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18

Two-Port Circuits
Assessment Problems
AP 18.1 With port 2 short-circuited, we have
I
1
=
V
1
20
+
V
1
5
;
I
1
V
1
= y
11
= 0.25 S; I
2
=
_
−20
25
_
I
1
= −0.8I
1
When V
2
= 0, we have I
1
= y
11
V
1
and I
2
= y
21
V
1
Therefore I
2
= −0.8(y
11
V
1
) = −0.8y
11
V
1
Thus y
21
= −0.8y
11
= −0.2 S
With port 1 short-circuited, we have
I
2
=
V
2
15
+
V
2
5
;
I
2
V
2
= y
22
=
_
4
15
_
S
I
1
=
_
−15
20
_
I
2
= −0.75I
2
= −0.75y
22
V
2
18–1
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18–2 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
Therefore y
12
= (−0.75)
4
15
= −0.2 S
AP 18.2
h
11
=
_
V
1
I
1
_
V
2
=0
= 205 = 4 Ω
h
21
=
_
I
2
I
1
_
V
2
=0
=
(−20/25)I
1
I
1
= −0.8
h
12
=
_
V
1
V
2
_
I
1
=0
=
(20/25)V
2
V
2
= 0.8
h
22
=
_
I
2
V
2
_
I
1
=0
=
1
15
+
1
25
=
8
75
S
g
11
=
_
I
1
V
1
_
I
2
=0
=
1
20
+
1
20
= 0.1 S
g
21
=
_
V
2
V
1
_
I
2
=0
=
(15/20)V
1
V
1
= 0.75
g
12
=
_
I
1
I
2
_
V
1
=0
=
(−15/20)I
2
I
2
= −0.75
g
22
=
_
V
2
I
2
_
V
1
=0
= 155 =
75
20
= 3.75 Ω
AP 18.3
g
11
=
I
1
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
5 ×10
−6
50 ×10
−3
= 0.1 mS
g
21
=
V
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
200 ×10
−3
50 ×10
−3
= 4
g
12
=
I
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
=
2 ×10
−6
0.5 ×10
−6
= 4
g
22
=
V
2
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
=
10 ×10
−3
0.5 ×10
−6
= 20 kΩ
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Problems 18–3
AP 18.4 First calculate the b-parameters:
b
11
=
V
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
15
10
= 1.5 Ω; b
21
=
I
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
30
10
= 3 S
b
12
=
−V
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
=
−10
−5
= 2 Ω; b
22
=
−I
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
=
−4
−5
= 0.8
Now the z-parameters are calculated:
z
11
=
b
22
b
21
=
0.8
3
=
4
15
Ω; z
12
=
1
b
21
=
1
3

z
21
=
∆b
b
21
=
(1.5)(0.8) −6
3
= −1.6 Ω; z
22
=
b
11
b
21
=
1.5
3
=
1
2

AP 18.5
z
11
= z
22
, z
12
= z
21
, 95 = z
11
(5) + z
12
(0)
Therefore, z
11
= z
22
= 95/5 = 19 Ω
11.52 = 19I
1
−z
12
(2.72)
0 = z
12
I
1
−19(2.72)
Solving these simultaneous equations for z
12
yields the quadratic equation
z
2
12
+
_
72
17
_
z
12

6137
17
= 0
For a purely resistive network, it follows that z
12
= z
21
= 17 Ω.
AP 18.6 [a] I
2
=
−V
g
a
11
Z
L
+ a
12
+ a
21
Z
g
Z
L
+ a
22
Z
g
=
−50 ×10
−3
(5 ×10
−4
)(5 ×10
3
) + 10 + (10
−6
)(100)(5 ×10
3
) + (−3 ×10
−2
)(100)
=
−50 ×10
−3
10
= −5 mA
P
L
=
1
2
(5 ×10
−3
)
2
(5 ×10
3
) = 62.5 mW
[b] Z
Th
=
a
12
+ a
22
Z
g
a
11
+ a
21
Z
g
=
10 + (−3 ×10
−2
)(100)
5 ×10
−4
+ (10
−6
)(100)
=
7
6 ×10
−4
=
70
6
kΩ
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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18–4 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
[c] V
Th
=
V
g
a
11
+ a
21
Z
g
=
50 ×10
−3
6 ×10
−4
=
500
6
V
Therefore V
2
=
250
6
V; P
max
=
(1/2)(250/6)
2
(70/6) ×10
3
= 74.4 mW
AP 18.7 [a] For the given bridged-tee circuit, we have
a

11
= a

22
= 1.25, a

21
=
1
20
S, a

12
= 11.25 Ω
The a-parameters of the cascaded networks are
a
11
= (1.25)
2
+ (11.25)(0.05) = 2.125
a
12
= (1.25)(11.25) + (11.25)(1.25) = 28.125 Ω
a
21
= (0.05)(1.25) + (1.25)(0.05) = 0.125 S
a
22
= a
11
= 2.125, R
Th
= (45.125/3.125) = 14.44 Ω
[b] V
t
=
100
3.125
= 32 V; therefore V
2
= 16 V
[c] P =
16
2
14.44
= 17.73 W
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
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Problems 18–5
Problems
P 18.1 h
11
=
_
V
1
I
1
_
V
2
=0
= 205 = 4 Ω
h
21
=
_
I
2
I
1
_
V
2
=0
=
(−20/25)I
1
I
1
= −0.8
h
12
=
_
V
1
V
2
_
I
1
=0
=
(20/25)V
2
V
2
= 0.8
h
22
=
_
I
2
V
2
_
I
1
=0
=
1
15
+
1
25
=
8
75
S
g
11
=
_
I
1
V
1
_
I
2
=0
=
1
20
+
1
20
= 0.1 S
g
21
=
_
V
2
V
1
_
I
2
=0
=
(15/20)V
1
V
1
= 0.75
g
12
=
_
I
1
I
2
_
V
1
=0
=
(−15/20)I
2
I
2
= −0.75
g
22
=
_
V
2
I
2
_
V
1
=0
= 155 =
75
20
= 3.75 Ω
P 18.2 y
11
=
I
1
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
; y
21
=
I
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
V −1
20
+
V
10
+
V
4
= 0; so V = 0.125 V
·
. . I
1
=
1 −0.125
20
+
1 −0
8
= 168.75 mA; I
2
=
0 −0.125
4
+
0 −1
8
= −156.25 mA
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–6 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
y
11
=
I
1
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
= 168.75 mS; y
21
=
I
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
= −156.25 mS
y
12
=
I
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
; y
22
=
I
2
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
V
20
+
V
10
+
V −1
4
= 0; so V = 0.625 V
·
. . I
1
=
0 −0.625
20
+
0 −1
8
= −156.25 mA; I
2
=
1 −0.625
4
+
1 −0
8
= 218.75 mA
y
12
=
I
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
= −156.25 mS; y
22
=
I
2
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
= 218.75 mS
Summary:
y
11
= 168.75 mS y
12
= −156.25 mS y
21
= −156.25 mS y
22
= 218.75 mS
P 18.3
z
11
=
V
1
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
= 1 + 12 = 13 Ω
z
21
=
V
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
= 12 Ω
z
22
=
V
2
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
= 4 + 12 = 16 Ω
z
21
=
V
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
= 12 Ω
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–7
P 18.4 ∆z = (13)(16) −(12)(12) = 64
y
11
=
z
22
∆z
=
16
64
= 0.25 S
y
12
=
−z
12
∆z
=
−12
64
= −0.1875 S
y
21
=
−z
21
∆z
=
−12
64
= −0.1875 S
y
22
=
−z
11
∆z
=
13
64
= 0.203125 S
P 18.5 h
11
=
V
1
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
; h
21
=
I
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
V
1
I
1
= 80[10 + 2020] = 8020 = 16 Ω
·
. . h
11
= 16 Ω
I
6
=
80
80 + 20
I
1
= 0.8I
1
I
2
=
−20
20 + 20
I
6
= −0.5I
6
= −0.5(0.8)I
1
= −0.4I
1
·
. . h
21
= −0.4
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–8 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
h
12
=
V
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
; h
22
=
I
2
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
V
2
I
2
= 80[20 + 2090] = 25 Ω
·
. . h
22
=
1
25
= 40 mS
V
x
=
2090
20 + 2090
V
2
V
1
=
80
80 + 10
V
x
=
80(2090)
90(20 + 2090)
V
2
= 0.4V
2
·
. . h
12
= 0.4
Summary:
h
11
= 16 Ω; h
12
= 0.4; h
21
= −0.4; h
22
= 40 mS
P 18.6 V
2
= b
11
V
1
−b
12
I
1
I
2
= b
21
V
1
−b
22
I
1
b
12
=
−V
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
; b
22
=
−I
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
515 = (15/4) Ω; 1020 = (20/3) Ω
I
2
=
V
2
(15/4) + (20/3)
=
12V
2
125
; I
1
= I
b
−I
a
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–9
I
a
=
15
20
I
2
; I
b
=
20
30
I
2
I
1
=
_
20
30

