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Assembly Language

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A program written in assembly language consists of a series of instructions mnemonics that correspond to a stream of executable instructions, when translated by an assembler, that can be loaded into memory and executed mov al, #061h This instruction means:

Move the hexadecimal value 61 (97 decimal) into the processor register named "al".

In practice many programmers drop the word mnemonic and, technically incorrectly, call "mov" an opcode. When they do this, they are referring to the underlying binary code which it represents. To put it another way, a mnemonic such as "mov" is not an opcode, but as it symbolizes an opcode. Transforming assembly into machine language is accomplished by an assembler, and the reverse by a disassembler. Unlike in high-level languages, there is usually a one-to-one correspondence between simple assembly statements and machine language instructions. However, in some cases, an assembler may provide pseudoinstructions which expand into several machine language instructions to provide commonly needed functionality. For example, for a machine that lacks a "branch if greater or equal" instruction, an assembler may provide a pseudoinstruction that expands to the machine's "set if less than" and "branch if zero (on the result of the set instruction)". Most full-featured assemblers also provide a rich macro language (discussed below) which is used by vendors and programmers to generate more complex code and data sequences. Multiple sets of mnemonics or assembly-language syntax may exist for a single instruction set, typically instantiated in different assembler programs. In these cases, the most popular one is usually that supplied by the manufacturer and used in its documentation. Most assemblers also support pseudo-operations, which are directives obeyed by the assembler at assembly time instead of the CPU at run time. (For example, pseudo-ops would be used to reserve storage areas and optionally set their initial contents.) The names of pseudo-ops often start with a dot to distinguish them from machine instructions. Some assemblers also support pseudo-instructions, which generate two or more machine instructions.Symbolic assemblers allow programmers to associate arbitrary names (labels or symbols) with memory locations Most assemblers provide flexible symbol management, allowing programmers to manage different namespaces, automatically calculate offsets within data structures, and assign labels that refer to literal values or the result of simple computations performed by the assembler. Labels can also be used to initialize constants and variables with relocatable addresses.

.DW.END and START etc.DB. like most other computer languages.Assembly languages. allow comments to be added to assembly source code that are ignored by the assembler. Some of the Assembler Directives are EQU.