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18

Two-Port Circuits
Assessment Problems
AP 18.1 With port 2 short-circuited, we have
I
1
=
V
1
20
+
V
1
5
;
I
1
V
1
= y
11
= 0.25 S; I
2
=
_
−20
25
_
I
1
= −0.8I
1
When V
2
= 0, we have I
1
= y
11
V
1
and I
2
= y
21
V
1
Therefore I
2
= −0.8(y
11
V
1
) = −0.8y
11
V
1
Thus y
21
= −0.8y
11
= −0.2 S
With port 1 short-circuited, we have
I
2
=
V
2
15
+
V
2
5
;
I
2
V
2
= y
22
=
_
4
15
_
S
I
1
=
_
−15
20
_
I
2
= −0.75I
2
= −0.75y
22
V
2
18–1
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mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–2 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
Therefore y
12
= (−0.75)
4
15
= −0.2 S
AP 18.2
h
11
=
_
V
1
I
1
_
V
2
=0
= 205 = 4 Ω
h
21
=
_
I
2
I
1
_
V
2
=0
=
(−20/25)I
1
I
1
= −0.8
h
12
=
_
V
1
V
2
_
I
1
=0
=
(20/25)V
2
V
2
= 0.8
h
22
=
_
I
2
V
2
_
I
1
=0
=
1
15
+
1
25
=
8
75
S
g
11
=
_
I
1
V
1
_
I
2
=0
=
1
20
+
1
20
= 0.1 S
g
21
=
_
V
2
V
1
_
I
2
=0
=
(15/20)V
1
V
1
= 0.75
g
12
=
_
I
1
I
2
_
V
1
=0
=
(−15/20)I
2
I
2
= −0.75
g
22
=
_
V
2
I
2
_
V
1
=0
= 155 =
75
20
= 3.75 Ω
AP 18.3
g
11
=
I
1
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
5 ×10
−6
50 ×10
−3
= 0.1 mS
g
21
=
V
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
200 ×10
−3
50 ×10
−3
= 4
g
12
=
I
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
=
2 ×10
−6
0.5 ×10
−6
= 4
g
22
=
V
2
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
=
10 ×10
−3
0.5 ×10
−6
= 20 kΩ
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–3
AP 18.4 First calculate the b-parameters:
b
11
=
V
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
15
10
= 1.5 Ω; b
21
=
I
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
30
10
= 3 S
b
12
=
−V
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
=
−10
−5
= 2 Ω; b
22
=
−I
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
=
−4
−5
= 0.8
Now the z-parameters are calculated:
z
11
=
b
22
b
21
=
0.8
3
=
4
15
Ω; z
12
=
1
b
21
=
1
3

z
21
=
∆b
b
21
=
(1.5)(0.8) −6
3
= −1.6 Ω; z
22
=
b
11
b
21
=
1.5
3
=
1
2

AP 18.5
z
11
= z
22
, z
12
= z
21
, 95 = z
11
(5) + z
12
(0)
Therefore, z
11
= z
22
= 95/5 = 19 Ω
11.52 = 19I
1
−z
12
(2.72)
0 = z
12
I
1
−19(2.72)
Solving these simultaneous equations for z
12
z
2
12
+
_
72
17
_
z
12

6137
17
= 0
For a purely resistive network, it follows that z
12
= z
21
= 17 Ω.
AP 18.6 [a] I
2
=
−V
g
a
11
Z
L
+ a
12
+ a
21
Z
g
Z
L
+ a
22
Z
g
=
−50 ×10
−3
(5 ×10
−4
)(5 ×10
3
) + 10 + (10
−6
)(100)(5 ×10
3
) + (−3 ×10
−2
)(100)
=
−50 ×10
−3
10
= −5 mA
P
L
=
1
2
(5 ×10
−3
)
2
(5 ×10
3
) = 62.5 mW
[b] Z
Th
=
a
12
+ a
22
Z
g
a
11
+ a
21
Z
g
=
10 + (−3 ×10
−2
)(100)
5 ×10
−4
+ (10
−6
)(100)
=
7
6 ×10
−4
=
70
6
kΩ
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mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–4 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
[c] V
Th
=
V
g
a
11
+ a
21
Z
g
=
50 ×10
−3
6 ×10
−4
=
500
6
V
Therefore V
2
=
250
6
V; P
max
=
(1/2)(250/6)
2
(70/6) ×10
3
= 74.4 mW
AP 18.7 [a] For the given bridged-tee circuit, we have
a

11
= a

22
= 1.25, a

21
=
1
20
S, a

12
= 11.25 Ω
The a-parameters of the cascaded networks are
a
11
= (1.25)
2
+ (11.25)(0.05) = 2.125
a
12
= (1.25)(11.25) + (11.25)(1.25) = 28.125 Ω
a
21
= (0.05)(1.25) + (1.25)(0.05) = 0.125 S
a
22
= a
11
= 2.125, R
Th
= (45.125/3.125) = 14.44 Ω
[b] V
t
=
100
3.125
= 32 V; therefore V
2
= 16 V
[c] P =
16
2
14.44
= 17.73 W
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–5
Problems
P 18.1 h
11
=
_
V
1
I
1
_
V
2
=0
= 205 = 4 Ω
h
21
=
_
I
2
I
1
_
V
2
=0
=
(−20/25)I
1
I
1
= −0.8
h
12
=
_
V
1
V
2
_
I
1
=0
=
(20/25)V
2
V
2
= 0.8
h
22
=
_
I
2
V
2
_
I
1
=0
=
1
15
+
1
25
=
8
75
S
g
11
=
_
I
1
V
1
_
I
2
=0
=
1
20
+
1
20
= 0.1 S
g
21
=
_
V
2
V
1
_
I
2
=0
=
(15/20)V
1
V
1
= 0.75
g
12
=
_
I
1
I
2
_
V
1
=0
=
(−15/20)I
2
I
2
= −0.75
g
22
=
_
V
2
I
2
_
V
1
=0
= 155 =
75
20
= 3.75 Ω
P 18.2 y
11
=
I
1
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
; y
21
=
I
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
V −1
20
+
V
10
+
V
4
= 0; so V = 0.125 V
·
. . I
1
=
1 −0.125
20
+
1 −0
8
= 168.75 mA; I
2
=
0 −0.125
4
+
0 −1
8
= −156.25 mA
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mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–6 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
y
11
=
I
1
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
= 168.75 mS; y
21
=
I
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
= −156.25 mS
y
12
=
I
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
; y
22
=
I
2
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
V
20
+
V
10
+
V −1
4
= 0; so V = 0.625 V
·
. . I
1
=
0 −0.625
20
+
0 −1
8
= −156.25 mA; I
2
=
1 −0.625
4
+
1 −0
8
= 218.75 mA
y
12
=
I
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
= −156.25 mS; y
22
=
I
2
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
= 218.75 mS
Summary:
y
11
= 168.75 mS y
12
= −156.25 mS y
21
= −156.25 mS y
22
= 218.75 mS
P 18.3
z
11
=
V
1
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
= 1 + 12 = 13 Ω
z
21
=
V
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
= 12 Ω
z
22
=
V
2
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
= 4 + 12 = 16 Ω
z
21
=
V
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
= 12 Ω
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–7
P 18.4 ∆z = (13)(16) −(12)(12) = 64
y
11
=
z
22
∆z
=
16
64
= 0.25 S
y
12
=
−z
12
∆z
=
−12
64
= −0.1875 S
y
21
=
−z
21
∆z
=
−12
64
= −0.1875 S
y
22
=
−z
11
∆z
=
13
64
= 0.203125 S
P 18.5 h
11
=
V
1
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
; h
21
=
I
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
V
1
I
1
= 80[10 + 2020] = 8020 = 16 Ω
·
. . h
11
= 16 Ω
I
6
=
80
80 + 20
I
1
= 0.8I
1
I
2
=
−20
20 + 20
I
6
= −0.5I
6
= −0.5(0.8)I
1
= −0.4I
1
·
. . h
21
= −0.4
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–8 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
h
12
=
V
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
; h
22
=
I
2
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
V
2
I
2
= 80[20 + 2090] = 25 Ω
·
. . h
22
=
1
25
= 40 mS
V
x
=
2090
20 + 2090
V
2
V
1
=
80
80 + 10
V
x
=
80(2090)
90(20 + 2090)
V
2
= 0.4V
2
·
. . h
12
= 0.4
Summary:
h
11
= 16 Ω; h
12
= 0.4; h
21
= −0.4; h
22
= 40 mS
P 18.6 V
2
= b
11
V
1
−b
12
I
1
I
2
= b
21
V
1
−b
22
I
1
b
12
=
−V
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
; b
22
=
−I
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
515 = (15/4) Ω; 1020 = (20/3) Ω
I
2
=
V
2
(15/4) + (20/3)
=
12V
2
125
; I
1
= I
b
−I
a
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–9
I
a
=
15
20
I
2
; I
b
=
20
30
I
2
I
1
=
_
20
30

