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DEVELOPMENT OF A MODEL FOR THE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AREAS IN GREECE

Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University Thessaloniki. 2 Laboratory of Chemical and Environmental Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University Thessaloniki 3 Department of Food Technology, Alexander Technological Education Institute of Thessaloniki * Corresponding author: E-mail: jantonop@aix.meng.auth.gr, Tel.: +302310994167, Fax: +302310996012
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I.-S. Antonopoulos1*, A. Zouboulis2, P. Samaras3 and A. Karagiannidis1

Abstract The industrial sector is traditionally seen as a main responsible of negative impacts on environment. A sustainable approach for developing strategies both in Industrial Areas (IAs) and in individual Small-and-Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) plays a key role in regional economy providing innovation in the fields of energy, environment, construction and competitiveness. Eco-industrial development is a recent policy development that seeks to integrate economic, social and environmental plans into physical and adaptable models. This study aims at developing a model to plan, build and govern state-of-the-art IAs in order to improve their environmental sustainability and competitiveness. The model’s structuring was based on the results of an appropriate SWOT Analysis regarding environmental, economical and social acceptance which was based on various related stakeholders.
Keywords: eco-industrial, industrial symbiosis, industrial area.

1. INTRODUCTION Industrial Ecology (IE) has gained in appeal over the last year, aiming to transform common business-as-usual Industrial Areas (IAs) into Sustainable Industrial Parks (known also as EcoIndustrial Parks). The main difference among common IAs and sustainable industrial parks is the achieved consolidated cooperation between industries in order to acquire and find win-win situations [1], with significant additional expected benefits. A couple of related, well-advertised examples include (a) the sustainable industrial park of Kalundborg in Denmark and (b) the EcoValley in France which was planned to be the first planned Mediterranean IA that would meet the needs of sustainable development. From another point of view, academic institutions and researchers have developed useful tools in order to foster industrial sustainability; e.g. Beers and Biswas [2] developed a regional synergy tool for industries which is based on the energy recovery and efficiency by reducing simultaneously the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, whereas Fernandez and Ruiz [3] developed and tested an innovative model to locate sustainable IAs by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Furthermore, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was performed in the IA in Macrolotto in Italy in order to identify the environmental crucial points of this area and simultaneously to evaluate opportunities and potential problems [4].
Proceedings of the 3rd International CEMEPE & SECOTOX Conference Skiathos, June 19-24, 2011, ISBN 978-960-6865-43-5 1205

in addition to the environmental effects. It should also be noted in this context that some IAs in Greece have been preliminary considered as suitable for hosting facilities for treating hazardous waste [1].g. rainwater drainage systems. technical infrastructure refers to roads. rather than being discharged to a water body. The aforementioned examples. In an IA. are related to economic benefits for the industries using these innovative systems. data were available only for 27 IAs.g. electricity supply grid and any other kind of required infrastructure for providing services to industries. although.1 Infrastructure The aforementioned National Laws [5. which currently (May 2011) manages in total 32 areas. they are experiencing problems leading to significant environmental impacts. two types of wastewater are generated. CURRENT STATUS IN GREECE The Hellenic legal framework regarding IAs is foreseen by National Law 4458/65.1 Environmental infrastructure A major role within the environmental infrastructure of a sustainable industrial park is focused on wastewater management. Finally. 1206 . namely 27 IAs and 5 Entrepreneur Areas all over the country and offers its services to companies hosted in them. reducing consumption of fossil fuels and the associated GHGs. On the other hand.2. most difficulties have been reported to have been faced in the case of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). it is often advisable to have a dedicated WTP. Almost all Hellenic IAs have a central wastewater treatment plant. wood and rice residuals). however. like irrigation. in certain cases (mostly involving relatively small private IAs) detailed Environmental Management Plans have been compiled (e.6] take into consideration the technical infrastructure in IAs from an environmental and social standpoint. Illumination plants with photocell panels. it is an encouraging present parameter that various industries in IAs all over Greece are environmentally certified (as of EMAS and/or ISO 14001). but not a single entire IA has yet achieved such a certification. most of them are deficiently operating and occasionally. In Greece 47 IAs exist including all business forms from the aforementioned national Laws. some existing IAs and Entrepreneur Areas are not managed by ETVA VIPE S. aiming to the integrated protection of the environment from industrial effluents. which have to undergo a suitable sustainable treatment. telecommunication networks. Other measures towards environmental sustainability include the installation and operation of renewable energy facilities. after appropriate treatment.1. Furthermore. Material Recovering Facilities (MRF) are settled in IAs in order to recycle industrial packaging waste. which was supplemented by National Law 742/77. since 2002. The use of renewable sources for energy production may include the following processes: Plants for power production from biomass (i. should be reused in various applications. Most existing IAs are supervised by the private company ETVA VIPE S. starting year and hazardous waste generation. 7]. Furthermore. However.A.e. land coverage by industries. industrial and ‘municipal’-like liquid waste. as a primary target for the establishment of IAs. Industrial ecology and eco-industrial networks are still at an early stage of development within the country’s industrial structures.A. whereas ‘municipal’-like wastewater is generated by staff. tanneries. 2. for special kinds of industries like e. Furthermore. in IA in Gefira. Wastewater Treatment Plants (WTP). Industrial wastewaters are generated from the processes. The treated wastewater. [1. on features like total surface. 2. Thessaloniki). More specifically.

