptainGeneral. gawa ng pagkalundag nito sa durungawan ng kumbento. Captain Tiago’s confessor. Basilio was adopted by Captain Tiago after María Clara entered the convent. Father Irene is . uminom siya ng lason upang huwag pahuli nang buhay.ngere and. and traveled to Manila to study. El Filibusterismo (lit. Sa isang dako naman ay ipinamanhik ni Juli kay Pari Camorra na tulungan siya upang mapalaya nguni't sa halip na makatulong ang paring ito ay siya pang nagging dahilan ng pagkamatay ni Juli. Pagkatapos na mangungumpisal ay namatay si Simoun. These novels along with Rizal's involvement in organizations that aim to address and reform the Spanish system and its issues led to Rizal's exile to Dapitan and eventual execution. ang naging katipan at iniirog ni Paulita. ay puputok ang isang kapsulang fulminato de mercurio. labintatlong taon na ang nakalipas. These novels later on indirectly became the inspiration to start the Philippine Revolution. Ang magiging ninong sa kasal ay ang Kapitan Heneral. Elías. after his previous attempt at reforming the country's system have made no effect and seemed impossible with the attitudes of the Spaniards towards the Filipinos. ang Granada ay sasabog at kasabay nito ay ang pagkawasak at pagkatugnaw ng kiyoskong kakanan --. Mula nang siya ay bumalik sa Pilipinas buhat sa Europa. but through violent revolution using the masses. and the disappearance of his younger brother. he is frowned upon by his peers and teachers because of the his skin color and his shabby appearance. Ang nanlulumong si Basilio ay sisinod sana nguni't namalas niyang dumatng si Isagani. as Simoun was digging near the grave site for his buried treasures. He cynically sides with the upper classes. Ang magarang ilawang ito ay siya niyang handog sa mga ikakasal na sina Juanito at Paulita. he does not attempt to fight the authorities through legal means.[2] is the second novel written by Philippine national hero José Rizal. Pinagsabihan niya itong tumakas nguni't di siya pinansin kaya't napilitan si Basilio na ipagtapat kay Isagani ang lihim na pakana subali't hindi rin napatinag ang binatang ito. Both the novel and its predecessor. Basilio heeded the advice of the dying boatman. "Nanlalamlam ang lampara. Basilio. Sa nais na maiwaksi ang napakalaking kayamanang naiwan ng mag-aalahas. Sa ganitong paraan ay nagawa niyang maipagkasundo ang kasal nina Juanito at Paulita Gomez. at si Basilio ay palakad-lakad sa tapat ng bahay ng pinagdarausan ng handaan. Filipino." ang pansin na di mapalagay na Kapitan Heneral. he becomes a cynical saboteur. Belgium. Upang maisagawa ni Simoun ang kanyang balak na paghihiganti. ang pag-iibigan nila ni Maria Clara at pagbabalatkayo niya na mag-aalahas sa pakay na maiguho ang Pamahalaan at makipaghiganti sa pamamagitan ng isang paghihimagsik. Ang ilawan ay ay magbibigay ng isang maningning na liwanag at pagkaraan ng dalawampung minuto ay manlalabo. Sa isang dako naman. a rich jeweler sporting a beard and blue-tinted glasses. sa baybayin ng karagatang Pasipiko. Both of Rizal's novels had a profound effect on Philippine society in terms of views about national identity. The novel along with its predecessor were banned in some parts of the Philippines as a result of their portrayals of the Spanish government's abuse and corruption. the Catholic faith and its influence on Filipino's choice. It was first published in 1891 in Ghent. It is the sequel to Noli Me Tá. Pagkaraan ng dalawang buwang pagkapiit ay nakalaya rin si Basilio sa tulong ni Simoun. Sisa. Pari Irene. like the first book. at first. Ipinagtapat niya sa pari ang tunay niyang pagkatao at isinalaysay niya sa dito ang malungkot na kasaysayan ng kanyang buhay. the issues related to the effect of colonization on people's lives and the cause for independence. Sisa. Sinamantala ni Simoun ang ganitong pagkakataon upang ipakita sa binata ang bomba na kanyang ginawa. "Utang na loob. Thirteen years after leaving the Philippines. encouraging them to commit abuses against the masses to encourage the latter to revolt against the oppressive Spanish colonial regime. and the government's issues of corruption. With the help of the Ibarra's riches and Captain Tiago." Kinuha ni Isagani ang lampara. ay nakipagsama siya sa negosyo kay Don Timoteo Pelaez. and discrimination. abuse. Sa gayon ay nawalan ng bisa ang pakana ni Simoun para sa isang paghihimagsik sa sandatahan. Naanyayahan din niya upang dumalo sa piging na idaraos. Spanish for "The Filibustering"[1]). Nang malapit nang mapagabot ng mga alagad ng batas ang mag-aalahas. Crisostomo Ibarra returns as Simoun. although it's now read using English. are now considered Rizal's literary masterpieces. to get rid of ills and evils of Philippine society. egging him on by bringing up the tragic misfortunes of the latter's family.

