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5

The Operational Amplifier
Assessment Problems
AP 5.1 [a] This is an inverting amplifier, so
v
o
= (−R
f
/R
i
)v
s
= (−80/16)v
s
, so v
o
= −5v
s
v
s
( V) 0.4 2.0 3.5 −0.6 −1.6 −2.4
v
o
( V) −2.0 −10.0 −15.0 3.0 8.0 10.0
Two of the values, 3.5 V and −2.4 V, cause the op amp to saturate.
[b] Use the negative power supply value to determine the largest input
voltage:
−15 = −5v
s
, v
s
= 3 V
Use the positive power supply value to determine the smallest input
voltage:
10 = −5v
s
, v
s
= −2 V
Therefore −2 ≤ v
s
≤ 3 V
AP 5.2 From Assessment Problem 5.1
v
o
= (−R
f
/R
i
)v
s
= (−R
x
/16,000)v
s
= (−R
x
/16,000)(−0.640)
= 0.64R
x
/16,000 = 4 ×10
−5
R
x
Use the negative power supply value to determine one limit on the value of R
x
:
4 ×10
−5
R
x
= −15 so R
x
= −15/4 ×10
−5
= −375 kΩ
5–1
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5–2 CHAPTER 5. The Operational Amplifier
Since we cannot have negative resistor values, the lower limit for R
x
is 0. Now
use the positive power supply value to determine the upper limit on the value
of R
x
:
4 ×10
−5
R
x
= 10 so R
x
= 10/4 ×10
−5
= 250 kΩ
Therefore,
0 ≤ R
x
≤ 250 kΩ
AP 5.3 [a] This is an inverting summing amplifier so
v
o
= (−R
f
/R
a
)v
a
+ (−R
f
/R
b
)v
b
= −(250/5)v
a
−(250/25)v
b
= −50v
a
−10v
b
Substituting the values for v
a
and v
b
:
v
o
= −50(0.1) −10(0.25) = −5 −2.5 = −7.5 V
[b] Substitute the value for v
b
into the equation for v
o
from part (a) and use
the negative power supply value:
v
o
= −50v
a
−10(0.25) = −50v
a
−2.5 = −10 V
Therefore 50v
a
= 7.5, so v
a
= 0.15 V
[c] Substitute the value for v
a
into the equation for v
o
from part (a) and use
the negative power supply value:
v
o
= −50(0.10) −10v
b
= −5 −10v
b
= −10 V;
Therefore 10v
b
= 5, so v
b
= 0.5 V
[d] The effect of reversing polarity is to change the sign on the v
b
term in
each equation from negative to positive.
Repeat part (a):
v
o
= −50v
a
+ 10v
b
= −5 + 2.5 = −2.5 V
Repeat part (b):
v
o
= −50v
a
+ 2.5 = −10 V; 50v
a
= 12.5, v
a
= 0.25 V
Repeat part (c), using the value of the positive power supply:
v
o
= −5 + 10v
b
= 15 V; 10v
b
= 20; v
b
= 2.0 V
AP 5.4 [a] Write a node voltage equation at v
n
; remember that for an ideal op amp,
the current into the op amp at the inputs is zero:
v
n
4500
+
v
n
−v
o
63,000
= 0
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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Problems 5–3
Solve for v
o
in terms of v
n
by multiplying both sides by 63,000 and
collecting terms:
14v
n
+ v
n
−v
o
= 0 so v
o
= 15v
n
Now use voltage division to calculate v
p
. We can use voltage division
because the op amp is ideal, so no current flows into the non-inverting
input terminal and the 400 mV divides between the 15 kΩ resistor and
the R
x
resistor:
v
p
=
R
x
15,000 + R
x
(0.400)
Now substitute the value R
x
= 60 kΩ:
v
p
=
60,000
15,000 + 60,000
(0.400) = 0.32 V
Finally, remember that for an ideal op amp, v
n
= v
p
, so substitute the
value of v
p
into the equation for v
0
v
o
= 15v
n
= 15v
p
= 15(0.32) = 4.8 V
[b] Substitute the expression for v
p
into the equation for v
o
and set the
resulting equation equal to the positive power supply value:
v
o
= 15
_
0.4R
x
15,000 + R
x
_
= 5
15(0.4R
x
) = 5(15,000 + R
x
) so R
x
= 75 kΩ
AP 5.5 [a] Since this is a difference amplifier, we can use the expression for the
output voltage in terms of the input voltages and the resistor values
given in Eq. 5.22:
v
o
=
20(60)
10(24)
v
b

50
10
v
a
Simplify this expression and subsitute in the value for v
b
:
v
o
= 5(v
b
−v
a
) = 20 −5v
a
Set this expression for v
o
to the positive power supply value:
20 −5v
a
= 10 V so v
a
= 2 V
Now set the expression for v
o
to the negative power supply value:
20 −5v
a
= −10 V so v
a
= 6 V
Therefore 2 ≤ v
a
≤ 6 V
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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5–4 CHAPTER 5. The Operational Amplifier
[b] Begin as before by substituting the appropriate values into Eq. 5.22:
v
o
=
8(60)
10(12)
v
b
−5v
a
= 4v
b
−5v
a
Now substitute the value for v
b
:
v
o
= 4(4) −5v
a
= 16 −5v
a
Set this expression for v
o
to the positive power supply value:
16 −5v
a
= 10 V so v
a
= 1.2 V
Now set the expression for v
o
to the negative power supply value:
16 −5v
a
= −10 V so v
a
= 5.2 V
Therefore 1.2 ≤ v
a
≤ 5.2 V
AP 5.6 [a] Replace the op amp with the more realistic model of the op amp from Fig.
5.15:
Write the node voltage equation at the left hand node:
v
n
500,000
+
v
n
−v
g
5000
+
v
n
−v
o
100,000
= 0
Multiply both sides by 500,000 and simplify:
v
n
+ 100v
n
−100v
g
+ 5v
n
−5v
0
= 0 so 21.2v
n
−v
o
= 20v
g
Write the node voltage equation at the right hand node:
v
o
−300,000(−v
n
)
5000
+
v
o
−v
n
100,000
= 0
Multiply through by 100,000 and simplify:
20v
o
+ 6 ×10
6
v
n
+ v
o
−v
n
= 0 so 6 ×10
6
v
n
+ 21v
o
= 0
Use Cramer’s method to solve for v
o
:
∆ =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
21.2 −1
6 ×10
6
21
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 6,000,445.2
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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Problems 5–5
N
o
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
21.2 20v
g
6 ×10
6
0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= −120 ×10
6
v
g
v
o
=
N
o