15
20
_
I
2
=
−5
60
I
2
=
−1
12
I
2
b
22
=
−I
2
I
1
= 12
b
12
=
−V
2
I
1
=
−V
2
I
2
_
I
2
I
1
_
=
125
12
(12) = 125 Ω
b
11
=
V
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
; b
21
=
I
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
V
1
= V
a
−V
b
; V
a
=
10
15
V
2
; V
b
=
20
35
V
2
V
1
=
10
15
V
2

20
35
V
2
=
2
21
V
2
b
11
=
V
2
V
1
=
21
2
= 10.5
V
2
= (10 + 5)(20 + 15)I
2
= 10.5I
2
b
21
=
I
2
V
1
=
_
I
2
V
2
__
V
2
V
1
_
=
_
1
10.5
_
(10.5) = 1 S
P 18.7 h
11
=
V
1
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
= R
1
R
2
= 4
·
. .
R
1
R
2
R
1
+ R
2
= 4
h
21
=
I
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
=
−R
2
R
1
+ R
2
= −0.8
·
. . R
2
= 0.8R
1
+ 0.8R
2
so R
1
=
R
2
4
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–10 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
Substituting,
(R
2
/4)R
2
(R
2
/4) + R
2
= 4 so R
2
= 20 Ω and R
1
= 5 Ω
h
22
=
I
2
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
1
R
3
(R
1
+ R
2
)
=
1
R
3
25
= 0.14
·
. . R
3
= 10
Summary:
R
1
= 5 Ω; R
2
= 20 Ω; R
3
= 10 Ω
P 18.8 V
1
= a
11
V
2
−a
12
I
2
I
1
= a
21
V
2
−a
22
I
2
a
11
=
V
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
; a
21
=
I
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
V
1
= 10
3
I
1
+ 10
−4
V
2
= 10
3
(−0.5 ×10
−6
)V
2
+ 10
−4
V
2
·
. . a
11
= −5 ×10
−4
+ 10
−4
= −4 ×10
−4
V
2
= −(50I
1
)(40 ×10
3
);
·
. . a
21
= −
1
2 ×10
6
= −0.5 µS
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–11
a
12
=
−V
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
; a
22
=
−I
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
I
2
= 50I
1
;
·
. . a
22
= −
I
1
I
2
= −
1
50
V
1
= 1000I
1
;
·
. . a
12
= −
V
1
I
2
= −
V
1
I
1
I
1
I
2
= −(1000)(1/50) = −20 Ω
Summary
a
11
= −4 ×10
−4
; a
12
= −20 Ω; a
21
= −0.5 µS; a
22
= −0.02
P 18.9 g
11
=
a
21
a
11
=
−0.5 ×10
−6
−4 ×10
−4
= 1.25 mS
g
12
=
−∆a
a
11
=
−(−4 ×10
−4
)(−1/50) −(−0.5 ×10
−6
)(−20)
−4 ×10
−4
= −0.005
g
21
=
1
a
11
=
1
−4 ×10
−4
= −2500
g
22
=
a
12
a
11
=
(−20)
−400 ×10
−6
= 5 ×10
4

P 18.10 For V
2
= 0:
I
a
=
50I
2
200
=
1
4
I
2
= −I
2
;
·
. . I
2
= 0
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–12 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
h
21
=
I
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
= 0
V
1
= (10 + j20)I
1
·
. . h
11
=
V
1
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
= 10 + j20 Ω
For I
1
= 0:
V
1
= 50I
2
; I
2
=
V
2
−j100
+
V
2
−50I
2
200
200I
2
= j2V
2
+ V
2
−50i
2
250I
2
= V
2
(1 + j2)
50I
2
= V
2
_
1 + j2
5
_
= (0.2 + j0.4)V
2
·
. . V
1
= (0.2 + j0.4)V
2
h
12
=
V
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
= 0.2 + j0.4
h
22
=
I
2
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
1 + j2
250
= 4 + j8 mS
Summary:
h
11
= 10 + j20 Ω; h
12
= 0.2 + j0.4; h
21
= 0; h
22
= 4 + j8 mS
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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Problems 18–13
P 18.11 For I
2
= 0:
50I
1
−40I
2
= 1
−40I
1
+ 48I
2
−3(40)(I
1
−I
2
) = 0 so −160I
1
+ 168I
2
= 0
Solving,
I
1
= 84 mA; I
2
= 80 mA
V
2
= 3I
2
−3(40)(I
1
−I
2
) = −0.24 V
g
11
=
I
1
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
84 m
1
= 84 mS
g
21
=
V
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
−0.24
1
= −0.24
For V
1
= 0:
50I
1
−40I
2
= 0
−40I
1
+ 48I
2
+ 3 −3(40)(I
1
−I
2
) = 0 so −160I
1
+ 168I
2
= −3
Solving,
I
1
= −60 mA; I
2
= −75 mA
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
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18–14 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
V
2
= 3(I
2
+ 1) −3(40)(I
1
−I
2
) = 0.975 V
g
12
=
I
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
=
−60 m
1
= −0.06
g
22
=
V
2
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
=
0.975
1
= 0.975 Ω
P 18.12 For V
2
= 0:
V
1
= (400 + 1200)I
1
h
11
=
V
1
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
=
1600
1
= 1600 Ω
V
p
= 1200(1 A) = 1200 V = V
n
At V
n
,
1200
500
+
1200 −V
o
1000
= 0 so V
o
= 3600 V
·
. . I
2
= −
3600
200
= −18 A
h
21
=
I
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
−18
1
= −18
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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Problems 18–15
For I
1
= 0:
V
1
= 0
h
12
=
V
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
0
1
= 0
At V
n
,
V
n
500
+
V
n
−V
o
100
= 0
But V
n
= V
p
= 0 so V
o
= 0; therefore,
I
2
=
1 V
200 Ω
= 5 mS
h
22
=
I
2
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
5 m
1
= 5 mS
P 18.13 I
1
= g
11
V
1
+ g
12
I
2
; V
2
= g
21
V
1
+ g
22
I
2
g
11
=
I
1
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
0.25 ×10
−6
20 ×10
−3
= 12.5 ×10
−6
= 12.5 µS
g
21
=
V
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
−5
20
×10
3
= −250
0 = −250(10) + g
22
(50 ×10
−6
)
g
22
=
2500
50 ×10
−6
= 50 MΩ
200 ×10
−6
= 12.5 ×10
−6
(10) + g
12
(50 ×10
−6
)
(200 −125)10
−6
= g
12
(50 ×10
−6
)
g
12
=
75
50
= 1.5
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
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18–16 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
P 18.14 [a] I
1
= y
11
V
1
+ y
12
V
2
; I
2
= y
21
V
1
+ y
22
V
2
y
21
=
I
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
=
50 ×10
−6
10
= 5 µS
0 = y
21
(20 ×10
−3
) + y
22
(−5)
·
. . y
22
=
1
5
y
21
(20 ×10
−3
) = 20 nS
200 ×10
−6
= y
11
(10) so y
11
= 20 µS
0.25 ×10
−6
= 20 ×10
−6
(20 ×10
−3
) + y
12
(−5)
y
12
=
0.25 ×10
−6
−0.4 ×10
−6
−5
= 30 nS
Summary:
y
11
= 20 µS; y
12
= 30 nS; y
21
= 5 µS; y
22
= 20 nS
[b] y
11
=
∆g
g
22
; y
12
=
g
12
g
22
; y
21
=
−g
21
g
22
; y
22
=
1
g
22
∆g = g
11
g
22
−g
12
g
21
= (12.5 ×10
−6
)(50 ×10
6
) −1.5(−250)
= 625 + 375 = 1000
y
11
=
1000
50 ×10
6
= 20 µS; y
21
=
250
5 ×10
6
= 5 µS
y
12
=
1.5
50 ×10
6
= 30 nS; y
22
=
1
5 ×10
6
= 20 nS
These values are the same as those in part (a).
P 18.15 I
1
= g
11
V
1
+ g
12
I
2
V
2
= g
21
V
1
+ g
22
I
2
V
1
=
I
1
g
11