He later regrets his impulsive action because he had contradicted his own belief that he loved his nation more than Paulita and that the explosion and revolution could have fulfilled his ideals for Filipino society. His son. Dejected and defeated. Fueled by his mistreatment at the hands of the Spaniards and his fury at Maria Clara's fate. Simoun . and after hearing about Julî's suicide. blue-tinted glasses.Crisostomo Ibarra in disguise. a Chinese man hoping to be appointed consul to the Philippines. Simoun wishes to attack during a stage play with all of his enemies in attendance.Son of Sisa. His plan was to conceal an explosive which contains nitroglycerin inside a pomegranate-styled Kerosene lamp that Simoun will give to the newlyweds as a gift during the wedding reception. Basilio .Custodio de Salazar y Sánchez de Monteredondo. a former cabeza de barangay who suffered misfortunes at the hands of the friars. he was forced to give everything he had owned to the greedy. left for dead at the end of Noli Me Tangere. Basilio is left in prison as the other students are released. the academy is established but this turns bad as they will serve.Cabeza Telesforo Juan de Dios. Doña Victorina's husband. he is quite an ordinary fellow who married a rich woman in order to be a member of Manila's high society. Florentino opines that God did not forsake him and that his plans were not for the greater good but for personal gain. Basilio has a change of heart and attempts to warn Isagani. has resurfaced as the wealthy jeweler. and comes under the care of doctor Tiburcio de Espadaña. and that when the time came that it would be used for the greater good. was not with them during the event. now a changed man. His will originally states that Basilio should inherit all his property but due to this forgery his property is given in parts. his friend and the former boyfriend of Paulita. thus sabotaging Simoun's plans. and she dumps Isagani.The girlfriend of Isagani and the niece of Doña Victorina. Isagani’s uncle. keeps in close contact with the bandit group of Kabesang Tales. Simoun. the lamp will stay lighted for only 20 minutes before it flickers. sporting a beard. Basilio’s girlfriend and the daughter of Kabesang Tales. Simoun takes poison in order for him not to be captured alive. Simoun then tells Basilio his plan at the wedding of Paulita Gómez and Juanito. He. sabotaging Simoun's plans. believing that she will have no future if she marries him. Kabesang Tales . . He escapes by diving into the river as guards chase after him. Once a farmer owning a prosperous sugarcane plantation and a cabeza de barangay (barangay head). Simoun. Simoun has Quiroga. squeezes his hand and dies. Simoun leaves the reception early as planned and leaves a note behind: “ Mene Thecel Phares. finally joins Simoun’s revolution. the old Indio who passes herself off as a Peninsular. such as Elias. due to his long-hidden desires for young women. who became a civil guard was captured by bandits. Basilio’s hunch-backed classmate. Isagani Villamor . Don Rafael. Florentino then takes Simoun’s remaining jewels and throws them into the Pacific Ocean with the corals hoping that they would not be used by the greedy. Father Salví recognizes the handwriting and confirms that it was indeed Ibarra’s. when all he wanted was to avenge the people important to him that were wronged. one to Santa Clara. finally accepting Florentino’s explanation. one for the archbishop. Simoun. rather than submit to the will of the friar. tries to ask Father Camorra’s help upon the advice of Hermana Bali. Simoun. Basilio. the people are agitated when disturbing posters are found displayed around the city. although not present at the mock celebration. A few days after the mock celebration by the students. Before joining the bandits. Basilio. now unmasked as the perpetrator of the attempted arson and failed revolution. who is the wife of the quack doctor Tiburcio de Espadaña. jumps over the balcony to her death. Tales took Simoun’s revolver while Simoun was staying at his house for the night. The two travel to the convent but things suddenly turn horrible as Camorra tries to rape Juli. He and other students want to establish a Spanish language academy so that they can learn to speak and write Spanish despite the opposition from the Dominican friars of the Universidad de Santo Tomás. Paulita Gomez . the lamp flickers. is also arrested. it will explode and kill everyone—important members of civil society and the Church hierarchy—inside the house. This is the same Basilio introduced in Noli Me Tangere. and a revolver. But before he dies he signs a will. who resurfaced as the feared Luzón bandit Matanglawin Don