The preliminary results from this research are presented in Table 1. ii) Inter-company nursery. a short description of the steps which were carried out is presented in the following. The data from the questionnaires were compiled and analyzed. To identify the “state-of-the-art” of the SIA concept. Most examples of social services available in organised IAs address daily or special needs of employees including: i) Medical centres.Trends) analysis. involving environmental.2.2. for the examination of existing conditions related to IAs in a region.1 Best Available Techniques First. In this work. social and economical issues.1. 2. The model intended to enhance capacities and decision tools for Competent Authorities to integrate environmental friendly solutions into the Regional and Interregional Industrial Development Strategies. These techniques refer either to the supervising authority of the IA. an integrated model was developed taking into account the above issues. 2. The methodology that was applied for the preparation of the integrated model was based on the structure of an appropriate questionnaire that was focussed on SWOT (Strengths – Weaknesses – Opportunities . To determine the best experiences or Best Practice for SIAs The questionnaire was then released to related stakeholders. the operation of a particular IA should follow certain principles towards the adoption of sustainable management measures. Infrastructures /services of IA Environmental/economic/ social advantages Applied example Actions towards Environmental Sustainability Wastewater treatment plant Wastewater treatment plant Reclamation and reuse of effluent Central wastewater treatment unit for tanneries’ cluster Sindos IA Kozani IA (planned) Komotini IA Patra IA Ioannina IA IA ArgostoliKefallonia IA Thisvi IA Heraklio IA Lamia IA Komotini – Shelman S.A. the Best Available Techniques (BAT) dealing with IAs’ management were collected. The aims of this questionnaire were: To detect risks and difficulties in the implementation of a Sustainable Industrial Area (SIA) model. Best Available Techniques in Hellenic IAs.2 Social services Social infrastructure may play a crucial role for the improved operation and the development of an IA. Table 1. or to specific industrial facilities as part of an IA. iii) Canteen/restaurants and iv) Banking services. IA Serres – Water Wastewater treatment plant Reclamation and reuse of effluents (for irrigation in certain cases) Energy Energy recovery plant using biomass .2 Integrated approach In order to develop a Sustainable Industrial Area.wood residues Energy recovery plant 1207 Reduction of GHG emissions and economic benefits for the firms Reduction of GHG and .

Existence of unregistered industrial facilities .2.Infrastructures /services of IA using biomass – cotton residues Energy recovery plant using biomass – wood residues Plant for power production from biomass – rice industries’ residues Illumination plant with photocell panels Material recovery plant Door-to-door collection Environmental monitoring of IA Actions towards Social Sustainability Environmental/economic/ social advantages economic benefits for the firms Reduction of GHG and economic benefits for the firms Reduction of GHG and economic benefits for the firms Reduction of GHG and economic benefits for the firms Recycling of industrial waste.A. Strengths Large IA with settled waste management infrastructure (2 MRF and 2 WTP).A. 1208 Weakness ~50 different categories of industries Located in a close distance to a big city. Release of the questionnaire to stakeholders in national level Sectors Public Private Management bodies of IAs (i. Existence of several hazardous waste transportation plants. Unawareness of the potential hazardous waste generators. An indicative example of the final outcome is illustrated on Figure 1. VIPATHE) X Local Authorities X Federation of Industries of Northern Greece X Association of Industries in Thessaly and in Central Greece X Federation of Peloponnese & Western Greece Industries X Hellenic Federation of Enterprises X Athens Chamber of Commerce and Industry X Governmental institutions (i. Lack of up-to-date hazardous waste inventory. Lack of recycling schemes for all hazardous waste stream. IA Sindos Agrino IA Meligala Sindos Waste All IAs VIPATHE In most IAs Installed but not yet in operation Banking services / Medical centre / Canteen or Restaurant Table 2.e. ETVA VIPE. Existence of several projects related to proper management of hazardous waste. IA Larisa – Alfa wood S. which represents the data SWOT Analysis for Sindos IA. Located close to national roads. Thessaloniki.3 SWOT results The data compilation is still under progress with the research taking place at a national level. Existence of several licensed recycling/recovering plants. and referring to a part of the whole analysis related to the environmental aspect. ministries) X 2. Existing infrastructure providing social services. material recovery involving certain streams of economic importance Reduction of pollution Applied example Siarkos S.e.