g
12
g
11
I
2
and I
2
=
V
2
g
22

g
21
g
22
V
1
Substituting,
V
1
=
I
1
g
11

g
12
g
11
_
V
2
g
22

g
21
g
22
V
1
_
V
1
=
_
1 −
g
12
g
21
g
11
g
22
_
=
I
1
g
11

g
12
g
11
g
22
V
2
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
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Problems 18–17
V
1
=
g
22
g
11
g
22
−g
12
g
21
I
1

g
12
g
11
g
22
−g
12
g
21
V
2
V
1
= h
11
I
1
+ h
12
V
2
Therefore,
h
11
=
g
22
∆g
; h
12
=
−g
12
∆g
where ∆g = g
11
g
22
−g
12
g
21
I
2
=
V
2
g
22

g
21
g
22
_
I
1
g
11

g
12
g
11
I
2
_
I
2
=
_
1 −
g
12
g
21
g
11
g
22
_
=
V
2
g
22

g
21
g
11
g
22
I
1
I
2
=
g
11
∆g
V
2

g
21
∆g
I
1
I
2
= h
21
I
1
+ h
22
V
2
Therefore,
h
21
=
−g
21
∆g
; h
22
=
g
11
∆g
P 18.16 V
1
= h
11
I
1
+ h
12
V
2
; I
2
= h
21
I
1
+ h
22
V
2
Rearranging the first equation,
V
2
=
1
h
12
V
1

h
11
h
12
I
1
V
2
= b
11
V
1
−b
12
I
1
Therefore,
b
11
=
1
h
12
; b
12
=
h
11
h
12
Solving the second h-parameter equation for I
2
:
I
2
= h
21
I
1
+ h
22
_
1
h
12
V
1

h
11
h
12
I
1
_
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–18 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
= I
1
_
h
21

h
22
h
11
h
12
_
+
h
22
h
12
V
1
=
−∆h
h
12
I
1
+
h
22
h
12
V
1
I
2
= b
21
V
1
−b
22
I
1
Therefore,
b
21
=
h
22
h
12
; b
22
=
∆h
h
12
where ∆h = h
11
h
22
−h
12
h
21
P 18.17 I
1
= g
11
V
1
+ g
12
I
2
; V
2
= g
21
V
1
+ g
22
I
2
V
1
= z
11
I
1
+ z
12
I
2
; V
2
= z
21
I
1
+ z
22
I
2
I
1
=
V
1
z
11

z
12
z
11
I
2
·
. . g
11
=
1
z
11
; g
12
=
−z
12
z
11
V
2
= z
21
_
V
1
z
11

z
12
z
11
I
2
_
+ z
22
I
2
=
z
21
z
11
V
1
+
_
z
11
z
22
−z
12
z
21
z
11
_
I
2
·
. . g
21
=
z
21
z
11
; g
22
=
∆z
z
11
where ∆z = z
11
z
22
−z
12
z
21
P 18.18 For I
2
= 0:
V
2
=
V
1
4 + (1/s)
(4) =
4sV
1
4s + 1
a
11
=
V
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
4s + 1
4s
=
s + 0.25
s
I
1
=
V
1
4 + (1/s)
=
sV
1
4s + 1
so V
2
= 4I
1
=
4sV
1
4s + 1
a
21
=
I
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
1
4
= 0.25
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–19
For V
2
= 0:
I
2
=
−I
1
(4)
s + 4
a
22
= −
I
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
=
s + 4
4
V
1
=
1
s
I
1
+
4s
s + 4
I
1
=
_
1
s
+
4s
s + 4
_
I
1
=
_
1
s
+
4s
s + 4
_
_
−(s + 4)
4
I
2
_
= −
_
s + 4
4s
+ s
_
I
2
= −
4s
2
+ s + 4
4s
I
2
a
12
= −
V
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
=
s
2
+ 0.25s + 1
s
P 18.19 z
11
=
V
1
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
(1 + 1/s)(1)
2 + 1/s
+ s =
s + 1
2s + 1
+ s
=
s + 1 + 2s
2
+ 2
2s + 1
=
2s
2
+ 2s + 1
2s + 1
z
22
= z
11
(the circuit is reciprocal and symmetrical)
z
21
=
V
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
V
2
= I
1
1
2 + 1/s
(1) + sI
1
;
V
2
I
1
=
s
2s + 1
+ s =
s + 2s
2
+ s
2s + 1
z
21
=
2s
2
+ 2s
2s + 1
=
2s(s + 1)
2s + 1
z
12
= z
21
(the circuit is reciprocal and symmetrical)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–20 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
P 18.20 For I
2
= 0:
V
2
−V
1
20
+ 0.025V
1
+
V
2
40
= 0
2V
2
−2V
1
+ V
1
+ V
2
= 0 so 3V
2
= V
1
·
. . a
11
=
V
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
= 3
I
1
=
V
1
−j50
+
V
1
−5V
2
100
+
V
1
−V
2
20
= V
1
_
j
50
+
1
100
+
1
20
_
−V
2
_
5
100
+
1
20
_
= V
1
_
6 + j2
100
_
−V
2
_
1
10
_
But V
1
= 3V
2
so
I
1
=
_
18 + j6 −10
100
_
V
2
= (0.08 + j0.06)V
2
a
21
=
I
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
= 0.08 + j0.06 S = 80 + j60 mS
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–21
For V
2
= 0:
I
1
=
V
1
−j50
+
V
1
100
+
V
1
20
= V
1
(6 + j2)
100
I
2
= 0.025V
1