Custodio . smuggle weapons into the country using Quiroga’s bazaar as a front. however. Basilio is soon released with the help of Simoun. who was also hiding at the house. he seeks shelter at the home of Father Florentino. she and Juanito Peláez are wed. becomes a fugitive. his daughter Julî had to work as a maid to get enough ransom money for his freedom. he reveals his real identity to Florentino while they exchange thoughts about the failure of his revolution and why God forsook him. if someone attempts to turn the wick. ex-beau of Paulita Gomez and the man who removed the explosive lamp from the Captain Tiago's house. Wounded and exhausted after he was shot by the pursuing Guardia Civil. As people begin to panic.making Captain Tiago’s health worse by giving him opium even as Basilio tries hard to prevent Captain Tiago from smoking it. a barangay in San Diego's neighboring town Tiani. ” —Juan Crisostomo Ibarra Initially thinking that it was simply a bad joke. however. a famous "journalist" who was asked by the students about his decision for the Academia de Castellano. one for the Pope. for his part. abruptly aborts the attack when he learns from Basilio that María Clara had died earlier that day in the convent. and one for the religious orders leaving nothing for Basilio to be inherited. Tandang Selo. Father Irene tries to turn the wick up when Isagani. In the end. which was now filled with explosives planted by Simoun.Basilio's friend. coerces him to tender his resignation. A graduating Medical Student who befriended Simoun. bursts in the room and throws the lamp into the river. Julî. He is a rich student and serves as the leader of the students yearning to build the Academia de Castellano. According to Simoun. Maria Clara and his father. Captain Tiago dies after learning of the incident. unscrupulous Spanish friars and the Church.One of Isagani's classmates at the University of Santo Tomas. Tano. In reality. Julî. With the help of a reluctant Father Irene as their mediator and Don Custodio’s decision. Macaraig . Basilio. The reception will take place at the former home of the late Captain Tiago. not as the teachers but as caretakers of the school. and his father. To further strengthen the revolution. A high official tries to intervene for the release of Basilio but the CaptainGeneral. they hold a mock celebration at a pancitería while a spy for the friars disguised as a poor man witnesses the proceedings. Tales leaves a locket that once belonged to María Clara. As payment. suffered a stroke and became mute. The authorities accuse the students present at the pancitería of agitation and disturbing peace and has them arrested. bearing grudges against the high official. Before he dies. a former cabeza de barangay (barangay head) of Sagpang. due to his undying love for Paulita. unknown to him it was forged by Father Irene.

Juliana de Dios. He and Simoun became business partners. He always becomes vindictive with Placido and always taunts him during class. He hid Simoun's weapons inside his house. panggugulo.” Nilisan ni Rizal ang Pilipinas noong Pebrero 3. naiba ito ng mga pangyayaring kinasangkutan niya sa pagbabalik sa sariling bayan. A dancer. Ito ay kanilang inilapit kay Rizal na humingi naman ng tulong ang pagdinig sa kasi ng problema sa lupa. was engaged to be married. Nang mga panahong yao’y nagdaranas din ng suliranin sa lupa ang mga magsasaka ng Calamba.Sagpang's rich pusakal (gambler). the local citizens of the country. Placido Penitente . Father Fernández . she considers herself as one of the Peninsular. San Diego's adjacent town who has longtime desires for young women. To claim her father from the bandits. Father Camorra . They belong to the noble Spanish ancestry. Captain Tiago . the girlfriend of Basilio. Hermana Penchang . Leeds . Tuwiran at di-tuwiran.Macaraig's classmate. He is currently one of the Guardia Civil. he is good friends with Simoun. The only witness to Captain Tiago's death. supposedly posted the posters that "thanked" Don Custodio and Father Irene for the opening of the Academia de Castellano. She is the aunt of Paulita Gomez. now the vice-rector of the University of Santo Tomas Pecson-classmate who had no idea on the happenings occurring around him. He is currently on hiding with Father Florentino.An American who holds stage plays starring decapitated heads. She seems to be a close friend of Macaraig.The pseudonym of Abraham Ibañez. Juanito Pelaez . but chose to be a priest after being pressured by his mother. now the director and chaplain of the Santa Clara convent. Disbelieving of Huli and her close friends. He. he forged the last will and testament of the latter so Basilio will obtain nothing from