= −19.9985v
g
; so
v
o
v
g
= −19.9985
[b] Use Cramer’s method again to solve for v
n
:
N
1
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
20v
g
−1
0 21
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 420v
g
v
n
=
N
1

= 6.9995 ×10
−5
v
g
v
g
= 1 V, v
n
= 69.995 µ V
[c] The resistance seen at the input to the op amp is the ratio of the input
voltage to the input current, so calculate the input current as a function
of the input voltage:
i
g
=
v
g
−v
n
5000
=
v
g
−6.9995 ×10
−5
v
g
5000
Solve for the ratio of v
g
to i
g
to get the input resistance:
R
g
=
v
g
i
g
=
5000
1 −6.9995 ×10
−5
= 5000.35 Ω
[d] This is a simple inverting amplifier configuration, so the voltage gain is
the ratio of the feedback resistance to the input resistance:
v
o
v
g
= −
100,000
5000
= −20
Since this is now an ideal op amp, the voltage difference between the two
input terminals is zero; since v
p
= 0, v
n
= 0
Since there is no current into the inputs of an ideal op amp, the
resistance seen by the input voltage source is the input resistance:
R
g
= 5000 Ω
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
5–6 CHAPTER 5. The Operational Amplifier
Problems
P 5.1 [a] The five terminals of the op amp are identified as follows:
[b] The input resistance of an ideal op amp is infinite, which constrains the
value of the input currents to 0. Thus, i
n
= 0 A.
[c] The open-loop voltage gain of an ideal op amp is infinite, which constrains
the difference between the voltage at the two input terminals to 0. Thus,
(v
p
−v
n
) = 0.
[d] Write a node voltage equation at v
n
:
v
n
+ 3
5000
+
v
n
−v
o
15,000
= 0
But v
p
= 0 and v
n
= v
p
= 0. Thus,
3
5000

v
o
15,000
= 0 so v
o
= 9 V
P 5.2 v
o
= −(0.5 ×10
−3
)(10,000) = −5 V
·
. . i
o
=
v
o
5000
=
−5
5000
= −1 mA
P 5.3
v
b
−v
a
20,000
+
v
b
−v
o
100,000
= 0, therefore v
o
= 6v
b
−5v
a
[a] v
a
= 4 V, v
b
= 0 V, v
o
= −15 V (sat)
[b] v
a
= 2 V, v
b
= 0 V, v
o
= −10 V
[c] v
a
= 2 V, v
b
= 1 V, v
o
= −4 V
[d] v
a
= 1 V, v
b
= 2 V, v
o
= 7 V
[e] v
a
= 1.5 V, v
b
= 4 V, v
o
= 15 V (sat)
[f] If v
b
= 1.6 V, v
o
= 9.6 −5v
a
= ±15
·
. . −1.08 V ≤ v
a
≤ 4.92 V
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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Problems 5–7
P 5.4 v
p
=
3000
3000 + 6000
(3) = 1 V = v
n
v
n
−5
10,000
+
v
n
−v
o
5000
= 0
(1 −5) + 2(1 −v
o
) = 0
v
o
= −1.0 V
i
L
=
v
o
4000
= −
1
4000
= −250 ×10
−6
i
L
= −250 µA
P 5.5 Since the current into the inverting input terminal of an ideal op-amp is zero,
the voltage across the 2.2 MΩ resistor is (2.2 ×10
6
)(3.5 ×10
−6
) or 7.7 V.
Therefore the voltmeter reads 7.7 V.
P 5.6 [a] i
2
=
150 ×10
−3
2000
= 75 µA
v
1
= −40 ×10
3
i
2
= −3 V
[b]
v
1
20,000
+
v
1
40,000
+
v
1
−v
o
50,000
= 0
·
. . v
o
= 4.75v
1
= −14.25 V
[c] i
2
= 75 µA, (from part [a])
[d] i
o
=
−v
o
25,000
+
v
1
−v
o
50,000
= 795 µ A
P 5.7 [a] First, note that v
n
= v
p
= 2.5 V
Let v
o1
equal the voltage output of the op-amp. Then
2.5 −v
g
5000
+
2.5 −v
o1
10,000
= 0,
·
. . v
o1
= 7.5 −2v
g
Also note that v
o1
−2.5 = v
o
,
·
. . v
o
= 5 −2v
g
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
5–8 CHAPTER 5. The Operational Amplifier
[b] Yes, the circuit designer is correct!
P 5.8 [a] The gain of an inverting amplifier is the ratio of the feedback resistor to
the input resistor. If the gain of the inverting amplifier is to be 3, the
feedback resistor must be 3 times as large as the input resistor. There are
many possible designs that use a resistor value chosen from Appendix H.
We present two here that use 3.3 kΩ resistors. Use a single 3.3 kΩ
resistor as the input resistor, and use three 3.3 kΩ resistors in series as
the feedback resistor to give a total of 9.9 kΩ.
Alternately, use a single 3.3 kΩ resistor as the feedback resistor and use
three 3.3 kΩ resistors in parallel as the input resistor to give a total of
1.1 kΩ.
[b] To amplify a 5 V signal without saturating the op amp, the power supply
voltages must be greater than or equal to the product of the input
voltage and the amplifier gain. Thus, the power supplies should have a
magnitude of (5)(3) = 15 V.
P 5.9 [a] Replace the combination of v
g
, 1.6 kΩ, and the 6.4 kΩ resistors with its
Th´evenin equivalent.
Then v
o
=
−[12 + σ50]
1.28
(0.20)
At saturation v
o
= −5 V; therefore

_
12 + σ50
1.28
_
(0.2) = −5, or σ = 0.4
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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Problems 5–9
Thus for 0 ≤ σ ≤ 0.40 the operational amplifier will not saturate.
[b] When σ = 0.272, v
o
=
−(12 + 13.6)
1.28
(0.20) = −4 V
Also
v
o
10
+
v
o
25.6
+ i
o
= 0
·
. . i
o
= −
v
o
10

v
o
25.6
=
4
10
+
4
25.6
mA = 556.25 µA
P 5.10 [a] Let v

be the voltage from the potentiometer contact to ground. Then
0 −v
g
2000
+
0 −v

50,000
= 0
−25v
g
−v

= 0,
·
. . v

= −25(40 ×10
−3
) = −1 V
v

αR

+
v

−0
50,000
+
v

−v
o
(1 −α)R

= 0
v

α
+ 2v

+
v

−v
o
1 −α
= 0
v

_
1
α
+ 2 +
1
1 −α
_
=
v
o
1 −α
·
. . v
o
= −1
_
1 + 2(1 −α) +
(1 −α)
α
_
When α = 0.2, v
o
= −1(1 + 1.6 + 4) = −6.6 V
When α = 1, v
o
= −1(1 + 0 + 0) = −1 V
·
. . −6.6 V ≤ v
o
≤ −1 V
[b] −1
_
1 + 2(1 −α) +
(1 −α)
α
_
= −7
α + 2α(1 −α) + (1 −α) = 7α
α + 2α −2α
2
+ 1 −α = 7α
·
. . 2α
2
+ 5α −1 = 0 so α