V
1
20
= −0.025V
1
a
12
= −
V
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
=
1
0.025
= 40 Ω
a
22
= −
I
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
=
−2V
1
(3 + j1)
100(−0.025)V
1
= 2.4 + j0.8
Summary:
a
11
= 3; a
12
= 40 Ω; a
21
= 80 + j60 mS; a
22
= 2.4 + j0.8
P 18.21 h
11
=
a
12
a
22
=
40
(0.8)(3 + j1)
= 15 −j5 Ω
h
12
=
∆a
a
22
∆a = 3(2.4 + j0.8) −40(0.08 + j0.06) = 7.2 + j2.4 −3.2 −j2.4 = 4
h
12
=
4
(0.8)(3 + j1)
= 1.5 −j0.50
h
21
= −
1
a
22
=
−1
(0.8)(3 + j1)
= −0.375 + j0.125
h
22
=
a
21
a
22
=
0.08 + j0.06
(0.8)(3 + j1)
= 0.0375 + j0.0125 = 37.5 + j12.5 mS
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–22 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
P 18.22 [a] h
11
=
V
1
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
; h
21
=
I
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
V
1
= (R + sL)I
1
−sMI
2
0 = −sMI
1
+ (R + sL)I
2
∆ =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(R + sL) −sM
−sM (R + sL)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= (R + sL)
2
−s
2
M
2
N
1
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
−sM
0 (R + sL)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= (R + sL)V
1
I
1
=
N
1

=
(R + sL)V
1
(R + sL)
2
−s
2
M
2
; h
11
=
V
1
I
1
=
(R + sL)
2
−s
2
M
2
R + sL
0 = −sMI
1
+ (R + sL)I
2
;
·
. . h
21
=
I
2
I
1
=
sM
R + sL
h
12
=
V
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
; h
22
=
I
2
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
V
1
= −sMI
2
; I
2
=
V
2
R + sL
V
1
=
−sMV
2
R + sL
; h
12
=
V
1
V
2
=
−sM
R + sL
h
22
=
I
2
V
2
=
1
R + sL
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–23
[b] h
12
= −h
21
(reciprocal)
h
11
h
22
−h
12
h
21
= 1 (symmetrical, reciprocal)
h
12
=
−sM
R + sL
; h
21
=
sM
R + sL
(checks)
h
11
h
22
−h
12
h
21
=
(R + sL)
2
−s
2
M
2
R + sL
·
1
R + sL

(sM)(−sM)
(R + sL)
2
=
(R + sL)
2
−s
2
M
2
+ s
2
M
2
(R + sL)
2
= 1 (checks)
P 18.23 First we note that
z
11
=
(Z
b
+ Z
c
)(Z
a
+ Z
b
)
Z
a
+ 2Z
b
+ Z
c
and z
22
=
(Z
a
+ Z
b
)(Z
b
+ Z
c
)
Z
a
+ 2Z
b
+ Z
c
Therefore z
11
= z
22
.
z
12
=
V
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
; Use the circuit below:
V
1
= Z
b
I
x
−Z
c
I
y
= Z
b
I
x
−Z
c
(I
2
−I
x
) = (Z
b
+ Z
c
)I
x
−Z
c
I
2
I
x
=
Z
b
+ Z
c
Z
a
+ 2Z
b
+ Z
c
I
2
so V
1
=
(Z
b
+ Z
c
)
2
Z
a
+ 2Z
b
+ Z
c
I
2
−Z
c
I
2
·
. . Z
12
=
V
1
I
2
=
(Z
b
+ Z
c
)
2
Z
a
+ 2Z
b
+ Z
c
−Z
c
=
Z
2
b
−Z
a
Z
c
Z
a
+ 2Z
b
+ Z
c
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–24 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
z
21
=
V
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
; Use the circuit below:
V
2
= Z
b
I
x
−Z
c
I
y
= Z
b
I
x
−Z
c
(I
1
−I
x
) = (Z
b
+ Z
c
)I
x
−Z
c
I
1
I
x
=
Z
b
+ Z
c
Z
a
+ 2Z
b
+ Z
c
I
1
so V
2
=
(Z
b
+ Z
c
)
2
Z
a
+ 2Z
b
+ Z
c
I
1
−Z
c
I
1
·
. . z
21
=
V
2
I
1
=
(Z
b
+ Z
c
)
2
Z
a
+ 2Z
b
+ Z
c
−Z
c
=
Z
2
b
−Z
a
Z
c
Z
a
+ 2Z
b
+ Z
c
= z
12
Thus the network is symmetrical and reciprocal.
P 18.24 I
1
= y
11
V
1
+ y
12
V
2
; V
1
= V
g
−Z
g
I
1
I
2
= y
21
V
1
+ y
22
V
2
; V
2
= −Z
L
I
2
−V
2
Z
L
= y
21
V
1
+ y
22
V
2
·
. . −y
21
V
1
=
_
1
Z
L
+ y
22
_
V
2
; −y
21
Z
L
V
1
= (1 + y
22
Z
L
)V
2
·
. .
V
2
V
1
=
−y
21
Z
L
1 + y
22
Z
L
P 18.25
V
2
= b
11
V
1
−b
12
I
1
; V
1
= V
g
−I
1
Z
g
I
2
= b
21
V
1
−b
22
I
1
; V
2
= −Z
L
I
2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–25
I
2
= −
V
2
Z
L
=
−b
11
V
1
+ b
12
I
1
Z
L
−b
11
V
1
+ b
12
I
1
Z
L
= b
21
V
1
−b
22
I
1
·
. . V
1
_
b
11
Z
L
+ b
21
_
=
_
b
22
+
b
12
Z
L
_
I
1
V
1
I
1
=
b
22
Z
L
+ b
12
b
21
Z
L
+ b
11
= Z
in
P 18.26 V
1
= h
11
I
1
+ h
12
V
2
; V
1
= V
g
−Z
g
I
1
I
2
= h
21
I
1
+ h
22
V
2
; V
2
= −Z
L
I
2
·
. . V
g
−Z
g
I
1
= h
11
I
1
+ h
12
V
2
; V
g
= (h
11
+ Z
g
)I
1
+ h
12
V
2
·
. . I
1
=
V
g
−h
12
V
2
h
11
+ Z
g
·
. . −
V
2
Z
L
= h
21
_
V
g
−h
12
V
2
h
11
+ Z
g
_
+ h
22
V
2
−V
2
(h
11
+ Z
g
)
Z
L
= h
21
V
g
−h
12
h
21
V
2
+ h
22
(h
11
+ Z
g
)V
2
−V
2
(h
11
+ Z
g
) = h
21
Z
L
V
g
−h
12
h
21
Z
L
V
2
+ h
22
Z
L
(h
11
+ Z
g
)V
2
−h
21
Z
L
V
g
= (h
11
+ Z
g
) [V
2
+ h
22
Z
L
V
2
] −h
12
h
21
Z
L
V
2
·
. .
V
2
V
g
=
−h
21
Z
L
(h
11
+ Z
g
)(1 + h
22
Z
L
) −h
12
h
21
Z
L
P 18.27 I
1
= g
11
V
1
+ g
12
I
2
; V
1
= V
g
−Z
g
I
1
V
2
= g
21
V
1
+ g
22
I
2
; V
2
= −Z
L
I
2
−Z
L
I
2
= g
21
V
1
+ g
22
I
2
; V
1
=
I
1
−g
12
I
2
g
11
·
. . −Z
L
I
2
=
g
21
g
11
(I
1
−g
12
I
2
) + g
22
I
2
·
. . −Z
L
I
2
+
g
12
g
21
g
11
I
2
−g
22
I
2
=
g
21
g
11
I
1
·
. . (Z
L
g
11
+ ∆g)I
2
= −g
21
I
1
;
·
. .
I
2
I
1
=
−g
21
g
11
Z
L
+ ∆g
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
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18–26 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
P 18.28 V
1
= z
11
I
1
+ z
12
I
2
; V
1
= V
g
−Z
g
I
1
V
2
= z
21
I
1
+ z
22
I
2
; V
2
= −Z
L
I
2
V
Th
= V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
; V
2
= z
21
I
1
; I
1
=
V
1
z
11
=
V
g
−I
1
Z
g
z
11
·
. . I
1
=
V
g
z
11
+ Z
g
;
·
. . V
2
=
z
21
V
g
z
11
+ Z
g
= V
Th
Z
Th
=
V
2
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
Vg=0
; V
2
= z
21
I
1
+ z
22
I
2
−I
1
Z
g
= z
11
I
1
+ z
12
I
2
; I
1
=
−z
12
I
2
z
11
+ Z
g
·
. . V
2
= z
21
_
−z
12
I
2
z
11
+ Z
g
_
+ z
22
I
2
·
. .
V
2
I
2
= z
22