15
20
_
I
2
=
−5
60
I
2
=
−1
12
I
2
b
22
=
−I
2
I
1
= 12
b
12
=
−V
2
I
1
=
−V
2
I
2
_
I
2
I
1
_
=
125
12
(12) = 125 Ω
b
11
=
V
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
; b
21
=
I
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
V
1
= V
a
−V
b
; V
a
=
10
15
V
2
; V
b
=
20
35
V
2
V
1
=
10
15
V
2

20
35
V
2
=
2
21
V
2
b
11
=
V
2
V
1
=
21
2
= 10.5
V
2
= (10 + 5)(20 + 15)I
2
= 10.5I
2
b
21
=
I
2
V
1
=
_
I
2
V
2
__
V
2
V
1
_
=
_
1
10.5
_
(10.5) = 1 S
P 18.7 h
11
=
V
1
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
= R
1
R
2
= 4
·
. .
R
1
R
2
R
1
+ R
2
= 4
h
21
=
I
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
=
−R
2
R
1
+ R
2
= −0.8
·
. . R
2
= 0.8R
1
+ 0.8R
2
so R
1
=
R
2
4
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–10 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
Substituting,
(R
2
/4)R
2
(R
2
/4) + R
2
= 4 so R
2
= 20 Ω and R
1
= 5 Ω
h
22
=
I
2
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
1
R
3
(R
1
+ R
2
)
=
1
R
3
25
= 0.14
·
. . R
3
= 10
Summary:
R
1
= 5 Ω; R
2
= 20 Ω; R
3
= 10 Ω
P 18.8 V
1
= a
11
V
2
−a
12
I
2
I
1
= a
21
V
2
−a
22
I
2
a
11
=
V
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
; a
21
=
I
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
V
1
= 10
3
I
1
+ 10
−4
V
2
= 10
3
(−0.5 ×10
−6
)V
2
+ 10
−4
V
2
·
. . a
11
= −5 ×10
−4
+ 10
−4
= −4 ×10
−4
V
2
= −(50I
1
)(40 ×10
3
);
·
. . a
21
= −
1
2 ×10
6
= −0.5 µS
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–11
a
12
=
−V
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
; a
22
=
−I
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
I
2
= 50I
1
;
·
. . a
22
= −
I
1
I
2
= −
1
50
V
1
= 1000I
1
;
·
. . a
12
= −
V
1
I
2
= −
V
1
I
1
I
1
I
2
= −(1000)(1/50) = −20 Ω
Summary
a
11
= −4 ×10
−4
; a
12
= −20 Ω; a
21
= −0.5 µS; a
22
= −0.02
P 18.9 g
11
=
a
21
a
11
=
−0.5 ×10
−6
−4 ×10
−4
= 1.25 mS
g
12
=
−∆a
a
11
=
−(−4 ×10
−4
)(−1/50) −(−0.5 ×10
−6
)(−20)
−4 ×10
−4
= −0.005
g
21
=
1
a
11
=
1
−4 ×10
−4
= −2500
g
22
=
a
12
a
11
=
(−20)
−400 ×10
−6
= 5 ×10
4

P 18.10 For V
2
= 0:
I
a
=
50I
2
200
=
1
4
I
2
= −I
2
;
·
. . I
2
= 0
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–12 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
h
21
=
I
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
= 0
V
1
= (10 + j20)I
1
·
. . h
11
=
V
1
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
= 10 + j20 Ω
For I
1
= 0:
V
1
= 50I
2
; I
2
=
V
2
−j100
+
V
2
−50I
2
200
200I
2
= j2V
2
+ V
2
−50i
2
250I
2
= V
2
(1 + j2)
50I
2
= V
2
_
1 + j2
5
_
= (0.2 + j0.4)V
2
·
. . V
1
= (0.2 + j0.4)V
2
h
12
=
V
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
= 0.2 + j0.4
h
22
=
I
2
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
1 + j2
250
= 4 + j8 mS
Summary:
h
11
= 10 + j20 Ω; h
12
= 0.2 + j0.4; h
21
= 0; h
22
= 4 + j8 mS
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–13
P 18.11 For I
2
= 0:
50I
1
−40I
2
= 1
−40I
1
+ 48I
2
−3(40)(I
1
−I
2
) = 0 so −160I
1
+ 168I
2
= 0
Solving,
I
1
= 84 mA; I
2
= 80 mA
V
2
= 3I
2
−3(40)(I
1
−I
2
) = −0.24 V
g
11
=
I
1
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
84 m
1
= 84 mS
g
21
=
V
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
−0.24
1
= −0.24
For V
1
= 0:
50I
1
−40I
2
= 0
−40I
1
+ 48I
2
+ 3 −3(40)(I
1
−I
2
) = 0 so −160I
1
+ 168I
2
= −3
Solving,
I
1
= −60 mA; I
2
= −75 mA
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–14 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
V
2
= 3(I
2
+ 1) −3(40)(I
1
−I
2
) = 0.975 V
g
12
=
I
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
=
−60 m
1
= −0.06
g
22
=
V
2
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
=
0.975
1
= 0.975 Ω
P 18.12 For V
2
= 0:
V
1
= (400 + 1200)I
1
h
11
=
V
1
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
=
1600
1
= 1600 Ω
V
p
= 1200(1 A) = 1200 V = V
n
At V
n
,
1200
500
+
1200 −V
o
1000
= 0 so V
o
= 3600 V
·
. . I
2
= −
3600
200
= −18 A
h
21
=
I
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
−18
1
= −18
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–15
For I
1
= 0:
V
1
= 0
h
12
=
V
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
0
1
= 0
At V
n
,
V
n
500
+
V
n
−V
o
100
= 0
But V
n
= V
p
= 0 so V
o
= 0; therefore,
I
2
=
1 V
200 Ω
= 5 mS
h
22
=
I
2
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
5 m
1
= 5 mS
P 18.13 I
1
= g
11
V
1
+ g
12
I
2
; V
2
= g
21
V
1
+ g
22
I
2
g
11
=
I
1
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
0.25 ×10
−6
20 ×10
−3
= 12.5 ×10
−6
= 12.5 µS
g
21
=
V
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
−5
20
×10
3
= −250
0 = −250(10) + g
22
(50 ×10
−6
)
g
22
=
2500
50 ×10
−6
= 50 MΩ
200 ×10
−6
= 12.5 ×10
−6
(10) + g
12
(50 ×10
−6
)
(200 −125)10
−6
= g
12
(50 ×10
−6
)
g
12
=
75
50
= 1.5
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–16 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
P 18.14 [a] I
1
= y
11
V
1
+ y
12
V
2
; I
2
= y
21
V
1
+ y
22
V
2
y
21
=
I
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
=
50 ×10
−6
10
= 5 µS
0 = y
21
(20 ×10
−3
) + y
22
(−5)
·
. . y
22
=
1
5
y
21
(20 ×10
−3
) = 20 nS
200 ×10
−6
= y
11
(10) so y
11
= 20 µS
0.25 ×10
−6
= 20 ×10
−6
(20 ×10
−3
) + y
12
(−5)
y
12
=
0.25 ×10
−6
−0.4 ×10
−6
−5
= 30 nS
Summary:
y
11
= 20 µS; y
12
= 30 nS; y
21
= 5 µS; y
22
= 20 nS
[b] y
11
=
∆g
g
22
; y
12
=
g
12
g
22
; y
21
=
−g
21
g
22
; y
22
=
1
g
22
∆g = g
11
g
22
−g
12
g
21
= (12.5 ×10
−6
)(50 ×10
6
) −1.5(−250)
= 625 + 375 = 1000
y
11
=
1000
50 ×10
6
= 20 µS; y
21
=
250
5 ×10
6
= 5 µS
y
12
=
1.5
50 ×10
6
= 30 nS; y
22
=
1
5 ×10
6
= 20 nS
These values are the same as those in part (a).
P 18.15 I
1
= g
11
V
1
+ g
12
I
2
V
2
= g
21
V
1
+ g
22
I
2
V
1
=
I
1
g
11