the inheritance. but in reality.Another gambler in Tiani. Don Timoteo Pelaez . Captain Tiago is Maria Clara's stepfather and the foster-father to Basilio. he helped the students to establish the Academia de Castellano after being convinced by giving him a chestnut. He also controls his temper against Padre Millon. an alternate spelling of his name.Father Florentino .Don Custodio's supposed "girlfriend".The lustful parish priest of Tiani. to pursue his studies. this unnamed character pretends that what he is doing is for the good of the Indios.The priest-friend of Isagani. Although reluctant. His health disintegrates gradually because of the opium he was forced to smofekngurngh iuh g ij [ . if not only by his mother's plea. Tiburcio de Espadaña .Juanito's father.Victorina delos Reyes de Espadaña.Kabesang Tales's elder son after his older sister. Ang kanyang pamily ay giniyagis din ng maraming mga panggigipit. helped to release Kabesang Tales from the hands of bandits.A favorite student of the professors. and favors Juanito Pelaez than Isagani.A student of the University of Santo Tomas who was very intelligent and wise but did not want.Captain Tiago's spiritual adviser. and a secular priest. Father Bernardo Salvi. she had to work as a maid under the supervision of Hermana Penchang. she considers herself as an ally of the friars. He suggested that they held the mock celebration at the panciteria. the story hinting at the ambivalence of his decision as he chooses an assignment to a remote place.A Chinese businessman who dreamed of being a consul for his country in the Philippines. a journalist who believes he is the "only" one thinking in the Philippines. Hermana Báli . Eventually.Former parish priest of San Diego.The highest-ranking official in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial period. she was freed but committed suicide after Father Camorra attempted to rape her. Sandoval . Katakut-takot na liham ng mga pagbabanta na karamihan ay walang lagda ang dumarating at ipinayo ng gobernador na bumalik siya sa ibang bansa. Father Írene . napasabay pa sa pagdinig ng kaso ni Rizal ukol sa pagpapalathala ng tinaguriang “makamandag” na babasahing Noli Me Tangere. Gobernador General . along with the other three members of their gang. She became Huli's mother-figure and counselor. Tano . living in solitude near the sea. He died in an encounter on the mountains with his son Tales.Isagani's godfather. Ben-Zayb .ihrgwih W{igh (PGreuj [p(J gop' jRE)u w4T {)UW 'pOIGj R9ujBook notes/Summary in Tagalog (El Filibusterismo) Kaligirang Pangkasaysayan ng El Filibusterismo Bago pa man bumalik sa sariling bayan si Jose Rizal noong Oktubre 1887. He is a rich businessmen and arranges a wedding for his son and Paulita. 1888 dahil sa pangamba niyang manganib ang buhay ng mga mahal sa buhay.Santiago delos Santos. Although of Indio ideology. naapektuhan ito ng wala pang anim na buwang pagkamalas niya ng mga kasamaang ginagawa ng mga pari. Juli San Jose . katulad ng “pagpapayaman sa kanilang mga asyenda.The vice-leader of Macaraig's gang. He nearly raped Juli causing the latter to commit suicide.Don Tiburcio is Victorina de Espadaña's lame husband. pang-aakit sa mga babae. pagliligpiy sa mga kaaway atbp. he coerces his classmates to lead alongside him the opening of the Spanish language academy.The Physics teacher of the University of Santo Tomas. Tandang Selo . known in Noli Me Tangere as Tiburcio de Espadaña's cruel wife. although making a cameo appearance. He raised the sick and young Basilio after he left their house in Noli me Tangere. She offers Huli to be her maid so the latter can obtain money to free Kabesang Tales. Bagaman may mga pagpapalagay na mayplanosi Rizal para sa ikalwang nobela. He then returned under the name tae mo after his exile in Caroline Islands. Sinimulan ni Rizal and nobelang El Filibusterismo sa harap ng karanasang ito. Ani Rizal sa . Doña Victorina . his physics teacher. Maraming mga tuligsa at pagbabanta ang tinanggap ni Rizal. Quiroga . marami ng kasawiang dinanas ang kanyang mga kamag-anakan at kaibigan dahil sa pagkakasulat niya ng Noli Me Tangere. A Spanish classmate of Isagani. Tadeo . . Father Millon . Father Hernando de la Sibyla .Father of Kabesang Tales. he prioritizes the needs of his fellow Spaniards living in the country. Magkakabisa sa kanya kaipala ang mga sakit sa loob na dinanas niya at ng kanyng pamilya. she is always agitated of her "boyfriend"'s plans. Pepay . He promised to Isagani that he and the other priests will give in to the students' demands. Lucia died in childhood. and the youngest daughter of Kabesang Tales. Ben-Zayb is an anagram of Ybanez.A Dominican friar introduced in Noli Me Tangere.

