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Srinivasa Ramanujan FRS ( pronunciation (help·info)) (22 December 1887 – 26 April 1920) was an Indian mathematician andautodidact who, with almost no formal training in pure mathematics, made extraordinary contributions to mathematical analysis,number theory, infinite series, and continued fractions. Living in India with no access to the larger mathematical community, which was centred in Europe at the time, Ramanujan developed his own mathematical research in isolation. As a result, he rediscovered known theorems in addition to producing new work. Ramanujan was said to be a natural genius by the English mathematician G. H. Hardy, in the same league as mathematicians such as Euler and Gauss. He died at the age of 32. Ramanujan was born at Erode, Madras Presidency (now Tamil Nadu) in a Tamil Brahmin family of Thenkalai Iyengar sect.[2][3][4] His introduction to formal mathematics began at age 10. He demonstrated a natural ability, and was given books on advanced trigonometrywritten by S. L. Loney that he mastered by the age of 12; he even discovered theorems of his own, and re-discovered Euler's identityindependently. He demonstrated unusual mathematical skills at school, winning accolades and awards. By 17, Ramanujan had conducted his own mathematical research on Bernoulli numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni constant.

Ramanujan received a scholarship to study at Government College in Kumbakonam. and also declared 2012 the National Mathematics Year. He stated results that were both original and highly unconventional. He became a Fellow of the Royal Society and a Fellow of Trinity College. Cambridge. malnutrition. Hardy. in recognition of his contribution to mathematics. although a small number of these results were actually false and some were already known. . However. an international publication. the mathematical mainstream has been rather slow in absorbing some of his major discoveries. He joined another college to pursue independent mathematical research. was launched to publish work in all areas of mathematics influenced by his work. such as the Ramanujan prime and the Ramanujan theta function. The Ramanujan Journal. which was later rescinded when he failed his non-mathematical coursework. G. the Government of India declared that Ramanujan's birthday (22 December) should be celebrated every year as National Mathematics Day. invited Ramanujan to visit and work with him at Cambridge. In December 2011. Ramanujan died of illness. During his short lifetime.[6] In 1912–1913. recognizing the brilliance of his work. and possibly liver infection in 1920 at the age of 32. Ramanujan independently compiled nearly 3900 results (mostly identities and equations). and these have inspired a vast amount of further research.[7] Nearly all his claims have now been proven correct. he sent samples of his theorems to three academics at the University of Cambridge. working as a clerk in the Accountant-General's office at the Madras Port Trust Office to support himself. H.

Aryabhata Aryabhata (Sanskrit: आर्यभट listen (help·info). Biography Name While there is a tendency to misspell his name as "Aryabhatta" by analogy with other names having the "bhatta" suffix. in most instances "Aryabhatta" does not fit the metre either. The works of Aryabhata dealt with mainly mathematics and astronomy. Time and place of birth Aryabhata mentions in the Aryabhatiya that it was composed 3.[7] Furthermore.600 years into the Kali Yuga. This corresponds to 499 CE. and implies that he was born in 476. when he was 23 years old.[6] including Brahmagupta's references to him "in more than a hundred places by name". his name is properly spelled Aryabhata: every astronomical text spells his name thus. . His works include the Āryabhaṭīya(499 CE. IAST: Āryabhaṭa) or Aryabhata (476– 550 CE)[3][4] was the first in the line of greatmathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy. He also worked on the approximation for pi. when he was 23 years old)[5] and the Arya-siddhanta.

and. Bihar. Aryabhata mentions "Lanka" on several occasions in the Aryabhatiya. Both Hindu and Buddhist tradition. based on the belief that it was earlier known as Koṭum-Kal-l-ūr ("city of hard stones"). it is speculated that Aryabhata might have been the head of the Nalanda university as well. For instance. old records show that the city was actually Koṭum-kol-ūr ("city of strict governance"). Similarly. but it may have been in the area known in ancient texts as Ashmaka India which may have beenMaharashtra or Dhaka. identify Kusumapura as Pāṭaliputra. Aryabhata is also reputed to have set up an observatory at the Sun temple in Taregana. A verse mentions that Aryabhata was the head of an institution (kulapa) at Kusumapura. at some point. as well as Bhāskara I (CE 629). he went to Kusumapura for advanced studies and lived there for some time. many commentaries have come from outside Kerala. Education It is fairly certain that. however. . Other hypotheses Some archeological evidence suggests that Aryabhata could have originated from the present day Kodungallur which was the historical capital city of Thiruvanchikkulam of ancient Kerala. modern Patna. however. standing for a point on the equator at the same longitude as his Ujjayini. one hypothesis was that aśmaka (Sanskrit for "stone") may be the region in Kerala that is now known as Koṭuṅṅallūr. the fact that several commentaries on the Aryabhatiya have come from Kerala were used to suggest that it was Aryabhata's main place of life and activity.Aryabhata's birthplace is uncertain. because the university ofNalanda was in Pataliputra at the time and had an astronomical observatory. but his "Lanka" is an abstraction.

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