g
12
g
11
I
2
and I
2
=
V
2
g
22

g
21
g
22
V
1
Substituting,
V
1
=
I
1
g
11

g
12
g
11
_
V
2
g
22

g
21
g
22
V
1
_
V
1
=
_
1 −
g
12
g
21
g
11
g
22
_
=
I
1
g
11

g
12
g
11
g
22
V
2
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–17
V
1
=
g
22
g
11
g
22
−g
12
g
21
I
1

g
12
g
11
g
22
−g
12
g
21
V
2
V
1
= h
11
I
1
+ h
12
V
2
Therefore,
h
11
=
g
22
∆g
; h
12
=
−g
12
∆g
where ∆g = g
11
g
22
−g
12
g
21
I
2
=
V
2
g
22

g
21
g
22
_
I
1
g
11

g
12
g
11
I
2
_
I
2
=
_
1 −
g
12
g
21
g
11
g
22
_
=
V
2
g
22

g
21
g
11
g
22
I
1
I
2
=
g
11
∆g
V
2

g
21
∆g
I
1
I
2
= h
21
I
1
+ h
22
V
2
Therefore,
h
21
=
−g
21
∆g
; h
22
=
g
11
∆g
P 18.16 V
1
= h
11
I
1
+ h
12
V
2
; I
2
= h
21
I
1
+ h
22
V
2
Rearranging the ﬁrst equation,
V
2
=
1
h
12
V
1

h
11
h
12
I
1
V
2
= b
11
V
1
−b
12
I
1
Therefore,
b
11
=
1
h
12
; b
12
=
h
11
h
12
Solving the second h-parameter equation for I
2
:
I
2
= h
21
I
1
+ h
22
_
1
h
12
V
1

h
11
h
12
I
1
_
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–18 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
= I
1
_
h
21

h
22
h
11
h
12
_
+
h
22
h
12
V
1
=
−∆h
h
12
I
1
+
h
22
h
12
V
1
I
2
= b
21
V
1
−b
22
I
1
Therefore,
b
21
=
h
22
h
12
; b
22
=
∆h
h
12
where ∆h = h
11
h
22
−h
12
h
21
P 18.17 I
1
= g
11
V
1
+ g
12
I
2
; V
2
= g
21
V
1
+ g
22
I
2
V
1
= z
11
I
1
+ z
12
I
2
; V
2
= z
21
I
1
+ z
22
I
2
I
1
=
V
1
z
11

z
12
z
11
I
2
·
. . g
11
=
1
z
11
; g
12
=
−z
12
z
11
V
2
= z
21
_
V
1
z
11

z
12
z
11
I
2
_
+ z
22
I
2
=
z
21
z
11
V
1
+
_
z
11
z
22
−z
12
z
21
z
11
_
I
2
·
. . g
21
=
z
21
z
11
; g
22
=
∆z
z
11
where ∆z = z
11
z
22
−z
12
z
21
P 18.18 For I
2
= 0:
V
2
=
V
1
4 + (1/s)
(4) =
4sV
1
4s + 1
a
11
=
V
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
4s + 1
4s
=
s + 0.25
s
I
1
=
V
1
4 + (1/s)
=
sV
1
4s + 1
so V
2
= 4I
1
=
4sV
1
4s + 1
a
21
=
I
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
1
4
= 0.25
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–19
For V
2
= 0:
I
2
=
−I
1
(4)
s + 4
a
22
= −
I
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
=
s + 4
4
V
1
=
1
s
I
1
+
4s
s + 4
I
1
=
_
1
s
+
4s
s + 4
_
I
1
=
_
1
s
+
4s
s + 4
_
_
−(s + 4)
4
I
2
_
= −
_
s + 4
4s
+ s
_
I
2
= −
4s
2
+ s + 4
4s
I
2
a
12
= −
V
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
=
s
2
+ 0.25s + 1
s
P 18.19 z
11
=
V
1
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
(1 + 1/s)(1)
2 + 1/s
+ s =
s + 1
2s + 1
+ s
=
s + 1 + 2s
2
+ 2
2s + 1
=
2s
2
+ 2s + 1
2s + 1
z
22
= z
11
(the circuit is reciprocal and symmetrical)
z
21
=
V
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
V
2
= I
1
1
2 + 1/s
(1) + sI
1
;
V
2
I
1
=
s
2s + 1
+ s =
s + 2s
2
+ s
2s + 1
z
21
=
2s
2
+ 2s
2s + 1
=
2s(s + 1)
2s + 1
z
12
= z
21
(the circuit is reciprocal and symmetrical)
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–20 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
P 18.20 For I
2
= 0:
V
2
−V
1
20
+ 0.025V
1
+
V
2
40
= 0
2V
2
−2V
1
+ V
1
+ V
2
= 0 so 3V
2
= V
1
·
. . a
11
=
V
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
= 3
I
1
=
V
1
−j50
+
V
1
−5V
2
100
+
V
1
−V
2
20
= V
1
_
j
50
+
1
100
+
1
20
_
−V
2
_
5
100
+
1
20
_
= V
1
_
6 + j2
100
_
−V
2
_
1
10
_
But V
1
= 3V
2
so
I
1
=
_
18 + j6 −10
100
_
V
2
= (0.08 + j0.06)V
2
a
21
=
I
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
= 0.08 + j0.06 S = 80 + j60 mS
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–21
For V
2
= 0:
I
1
=
V
1
−j50
+
V
1
100
+
V
1
20
= V
1
(6 + j2)
100
I
2
= 0.025V
1