z
12
z
21
z
11
+ Z
g
= Z
Th
P 18.29
V
2
V
g
=
∆bZ
L
b
12
+ b
11
Z
g
+ b
22
Z
L
+ b
21
Z
g
Z
L
∆b = b
11
b
22
−b
12
b
21
= (25)(−40) −(1000)(−1.25) = 250
·
. .
V
2
V
g
=
250(100)
1000 + 25(20) −40(100) −1.25(2000)
= −5
V
2
= −5(120/0

) = 600/180

V(rms)
I
2
=
−V
2
100
=
−600/180

100
= 6 A(rms)
I
2
I
1
=
−∆b
b
11
+ b
21
Z
L
=
−250
25 −1.25(100)
= 2.5
·
. . I
1
=
I
2
2.5
=
6
2.5
= 2.4 A(rms)
·
. . P
g
= (120)(2.4) = 288 W; P
o
= 36(100) = 3600 W
·
. .
P
o
P
g
=
3600
288
= 12.5
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–27
P 18.30 [a]
V
2
V
g
=
y
21
Z
L
y
12
y
21
Z
g
Z
L
−(1 + y
11
Z
g
)(1 + y
22
Z
L
)
y
12
y
21
Z
g
Z
L
= (−2 ×10
−6
)(100 ×10
−3
)(2500)(70,000) = −35
1 + y
11
Z
g
= 1 + (2 ×10
−3
)(2500) = 6
1 + y
22
Z
L
= 1 + (−50 ×10
−6
)(70 ×10
3
) = −2.5
y
21
Z
L
= (100 ×10
−3
)(70 ×10
3
) = 7000
V
2
V
g
=
7000
−35 −(6)(−2.5)
=
7000
−20
= −350
V
2
= −350V
g
= −350(80) ×10
−3
= −28 V(rms)
V
2
= 28 V(rms)
[b] P =
|V
2
|
2
70,000
= 11.2 ×10
−3
= 11.20 mW
[c] I
2
=
−28/180

70,000
= −0.4 ×10
−3
/180

= 400/0

µA
I
2
I
1
=
y
21
y
11
+ ∆yZ
L
∆y = (2 ×10
−3
)(−50 ×10
−6
) −(−2 ×10
−6
)(100 ×10
−3
)
= 100 ×10
−9
∆yZ
L
= (100)(70) ×10
3
×10
−9
= 7 ×10
−3
y
11
+ ∆yZ
L
= 2 ×10
−3
+ 7 ×10
−3
= 9 ×10
−3
I
2
I
1
=
100 ×10
−3
9 ×10
−3
=
100
9
·
. . 100I
1
= 9I
2
; I
1
=
9(400 ×10
−6
)
100
= 36 µA(rms)
P
g
= (80)10
−3
(36) ×10
−6
= 2.88 µW
P 18.31 [a] Z
Th
=
1 + y
11
Z
g
y
22
+ ∆yZ
g
From the solution to Problem 18.30
1 + y
11
Z
g
= 1 + (2 ×10
−3
)(2500) = 6
y
22
+ ∆yZ
g
= −50 ×10
−6
+ 10
−7
(2500) = 200 ×10
−6
Z
Th
=
6
200
×10
6
= 30,000 Ω
Z
L
= Z

Th
= 30,000 Ω
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–28 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
[b] y
21
Z
L
= (100 ×10
−3
)(30,000) = 3000
y
12
y
21
Z
g
Z
L
= (−2 ×10
−6
)(100 ×10
−3
)(2500)(30,000) = −15
1 + y
11
Z
g
= 6
1 + y
22
Z
L
= 1 + (−50 ×10
−6
)(30 ×10
3
) = −0.5
V
2
V
g
=
3000
−15 −6(−0.5)
=
3000
−12
= −250
V
2
= −250(80 ×10
−3
) = −20 = 20/180

V(rms)
P =
|V
2
|
2
30,000
=
400
30
×10
−3
= 13.33 mW
[c] I
2
=
−V
2
30,000
=
20/0

30,000
=
2
3
mA
I
2
I
1
=
100 ×10
−3
2 ×10
−3
+ 10
−7
(30,000)
=
100 ×10
−3
5 ×10
−3
= 20
I
1
=
I
2
20
=
2 ×10
−3
3(20)
=
1
30
mA(rms)
P
g
(developed) = (80 ×10
−3
)
_
1
30
×10
−3
_
=
8
3
µW
P 18.32 [a] For I
2
= 0:
V
2
= −j150I
1
= −j150
V
1
50 + j50
=
−j3V
1
1 + j1
a
11
=
V
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
1 + j1
−j3
=
−1 + j1
3
a
21
=
I
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
1
−j150
=
j
150
S
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–29
For V
2
= 0:
V
1
= (50 + j50)I
1
−j150I
2
0 = −j150I
1
+ (400 + j800)I
2
∆ =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
50 + j50 −j150
−j150 400 + j800
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 2500(1 + j24)
N
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
50 + j50 V
1
−j150 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= j150V
1
I
2
=
N
2

=
j150V
1
2500(1 + j24)
a
12
=
−V
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
=
−50
3
(24 −j1) Ω
j150I
1
= (400 + j800)I
2
a
22
= −
I
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
= −
8
3
(2 −j1)
[b] V
Th
=
V
g
a
11
+ a
21
Z
g
=
260/0

(−1 + j1)/3 + j25/150
=
(260/0

)6
−2 + j2 + j1
=
1560/0

−2 + j3
= 120(−2 −j3) = 432.47/ −123.69

V
Z
Th
=
a
12
+ a
22
Z
g
a
11
+ a
21
Z
g
=
[−(50/3)(24 −j1)] + [(−8/3)(2 −j1)(25)]
[(−1 + j1)/3] + [(j/150)(25)]
=
−100(24 −j1) −16(2 −j1)(25)
−2 + j2 + j1
=
−3200 + j500
−2 + j3
= 607.69 + j661.54 Ω
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–30 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
[c] V
2
=
1000
1607.69 + j661.54
(432.67/−123.69