= 0.186
P 5.11 v
o
= −
_
R
f
4000
(0.2) +
R
f
5000
(0.15) +
R
f
20,000
(0.4)
_
−6 = −0.1 ×10
−3
R
f
; R
f
= 60 kΩ;
·
. . 0 ≤ R
f
≤ 60 kΩ
P 5.12 [a] This circuit is an example of an inverting summing amplifier.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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5–10 CHAPTER 5. The Operational Amplifier
[b] v
o
= −
220
44
v
a

220
27.5
v
b

220
80
v
c
= −5 −12 + 11 = −6 V
[c] v
o
= −6 −8v
b
= ±10
·
. . v
b
= −0.5 V when v
o
= 10 V;
v
b
= 2 V when v
o
= −10 V
·
. . −0.5 V ≤ v
b
≤ 2 V
P 5.13 We want the following expression for the output voltage:
v
o
= −(3v
a
+ 5v
b
+ 4v
c
+ 2v
d
)
This is an inverting summing amplifier, so each input voltage is amplified by a
gain that is the ratio of the feedback resistance to the resistance in the
forward path for the input voltage. Pick a feedback resistor with divisors of 3,
5, 4, and 2 – say 60 kΩ:
v
o
= −
_
60k
R
a
v
a
+
60k
R
b
v
b
+
60k
R
c
v
c
+
60k
R
d
v
d
_
Solve for each input resistance value to yield the desired gain:
·
. . R
a
= 60,000/3 = 20 kΩ R
c
= 60,000/4 = 15 kΩ
R
b
= 60,000/5 = 12 kΩ R
d
= 60,000/2 = 30 kΩ
Now create the 5 resistor values needed from the realistic resistor values in
Appendix H. Note that R
b
= 12 kΩ and R
c
= 15 kΩ are already values from
Appendix H. Create R
f
= 60 kΩ by combining 27 kΩ and 33 kΩ in series.
Create R
a
= 20 kΩ by combining two 10 kΩ resistors in series. Create
R
d
= 30 kΩ by combining 18 kΩ and 12 kΩ in series. Of course there are many
other acceptable possibilities. The final circuit is shown here:
P 5.14 [a] Write a KCL equation at the inverting input to the op amp:
v
d
−v
a
40,000
+
v
d
−v
b
22,000
+
v
d
−v
c
100,000
+
v
d
352,000
+
v
d
−v
o
220,000
= 0
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 5–11
Multiply through by 220,000, plug in the values of input voltages, and
rearrange to solve for v
o
:
v
o
= 220,000
_
4
40,000
+
−1
22,000
+
−5
100,000
+
8
352,000
+
8
220,000
_
= 14 V
[b] Write a KCL equation at the inverting input to the op amp. Use the given
values of input voltages in the equation:
8 −v
a
40,000
+
8 −9
22,000
+
8 −13
100,000
+
8
352,000
+
8 −v
o
220,000
= 0
Simplify and solve for v
o
:
44 −5.5v
a
−10 −11 + 5 + 8 −v
o
= 0 so v
o
= 36 −5.5v
a
Set v
o
to the positive power supply voltage and solve for v
a
:
36 −5.5v
a
= 15
·
. . v
a
= 3.818 V
Set v
o
to the negative power supply voltage and solve for v
a
:
36 −5.5v
a
= −15
·
. . v
a
= 9.273 V
Therefore,
3.818 V ≤ v
a
≤ 9.273 V
P 5.15 [a]
8 −4
40,000
+
8 −9
22,000
+
8 −13
100,000
+
8
352,000
+
8 −v
0
R
f
= 0
8 −v
o
R
f
= −2.7272 ×10
−5
so R
f
=
8 −v
o
−2.727 ×10
−5
For v
o
= 15 V, R
f
= 256.7 kΩ
For v
o
= −15 V, R
f
< 0 so this solution is not possible.
[b] i
o
= −(i
f
+ i
10k
) = −
_
15 −8
256.7 ×10
3
+
15
10,000
_
= −1527 µA
P 5.16 [a] The circuit shown is a non-inverting amplifier.
[b] We assume the op amp to be ideal, so v
n
= v
p
= 3 V. Write a KCL
equation at v
n
:
3
40,000
+
3 −v
o
80,000
= 0
Solving,
v
o
= 9 V.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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5–12 CHAPTER 5. The Operational Amplifier
P 5.17 [a] This circuit is an example of the non-inverting amplifier.
[b] Use voltage division to calculate v
p
:
v
p
=
10,000
10,000 + 30,000
v
s
=
v
s
4
Write a KCL equation at v
n
= v
p
= v
s
/4:
v
s
/4
4000
+
v
s
/4 −v
o
28,000
= 0
Solving,
v
o
= 7v
s
/4 + v
s
/4 = 2v
s
[c] 2v
s
= 8 so v
s
= 4 V
2v
s
= −12 so v
s
= −6 V
Thus, −6 V ≤ v
s
≤ 4 V.
P 5.18 [a] v
p
= v
n
=
68
80
v
g
= 0.85v
g
·
. .
0.85v
g
30,000
+
0.85v
g
−v
o
63,000
= 0;
·
. . v
o
= 2.635v
g
= 2.635(4), v
o
= 10.54 V
[b] v
o
= 2.635v
g
= ±12
v
g
= ±4.55 V, −4.55 ≤ v
g
≤ 4.55 V
[c]
0.85v
g
30,000
+
0.85v
g
−v
o
R
f
= 0
_
0.85R
f
30,000
+ 0.85
_
v
g
= v
o
= ±12
·
. . 1.7R
f
+ 51 = ±360; 1.7R
f
= 360 −51; R
f
= 181.76 kΩ
P 5.19 [a] From the equation for the non-inverting amplifier,
R
s
+ R
f
R
s
= 4 so R
s
+ R
f
= 4R
s
and therefore R
f
= 3R
s
Choose R
f
= 30 kΩ and implement this choice from components in
Appendix H by combining two 15 kΩ resistors in series. Choose
R
s
= R
g
= 10 kΩ, which is a component in Appendix H. The resulting
non-inverting amplifier circuit is shown here:
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
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Problems 5–13
[b] v
o
= 4v
g
= 12 so v
g
= 3 V
v
o
= 4v
g
= −12 so v
g
= −3 V
Therefore,
−3 V ≤ v
g
≤ 3 V
P 5.20 [a] This circuit is an example of a non-inverting summing amplifier.
[b] Write a KCL equation at v
p
and solve for v
p
in terms of v
s
:
v
p
−v
s
15,000
+
v
p
−6
30,000
= 0
2v
p
−2v
s
+ v
p
−6 = 0 so v
p
= 2v
s
/3 + 2
Now write a KCL equation at v
n
and solve for v
o
:
v
n
20,000
+
v
n
−v
o
60,000
= 0 so v
o
= 4v
n
Since we assume the op amp is ideal, v
n
= v
p
. Thus,
v
o
= 4(2v
s
/3 + 2) = 8v
s
/3 + 8
[c] 8v
s
/3 + 8 = 16 so v
s
= 3 V
8v
s
/3 + 8 = −12 so v
s
= −7.5 V
Thus, −7.5 V ≤ v
s
≤ 3 V.
P 5.21 [a] This is a non-inverting summing amplifier.
[b]
v
p
−v
a
13 ×10
3
+
v
p
−v
b
27 ×10
3
= 0
·
. . 40v
p
= 27v
a
+ 13v
b
so v
p
= 0.675v
a
+ 0.325v
b
v
n
11,000
+
v
n
−v
o
110,000
= 0
·
. . v
o
= 11v
n
= 11v
p
= 11(0.675v
a
+ 0.325v
b
)
= 11[0.675(0.8) + 0.325(0.4)] = 7.37 V
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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5–14 CHAPTER 5. The Operational Amplifier
[c] v
p
= v
n
=
v
o
11
= 0.667 V
i
a
=
v
a
−v
p
13 ×10
3
= 10 µA
i
b
=
v
b
−v
p
27 ×10
3
= −10 µA
[d] 7.425 for v
a
; 3.575 for v
b
P 5.22 [a]
v
p
−v
a
R
a
+
v
p
−v
b
R
b
+
v
p
−v
c
R
c
= 0
·
. . v
p
=
R
b
R
c
D
v
a
+
R
a
R
c
D
v
b
+
R
a
R
b
D
v
c
where D = R
b
R
c
+ R
a
R
c
+ R
a
R
b
v
n
20,000
+
v
n
−v
o
100,000
= 0
_
100,000
20,000
+ 1
_
v
n
= 6v
n
= v
o
·
. . v
o
=
6R
b
R
c
D
v
a
+
6R
a
R
c
D
v
b
+
6R
a
R
b
D
v
c
By hypothesis,
6R
b
R
c
D
= 1;
6R
a
R
c
D
= 2;
6R
a
R
b
D
= 3
Then
6R
a
R
b
/D
6R
a
R
c
/D
=
3
2
so R
b
= 1.5R
c
But from the circuit
R
b
= 15 kΩ so R
c
= 10 kΩ
Similarly,
6R
b
R
c
/D
6R
a
R
b
/D
=
1
3
so 3R
c
= R
a
Thus,
R
a
= 30 kΩ
[b] v
o
= 1(0.7) + 2(0.4) + 3(1.1) = 4.8 V
v
n
= v
o
/6 = 0.8 V = v
p
i
a
=
v
a
−v
p
30,000
=
0.7 −0.8
30,000
= −3.33 µA
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 5–15
i
b
=
v
b
−v
p
15,000
=
0.4 −0.8
15,000
= −26.67 µA
i
c
=
v
c
−v
p
10,000
=
1.1 −0.8
10,000
= 30 µA
Check:
i
a
+ i
b
+ i
c
= 0? −3.33 −26.67 + 30 = 0 (checks)
P 5.23 [a]
v
p
−v
a
R
a
+
v
p
−v
b
R
b
+
v
p
−v
c
R
c
+
v
p
R
g
= 0
·
. . v
p
=
R
b
R
c
R
g
D
v
a
+
R
a
R
c
R
g
D
v
b
+
R
a
R
b
R
g
D
v
c
where D = R
b
R
c
R
g
+ R
a
R
c
R
g
+ R
a
R
b
R
g
+ R
a
R
b
R
c
v
n
R
s
+
v
n
−v
o
R
f
= 0
v
n
_
1
R
s
+
1
R
f
_
=
v
o
R
f
·
. . v
o
=
_
1 +
R
f
R
s
_
v
n
= kv
n
where k =
_
1 +
R
f
R
s
_
v
p
= v
n
·
. . v
o
= kv
p
or
v
o
=
kR
g
R
b
R
c
D
v
a
+
kR
g
R
a
R
c
D
v
b
+
kR
g
R
a
R
b
D
v
c
kR
g
R
b
R
c
D
= 6
kR
g
R
a
R
c
D
= 3
kR
g
R
a
R
b
D
= 4
·
. .
R
b
R
a
=
6
3
= 2
R
c
R
b
=
3
4
= 0.75
R
c
R
a
=
6
4
= 1.5
Since R
a
= 1 kΩ R
b
= 2 kΩ R
c
= 1.5 kΩ
·
. . D = [(2)(1.5)(3) + (1)(1.5)(3) + (1)(2)(3) + (1)(2)(1.5)] ×10
9
= 22.5 ×10
9
k(3)(2)(1.5) ×10
9
22.5 ×10
9
= 6
k =
135 ×10
9
9 ×10
9
= 15
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
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5–16 CHAPTER 5. The Operational Amplifier
·
. . 15 = 1 +
R
f
R
s
R
f
R
s
= 14
R
f
= (14)(15,000) = 210 kΩ
[b] v
o
= 6(0.5) + 3(2.5) + 4(1) = 14 V
v
n
= v
p
=
14.5
15
= 0.967 V
i
a
=
0.5 −0.967
1000
= −466.67 µA
i
b
=
2.5 −0.967
2000
= 766.67 µA
i
c
=
1 −0.967
1500
= 22.22 µA
i
g
=
0.967
3000
= 322.22 µA
i
s
=
v
n
15,000
=
0.967
15,000
= 64.44 µA
P 5.24 [a] Assume v
a
is acting alone. Replacing v
b
with a short circuit yields v
p
= 0,
therefore v
n
= 0 and we have
0 −v
a
R
a
+
0 −v

o
R
b
+ i
n
= 0, i
n
= 0
Therefore
v

o
R
b
= −
v
a
R
a
, v

o
= −
R
b
R
a
v
a
Assume v
b
is acting alone. Replace v
a
with a short circuit. Now
v
p
= v
n
=
v
b
R
d
R
c
+ R
d
v
n
R
a
+
v
n
−v

o
R
b
+ i
n
= 0, i
n
= 0
_
1
R
a
+
1
R
b
__
R
d
R
c
+ R
d
_
v
b

v

o
R
b
= 0
v

o
=
_
R
b
R
a
+ 1
__
R
d
R
c
+ R
d
_
v
b
=
R
d
R
a
_
R
a
+ R
b
R
c
+ R
d
_
v
b
v
o
= v

o
+ v

o
=
R
d
R
a
_
R
a
+ R
b
R
c
+ R
d
_
v
b

R
b
R
a
v
a
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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Problems 5–17
[b]
R
d
R
a
_
R
a
+ R
b
R
c
+ R
d
_
=
R
b
R
a
, therefore R
d
(R
a
+ R
b
) = R
b
(R
c
+ R
d
)
R
d
R
a
= R
b
R
c
, therefore
R
a
R
b
=
R
c
R
d
When
R
d
R
a
_
R
a
+ R
b
R
c
+ R
d
_
=
R
b
R
a
Eq. (5.22) reduces to v
o
=
R
b
R
a
v
b