V
1
20
= −0.025V
1
a
12
= −
V
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
=
1
0.025
= 40 Ω
a
22
= −
I
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
=
−2V
1
(3 + j1)
100(−0.025)V
1
= 2.4 + j0.8
Summary:
a
11
= 3; a
12
= 40 Ω; a
21
= 80 + j60 mS; a
22
= 2.4 + j0.8
P 18.21 h
11
=
a
12
a
22
=
40
(0.8)(3 + j1)
= 15 −j5 Ω
h
12
=
∆a
a
22
∆a = 3(2.4 + j0.8) −40(0.08 + j0.06) = 7.2 + j2.4 −3.2 −j2.4 = 4
h
12
=
4
(0.8)(3 + j1)
= 1.5 −j0.50
h
21
= −
1
a
22
=
−1
(0.8)(3 + j1)
= −0.375 + j0.125
h
22
=
a
21
a
22
=
0.08 + j0.06
(0.8)(3 + j1)
= 0.0375 + j0.0125 = 37.5 + j12.5 mS
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–22 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
P 18.22 [a] h
11
=
V
1
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
; h
21
=
I
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
V
1
= (R + sL)I
1
−sMI
2
0 = −sMI
1
+ (R + sL)I
2
∆ =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(R + sL) −sM
−sM (R + sL)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= (R + sL)
2
−s
2
M
2
N
1
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
−sM
0 (R + sL)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= (R + sL)V
1
I
1
=
N
1

=
(R + sL)V
1
(R + sL)
2
−s
2
M
2
; h
11
=
V
1
I
1
=
(R + sL)
2
−s
2
M
2
R + sL
0 = −sMI
1
+ (R + sL)I
2
;
·
. . h
21
=
I
2
I
1
=
sM
R + sL
h
12
=
V
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
; h
22
=
I
2
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
V
1
= −sMI
2
; I
2
=
V
2
R + sL
V
1
=
−sMV
2
R + sL
; h
12
=
V
1
V
2
=
−sM
R + sL
h
22
=
I
2
V
2
=
1
R + sL
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–23
[b] h
12
= −h
21
(reciprocal)
h
11
h
22
−h
12
h
21
= 1 (symmetrical, reciprocal)
h
12
=
−sM
R + sL
; h
21
=
sM
R + sL
(checks)
h
11
h
22
−h
12
h
21
=
(R + sL)
2
−s
2
M
2
R + sL
·
1
R + sL

(sM)(−sM)
(R + sL)
2
=
(R + sL)
2
−s
2
M
2
+ s
2
M
2
(R + sL)
2
= 1 (checks)
P 18.23 First we note that
z
11
=
(Z
b
+ Z
c
)(Z
a
+ Z
b
)
Z
a
+ 2Z
b
+ Z
c
and z
22
=
(Z
a
+ Z
b
)(Z
b
+ Z
c
)
Z
a
+ 2Z
b
+ Z
c
Therefore z
11
= z
22
.
z
12
=
V
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
; Use the circuit below:
V
1
= Z
b
I
x
−Z
c
I
y
= Z
b
I
x
−Z
c
(I
2
−I
x
) = (Z
b
+ Z
c
)I
x
−Z
c
I
2
I
x
=
Z
b
+ Z
c
Z
a
+ 2Z
b
+ Z
c
I
2
so V
1
=
(Z
b
+ Z
c
)
2
Z
a
+ 2Z
b
+ Z
c
I
2
−Z
c
I
2
·
. . Z
12
=
V
1
I
2
=
(Z
b
+ Z
c
)
2
Z
a
+ 2Z
b
+ Z
c
−Z
c
=
Z
2
b
−Z
a
Z
c
Z
a
+ 2Z
b
+ Z
c
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–24 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
z
21
=
V
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
; Use the circuit below:
V
2
= Z
b
I
x
−Z
c
I
y
= Z
b
I
x
−Z
c
(I
1
−I
x
) = (Z
b
+ Z
c
)I
x
−Z
c
I
1
I
x
=
Z
b
+ Z
c
Z
a
+ 2Z
b
+ Z
c
I
1
so V
2
=
(Z
b
+ Z
c
)
2
Z
a
+ 2Z
b
+ Z
c
I
1
−Z
c
I
1
·
. . z
21
=
V
2
I
1
=
(Z
b
+ Z
c
)
2
Z
a
+ 2Z
b
+ Z
c
−Z
c
=
Z
2
b
−Z
a
Z
c
Z
a
+ 2Z
b
+ Z
c
= z
12
Thus the network is symmetrical and reciprocal.
P 18.24 I
1
= y
11
V
1
+ y
12
V
2
; V
1
= V
g
−Z
g
I
1
I
2
= y
21
V
1
+ y
22
V
2
; V
2
= −Z
L
I
2
−V
2
Z
L
= y
21
V
1
+ y
22
V
2
·
. . −y
21
V
1
=
_
1
Z
L
+ y
22
_
V
2
; −y
21
Z
L
V
1
= (1 + y
22
Z
L
)V
2
·
. .
V
2
V
1
=
−y
21
Z
L
1 + y
22
Z
L
P 18.25
V
2
= b
11
V
1
−b
12
I
1
; V
1
= V
g
−I
1
Z
g
I
2
= b
21
V
1
−b
22
I
1
; V
2
= −Z
L
I
2
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–25
I
2
= −
V
2
Z
L
=
−b
11
V
1
+ b
12
I
1
Z
L
−b
11
V
1
+ b
12
I
1
Z
L
= b
21
V
1
−b
22
I
1
·
. . V
1
_
b
11
Z
L
+ b
21
_
=
_
b
22
+
b
12
Z
L
_
I
1
V
1
I
1
=
b
22
Z
L
+ b
12
b
21
Z
L
+ b
11
= Z
in
P 18.26 V
1
= h
11
I
1
+ h
12
V
2
; V
1
= V
g
−Z
g
I
1
I
2
= h
21
I
1
+ h
22
V
2
; V
2
= −Z
L
I
2
·
. . V
g
−Z
g
I
1
= h
11
I
1
+ h
12
V
2
; V
g
= (h
11
+ Z
g
)I
1
+ h
12
V
2
·
. . I
1
=
V
g
−h
12
V
2
h
11
+ Z
g
·
. . −
V
2
Z
L
= h
21
_
V
g
−h
12
V
2
h
11
+ Z
g
_
+ h
22
V
2
−V
2
(h
11
+ Z
g
)
Z
L
= h
21
V
g
−h
12
h
21
V
2
+ h
22
(h
11
+ Z
g
)V
2
−V
2
(h
11
+ Z
g
) = h
21
Z
L
V
g
−h
12
h
21
Z
L
V
2
+ h
22
Z
L
(h
11
+ Z
g
)V
2
−h
21
Z
L
V
g
= (h
11
+ Z
g
) [V
2
+ h
22
Z
L
V
2
] −h
12
h
21
Z
L
V
2
·
. .
V
2
V
g
=
−h
21
Z
L
(h
11
+ Z
g
)(1 + h
22
Z
L
) −h
12
h
21
Z
L
P 18.27 I
1
= g
11
V
1
+ g
12
I
2
; V
1
= V
g
−Z
g
I
1
V
2
= g
21
V
1
+ g
22
I
2
; V
2
= −Z
L
I
2
−Z
L
I
2
= g
21
V
1
+ g
22
I
2
; V
1
=
I
1
−g
12
I
2
g
11
·
. . −Z
L
I
2
=
g
21
g
11
(I
1
−g
12
I
2
) + g
22
I
2
·
. . −Z
L
I
2
+
g
12
g
21
g
11
I
2
−g
22
I
2
=
g
21
g
11
I
1
·
. . (Z
L
g
11
+ ∆g)I
2
= −g
21
I
1
;
·
. .
I
2
I
1
=
−g
21
g
11
Z
L
+ ∆g
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–26 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
P 18.28 V
1
= z
11
I
1
+ z
12
I
2
; V
1
= V
g
−Z
g
I
1
V
2
= z
21
I
1
+ z
22
I
2
; V
2
= −Z
L
I
2
V
Th
= V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
; V
2
= z
21
I
1
; I
1
=
V
1
z
11
=
V
g
−I
1
Z
g
z
11
·
. . I
1
=
V
g
z
11
+ Z
g
;
·
. . V
2
=
z
21
V
g
z
11
+ Z
g
= V
Th
Z
Th
=
V
2
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
Vg=0
; V
2
= z
21
I
1
+ z
22
I
2
−I
1
Z
g
= z
11
I
1
+ z
12
I
2
; I
1
=
−z
12
I
2
z
11
+ Z
g
·
. . V
2
= z
21
_
−z
12
I
2
z
11
+ Z
g
_
+ z
22
I
2
·
. .
V
2
I
2
= z
22