) = 248.88/ −146.06

v
2
(t) = 248.88 cos(4000t −146.06

) V
P 18.33 [a] Z
Th
= g
22

g
12
g
21
Z
g
1 + g
11
Z
g
g
12
g
21
=
_

1
2
+ j
1
2
__
1
2
−j
1
2
_
= j
1
2
1 + g
11
Z
g
= 1 + 1 −j1 = 2 −j1
·
. . Z
Th
= 1.5 + j2.5 −
j3
2 −j1
= 2.1 + j1.3 Ω
·
. . Z
L
= 2.1 −j1.3 Ω
V
2
V
g
=
g
21
Z
L
(1 + g
11
Z
g
)(g
22
+ Z
L
) −g
12
g
21
Z
g
g
21
Z
L
=
_
1
2
−j
1
2
_
(2.1 −j1.3) = 0.4 −j1.7
1 + g
11
Z
g
= 1 + 1 −j1 = 2 −j1
g
22
+ Z
L
= 1.5 + j2.5 + 2.1 −j1.3 = 3.6 + j1.2
g
12
g
21
Z
g
= j3
V
2
V
g
=
0.4 −j1.7
(2 −j1)(3.6 + j1.2) −j3
=
0.4 −j1.7
8.4 −j4.2
V
2
=
0.4 −j1.7
8.4 −j4.2
(42/0

) = 5 −j6 V(rms) = 7.81/−50.19

V(rms)
The rms value of V
2
is 7.81 V.
[b] I
2
=
−V
2
Z
L
=
−5 + j6
2.1 −j1.3
= −3 + j1 A(rms)
P = |I
2
|
2
(2.1) = 21 W
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–31
[c]
I
2
I
1
=
−g
21
g
11
Z
L
+ ∆g
∆g =
_
1
6
−j
1
6
__
3
2
+ j
5
2
_

_
1
2
−j
1
2
__

1
2
+ j
1
2
_
=
3
12
+ j
5
12
−j
3
12
+
5
12
−j
1
2
=
2
3
−j
1
3
g
11
Z
L
=
_
1
6
−j
1
6
_
(2.1 −j1.3) =
0.8
6
−j
3.4
6
·
. . g
11
Z
L
+ ∆g =
0.8
6
−j
3.4
6
+
4
6
−j
2
6
= 0.8 −j0.9
I
2
I
1
=
−[(1/2) −j(1/2)]
0.8 −j0.9
·
. . I
1
=
(0.8 −j0.9)I
2
−0.5 + j0.5
=
_
1.6 −j1.8
−1 + j1
_
I
2
= (−1.7 + j0.1)(−3 + j1) = 5 −j2 A(rms)
·
. . P
g
(developed) = (42)(5) = 210 W
% delivered =
21
210
(100) = 10%
P 18.34 V
1
= h
11
I
1
+ h
12
V
2
I
2
= h
21
I
1
+ h
22
V
2
From the first measurement:
h
11
=
V
1
I
1
=
4
5
×10
3
= 800 Ω
h
21
=
−200
5
= −40
·
. . V
1
= 800I
1
+ h
12
V
2
; I
2
= −40I
1
+ h
22
V
2
From the second measurement:
h
22
V
2
= 40I
1
h
22
=
40(20 ×10
−6
)
40
= 20 µS
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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18–32 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
20 ×10
−3
= 800(20 ×10
−6
) + 40h
12
·
. . h
12
=
4 ×10
−3
40
= 10
−4
Summary:
h
11
= 800 Ω; h
12
= 10
−4
; h
21
= −40; h
22
= 20 µS
From the circuit,
Z
g
= 250 Ω; V
g
= 5.25 mV
Z
Th
=
h
11
+ Z
g
h
22
Z
g
+ ∆h
∆h = 800(20 ×10
−6
) + 40 ×10
−4
= 20 ×10
−3
Z
Th
=
800 + 250
20 ×10
−6
(250) + 20 ×10
−3
= 42 kΩ
V
Th
=
−h
21
V
g
h
22
Z
g
+ ∆h
=
40(5.25 ×10
−3
)
25 ×10
−3
= 8.4 V
i =
8.4
84,000
= 0.10 mA
P = (0.10 ×10
−3
)
2
(42,000) = 420 µW
P 18.35 When V
2
= 0
V
1
= 20 V, I
1
= 1 A, I
2
= −1 A
When I
1
= 0
V
2
= 80 V, V
1
= 400 V, I
2
= 3 A
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
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Problems 18–33
h
11
=
V
1
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
=
20
1
= 20 Ω
h
12
=
V
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
400
80
= 5
h
21
=
I
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
=
−1
1
= −1
h
22
=
I
2
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
3
80
= 37.5 mS
Z
Th
=
Z
g
+ h
11
h
22
Z
g
+ ∆h
= 10 Ω
Source-transform the current source and parallel resistance to get V
g
= 240 V.
Then,
I
2
=
h
21
V
g
(1 + h
22
Z
L
)(h
11
+ Z
g
) −h
12
h
21
Z
L
= −1.5 A
P = (−1.5)
2
(10) = 22.5 W
P 18.36 [a] g
11
=
I
1
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
; g
21
=
V
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
V
1
I
1
=
1
sC

_
sL +
1
sC
_
=
[sL + (1/sC)](1/sC)
sL + (2/sC)
=
sL + (1/sC)
s
2
LC + 2
=
s
2
LC + 1
sC(s
2
LC + 2)
=
(1/C)[s
2
+ (1/LC)]
s[s
2
+ (2/LC)]
·
. . g
11
=
Cs[s
2
+ (2/LC)])
s
2
+ (1/LC)
V
2
=
(1/sC)
sL + (1/sC)
V
1
so
V
2
V
1
=
(1/sC)
sL + (1/sC)
=
1
s
2
LC + 1
=
(1/LC)
s
2
+ (1/LC)
·
. . g
21
=
(1/LC)
s
2
+ (1/LC)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
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18–34 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
g
12
=
I
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
; g
22
=
V
2
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
I
1
=
−(1/sC)
sL + (1/sC)
I
2
so g
12
=
−(1/LC)
s
2
+ (1/LC)
g
22
= sL(1/sC) =
sL/sC
sL + (1/sC)
=
sL
s
2
LC + 1
=
(1/C)s
s
2
+ (1/LC)
Summary:
g
11
=
Cs[s
2
+ (2/LC)])
s
2
+ (1/LC)
; g
12
=
−(1/LC)
s
2
+ (1/LC)
g
21
=
(1/LC)
s
2
+ (1/LC)
; g
22
=
(1/C)s
s
2
+ (1/LC)
[b]
1
LC
=
10
9
(0.2)(200)
= 25 ×10
6
g
11
=
2 ×10
−7
s(s
2
+ 50 ×10
6
)
s
2
+ 25 ×10
6
g
12
=
−25 ×10
6
s
2
+ 25 ×10
6
g
21
=
25 ×10
6
s
2
+ 25 ×10
6
g
22
=
5 ×10
6
s
s
2
+ 25 ×10
6
V
2
V
1
=
g
21
Z
L
g
22
+ Z
L
=
_
25×10
6
s
2
+25×10
6
_
400
5×10
6
s
(s
2
+25×10
6
)
+ 400
V
2
V
1
=
25 ×10
6
s
2
+ 12,500s + 25 ×10
6
=
25 ×10
6
(s + 2500)(s + 10,000)
V
1
=
30
s
V
2
=
750 ×10
6
s(s + 2500)(s + 10,000)
=
30
s