R
b
R
a
v
a
=
R
b
R
a
(v
b
−v
a
).
P 5.25 [a] v
o
=
R
d
(R
a
+ R
b
)
R
a
(R
c
+ R
d
)
v
b

R
b
R
a
v
a
=
120(24 + 75)
24(130 + 120)
(5) −
75
24
(8)
v
o
= 9.9 −25 = −15.1 V
[b]
v
1
−8
24,000
+
v
1
−15.1
75,000
= 0 so v
1
= 2.4 V
i
a
=
8 −2.4
24,000
= 233 µ A
R
ina
=
v
a
i
a
=
8
233 ×10
−6
= 34.3 kΩ
[c] R
in b
= R
c
+ R
d
= 250 kΩ
P 5.26 Use voltage division to find v
p
:
v
p
=
2000
2000 + 8000
(5) = 1 V
Write a KCL equation at v
n
and solve it for v
o
:
v
n
−v
a
5000
+
v
n
−v
o
R
f
= 0 so
_
R
f
5000
+ 1
_
v
n

R
f
5000
v
a
= v
o
Since the op amp is ideal, v
n
= v
p
= 1V, so
v
o
=
_
R
f
5000
+ 1
_

R
f
5000
v
a
To satisfy the equation,
_
R
f
5000
+ 1
_
= 5 and
R
f
5000
= 4
Thus, R
f
= 20 kΩ.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
5–18 CHAPTER 5. The Operational Amplifier
P 5.27 v
p
=
v
b
R
b
R
a
+ R
b
= v
n
v
n
−v
a
4700
+
v
n
−v
o
R
f
= 0
v
n
_
R
f
4700
+ 1
_

v
a
R
f
4700
= v
o
·
. .
_
R
f
4700
+ 1
_
R
b
R
a
+ R
b
v
b

R
f
4700
v
a
= v
o
·
. .
R
f
4700
= 10; R
f
= 47 kΩ (a value from Appendix H)
R
a
+ R
b
= 220 kΩ
Thus,
_
1 +
47
4700
_
_
R
b
220,000
_
= 10
·
. . R
b
= 200 kΩ and R
a
= 220 −200 = 20 kΩ
Use two 100 kΩ resistors in series for R
b
and use two 10 kΩ resistors in series
for R
a
.
P 5.28 [a]
v
p
20,000
+
v
p
−v
c
30,000
+
v
p
−v
d
20,000
= 0
·
. . 8v
p
= 2v
c
+ 3v
d
= 8v
n
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 5–19
v
n
−v
a
20,000
+
v
n
−v
b
18,000
+
v
n
−v
o
180,000
= 0
·
. . v
o
= 20v
n
−9v
a
−10v
b
= 20[(1/4)v
c
+ (3/8)v
d
] −9v
a
−10v
b
= 20(0.75 + 1.5) −9(1) −10(2) = 16 V
[b] v
o
= 5v
c
+ 30 −9 −20 = 5v
c
+ 1
±20 = 5v
c
+ 1
·
. . v
b
= −4.2 V and v
b
= 3.8 V
·
. . −4.2 V ≤ v
b
≤ 3.8 V
P 5.29 v
p
= 1000i
b
1000i
b
R
a
+
1000i
b
−v
o
R
f
−i
a
= 0
·
. . 1000i
b
_
1
R
a
+
1
R
f
_
−i
a
=
v
o
R
f
·
. . 1000i
b
_
1 +
R
f
R
a
_
−R
f
i
a
= v
o
By hypopthesis, v
o
= 5000(i
b
−i
a
). Therefore,
R
f
= 5 kΩ (use two 10 kΩ resistors in parallel)
1000
_
1 +
R
f
R
a
_
= 5000 so R
a
= 1250 Ω
To construct the 1250 Ω resistor, combine a 1.2 kΩ resistor in series with a
parallel combination of two 100 Ω resistors.
P 5.30 v
o
=
R
d
(R
a
+ R
b
)
R
a
(R
c
+ R
d
)
v
b

R
b
R
a
v
a
By hypothesis: R
b
/R
a
= 4; R
c
+ R
d
= 470 kΩ;
R
d
(R
a
+ R
b
)
R
a
(R
c
+ R
d
)
= 3
·
. .
R
d
R
a
(R
a
+ 4R
a
)
470,000
= 3 so R
d
= 282 kΩ; R
c
= 188 kΩ
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
5–20 CHAPTER 5. The Operational Amplifier
Create R
d
= 282 kΩ by combining a 270 kΩ resistor and a 12 kΩ resistor in
series. Create R
c
= 188 kΩ by combining a 120 kΩ resistor and a 68 kΩ resistor
in series. Also, when v
o
= 0 we have
v
n
−v
a
R
a
+
v
n
R
b
= 0
·
. . v
n
_
1 +
R
a
R
b
_
= v
a
; v
n
= 0.8v
a
i
a
=
v
a
−0.8v
a
R
a
= 0.2
v
a
R
a
; R
in
=
v
a
i
a
= 5R
a
= 22 kΩ
·
. . R
a
= 4.4 kΩ; R
b
= 17.6 kΩ
Create R
a
= 4.4 kΩ by combining two 2.2 kΩ resistors in series. Create
R
b
= 17.6 kΩ by combining a 12 kΩ resistor and a 5.6 kΩ resistor in series.
P 5.31 v
p
=
1500
9000
(−18) = −3 V = v
n
−3 + 18
1600
+
−3 −v
o
R
f
= 0
·
. . v
o
= 0.009375R
f
−3
v
o
= 9 V; R
f
= 1280 Ω
v
o
= −9 V; R
f
= −640 Ω
But R
f
≥ 0,
·
. . R
f
= 1.28 kΩ
P 5.32 [a] v
p
=
αR
g
αR
g
+ (R
g
−αR
g
)
v
g
v
o
=
_
1 +
R
f
R
g
_
αv
g