z
12
z
21
z
11
+ Z
g
= Z
Th
P 18.29
V
2
V
g
=
∆bZ
L
b
12
+ b
11
Z
g
+ b
22
Z
L
+ b
21
Z
g
Z
L
∆b = b
11
b
22
−b
12
b
21
= (25)(−40) −(1000)(−1.25) = 250
·
. .
V
2
V
g
=
250(100)
1000 + 25(20) −40(100) −1.25(2000)
= −5
V
2
= −5(120/0

) = 600/180

V(rms)
I
2
=
−V
2
100
=
−600/180

100
= 6 A(rms)
I
2
I
1
=
−∆b
b
11
+ b
21
Z
L
=
−250
25 −1.25(100)
= 2.5
·
. . I
1
=
I
2
2.5
=
6
2.5
= 2.4 A(rms)
·
. . P
g
= (120)(2.4) = 288 W; P
o
= 36(100) = 3600 W
·
. .
P
o
P
g
=
3600
288
= 12.5
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–27
P 18.30 [a]
V
2
V
g
=
y
21
Z
L
y
12
y
21
Z
g
Z
L
−(1 + y
11
Z
g
)(1 + y
22
Z
L
)
y
12
y
21
Z
g
Z
L
= (−2 ×10
−6
)(100 ×10
−3
)(2500)(70,000) = −35
1 + y
11
Z
g
= 1 + (2 ×10
−3
)(2500) = 6
1 + y
22
Z
L
= 1 + (−50 ×10
−6
)(70 ×10
3
) = −2.5
y
21
Z
L
= (100 ×10
−3
)(70 ×10
3
) = 7000
V
2
V
g
=
7000
−35 −(6)(−2.5)
=
7000
−20
= −350
V
2
= −350V
g
= −350(80) ×10
−3
= −28 V(rms)
V
2
= 28 V(rms)
[b] P =
|V
2
|
2
70,000
= 11.2 ×10
−3
= 11.20 mW
[c] I
2
=
−28/180

70,000
= −0.4 ×10
−3
/180

= 400/0

µA
I
2
I
1
=
y
21
y
11
+ ∆yZ
L
∆y = (2 ×10
−3
)(−50 ×10
−6
) −(−2 ×10
−6
)(100 ×10
−3
)
= 100 ×10
−9
∆yZ
L
= (100)(70) ×10
3
×10
−9
= 7 ×10
−3
y
11
+ ∆yZ
L
= 2 ×10
−3
+ 7 ×10
−3
= 9 ×10
−3
I
2
I
1
=
100 ×10
−3
9 ×10
−3
=
100
9
·
. . 100I
1
= 9I
2
; I
1
=
9(400 ×10
−6
)
100
= 36 µA(rms)
P
g
= (80)10
−3
(36) ×10
−6
= 2.88 µW
P 18.31 [a] Z
Th
=
1 + y
11
Z
g
y
22
+ ∆yZ
g
From the solution to Problem 18.30
1 + y
11
Z
g
= 1 + (2 ×10
−3
)(2500) = 6
y
22
+ ∆yZ
g
= −50 ×10
−6
+ 10
−7
(2500) = 200 ×10
−6
Z
Th
=
6
200
×10
6
= 30,000 Ω
Z
L
= Z

Th
= 30,000 Ω
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–28 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
[b] y
21
Z
L
= (100 ×10
−3
)(30,000) = 3000
y
12
y
21
Z
g
Z
L
= (−2 ×10
−6
)(100 ×10
−3
)(2500)(30,000) = −15
1 + y
11
Z
g
= 6
1 + y
22
Z
L
= 1 + (−50 ×10
−6
)(30 ×10
3
) = −0.5
V
2
V
g
=
3000
−15 −6(−0.5)
=
3000
−12
= −250
V
2
= −250(80 ×10
−3
) = −20 = 20/180

V(rms)
P =
|V
2
|
2
30,000
=
400
30
×10
−3
= 13.33 mW
[c] I
2
=
−V
2
30,000
=
20/0

30,000
=
2
3
mA
I
2
I
1
=
100 ×10
−3
2 ×10
−3
+ 10
−7
(30,000)
=
100 ×10
−3
5 ×10
−3
= 20
I
1
=
I
2
20
=
2 ×10
−3
3(20)
=
1
30
mA(rms)
P
g
(developed) = (80 ×10
−3
)
_
1
30
×10
−3
_
=
8
3
µW
P 18.32 [a] For I
2
= 0:
V
2
= −j150I
1
= −j150
V
1
50 + j50
=
−j3V
1
1 + j1
a
11
=
V
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
1 + j1
−j3
=
−1 + j1
3
a
21
=
I
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
1
−j150
=
j
150
S
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–29
For V
2
= 0:
V
1
= (50 + j50)I
1
−j150I
2
0 = −j150I
1
+ (400 + j800)I
2
∆ =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
50 + j50 −j150
−j150 400 + j800
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 2500(1 + j24)
N
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
50 + j50 V
1
−j150 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= j150V
1
I
2
=
N
2

=
j150V
1
2500(1 + j24)
a
12
=
−V
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
=
−50
3
(24 −j1) Ω
j150I
1
= (400 + j800)I
2
a
22
= −
I
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
= −
8
3
(2 −j1)
[b] V
Th
=
V
g
a
11
+ a
21
Z
g
=
260/0

(−1 + j1)/3 + j25/150
=
(260/0

)6
−2 + j2 + j1
=
1560/0

−2 + j3
= 120(−2 −j3) = 432.47/ −123.69

V
Z
Th
=
a
12
+ a
22
Z
g
a
11
+ a
21
Z
g
=
[−(50/3)(24 −j1)] + [(−8/3)(2 −j1)(25)]
[(−1 + j1)/3] + [(j/150)(25)]
=
−100(24 −j1) −16(2 −j1)(25)
−2 + j2 + j1
=
−3200 + j500
−2 + j3
= 607.69 + j661.54 Ω
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–30 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
[c] V
2
=
1000
1607.69 + j661.54
(432.67/−123.69