nagdanas si Rizal ng hirap habang sinusulat ito at. kaiba sa kapwa pari Pari Florentino – Amain ni Isagani Kabesang Tales – Naging Cabeza de Barangay. katiwalian atbp. nakasulat ito sa Kastila. tulad din nito. pinagsanggunian din ng mga estudyante tungkol sa pagpapatayo ng Akademya Ben Zayb – Manunulat at mamamahayag Donya Victorina – Pilipinang kumikilos at umaasal na tulad ng isang tunay na Espanyola at itinuturing na mapait na dalandan ng kaniyang asawa . dumating ang hindi niya inaasahang tulong ni Valentin Ventura mula sa Paris. at Zamora. sa Biarritz. Natapos limbagin ang aklat noong Setyembre 18. dati’y isang tahimik na tao. Tuwiran at di-tuwiran. Hindi naglao iyon. ititigil ko kung walang darating sa aking salapi. ipinakilala ni Rizal ang isang pagbabanyuhay niya bilang nobelista. at Brussel. Naglalahad dito sa isang malatalaarawang pagsasalaysay ang mga suliranin ng sistema ng pamahalaan at ang mga kaakibat na problema: problema sa lupa. Sinimulan niya ang akda noong Oktubre ng 1887 habang nagpapraktis ng medisina sa Calamba. Bukod dito’y dumanas si Rizal ng suliranin sa pananalapi. Karagdagang Impormasyon: Ang nobelang El Filibusterismo (literal na “Ang Pilibusterismo“) o Ang Paghahari ng Kasakiman ay ang pangalawang nobelang isinulat ng pambansang bayani ng Pilipinas na si José Rizal. ginigiyagis si Rizal ng mga personal at pulitikal na suliranin. nangungulila siya kay Leonor Rivera at waring walang kasiglahan ang insipirasyong dulot ng paniningalang-pugad kay Nellie Boustead.” Hindi nagwakas sa paglisan ni Rizal ang suliranin. na kaniyang buong pusong inialay sa tatlong paring martir na lalong kilala sa bansag na Gomburza o Gomez. nais kong dalhin ang aking mga kababayan at ang lahat sa demonyo…” Sa kabutihang palad. Inilathala ito sa taon ring iyon sa Gent. Ito ang karugtong o sequel sa Noli Me Tangere at tulad sa Noli. Ipinagpatuloy ni Rizal ang pagtatrabaho sa kaniyang manuskrito habang naninirahan sa Paris. Ang kanyang pamilya ay inusig. Mulato. maganda. Amerikano. nagpaalila upang matubos ang ama Pari Camorra – Paring mukhang artilyero Pari Salvi – Tinatawag na moscamuerta o patay na langaw Pari Sibyla – Vice Rector ng Unibersidad Pari Irene – Kaibigan at tagapayo ni Kapitan Tiyago. Maraming kamag-anakan niya ang namatay at pinag-usig. 1891 saGhent. nagpapahiwatig at nagpapagising pang lalo sa maalab na hangaring makapagtamo ng tunay na kalayaan at karapatan ng bayan. Umakyat ang kaso sa lupa ng mga Mercado-Rizal hanggang Kataastaasang Hukuman ng Espanya. pamamalakad ng relihiyon at edukasyon. A. namamahala sa pagpapatayo ng Akademya ng Wikang Kastilang Pari Fernandez – May kaibigang pangangatwiran. 1891. kung hindi lamang ako naniniwalang may mga mabubuti pang Pilipino. anak ni Kabesang Tales. Portuges at Cardenal Moreno Isagani – Isang binatang may matayog na isipan. “Lahat ng mga punong panlalawigan at mga arsobispo ay naparoroon sa Gobernador Heneral araw-araw upang ako’y ipagsumbong. sasabihin ko sa iyong kung hindi lamang sa iyo. kumakain ako sa mga pangkaraniwang restawran upang makatipid at mailathala ko ang aking aklat. bagaman hindi maiiwasang makilala ang mga kapaitan at kabiguan sa paraang hindi maipagkakamali – kasama na pati ang pangungulila at pagaasam sa pag-ibig. Ang buong ahente ng Dominiko ay sumulat ng sumbong sa mga alkalde na nakita nila akong lihim na nakikipagpulong sa mga babae at lalaki sa itaas ng bundok. makata at katipan ni Paulita Gomez Paulita Gomez – Katipan ni Isagani. Sa London. babae at bata upang damhin ang kalamigan ng umaga ngunit laging may kasamang tenyente ng guwardiya sibil na marunong managalog… Inalok ako ng salapi ng akong mga kababayan para lisanin ang pulo. namatayan siya ng dalawang kaibigan at mababa ang pagkikilalang iginagawad sa kanya ng mga kasama sa Kilusang Propaganda. mayaman. masasalamin din ang mapapait na karanasang gumiyagis kay Rizal sa ilang mga eksena at yugto ng nobela. at nakumpleto niya ito noong Marso 29. pinagkakamalang Indiyong Ingles. at pagkatapos na gawin sa loob ng isang buwan ay kalilimutan nang muli ako… Naisanla ko na ang aking mga alahas. Mga Tauhan: Simoun – Mayamang mag-aalahas. Naisiwalat ni Rizal ang kanyang paghihirap sa isang liham na naipadala kay Jose Maria Basa: “Ako’y nanghihinawa na sa paniniwala sa ating mga kababayan. pinipigilan nila