R
f
R
1
v
g
v
n
= v
p
= αv
g
= (αv
g
−v
g
)4 +αv
g
v
n
−v
g
R
1
+
v
n
−v
o
R
f
= 0 = [(α −1)4 +α]v
g
(v
n
−v
g
)
R
f
R
1
+ v
n
−v
o
= 0 = (5α −4)v
g
= (5α −4)(2) = 10α −8
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Problems 5–21
α v
o
α v
o
α v
o
0.0 −8 V 0.4 −4 V 0.8 0 V
0.1 −7 V 0.5 −3 V 0.9 1 V
0.2 −6 V 0.6 −2 V 1.0 2 V
0.3 −5 V 0.7 −1 V
[b] Rearranging the equation for v
o
from (a) gives
v
o
=
_
R
f
R
1
+ 1
_
v
g
α +−
_
R
f
R
1
_
v
g
Therefore,
slope =
_
R
f
R
1
+ 1
_
v
g
; intercept = −
_
R
f
R
1
_
v
g
[c] Using the equations from (b),
−6 =
_
R
f
R
1
+ 1
_
v
g
; 4 = −
_
R
f
R
1
_
v
g
Solving,
v
g
= −2 V;
R
f
R
1
= 2
P 5.33 A
cm
=
(20)(50) −(50)R
x
20(50 +R
x
)
A
dm
=
50(20 + 50) + 50(50 +R
x
)
2(20)(50 +R
x
)
A
dm
A
cm
=
R
x
+ 120
2(20 −R
x
)
·
. .
R
x
+ 120
2(20 −R
x
)
= ±1000 for the limits on the value of R
x
If we use +1000 R
x
= 19.93 kΩ
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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5–22 CHAPTER 5. The Operational Amplifier
If we use −1000 R
x
= 20.07 kΩ
19.93 kΩ ≤ R
x
≤ 20.07 kΩ
P 5.34 [a] A
dm
=
(24)(26) + (25)(25)
(2)(1)(25)
= 24.98
[b] A
cm
=
(1)(24) −25(1)
1(25)
= −0.04
[c] CMRR =
¸
¸
¸
¸
24.98
0.04
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 624.50
P 5.35 [a] v
p
= v
s
, v
n
=
R
1
v
o
R
1
+ R
2
, v
n
= v
p
Therefore v
o
=
_
R
1
+ R
2
R
1
_
v
s
=
_
1 +
R
2
R
1
_
v
s
[b] v
o
= v
s
[c] Because v
o
= v
s
, thus the output voltage follows the signal voltage.
P 5.36 It follows directly from the circuit that v
o
= −(120/7.5)v
g
= −16v
g
From the plot of v
g
we have v
g
= 0, t < 0
v
g
= t 0 ≤ t ≤ 0.5
v
g
= 1 −t 0.5 ≤ t ≤ 1.5
v
g
= t −2 1.5 ≤ t ≤ 2.5
v
g
= 3 −t 2.5 ≤ t ≤ 3.5
v
g
= t −4 3.5 ≤ t ≤ 4.5, etc.
Therefore
v
o
= −16t 0 ≤ t ≤ 0.5
v
o
= 16t −16 0.5 ≤ t ≤ 1.5
v
o
= 32 −16t 1.5 ≤ t ≤ 2.5
v
o
= 16t −48 2.5 ≤ t ≤ 3.5
v
o
= 64 −16t 3.5 ≤ t ≤ 4.5, etc.
These expressions for v
o
are valid as long as the op amp is not saturated.
Since the peak values of v
o
are ±5, the output is clipped at ±5. The plot is
shown below.
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Problems 5–23
P 5.37 v
p
=
5.6
8.0
v
g
= 0.7v
g
= 7 sin(π/3)t V
v
n
15,000
+
v
n
−v
o
75,000
= 0
6v
n
= v
o
; v
n
= v
p
·
. . v
o
= 42 sin(π/3)t V 0 ≤ t ≤ ∞
v
o
= 0 t ≤ 0
At saturation
42 sin
_
π
3
_
t = ±21; sin
π
3
t = ±0.5
·
. .
π
3
t =
π
6
,

6
,

6
,
11π
6
, etc.
t = 0.50 s, 2.50 s, 3.50 s, 5.50 s, etc.
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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5–24 CHAPTER 5. The Operational Amplifier
P 5.38 [a]
v
n
−v
a
R
+
v
n
−v
o
R
= 0
2v
n
−v
a
= v
o
v
a
R
a
+
v
a
−v
n
R
+
v
a
−v
o
R
= 0
v
a
_
1
R
a
+
2
R
_