) = 248.88/ −146.06

v
2
(t) = 248.88 cos(4000t −146.06

) V
P 18.33 [a] Z
Th
= g
22

g
12
g
21
Z
g
1 + g
11
Z
g
g
12
g
21
=
_

1
2
+ j
1
2
__
1
2
−j
1
2
_
= j
1
2
1 + g
11
Z
g
= 1 + 1 −j1 = 2 −j1
·
. . Z
Th
= 1.5 + j2.5 −
j3
2 −j1
= 2.1 + j1.3 Ω
·
. . Z
L
= 2.1 −j1.3 Ω
V
2
V
g
=
g
21
Z
L
(1 + g
11
Z
g
)(g
22
+ Z
L
) −g
12
g
21
Z
g
g
21
Z
L
=
_
1
2
−j
1
2
_
(2.1 −j1.3) = 0.4 −j1.7
1 + g
11
Z
g
= 1 + 1 −j1 = 2 −j1
g
22
+ Z
L
= 1.5 + j2.5 + 2.1 −j1.3 = 3.6 + j1.2
g
12
g
21
Z
g
= j3
V
2
V
g
=
0.4 −j1.7
(2 −j1)(3.6 + j1.2) −j3
=
0.4 −j1.7
8.4 −j4.2
V
2
=
0.4 −j1.7
8.4 −j4.2
(42/0

) = 5 −j6 V(rms) = 7.81/−50.19

V(rms)
The rms value of V
2
is 7.81 V.
[b] I
2
=
−V
2
Z
L
=
−5 + j6
2.1 −j1.3
= −3 + j1 A(rms)
P = |I
2
|
2
(2.1) = 21 W
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–31
[c]
I
2
I
1
=
−g
21
g
11
Z
L
+ ∆g
∆g =
_
1
6
−j
1
6
__
3
2
+ j
5
2
_

_
1
2
−j
1
2
__

1
2
+ j
1
2
_
=
3
12
+ j
5
12
−j
3
12
+
5
12
−j
1
2
=
2
3
−j
1
3
g
11
Z
L
=
_
1
6
−j
1
6
_
(2.1 −j1.3) =
0.8
6
−j
3.4
6
·
. . g
11
Z
L
+ ∆g =
0.8
6
−j
3.4
6
+
4
6
−j
2
6
= 0.8 −j0.9
I
2
I
1
=
−[(1/2) −j(1/2)]
0.8 −j0.9
·
. . I
1
=
(0.8 −j0.9)I
2
−0.5 + j0.5
=
_
1.6 −j1.8
−1 + j1
_
I
2
= (−1.7 + j0.1)(−3 + j1) = 5 −j2 A(rms)
·
. . P
g
(developed) = (42)(5) = 210 W
% delivered =
21
210
(100) = 10%
P 18.34 V
1
= h
11
I
1
+ h
12
V
2
I
2
= h
21
I
1
+ h
22
V
2
From the ﬁrst measurement:
h
11
=
V
1
I
1
=
4
5
×10
3
= 800 Ω
h
21
=
−200
5
= −40
·
. . V
1
= 800I
1
+ h
12
V
2
; I
2
= −40I
1
+ h
22
V
2
From the second measurement:
h
22
V
2
= 40I
1
h
22
=
40(20 ×10
−6
)
40
= 20 µS
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–32 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
20 ×10
−3
= 800(20 ×10
−6
) + 40h
12
·
. . h
12
=
4 ×10
−3
40
= 10
−4
Summary:
h
11
= 800 Ω; h
12
= 10
−4
; h
21
= −40; h
22
= 20 µS
From the circuit,
Z
g
= 250 Ω; V
g
= 5.25 mV
Z
Th
=
h
11
+ Z
g
h
22
Z
g
+ ∆h
∆h = 800(20 ×10
−6
) + 40 ×10
−4
= 20 ×10
−3
Z
Th
=
800 + 250
20 ×10
−6
(250) + 20 ×10
−3
= 42 kΩ
V
Th
=
−h
21
V
g
h
22
Z
g
+ ∆h
=
40(5.25 ×10
−3
)
25 ×10
−3
= 8.4 V
i =
8.4
84,000
= 0.10 mA
P = (0.10 ×10
−3
)
2
(42,000) = 420 µW
P 18.35 When V
2
= 0
V
1
= 20 V, I
1
= 1 A, I
2
= −1 A
When I
1
= 0
V
2
= 80 V, V
1
= 400 V, I
2
= 3 A
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–33
h
11
=
V
1
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
=
20
1
= 20 Ω
h
12
=
V
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
400
80
= 5
h
21
=
I
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
=
−1
1
= −1
h
22
=
I
2
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
3
80
= 37.5 mS
Z
Th
=
Z
g
+ h
11
h
22
Z
g
+ ∆h
= 10 Ω
Source-transform the current source and parallel resistance to get V
g
= 240 V.
Then,
I
2
=
h
21
V
g
(1 + h
22
Z
L
)(h
11
+ Z
g
) −h
12
h
21
Z
L
= −1.5 A
P = (−1.5)
2
(10) = 22.5 W
P 18.36 [a] g
11
=
I
1
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
; g
21
=
V
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
V
1
I
1
=
1
sC

_
sL +
1
sC
_
=
[sL + (1/sC)](1/sC)
sL + (2/sC)
=
sL + (1/sC)
s
2
LC + 2
=
s
2
LC + 1
sC(s
2
LC + 2)
=
(1/C)[s
2
+ (1/LC)]
s[s
2
+ (2/LC)]
·
. . g
11
=
Cs[s
2
+ (2/LC)])
s
2
+ (1/LC)
V
2
=
(1/sC)
sL + (1/sC)
V
1
so
V
2
V
1
=
(1/sC)
sL + (1/sC)
=
1
s
2
LC + 1
=
(1/LC)
s
2
+ (1/LC)
·
. . g
21
=
(1/LC)
s
2
+ (1/LC)
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–34 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
g
12
=
I
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
; g
22
=
V
2
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
I
1
=
−(1/sC)
sL + (1/sC)
I
2
so g
12
=
−(1/LC)
s
2
+ (1/LC)
g
22
= sL(1/sC) =
sL/sC
sL + (1/sC)
=
sL
s
2
LC + 1
=
(1/C)s
s
2
+ (1/LC)
Summary:
g
11
=
Cs[s
2
+ (2/LC)])
s
2
+ (1/LC)
; g
12
=
−(1/LC)
s
2
+ (1/LC)
g
21
=
(1/LC)
s
2
+ (1/LC)
; g
22
=
(1/C)s
s
2
+ (1/LC)
[b]
1
LC
=
10
9
(0.2)(200)
= 25 ×10
6
g
11
=
2 ×10
−7
s(s
2
+ 50 ×10
6
)
s
2
+ 25 ×10
6
g
12
=
−25 ×10
6
s
2
+ 25 ×10
6
g
21
=
25 ×10
6
s
2
+ 25 ×10
6
g
22
=
5 ×10
6
s
s
2
+ 25 ×10
6
V
2
V
1
=
g
21
Z
L
g
22
+ Z
L
=
_
25×10
6
s
2
+25×10
6
_
400
5×10
6
s
(s
2
+25×10
6
)
+ 400
V
2
V
1
=
25 ×10
6
s
2
+ 12,500s + 25 ×10
6
=
25 ×10
6
(s + 2500)(s + 10,000)
V
1
=
30
s
V
2
=
750 ×10
6
s(s + 2500)(s + 10,000)
=
30
s