40
s + 2500
+
10
s + 10,000
v
2
= [30 −40e
−2500t
+ 10e
−10,000t
]u(t) V
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–35
P 18.37 [a] y
11
=
I
1
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
; y
21
=
I
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
V
1
=
_
s +
_
1
s
s
__
I
1
=
s(s
2
+ 1) + s
s
2
+ 1
I
1
·
. . y
11
=
I
1
V
1
=
s
2
+ 1
s(s
2
+ 2)
I
2
=
−(1/s)
s + (1/s)
I
1
=
−1
s
2
+ 1
·
s
2
+ 1
s(s
2
+ 2)
V
1
=
−1
s(s
2
+ 2)
V
1
·
. . y
21
=
−1
s(s
2
+ 2)
Because the two-port circuit is symmetric,
y
12
= y
21
=
−1
s(s
2
+ 2)
and y
22
= y
11
=
s
2
+ 1
s(s
2
+ 2)
[b]
V
2
V
g
=
y
21
Z
g
y
12
y
21
Z
g
Z
L
−(1 + y
11
Z
g
)(1 + Y
22
Z
L
)
=
y
21
y
12
y
21
−(1 + y
11
)(1 + y
22
)
=
−1
s(s
2
+ 2)
1
s
2
(s
2
+ 2)
2

_
1 +
s
2
+ 1
s(s
2
+ 2)
__
1 +
s
2
+ 1
s(s
2
+ 2)
_
=
−s(s
2
+ 2)
1 −(s
3
+ s
2
+ 2s + 1)
2
=
1
s
3
+ 2s
2
+ 3s + 2
=
1
(s + 1)(s
2
+ s + 2)
·
. . V
2
=
50
s(s + 1)(s
2
+ s + 2)
s
1,2
= −
1
2
±j

7
2
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
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18–36 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
V
2
=
K
1
s
+
K
2
s + 1
+
K
3
s +
1
2
−j

7
2
+
K

3
s +
1
2
+ j

7
2
K
1
= 25; K
2
= −25; K
3
= 9.45/90

·
. . v
2
(t) = [25 −25e
−t
+ 18.90e
−0.5t
cos(1.32t + 90

)]u(t) V
P 18.38 The a parameters of the first two port are
a

11
=
−∆h
h
21
=
−5 ×10
−3
40
= −125 ×10
−6
a

12
=
−h
11
h
21
=
−1000
40
= −25 Ω
a

21
=
−h
22
h
21
=
−25
40
×10
−6
= −625 ×10
−9
S
a

22
=
−1
h
21
=
−1
40
= −25 ×10
−3
The a parameters of the second two port are
a

11
=
5
4
; a

12
=
3R
4
; a

21
=
3
4R
; a

22
=
5
4
or a

11
= 1.25; a

12
= 54 kΩ; a

21
=
1
96
mS; a

22
= 1.25
The a parameters of the cascade connection are
a
11
= −125 ×10
−6
(1.25) + (−25)(10
−3
/96) =
−10
−2
24
a
12
= −125 ×10
−6
(54 ×10
3
) + (−25)(1.25) = −38 Ω
a
21
= −625 ×10
−9
(1.25) + (−25 ×10
−3
)(10
−3
/96) =
−10
−4
96
S
a
22
= −625 ×10
−9
(54 ×10
3
) + (−25 ×10
−3
)(1.25) = −65 ×10
−3
V
o
V
g
=
Z
L
(a
11
+ a
21
Z
g
)Z
L
+ a
12
+ a
22
Z
g
a
21
Z
g
=
−10
−4
96
(800) =
−10
−2
12
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–37
a
11
+ a
21
Z
g
=
−10
−2
24
+
−10
−2
12
=
−10
−2
8
(a
11
+ a
21
Z
g
)Z
L
=
−10
−2
8
(72,000) = −90
a
22
Z
g
= −65 ×10
−3
(800) = −52
V
o
V
g
=
72,000
−90 −38 −52
= −400
v
o
= V
o
= −400V
g
= −3.6 V
P 18.39 [a] From reciprocity and symmetry
a

11
= a

22
, ∆a

= 1;
·
. . 5
2
−24a

21
= 1, a

21
= 1 S
For network B
a

11
=
V
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
V
1
= (5 + j15 −j10)I
1
= (5 + j5)I
1
V
2
= (−j10 + j5)I
1
= −j5I
1
a

11
=
5 + j5
−j5
= −1 + j1
a

21
=
I
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
1
−j5
= j0.2 S
a

22
= a

11
= −1 + j1
∆a

= 1 = (−1 + j1)(−1 + j1) −j0.2a

12
·
. . a

12
= −10 + j5
Summary:
a

11
= 5 a

11
= −1 + j1
a

12
= 24 Ω a

12
= −10 + j5 Ω
a

21
= 1 S a

21
= j0.2 S
a

22
= 5 a

22
= −1 + j1
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–38 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
[b] a
11
= a

11
a

11
+ a

12
a

21
= −5 + j9.8
a
12
= a

11
a

12
+ a

12
a

22
= −74 + j49 Ω
a
21
= a

21
a

11
+ a

22
a

21
= −1 + j2 S
a
22
= a

21
a

12
+ a

22
a

22
= −15 + j10
I
2
=
−V
g
a
11
Z
L
+ a
12
+ a
21
Z
g
Z
L
= 0.295 + j0.279 A
V
2
= −10I
2
= −2.95 −j2.79 V
P 18.40 a

11
=
z
11
z
21
=
35/3
4000/3
= 8.75 ×10
−3

a

12
=
∆z
z
21
=
25 ×10
4
/3
4000/3
= 62.5 Ω
a

21
=
1
z
21
=
1
4000/3
= 0.75 ×10
−3

a

22
=
z
22
z
21
=
10,000/3
4000/3
= 2.5 Ω
a

11
=
−y
22
y
21
=
−40 ×10
−6
−800 ×10
−6
= 0.05 S
a

12
=
−1
y
21
=
−1
−800 ×10
−6
= 1250 S
a

21
=
−∆y
y
21
=
−4 ×10
−8
−800 ×10
−6
= 50 ×10
−6
S
a

22
=
−y
11
y
21
=
−200 ×10
−6
−800 ×10
−6
= 0.25 S
a
11
= a

11
a

11
+ a

12
a

21
= (8.75 ×10
−3
)(0.05) + (62.5)(50 ×10
−6
) = 3.5625 ×10
−3
a
12
= a

11
a

12
+ a

12
a

22
= (8.75 ×10
−3
)(1250) + (62.5)(0.25) = 26.5625
a
21
= a

21
a

11
+ a

22
a

21
= (0.75 ×10
−3
)(0.05) + (2.5)(50 ×10
−6
) = 162.5 ×10
−6
a
22
= a

21
a

12
+ a

22
a

22
= (0.75 ×10
−3
)(1250) + (2.5)(0.25) = 1.5625
V
2
=
Z
L
V
g
(a
11
+ a
21
Z
g
)Z
L
+ a
12
+ a
22
Z
g
=
(15,000)(0.03)
[3.5625 ×10
−3
+ (162.5 ×10
−6
)(10)](15,000) + 26.5625 + (1.5625)(10)
= 3.75 V
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–39
P 18.41 [a] At the input port: V
1
= h
11
I
1
+ h
12
V
2
;
At the output port: I
2
= h
21
I
1
+ h
22
V
2
[b]
V
2
10
4
+ (100 ×10
−6
V
2
) + 100I
1
= 0
therefore I
1
= −2 ×10
−6
V
2
V