ang aking pagbabalik. Parang sila’y nagkakaisa upang maging mapait ang aking buhay. Masagisag at malarawan ang ebolusyon ni Simoun mula kay Crisostomo Ibarra. nakatira ako sa isang mumurahing silid. Madrid. Hiniling nila ang mga bagay na ito hindi lamang sa aking kapakanan kundi sa kanila na rin sapagkat marami akong kaibigan at kasalamuha na maaaring ipatapon kasama ko sa Balabag o Marianas. sinasagot niya ang kabi-kabilang tuligsang tinatamo ng Noli Me Tangere. May isa pang tinanggihang mapalibinng sa libingang Katoliko. nangangakong bibigyan ako ng tustos. Sa gitna ng mga pag-aalalang ito. Isang nagngangalang Valentin Ventura na isa niyang kaibigan ang nagpahiram ng pera sa kanya upang maipalimbag at mailathala ng maayos ang aklat noong Setyembre 22. noong 1888. nang lahat ang pag-asa ni Rizal. Burgos. 1891. Ipinadala niya ang kabuuang gugol sa pagpapalimbag ng aklat matapos mabalitaan ang pangangailangan ni Rizal sa salapi. ako’y dali-daling nagpaalam sa aking pamilya.Belgium.BurgosatZamora. pamangkin ni Donya Victorina Basilio – Isang binatang nakapag-aral ng medisina dahil sa sariling sikap Juli – Katpian ni Basilio. Totoong ako’y naglalakad sa bundok kung bukangliwayway na kasama ng mga lalaki.isang sulat na ipinadala niya kay Blumetritt habang naglalakbay. pamamahala. kilala rin sa tawag na Buena Tinta Ginoong Pasta – Isang abogadong sanggunian ng mga prayle kung may suliranin. Sa El Filibusterismo. Ang nasabing nobela ay pampulitika na nagpapadama. Inihandog ni Rizal ang nobela sa alaala ng mga paring sina Gomez. Ang pagkahandog na ito sa tatlong paring martir ng ikalawang nobela ni Rizal ang panunahing dahilan kung bakit ito ay itinuturing na isang nobelang political. gumawa siya ng maraming pagbabago sa plot at pinagbuti niya ang ilang mga kabanata. Dahil dito kahit may kaunting karamdaman. ngunit nang angkinin ng korporasyon ng mga prayle ang lupang sinasaka ay sumama sa mga tulisan Don Custodio – Pinakamasipag sa lahat ng nagpapalagay.

Jose Alejandro. For the past three months I have not received a single centavo. in Hongkong on July 9. as expected of a determined character. forcing him to stop and leave the book half-way. mahilig sa pagpaparami ng indulgencia Placido Penitente – Nag-aaral ng pagkamanananggol. Jose Basa. Rizal was not to remain in despair for long. and when there is nothing to pawn I will stop and return to be at your side. The sequel to Rizal’s Noli came off the press by the middle of September." Subsequent events. Valentin Ventura. by surrounding your trials with mystery and shadows causes the belief that there was some error. Executed in the Bagumbayan Field on the 28th of February. Explaining to Marcelo H. Rizal once more wrote his friend. said. that regretted very much having killed Elias instead of Ibarra. And while we await expectantly upon Spain some day to restore your good name and cease to be answerable for your death. and was very unsure of being able to write the continuation and speak of a revolution. Rizal aptly titled the second part of the Noli Me Tangere.On the 18th he sent Basa two copies. In veneration of the three priests." Inevitably. He offered him financial assistance. and the date of execution 17th not 28th. although brown and not good-looking. 1891: "I am not sailing at once. after the fate of the Noli was sealed by the Spanish authorities. "To the memory of the priests. I have the right to dedicate my work to you as victims of the evil which I undertake to combat. in no sense recognizes your culpability. Don Mariano Gomez (85 years old). as your complicity in the Cavite Mutiny is not clearly proved. "It is a pity. sugo ng Espanya. Sinimulan niya ang akda noong Oktubre ng 1887 habang nagpapraktis ng medisina sa Calamba. pinakamatlino sa bayan ng Batangas. as you may or may not have been patriots. it will never be finished." "The church. though. therefore. masuwerteng nakabili ng bahay ni Kapitan Tiyago. by worshipping your memory and calling you martyrs. 