40
s + 2500
+
10
s + 10,000
v
2
= [30 −40e
−2500t
+ 10e
−10,000t
]u(t) V
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–35
P 18.37 [a] y
11
=
I
1
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
; y
21
=
I
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
2
=0
V
1
=
_
s +
_
1
s
s
__
I
1
=
s(s
2
+ 1) + s
s
2
+ 1
I
1
·
. . y
11
=
I
1
V
1
=
s
2
+ 1
s(s
2
+ 2)
I
2
=
−(1/s)
s + (1/s)
I
1
=
−1
s
2
+ 1
·
s
2
+ 1
s(s
2
+ 2)
V
1
=
−1
s(s
2
+ 2)
V
1
·
. . y
21
=
−1
s(s
2
+ 2)
Because the two-port circuit is symmetric,
y
12
= y
21
=
−1
s(s
2
+ 2)
and y
22
= y
11
=
s
2
+ 1
s(s
2
+ 2)
[b]
V
2
V
g
=
y
21
Z
g
y
12
y
21
Z
g
Z
L
−(1 + y
11
Z
g
)(1 + Y
22
Z
L
)
=
y
21
y
12
y
21
−(1 + y
11
)(1 + y
22
)
=
−1
s(s
2
+ 2)
1
s
2
(s
2
+ 2)
2

_
1 +
s
2
+ 1
s(s
2
+ 2)
__
1 +
s
2
+ 1
s(s
2
+ 2)
_
=
−s(s
2
+ 2)
1 −(s
3
+ s
2
+ 2s + 1)
2
=
1
s
3
+ 2s
2
+ 3s + 2
=
1
(s + 1)(s
2
+ s + 2)
·
. . V
2
=
50
s(s + 1)(s
2
+ s + 2)
s
1,2
= −
1
2
±j

7
2
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–36 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
V
2
=
K
1
s
+
K
2
s + 1
+
K
3
s +
1
2
−j

7
2
+
K

3
s +
1
2
+ j

7
2
K
1
= 25; K
2
= −25; K
3
= 9.45/90

·
. . v
2
(t) = [25 −25e
−t
+ 18.90e
−0.5t
cos(1.32t + 90

)]u(t) V
P 18.38 The a parameters of the ﬁrst two port are
a

11
=
−∆h
h
21
=
−5 ×10
−3
40
= −125 ×10
−6
a

12
=
−h
11
h
21
=
−1000
40
= −25 Ω
a

21
=
−h
22
h
21
=
−25
40
×10
−6
= −625 ×10
−9
S
a

22
=
−1
h
21
=
−1
40
= −25 ×10
−3
The a parameters of the second two port are
a

11
=
5
4
; a

12
=
3R
4
; a

21
=
3
4R
; a

22
=
5
4
or a

11
= 1.25; a

12
= 54 kΩ; a

21
=
1
96
mS; a

22
= 1.25
The a parameters of the cascade connection are
a
11
= −125 ×10
−6
(1.25) + (−25)(10
−3
/96) =
−10
−2
24
a
12
= −125 ×10
−6
(54 ×10
3
) + (−25)(1.25) = −38 Ω
a
21
= −625 ×10
−9
(1.25) + (−25 ×10
−3
)(10
−3
/96) =
−10
−4
96
S
a
22
= −625 ×10
−9
(54 ×10
3
) + (−25 ×10
−3
)(1.25) = −65 ×10
−3
V
o
V
g
=
Z
L
(a
11
+ a
21
Z
g
)Z
L
+ a
12
+ a
22
Z
g
a
21
Z
g
=
−10
−4
96
(800) =
−10
−2
12
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–37
a
11
+ a
21
Z
g
=
−10
−2
24
+
−10
−2
12
=
−10
−2
8
(a
11
+ a
21
Z
g
)Z
L
=
−10
−2
8
(72,000) = −90
a
22
Z
g
= −65 ×10
−3
(800) = −52
V
o
V
g
=
72,000
−90 −38 −52
= −400
v
o
= V
o
= −400V
g
= −3.6 V
P 18.39 [a] From reciprocity and symmetry
a

11
= a

22
, ∆a

= 1;
·
. . 5
2
−24a

21
= 1, a

21
= 1 S
For network B
a

11
=
V
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
V
1
= (5 + j15 −j10)I
1
= (5 + j5)I
1
V
2
= (−j10 + j5)I
1
= −j5I
1
a

11
=
5 + j5
−j5
= −1 + j1
a

21
=
I
1
V
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
1
−j5
= j0.2 S
a

22
= a

11
= −1 + j1
∆a

= 1 = (−1 + j1)(−1 + j1) −j0.2a

12
·
. . a

12
= −10 + j5
Summary:
a

11
= 5 a

11
= −1 + j1
a

12
= 24 Ω a

12
= −10 + j5 Ω
a

21
= 1 S a

21
= j0.2 S
a

22
= 5 a

22
= −1 + j1
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–38 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
[b] a
11
= a

11
a

11
+ a

12
a

21
= −5 + j9.8
a
12
= a

11
a

12
+ a

12
a

22
= −74 + j49 Ω
a
21
= a

21
a

11
+ a

22
a

21
= −1 + j2 S
a
22
= a

21
a

12
+ a

22
a

22
= −15 + j10
I
2
=
−V
g
a
11
Z
L
+ a
12
+ a
21
Z
g
Z
L
= 0.295 + j0.279 A
V
2
= −10I
2
= −2.95 −j2.79 V
P 18.40 a

11
=
z
11
z
21
=
35/3
4000/3
= 8.75 ×10
−3

a

12
=
∆z
z
21
=
25 ×10
4
/3
4000/3
= 62.5 Ω
a

21
=
1
z
21
=
1
4000/3
= 0.75 ×10
−3

a

22
=
z
22
z
21
=
10,000/3
4000/3
= 2.5 Ω
a

11
=
−y
22
y
21
=
−40 ×10
−6
−800 ×10
−6
= 0.05 S
a

12
=
−1
y
21
=
−1
−800 ×10
−6
= 1250 S
a

21
=
−∆y
y
21
=
−4 ×10
−8
−800 ×10
−6
= 50 ×10
−6
S
a

22
=
−y
11
y
21
=
−200 ×10
−6
−800 ×10
−6
= 0.25 S
a
11
= a

11
a

11
+ a

12
a

21
= (8.75 ×10
−3
)(0.05) + (62.5)(50 ×10
−6
) = 3.5625 ×10
−3
a
12
= a

11
a

12
+ a

12
a

22
= (8.75 ×10
−3
)(1250) + (62.5)(0.25) = 26.5625
a
21
= a

21
a

11
+ a

22
a

21
= (0.75 ×10
−3
)(0.05) + (2.5)(50 ×10
−6
) = 162.5 ×10
−6
a
22
= a

21
a

12
+ a

22
a

22
= (0.75 ×10
−3
)(1250) + (2.5)(0.25) = 1.5625
V
2
=
Z
L
V
g
(a
11
+ a
21
Z
g
)Z
L
+ a
12
+ a
22
Z
g
=
(15,000)(0.03)
[3.5625 ×10
−3
+ (162.5 ×10
−6
)(10)](15,000) + 26.5625 + (1.5625)(10)
= 3.75 V
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–39
P 18.41 [a] At the input port: V
1
= h
11
I
1
+ h
12
V
2
;
At the output port: I
2
= h
21
I
1
+ h
22
V
2
[b]
V
2
10
4
+ (100 ×10
−6
V
2
) + 100I
1
= 0
therefore I
1
= −2 ×10
−6
V
2
V

