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Chapter 18 Practice Questions 1.

All of the following are features of large scale manufacturing after the Civil War except... a. pressure to cut costs, eliminate rivals, and create monopolies b. success of the money supply to keep pace with productivity c. exploitation of immense coal deposits d. a significant drop in price levels e. an increased need for enormous numbers of new workers 2. Which of the following were aspects of large-scale corporate enterprise which railroad companies pioneered? a. issuance of stock to meet capital needs b. the separation of ownership from management c. the creation of new organizational and management structures d. Both b and c e. All of the above 3. Which of the following most accurately describes leaders in the railroad industry in the 1870s and 1880s? a. They were villains and robber barons who manipulated stock markets for personal gain b. They were upstanding businessmen who managed companies with innovation c. They had few differences among their methods of leadership d. The industrialists were diverse; some were honest while others were corrupt e. None of the above accurately describe leaders in the railroad industry at this time 4. Andrew Carnegie... a. became the first steelmaker to know the actual production cost of each ton of steel b. gave generous wage increases to his workers while lowering production costs c. Utilized vertical integration, a process of leasing control of all aspects of production d. Rejected philanthropy because it violated the very principles of capitalism

e. Rejected cost-analysis techniques because they failed to account for human error 5. The Sherman Anti-Trust Act... a. legalized trusts and other monopolies which fixed prices b. was supported by the Standard Oil Trust c. failed to define the terms "trust" or "restraint of trade" d. clearly defined the terms "trust" and "restraint of trade" as a precedent e. was criticized and verbally attacked by Senator John Sherman 6. Which of the following is true regarding the major inventions created from 1865 to 1900? a. Many of the inventions were clearly seen and supported by the public b. Bell's invention of the telephone encouraged social conventions for polite behavior c. Many of the inventions were largely hidden from public view. d. Gustavus Swift created a cigarette-making machine e. Bonsack used refrigerated railcars to ship beef from Chicago out East. 7. Which of the following was Thomas Edison's greatest achievement? a. His first major invention, the stock-quotation printer b. His invention of the light bulb c. His successful legal battles regarding competitors who violated his patents d. His invention of the motion-picture camera and film e. His laboratory at Menlo Park 8. Which of the following statements is false regarding developments in the 19th century? a. Indoor plumbing was useful but adopted only slowly by Americans b. Indoor plumbing was expensive and depended upon the availability of water c. The driving force for change came from complaints by the middle and upper classes d. Advertisers portrayed washing one's hands as a symbol of upper-class refinement

e. Reformers created metropolitan health laws, state boards of health, and the licensing process 9. All of the following were obstacles to economic development in the South after the Civil War except? a. A shift from planting cotton and tobacco to harvesting corn, a crop particularly vulnerable to seasonal fluctuations b. The Republican government required $50,000 to start a bank c. There was no available labor for industry because farmers were trapped on the land d. Northern policies increased southern freight rates and demonetized silver e. Southern war veterans were receiving pensions, leaving little money for development 10. In the Southern mill economy... a. the mill economy stagnated in the Piedmont region b. the South became the nation's leading textile-mill center c. mill entrepreneurs pay workers more than New England mill workers d. local company stores refused to accept scrip certificates as payment e. Most families were able to afford their payments and avoid a cycle of indebtedness 11. Which of the following is true regarding the "new immigrants" of the 1890s? a. They easily adjusted to factory schedules b. They were wealthy immigrants who came because they chose to, not to avoid economic troubles c. They learned proper values such as hurrying when they hear the whistle and eating lunch whenever they are hungry d. They could earn more than they could in their homeland e. Chinese immigrants were shown preference while others toiled in the mining, canning, railroad, and construction industries 12. Which best portrays the views of young, working-class single women towards factory work? a. They refused to work in factories because of the social stigma of being a servant b. Factory work was an opportunity which allowed them to produce their own income

c. They preferred factory work to the new openings in clerical and secretarial jobs d. They viewed factory work with greater prestige than routine secretarial work e. Black women viewed available factory work as opportune to their advancement 13. All of the following are true concerning American in 1890 except... a. 10% of American families owned 73% of the nation's wealth b. Less than half of industrial laborers earned more than the poverty line annually c. the standard of living for millions of Americans rose d. the story was often of rags to respectability, not rags to riches e. Gains in actual buying power decreased 14. Which of the following is true regarding women participation in labor unions? a. The National Labor Union encouraged working women and elected a woman officer b. The Knights of Labor refused to admit women members c. The American Federation of Labor believed women shouldn't be confined to the home d. None of them accepted women suffrage advocates such as Susan Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton e. Each of them accepted women suffrage advocates such as Susan Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton 15. Of the following, who is correctly matched with his or her beliefs? a. William Sumner---the state should regulate big business and prevent exploitation b. Lester Ward--a drunkard in the gutter is just where he ought to be c. Edward Bellamy--everyone should work for the common welfare in a conflict-free society d. Karl Marx--the "invisible hand" should rule the marketplace e. Alexander Berkman--the labor to produce a commodity was the only true measure of that commodity's value