1891: "I have finished my book. naghahangad na magkaroon ng konsulado ng mga Intsik Don Timoteo Pelaez – Isang negosyante. learned of Rizal’s predicament. and if I do not finish it here." Rizal’s memory seemed to have failed him.Quiroga – Kaibigan ng mga prayle. and writes Jose Alejandro. Ah! I’ve not written it with any idea of vengeance against my enemies. has placed in doubt the crime that has been imputed to you. Consequently. noong 1888. for to his friend. na kaniyang buong pusong inialay sa tatlong paring martir na lalong kilala sa bansag na Gomburza o Gomez. for Father Gomez was then 73 not 85. Blumentritt. that is why he wanted to finish the second part of the Noli at all costs. committed in fatal moments. 1891. reasoning that when he published the Noli his health was very much broken." Fortunately. he dedicated the book to them. I will continue publishing it as long as I can. malapit na kaibigan ni Simoun Hermana Penchang –Ang manang na umampon kay Juli na ginawang katulong ang dalaga. and his spirits dampened by the tragic execution of the three martyred priests. however. katunggali ng Kapitang Heneral sa pagpapalaya kay Basilio Kapitan Heneral – Ang pinakamataas na pinuno ng bayab. and all the Philippines. In so far. Ito ang karugtong o sequel sa Noli Me Tangere at tulad sa Noli. Rizal moved to Ghent. mapanukso. nagpatuloy ng pagaaral sa Pilipinas Pecson – Isang mag-aaral na palaisip subalit pesimistiko o laging may kabiguang laging natatanaw sa hinaharap The word "filibustero" wrote Rizal to his friend. Having moved to Ghent to have the book published at cheaper cost. leaving only thirty-eight chapters compared to the sixty-four chapters of the first novel. for it seemed to me a pity not to do so. and Valentin Ventura the original manuscript and an autographed printed copy. at Zamora. Even then Rizal’s was forced to shorten the novel quite drastically. 1872. and Don Jacinto Zamora (35 years old). "in writing the Noli Rizal signed his own death warrant. he wrote on March 29. "because it seems to me that this second part is more important than the first. and as you may or may not cherished sentiments for justice and for liberty. hindi naagiliwan ng mga propesor kaya binalak nang huminto sa pag-aaral Makaraig – Mayaman at isa sa pinakamasigasig na isang magkaroon ng Akademya ng Wikang Kastila Juanito Pelaez – Mapaglangis at kinagigiliwan ng mga propesor. the Government. tulad din nito. one of the new Filipinos who had been quite intimate with Rizal. The masses do not know it yet. and that he had been dreaming almost every night of dead relatives and friends a few days before his 29th birthday. He confessed. I prefer to publish it in some other way before leaving Europe." he wrote Basa. ama ni Juanito Mataas na Kawani – Ang nagmamalasakit sa mga Pilipino na kawani ng pamahalaang Kastila. because I am now printing the second part of the Noli here. prompted Rizal to write the continuation of his first novel. but only for the good of those who suffer and for the rights of Tagalog humanity. Rizal apparently went in writing. The FOREWORD of the Fili was addressed to his beloved countrymen. Don Jose Burgos (30 years old). del Pilar his inability to contribute articles to the La Solidaridad. nagdanas si Rizal ng hirap habang sinusulat ito at. as you may see from the enclosed pages. Burgos. Ipinagpatuloy ni Rizal ang pagtatrabaho sa . is very little known in the Philippines. A compatriot. let these pages serve as a tardy wreath of dried leaves over one who without clear proofs attacks your memory stains his hands in your blood. Inspired by what the word filibustero connoted in relation to the circumstances obtaining in his time. nakasulat ito sa Kastila. Rizal’s next letter to Basa contained the tragic news of the suspension of the printing of the sequel to his first novel due to lack of funds. Basa. Father Burgos 35 not 30 Father Zamora 37 not 35." To a Filipino friend in Hong Kong. by refusing to degrade you. Rizal likewise eagerly announced the completion of his second novel. magaling sa Latin. gumawa siya ng maraming pagbabago sa plot at pinagbuti niya ang ilang mga kabanata. Ferdinand Blumentritt. thus: "TO THE FILIPINO PEOPLE AND THEIR GOVERNMENT" Ang nobelang El Filibusterismo o Ang Paghahari ng Kasakiman ay ang pangalawang nobelang isinulat ng pambansang bayani ng Pilipinas na si Jose Rizal. El Filibusterismo. Rizal said that he was haunted by certain sad presentiments. kuba at umaasa sa katalinuhan ng iba Sandoval – Isang Kastilang kawani na salungat sa mga ginagawa ng kanyang mga kababayan. Sa London. so I have pawned all that I have in order to publish this book.