v
n
R
=
v
o
R
v
a
_
2 +
R
R
a
_
−v
n
= v
o
v
n
= v
p
= v
a
+ v
g
·
. . 2v
n
−v
a
= 2v
a
+ 2v
g
−v
a
= v
a
+ 2v
g
·
. . v
a
−v
o
= −2v
g
(1)
2v
a
+ v
a
_
R
R
a
_
−v
a
−v
g
= v
o
·
. . v
a
_
1 +
R
R
a
_
−v
o
= v
g
(2)
Now combining equations (1) and (2) yields
−v
a
R
R
a
= −3v
g
or v
a
= 3v
g
R
a
R
Hence i
a
=
v
a
R
a
=
3v
g
R
Q.E.D.
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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Problems 5–25
[b] At saturation v
o
= ± V
cc
·
. . v
a
= ± V
cc
−2v
g
(3)
and
·
. . v
a
_
1 +
R
R
a
_
= ± V
cc
+ v
g
(4)
Dividing Eq (4) by Eq (3) gives
1 +
R
R
a
=
± V
cc
+ v
g
± V
cc
−2v
g
·
. .
R
R
a
=
± V
cc
+ v
g
± V
cc
−2v
g
−1 =
3v
g
± V
cc
−2v
g
or R
a
=
(± V
cc
−2v
g
)
3v
g
R Q.E.D.
P 5.39 [a] p
16 kΩ
=
(320 ×10
−3
)
2
(16 ×10
3
)
= 6.4 µW
[b] v
16kΩ
=
_
16
64
_
(320) = 80 mV
p
16 kΩ
=
(80 ×10
−3
)
2
(16 ×10
3
)
= 0.4 µW
[c]
p
a
p
b
=
6.4
0.4
= 16
[d] Yes, the operational amplifier serves several useful purposes:
• First, it enables the source to control 16 times as much power
delivered to the load resistor. When a small amount of power controls
a larger amount of power, we refer to it as power amplification.
• Second, it allows the full source voltage to appear across the load
resistor, no matter what the source resistance. This is the voltage
follower function of the operational amplifier.
• Third, it allows the load resistor voltage (and thus its current) to be
set without drawing any current from the input voltage source. This
is the current amplification function of the circuit.
P 5.40 [a] Assume the op-amp is operating within its linear range, then
i
L
=
8
4000
= 2 mA
For R
L
= 4 kΩ v
o
= (4 + 4)(2) = 16 V
Now since v
o
< 20 V our assumption of linear operation is correct,
therefore
i
L
= 2 mA
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
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5–26 CHAPTER 5. The Operational Amplifier
[b] 20 = 2(4 +R
L
); R
L
= 6 kΩ
[c] As long as the op-amp is operating in its linear region i
L
is independent of
R
L
. From (b) we found the op-amp is operating in its linear region as
long as R
L
≤ 6 kΩ. Therefore when R
L
= 6 kΩ the op-amp is saturated.
We can estimate the value of i
L
by assuming i
p
= i
n
i
L
. Then
i
L
= 20/(4000 + 16,000) = 1 mA. To justify neglecting the current into
the op-amp assume the drop across the 50 kΩ resistor is negligible, since
the input resistance to the op-amp is at least 500 kΩ. Then
i
p
= i
n
= (8 −4)/(500 ×10
3
) = 8 µA. But 8 µA 1 mA, hence our
assumption is reasonable.
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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Problems 5–27
[d]
P 5.41
i
1
=
15 −10
5000
= 1 mA
i
2
+ i
1
+ 0 = 10 mA; i
2
= 9 mA
v
o2
= 10 + (400)(9) ×10
−3
= 13.6 V
i
3
=
15 −13.6
2000
= 0.7 mA
i
4
= i
3
+ i
1
= 1.7 mA
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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5–28 CHAPTER 5. The Operational Amplifier
v
o1
= 15 + 1.7(0.5) = 15.85 V
P 5.42 [a] Let v
o1
= output voltage of the amplifier on the left. Let v
o2
= output
voltage of the amplifier on the right. Then
v
o1
=
−47
10
(1) = −4.7 V; v
o2
=
−220
33
(−0.15) = 1.0 V
i
a
=
v
o2
−v
o1
1000
= 5.7 mA
[b] i
a
= 0 when v
o1
= v
o2
so from (a) v
o2
= 1 V
Thus
−47
10
(v
L
) = 1
v
L
= −
10
47
= −212.77 mV
P 5.43 [a] Replace the op amp with the model from Fig. 5.15:
Write two node voltage equations, one at the left node, the other at the
right node:
v
n
−v
g
5000
+
v
n
−v
o
100,000
+
v
n
500,000
= 0
v
o
+ 3 ×10
5
v
n
5000
+
v
o
−v
n
100,000
+
v
o
500
= 0
Simplify and place in standard form:
106v
n
−5v
o
= 100v
g
(6 ×10
6
−1)v
n
+ 221v
o
= 0
Let v
g
= 1 V and solve the two simultaneous equations:
v
o
= −19.9844 V; v
n
= 736.1 µV
Thus the voltage gain is v
o
/v
g
= −19.9844.
[b] From the solution in part (a), v
n
= 736.1 µV.
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
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Problems 5–29
[c] i
g
=
v
g
−v
n
5000
=
v
g
−736.1 ×10
−6
v
g
5000
R
g
=
v
g
i
g
=
5000
1 −736.1 ×10
−6
= 5003.68 Ω
[d] For an ideal op amp, the voltage gain is the ratio between the feedback
resistor and the input resistor:
v
o
v
g
= −
100,000
5000
= −20
For an ideal op amp, the difference between the voltages at the input
terminals is zero, and the input resistance of the op amp is infinite.
Therefore,
v
n
= v
p
= 0 V; R
g
= 5000 Ω
P 5.44 [a]
v
n
−v
g
2000
+
v
n
−v
o
10,000
= 0
·
. . v
o
= 6v
n
−5v
g
Also v
o
= A(v
p
−v
n
) = −Av
n
·
. . v
n
=
−v
o
A
·
. . v
o
_
1 +
6
A
_
= −5v
g
v
o
=
−5A
(6 +A)
v
g
[b] v
o
=
−5(194)(1)
200
= −4.85 V
[c] v
o
=
−5
1 + (6/A)
(1) = −5 V
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
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5–30 CHAPTER 5. The Operational Amplifier
[d]
−5A
A+ 6
(1) = −0.99(5) so −5A = −4.95(A + 6)
·
. . −0.05A = −29.7 so A = 594
P 5.45 [a]
v
n
16,000
+
v
n
−v
g
800,000
+
v
n
−v
o
200,000
= 0 or 55v
n
−4v
o
= v
g
Eq (1)
v
o
20,000
+
v
o
−v
n
200,000
+
v
o
−50,000(v
p
−v
n
)
8000
= 0
36v
o
−v
n
−125 ×10
4
(v
p
−v
n
) = 0
v
p
= v
g
+
(v
n
−v
g
)(240)
800
= (0.7)v
g
+ (0.3)v
n
36v
o
−v
n
−125 ×10
4
[(0.7)v
g
−(0.7)v
n
] = 0
36v
o
+ 874,999v
n
= 875,000v
g
Eq (2)
Let v
g
= 1 V and solve Eqs. (1) and (2) simultaneously:
v
n
= 999.446 mV and v
o
= 13.49 V
·
. .
v
o
v
g
= 13.49
[b] From part (a), v
n
= 999.446 mV.
v
p
= (0.7)(1000) + (0.3)(999.446) = 999.834 mV
[c] v
p
−v
n
= 387.78 µV
[d] i
g
=
(1000 −999.83)10
−3
24 ×10
3
= 692.47 pA
[e]
v
g
16,000
+
v
g
−v
o
200,000
= 0, since v
n
= v
p
= v
g
·
. . v
o
= 13.5v
g
,
v
o
v
g
= 13.5
v
n
= v
p
= 1 V; v
p
−v
n
= 0 V; i
g
= 0 A
P 5.46 [a]
v
n
−0.88
1600
+
v
n
500,000
+
v
n
−v
Th
24,000
= 0
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 5–31
v
Th
+ 10
5
v
n
2000
+
v
Th
−v
n
24,000
= 0
Solving, v
Th
= −13.198 V
Short-circuit current calculation:
v
n
500,000
+
v
n
−0.88
1600
+
v
n
−0
24,000
= 0
·
. . v
n
= 0.8225 V
i
sc
=
v
n
24,000