2
= 1000I
1
+ 15 ×10
−4
V
2
= −5 ×10
−4
V
2
100I

1
+ 10
−4
V

2
+ (−2 ×10
−6
)V
2
= 0
therefore I

1
= 205 ×10
−10
V
2
V
g
= 1500I

1
+ 15 ×10
−4
V

2
= 3000 ×10
−8
V
2
V
2
V
g
=
10
5
3
= 33,333
P 18.42 [a] V
1
= I
2
(z
12
−z
21
) + I
1
(z
11
−z
21
) + z
21
(I
1
+ I
2
)
= I
2
z
12
−I
2
z
21
+ I
1
z
11
−I
1
z
21
+ z
21
I
1
+ z
21
I
2
= z
11
I
1
+ z
12
I
2
V
2
= I
2
(z
22
−z
21
) + z
21
(I
1
+ I
2
) = z
21
I
1
+ z
22
I
2
[b] Short circuit V
g
and apply a test current source to port 2 as shown. Note
that I
T
= I
2
. We have
V
z
21
−I
T
+
V + I
T
(z
12
−z
21
)
Z
g
+ z
11
−z
21
= 0
Therefore
V =
_
z
21
(Z
g
+ z
11
−z
12
)
Z
g
+ z
11
_
I
T
and V
T
= V + I
T
(z
22
−z
21
)
Thus
V
T
I
T
= Z
Th
= z
22

_
z
12
z
21
Z
g
+ z
11
_
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18–40 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
For V
Th
note that V
oc
=
z
21
Z
g
+ z
11
V
g
since I
2
= 0.
P 18.43 [a] V
1
= (z
11
−z
12
)I
1
+ z
12
(I
1
+ I
2
) = z
11
I
1
+ z
12
I
2
V
2
= (z
21
−z
12
)I
1
+ (z
22
−z
12
)I
2
+ z
12
(I
2
+ I
1
) = z
21
I
1
+ z
22
I
2
[b] With port 2 terminated in an impedance Z
L
, the two mesh equations are
V
1
= (z
11
−z
12
)I
1
+ z
12
(I
1
+ I
2
)
0 = Z
L
I
2
+ (z
21
−z
12
)I
1
+ (z
22
−z
12
)I
2
+ z
12
(I
1
+ I
2
)
Solving for I
1
:
I
1
=
V
1
(z
22
+ Z
L
)
z
11
(Z
L
+ z
22
) −z
12
z
21
Therefore
Z
in
=
V
1
I
1
= z
11

z
12
z
21
z
22
+ Z
L
P 18.44 [a] I
1
= y
11
V
1
+ y
21
V
2
+ (y
12
−y
21
)V
2
; I
2
= y
21
V
1
+ y
22
V
2
I
1
= y
11
V
1
+ y
12
V
2
; I
2
= y
12
V
1
+ y
22
V
2
+ (y
21
−y
12
)V
1
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–41
[b] Using the second circuit derived in part [a], we have
where y
a
= (y
11
+ y
12
) and y
b
= (y
22
+ y
12
)
At the input port we have
I
1
= y
a
V
1
−y
12
(V
1
−V
2
) = y
11
V
1
+ y
12
V
2
At the output port we have
V
2
Z
L
+ (y
21
−y
12
)V
1
+ y
b
V
2
−y
12
(V
2
−V
1
) = 0
Solving for V
1
gives
V
1
=
_
1 + y
22
Z
L
−y
21
Z
L
_
V
2
Substituting Eq. (18.2) into (18.1) and at the same time using
V
2
= −Z
L
I
2
, we get
I
2
I
1
=
y
21
y
11
+ ∆yZ
L
P 18.45 [a] The g-parameter equations are I
1
= g
11
V
1
+ g
12
I
2
and V
2
= g
21
V
1
+ g
22
I
2
.
These equations are satisfied by the following circuit:
[b] The g parameters for the first two port in Fig P 18.38(a) are
g
11
=
h
22
∆h
=
25 ×10
−6
5 ×10
−3
= 5 ×10
−3
S
g
12
=
−h
12
∆h
=
−5 ×10
−4
5 ×10
−3
= −0.10
g
21
=
−h
21
∆h
=
−40
5 ×10
−3
= −8000
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
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18–42 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
g
22
=
h
11
∆h
=
1000
5 ×10
−3
= 200 kΩ
From Problem 3.65 R
ef
= 72 kΩ, hence our circuit reduces to
V
2
=
−8000V
1
(72)
272
I
2
=
−V
2
72,000
=
8V
1
272
v
g
= 9 mV
·
. .
V
1
−9 ×10
−3
800
+ V
1
(5 ×10
−3
) −0.1
8V
1
272
= 0
V
1
−9 ×10
−3
+ 4V
1

80V
1
34
= 0
·
. . V
1
= 3.4 ×10
−3
V
2
=
−8000(72)
272
×3.4 ×10
−3
= −7.2 V
From Problem 3.65
V
o
V
2
= 0.5;
·
. . V
o
= −3.6 V
This result matches the solution to Problem 18.38.
P 18.46 [a] To determine b
11
and b
21
create an open circuit at port 1. Apply a voltage
at port 2 and measure the voltage at port 1 and the current at port 2. To
determine b
12
and b
22
create a short circuit at port 1. Apply a voltage at
port 2 and measure the currents at ports 1 and 2.
[b] The equivalent b-parameters for the black-box amplifier can be calculated
as follows:
b
11
=
1
h
12
=
1
10
−3
= 1000
b
12
=
h
11
h
12
=
500
10
−3
= 500 kΩ
b
21
=
h
22
h
12
=
0.05
10
−3
= 50 S
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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–43
b
22
=
∆h
h
12
=
23.5
10
−3
= 23,500
Create an open circuit a port 1. Apply 1 V at port 2. Then,
b
11
=
V
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
1
V
1
= 1000 so V
1
= 1 mV measured
b
21
=
I
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
I
2
10
−3
= 50 S so I
2
= 50 mA measured
Create a short circuit a port 1. Apply 1 V at port 2. Then,
b
12
= −
V
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
=
−1
I
1
= 500 kΩ so I
1
= −2 µA measured
b
22
= −
I
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
=
−I
2
−2 ×10
−6
= 23,500 so I
2
= 47 mA measured
P 18.47 [a] To determine z
11
and z
21
create an open circuit at port 2. Apply a current
at port 1 and measure the voltages at ports 1 and 2. To determine z
12
and z
22
create an open circuit at port 1. Apply a current at port 2 and
measure the voltages at ports 1 and 2.
[b] The equivalent z-parameters for the black-box amplifier can be calculated
as follows:
z
11
=
∆h
h
22
=
23.5
0.05
= 470 Ω
z
12
=
h
12
h
22
=
10
−3
0.05
= 0.02 Ω
z
21
= −
h
21
h
22
= −
1500
0.05
= −30 kΩ
z
22
=
1
h
22
=
1
0.05
= 20 Ω
Create an open circuit a port 2. Apply 1 mA at port 1. Then,
z
11
=
V
1
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
V
1
0.001
= 470 Ω so V
1
= 470 mV measured
z
21
=
V
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
V
2
0.001
= −30,000 Ω so V
2
= −30 V measured
Create an open circuit a port 1. Apply 1 A at port 2. Then,
z
12
=
V
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
V
1
1
= 0.02 Ω so V
1
= 0.02 V measured
z
22
=
V
2
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
V
2
1
= 20 Ω so V
2
= 20 V measured
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.