2
= 1000I
1
+ 15 ×10
−4
V
2
= −5 ×10
−4
V
2
100I

1
+ 10
−4
V

2
+ (−2 ×10
−6
)V
2
= 0
therefore I

1
= 205 ×10
−10
V
2
V
g
= 1500I

1
+ 15 ×10
−4
V

2
= 3000 ×10
−8
V
2
V
2
V
g
=
10
5
3
= 33,333
P 18.42 [a] V
1
= I
2
(z
12
−z
21
) + I
1
(z
11
−z
21
) + z
21
(I
1
+ I
2
)
= I
2
z
12
−I
2
z
21
+ I
1
z
11
−I
1
z
21
+ z
21
I
1
+ z
21
I
2
= z
11
I
1
+ z
12
I
2
V
2
= I
2
(z
22
−z
21
) + z
21
(I
1
+ I
2
) = z
21
I
1
+ z
22
I
2
[b] Short circuit V
g
and apply a test current source to port 2 as shown. Note
that I
T
= I
2
. We have
V
z
21
−I
T
+
V + I
T
(z
12
−z
21
)
Z
g
+ z
11
−z
21
= 0
Therefore
V =
_
z
21
(Z
g
+ z
11
−z
12
)
Z
g
+ z
11
_
I
T
and V
T
= V + I
T
(z
22
−z
21
)
Thus
V
T
I
T
= Z
Th
= z
22

_
z
12
z
21
Z
g
+ z
11
_
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–40 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
For V
Th
note that V
oc
=
z
21
Z
g
+ z
11
V
g
since I
2
= 0.
P 18.43 [a] V
1
= (z
11
−z
12
)I
1
+ z
12
(I
1
+ I
2
) = z
11
I
1
+ z
12
I
2
V
2
= (z
21
−z
12
)I
1
+ (z
22
−z
12
)I
2
+ z
12
(I
2
+ I
1
) = z
21
I
1
+ z
22
I
2
[b] With port 2 terminated in an impedance Z
L
, the two mesh equations are
V
1
= (z
11
−z
12
)I
1
+ z
12
(I
1
+ I
2
)
0 = Z
L
I
2
+ (z
21
−z
12
)I
1
+ (z
22
−z
12
)I
2
+ z
12
(I
1
+ I
2
)
Solving for I
1
:
I
1
=
V
1
(z
22
+ Z
L
)
z
11
(Z
L
+ z
22
) −z
12
z
21
Therefore
Z
in
=
V
1
I
1
= z
11

z
12
z
21
z
22
+ Z
L
P 18.44 [a] I
1
= y
11
V
1
+ y
21
V
2
+ (y
12
−y
21
)V
2
; I
2
= y
21
V
1
+ y
22
V
2
I
1
= y
11
V
1
+ y
12
V
2
; I
2
= y
12
V
1
+ y
22
V
2
+ (y
21
−y
12
)V
1
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–41
[b] Using the second circuit derived in part [a], we have
where y
a
= (y
11
+ y
12
) and y
b
= (y
22
+ y
12
)
At the input port we have
I
1
= y
a
V
1
−y
12
(V
1
−V
2
) = y
11
V
1
+ y
12
V
2
At the output port we have
V
2
Z
L
+ (y
21
−y
12
)V
1
+ y
b
V
2
−y
12
(V
2
−V
1
) = 0
Solving for V
1
gives
V
1
=
_
1 + y
22
Z
L
−y
21
Z
L
_
V
2
Substituting Eq. (18.2) into (18.1) and at the same time using
V
2
= −Z
L
I
2
, we get
I
2
I
1
=
y
21
y
11
+ ∆yZ
L
P 18.45 [a] The g-parameter equations are I
1
= g
11
V
1
+ g
12
I
2
and V
2
= g
21
V
1
+ g
22
I
2
.
These equations are satisﬁed by the following circuit:
[b] The g parameters for the ﬁrst two port in Fig P 18.38(a) are
g
11
=
h
22
∆h
=
25 ×10
−6
5 ×10
−3
= 5 ×10
−3
S
g
12
=
−h
12
∆h
=
−5 ×10
−4
5 ×10
−3
= −0.10
g
21
=
−h
21
∆h
=
−40
5 ×10
−3
= −8000
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18–42 CHAPTER 18. Two-Port Circuits
g
22
=
h
11
∆h
=
1000
5 ×10
−3
= 200 kΩ
From Problem 3.65 R
ef
= 72 kΩ, hence our circuit reduces to
V
2
=
−8000V
1
(72)
272
I
2
=
−V
2
72,000
=
8V
1
272
v
g
= 9 mV
·
. .
V
1
−9 ×10
−3
800
+ V
1
(5 ×10
−3
) −0.1
8V
1
272
= 0
V
1
−9 ×10
−3
+ 4V
1

80V
1
34
= 0
·
. . V
1
= 3.4 ×10
−3
V
2
=
−8000(72)
272
×3.4 ×10
−3
= −7.2 V
From Problem 3.65
V
o
V
2
= 0.5;
·
. . V
o
= −3.6 V
This result matches the solution to Problem 18.38.
P 18.46 [a] To determine b
11
and b
21
create an open circuit at port 1. Apply a voltage
at port 2 and measure the voltage at port 1 and the current at port 2. To
determine b
12
and b
22
create a short circuit at port 1. Apply a voltage at
port 2 and measure the currents at ports 1 and 2.
[b] The equivalent b-parameters for the black-box ampliﬁer can be calculated
as follows:
b
11
=
1
h
12
=
1
10
−3
= 1000
b
12
=
h
11
h
12
=
500
10
−3
= 500 kΩ
b
21
=
h
22
h
12
=
0.05
10
−3
= 50 S
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Problems 18–43
b
22
=
∆h
h
12
=
23.5
10
−3
= 23,500
Create an open circuit a port 1. Apply 1 V at port 2. Then,
b
11
=
V
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
1
V
1
= 1000 so V
1
= 1 mV measured
b
21
=
I
2
V
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
I
2
10
−3
= 50 S so I
2
= 50 mA measured
Create a short circuit a port 1. Apply 1 V at port 2. Then,
b
12
= −
V
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
=
−1
I
1
= 500 kΩ so I
1
= −2 µA measured
b
22
= −
I
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
V
1
=0
=
−I
2
−2 ×10
−6
= 23,500 so I
2
= 47 mA measured
P 18.47 [a] To determine z
11
and z
21
create an open circuit at port 2. Apply a current
at port 1 and measure the voltages at ports 1 and 2. To determine z
12
and z
22
create an open circuit at port 1. Apply a current at port 2 and
measure the voltages at ports 1 and 2.
[b] The equivalent z-parameters for the black-box ampliﬁer can be calculated
as follows:
z
11
=
∆h
h
22
=
23.5
0.05
= 470 Ω
z
12
=
h
12
h
22
=
10
−3
0.05
= 0.02 Ω
z
21
= −
h
21
h
22
= −
1500
0.05
= −30 kΩ
z
22
=
1
h
22
=
1
0.05
= 20 Ω
Create an open circuit a port 2. Apply 1 mA at port 1. Then,
z
11
=
V
1
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
V
1
0.001
= 470 Ω so V
1
= 470 mV measured
z
21
=
V
2
I
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
2
=0
=
V
2
0.001
= −30,000 Ω so V
2
= −30 V measured
Create an open circuit a port 1. Apply 1 A at port 2. Then,
z
12
=
V
1
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
V
1
1
= 0.02 Ω so V
1
= 0.02 V measured
z
22
=
V
2
I
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
I
1
=0
=
V
2
1
= 20 Ω so V
2
= 20 V measured