10
5
2000
v
n
= −41.13 A
R
Th
=
v
Th
i
sc
= 320.9 mΩ
[b] The output resistance of the inverting amplifier is the same as the
Th´evenin resistance, i.e.,
R
o
= R
Th
= 320.9 mΩ
[c]
v
o
=
_
330
330.3209
_
(−13.2) = −13.18 V
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
5–32 CHAPTER 5. The Operational Amplifier
v
n
−0.88
1600
+
v
n
500,000
+
v
n
+ 13.18
24,000
= 0
·
. . v
n
= 942 µV
i
g
=
0.88 −942 ×10
−6
1600
= 549.41 µA
R
g
=
0.88
i
g
= 1601.71 Ω
P 5.47 [a] v
Th
= −
24,000
1600
(0.88) = −13.2 V
R
Th
= 0, since op-amp is ideal
[b] R
o
= R
Th
= 0 Ω
[c] R
g
= 1.6 kΩ since v
n
= 0
P 5.48 From Eq. 5.57,
v
ref
R + ∆R
= v
n
_
1
R+ ∆R
+
1
R −∆R
+
1
R
f
_

v
o
R
f
Substituting Eq. 5.59 for v
p
= v
n
:
v
ref
R + ∆R
=
v
ref
_
1
R+∆R
+
1
R−∆R
+
1
R
f
_
(R −∆R)
_
1
R+∆R
+
1
R−∆R
+
1
R
f
_

v
o
R
f
Rearranging,
v
o
R
f
= v
ref
_
1
R−∆R

1
R + ∆R
_
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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Problems 5–33
Thus,
v
o
= v
ref
_
2∆R
R
2
−∆R
2
_
R
f
P 5.49 [a] Use Eq. 5.61 to solve for R
f
; note that since we are using 1% strain gages,
∆ = 0.01:
R
f
=
v
o
R
2∆v
ref
=
(5)(120)
(2)(0.01)(15)
= 2 kΩ
[b] Now solve for ∆ given v
o
= 50 mV:
∆ =
v
o
R
2R
f
v
ref
=
(0.05)(120)
2(2000)(15)
= 100 ×10
−6
The change in strain gage resistance that corresponds to a 50 mV change
in output voltage is thus
∆R = ∆R = (100 ×10
−6
)(120) = 12 mΩ
P 5.50 [a]
Let R
1
= R + ∆R
v
p
R
f
+
v
p
R
+
v
p
−v
in
R
1
= 0
·
. . v
p
_
1
R
f
+
1
R
+
1
R
1
_
=
v
in
R
1
·
. . v
p
=
RR
f
v
in
RR
1
+ R
f
R
1
+ R
f
R
= v
n
v
n
R
+
v
n
−v
in
R
+
v
n
−v
o
R
f
= 0
v
n
_
1
R
+
1
R
+
1
R
f
_

v
o
R
f
=
v
in
R
·
. . v
n
_
R + 2R
f
RR
f
_

v
in
R
=
v
o
R
f
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
5–34 CHAPTER 5. The Operational Amplifier
·
. .
v
o
R
f
=
_
R + 2R
f
RR
f
_ _
RR
f
v
in
RR
1
+ R
f
R
1
+ R
f
R
_

v
in
R
·
. .
v
o
R
f
=
_
R+ 2R
f
RR
1
+ R
f
R
1
+ R
f
R

1
R
_
v
in
·
. . v
o
=
[R
2
+ 2RR
f
−R
1
(R + R
f
) −RR
f
]R
f
R[R
1
(R + R
f
) + RR
f
]
v
in
Now substitute R
1
= R + ∆R and get
v
o
=
−∆R(R+ R
f
)R
f
v
in
R[(R+ ∆R)(R + R
f
) + RR
f
]
If ∆R R
v
o

(R + R
f
)R
f
(−∆R)v
in
R
2
(R+ 2R
f
)
[b] v
o

47 ×10
4
(48 ×10
4
)(−95)15
10
8
(95 ×10
4
)
≈ −3.384 V
[c] v
o
=
−95(48 ×10
4
)(47 ×10
4
)15
10
4
[(1.0095)10
4
(48 ×10
4
) + 47 ×10
8
]
= −3.368 V
P 5.51 [a] v
o

(R+ R
f
)R
f
(−∆R)v
in
R
2
(R + 2R
f
)
v
o
=
(R+ R
f
)(−∆R)R
f
v
in
R[(R+ ∆R)(R + R
f
) + RR
f
]
·
. .
approx value
true value
=
R[(R+ ∆R)(R + R
f
) + RR
f
]
R
2
(R+ 2R
f
)
·
. . Error =
R[(R + ∆R)(R+ R
f
) + RR
f
] −R
2
(R + 2R
f
)
R
2
(R + 2R
f
)
=
∆R
R
(R + R
f
)
(R + 2R
f
)
·
. . % error =
∆R(R + R
f
)
R(R + 2R
f
)
×100
[b] % error =
95(48 ×10
4
) ×100
10
4
(95 ×10
4
)
= 0.48%
P 5.52 1 =
∆R(48 ×10
4
)
10
4
(95 ×10
4
)
×100
·
. . ∆R =
9500
48
= 197.91667 Ω
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 5–35
·
. . % change in R =
197.19667
10
4
×100 ≈ 1.98%
P 5.53 [a] It follows directly from the solution to Problem 5.50 that
v
o
=
[R
2
+ 2RR
f
−R
1
(R+ R
f
) −RR
f
]R
f
v
in
R[R
1
(R+ R
f
) + RR
f
]
Now R
1
= R−∆R. Substituting into the expression gives
v
o
=
(R + R
f
)R
f
(∆R)v
in
R[(R−∆R)(R + R
f
) + RR
f
]
Now let ∆R R and get
v
o

(R + R
f
)R
f
∆Rv
in
R
2
(R + 2R
f
)
[b] It follows directly from the solution to Problem 5.50 that
·
. .
approx value
true value
=
R[(R−∆R)(R + R
f
) + RR
f
]
R
2
(R + 2R
f
)
·
. . Error =
(R −∆R)(R + R
f
) + RR
f
−R(R + 2R
f
)
R(R + 2R
f
)
=
−∆R(R+ R
f
)
R(R + 2R
f
)
·
. . % error =
−∆R(R + R
f
)
R(R + 2R
f
)
×100
[c] R −∆R = 9810 Ω
·
. . ∆R = 10,000 −9810 = 190 Ω
·
. . v
o

(48 ×10
4
)(47 ×10
4
)(190)(15)
10
8
(95 ×10
4
)
≈ 6.768 V
[d] % error =
−190(48 ×10
4
)(100)
10
4
(95 ×10
4
)
= −0.96%
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.