Isang nagngangalang Valentin Ventura na isa niyang kaibigan ang nagpahiram ng pera sa kanya upang maipalimbag at mailathala ng maayos ang aklat noong Setyembre 22. Kabanata 01 : Sa Kubyerta Kabanata 02 : Sa Ilalim ng Kubyerta Kabanata 03 : Ang mga Alamat Kabanata 04 : Kabesang Tales Kabanata 05 : Ang Noche Buena ng Isang Kutsero Kabanata 06 : Si Basilio Kabanata 07 : Si Simoun Kabanata 08 : Maligayang Pasko Kabanata 09 : Ang mga Pilato Kabanata 10 : Kayamanan at Karalitaan Kabanata 11 : Los Baños Kabanata 12 : Placido Penitente Kabanata 13 : Ang Klase sa Pisika Kabanata 14 : Sa Bahay ng mga Mag-aaral Kabanata 15 : Si Ginoong Pasta Kabanata 16 : Ang Kasawian ng Isang Intsik Kabanata 17 : Ang Perya sa Quiapo Kabanata 18 : Ang mga Kadayaan Kabanata 19 : Ang Mitsa Kabanata 20 : Si Don Custodio Kabanata 21 : Mga Anyo ng Taga-Maynila Kabanata 22 : Ang Palabas Kabanata 23 : Isang Bangkay Kabanata 24 : Mga Pangarap Kabanata 25 : Tawanan at Iyakan Kabanata 26 : Mga Paskil Kabanata 27 : Ang Prayle at ang Estudyante Kabanata 28 : Pagkatakot Kabanata 29 : Ang Huling Pati-ukol kay Kapitan Tiyago Kabanata 30 : Si Huli Kabanata 31 : Ang Mataas na Kawani Kabanata 32 : Ang Bunga ng mga Paskil Kabanata 33 : Ang Huling Matuwid Kabanata 34 : Ang Kasal ni Paulita Kabanata 35 : Ang Piging Kabanata 36 : Mga Kapighatian ni Ben Zayb Kabanata 37 : Ang Hiwagaan Kabanata 38 : Kasawiang-palad Kabanata 39 : Ang Katapusan Ang nobelang El Filibusterismo ay isinulat ng ating magiting na bayaning si Dr. the plots are poles apart. Inglatera noong 1890 at ang malaking bahagi nito ay naisulat niya sa Bruselas. all the reader will feel is bitterness. Simoun is now cunningly careful in his dealings. in this novel.kaniyang manuskrito habang naninirahan sa Paris. Outright scorn and bitterness may already be felt at the beginning of the story. But whereas in the first novel. Belgica. Inilathala ito sa taon ring iyon sa Gent. and mercy. Fili aims at enlightening the society. Even the characters' personalities seem to have undergone radical change.Mariano Gómez. José Rizal na buong pusong inalay sa tatlong paring martir. at nakompleto niya ito noong Marso 29. Sa kasalukuyan. aspiring. the society is urged to open its eyes to reality and rebel against the Spanish government for its oppression and abuse. Isang nagngangalang Valentin Ventura na isa niyang kaibigan ang nagpahiram ng pera sa kanya upang maipalimbag ang aklat noong Setyembre 22. Natapos ang kanyang akda noong Marso 29. Ang nasabing nobela ay pampulitika na nagpapadama. whose deaths left an indelible mark in his mind. In Noli. sa Biarritz. at bringing the Filipinos closer to the truth. ang may-akda ay dumanas ng hirap habang isinusulat ito. ang El Filibusterismo ay isa sa mahahalagang akda ng Panitikang Filipino na pinagaaralan ngayon sa mataas na paaralan (sa ikaapat na taon). While Ibarra is trusting. Ang nasabing nobela ay pampulitika na nagpapadama. Madrid. Tulad ng Noli Me Tangere. . 1891. Jose Burgos. distrusting. beauty. nagpapahiwatig at nagpapagising pang lalo sa maalab na hangaring makapagtamo ng tunay na kalayaan at karapatan ang bayan. El Filibusterismo was written in dedication to the three martyred priests Mariano Gomez. where Simoun promotes abuse and tyranny in the Spanish government. alinsunod sa kurikulum na itinakda ng Kagawaran ng Edukasyon. nagpapahiwatig at nagpapagising pang lalo sa maalab na hangaring makapagtamo ng tunay na kalayaan at karapatan ng bayan. 1891. and loving. 1891. and Jacinto Zamora. romance. and antipathy. Like Noli Me Tangere. na lalong kilala sa bansag na GOMBURZA . This is how different Rizal's second novel is. and extremely bitter. Something changed in Rizal. Sinimulan niyang isulat ito sa London. In Fili. José Apolonio Burgos. hatred. 1891. we are encouraged to ask and aspire for change and liberation. Considering that both were written by the same author. conveys an entirely different personality in Fili. The romance and aspirations are gone. there is aspiration. Simoun. in the hope that the people will reach the limits of their endurance and declare a revolution. and Jacinto Zamora. at Brussel. and this is reflected in the personalities he gave his El Filibusterismo characters. who is actually Noli's Ibarra in disguise.