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Steel grades

Steel grades to classify various steels by their composition and physical properties have been developed by a number of standards organizations.
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SAE steel grades British Standards International Organization for Standardization ISO/TS ! !"#$$% European standards & E' ($$#) *or alloys in general +including steel,- unified numbering system +.'S, of AST/ International and the Society of Automotive Engineers +SAE,. 0apanese steel grades " 0apanese Industrial Standards +0IS, standard 1ermany steel grades " 2I' standard 3hina steel grades " 1B standard

Contents

( European standard steel grades o (.( 3ategory (
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(.# Additional symbols (.% European standard steel number

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# 3omparison % 4eferences
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%.( 'otes %.# Bibliography

E5ternal lin6s

European standard steel grades

E' ($$#)&( steel grade designation system.
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European standard steel grade names fall into t9o categories" (. Steel specified by purpose of use and mechanical properties. #. Steel specified by chemical composition.

The inclusion of a letter :1: before the code indicates the steel is specified in the form of a casting.

Category 1
Basic steel grade designations for category ( steels consist of a single letter +designating application, then a number signifying the mechanical property +often yield strength, dictated in the standard for that application designation. *or some application designations another letter is included before the property value- this number is used to indicate any special re;uirements or conditions. These additional letters and values depend entirely on the application of the steel and are specified in the standard and far too numerous to mention here. Belo9 is a table indicating the most common application codes. Application symbol S = > E B 4 ? Mechanical Property /inimum <ield Structural steel Strength Steel for pressure /inimum <ield lines and vessels Strength Steel for pipe and /inimum <ield tube Strength /inimum <ield Engineering steels Strength Steel for reinforced 3haracteristic concrete <ield 3ase /inimum <ield Steel for rail use 3ase ?igh Strength 3old /inimum <ield Meaning Details

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4olled *lat =roducts for 3old *orming Tinmill =roducts Electrical Steel

3ase follo9ed by 3- 2 or @ and t9o numbers characterising steel 'ominal <ield 3ase 'umber A ($$ 5 specific loss in B/6g 'umber A ($$ 5 nom thic6 in mm >etter for type of steel +A-B-E-'-S or =,

Additional symbols
In addition to the above category codes there are symbols that can be added to the grade code to identify any additional compositional re;uirements- delivery conditions- mechanical propertiesCc. These values depend solely on the type/application code given in the first part of the code and are so numerous as to be impossible to indicate here. Additional symbols are separated from the main code by the plus sign +D,. The most common additional symbols are the impact and temperature codes for structural steelscategory ( & S555. Impact resistance Temperature Impact Testing Temperature Testing code strength code temperature 0 #) 0 4 4oom temperature E $0 O $F3 > G$ 0 # &#$F3 % &%$F3 & $F3 H &H$F3 G &G$F3 2elivery condition codes are also relatively common- the most common being" Code Condition A Annealed IT Iuenched and tempered ' 'ormalised S4 Stress relieved 3 3old 9or6ed . .ntreated

European standard steel number
In addition to the descriptive steel grade naming system indicated above- 9ithin E' ($$#)&# is defined a system for creating uni;ue steel grade numbers. Bhile less descriptive and intuitive than the grand names they are easier to tabulate and use in data processing applications. The number is in the follo9ing format" 5.yyzz+zz, Bhere 5 is the material type +only ( is specified so far,- yy is the steel group number +specified in E'($$#)&#, and zz+zz, is a se;uential number designated by the certifying body- the number in brac6ets being unused but reserved for later use. The steel groups are indicated belo9" Code Type Non-alloy steels

$$ C !$ Basic steels $5 C !5 Iuality steels (5 Special steels Alloy steels #5 %5 5 H5 J K5 $K C !K $! C !! Tool steels /iscellaneous steels Stainless and heat resistant steels Structural- pressure vessel and engineering steels Special physical properties Other purpose steels

The current certification body is the L2Eh in 2Msseldorf- 1ermany.

Comparison
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