Existence of qualified staff in Greece. ii) establishment of eco-industrial parks and iii) the creation of a recycling-based society [8]. and by-product resources among industrial actors in order to add value. Boons et al. reduce costs and improve environment. SWOT Analysis data for the Industrial Area of Thessaloniki.Opportunities Existence of available EU funds. Figure 1.2. 2. Development of clean production technologies globally. Principles of eco-industrial development. IS activities are being implemented through the ‘circular economy’ principles. The industrial ecology is achieved through the industries organization along a model of an ecosystem looking to both environment and economy. Ecology + Economy Decrease pollution and waste Increase business success Figure 2. Threats Public reaction against the establishment of new hazardous waste facilities. according to the following aspects: i) establishment of circular corporations. Industrial symbiosis is a subset of industrial ecology. with a particular focus on material and energy exchange. Figure 3. The main two principles of eco-industrial development which have to be combined are illustrated in Figure 2. 1209 .4 Industrial symbiosis Industrial Symbiosis (IS) can be defined as sharing of services. energy and information flows as shown in Figure 3. utility. in Sindos. Conceptual framework of industrial symbiosis [9]. Incompliance to EU regulations due to the improper management of hazardous waste. (2011) [9] developed a theoretical conceptual framework regarding the industrial symbiosis including the connectivity of material.

Frenquellucci F..D. Furthermore. the demand of natural resources and the generated waste are reduced due to the fact that an effective network among industries is in operation. 2009. Korizi K. especially SMEs will further benefit in terms of fostering eco-innovation. Ruiz M. A regional synergy approach to energy recovery: The case of the Kwinana industrial area. The expected outcome of this study will help to enhance capacities and tools of Competent Authorities to integrate environmentally friendly solutions into Regional and Interregional Development Strategies related to Industrial Policy. As a result of this integration approach.. Journal of Cleaner Production.. the cost of some research and development is less due to industries collaboration.. Loukatos A. Mentzis A. 34.K. Hontou V. Fernandez I.3.... Beers D. Environmental damage costs from airborne pollution of industrial activities in the greater 1210 . due to the fact that the industries are operating in a sustainable way providing finally a better economy.. 5.... The performance of the aforementioned industrial symbiosis network has a positive impact on the society. it is crucial to bridge the gap and establish agreements among local authorities and industries aiming to reach a joint sustainable industrial strategy. Mavrotas G. Hellenic Law 4458/65 ‘Industrial Districts’.. 2 June. Biswas W. 87-100. 4. Gakis N. Gargoulas N. Hazardous waste management in Industrial Areas. The proposed methodology involves all public and private actors related to the planning. 7.. Official Gazette 33/A/27-2-65. Life Cycle Assessment of waste management systems in Italian industrial areas: Case study of 1st Macrolotto of Prato. Triantafilopoulos T... Loprieno A. Industrial symbiosis will be thus explicitly promoted as a tool to promote sustainable development of industrial conglomerations. Georgopoulou E... CONCLUSIONS The main benefit of this study is based on an innovative elaboration of a principle of sustainable management of IA. Mourtsiadis A. Western Australia. Economidis D. Hellenic Law 2545/97 ‘Industrial and Business Estates’. It should be also mentioned that in an industrial symbiosis network the monetary benefits for industries will be really high. 613-622. The reduction of the energy consumption due to less transportation presents an environmental benefit together with the elimination of potential accidents in transportation. Official Gazette 254/A/15-12-97. 30513062.. competitiveness and transnational cooperation... 49. ACRONYMS CSR GHG IA ID IE IS Corporate Social Responsibility Greenhouse Gases Industrial Area Industrial District Industrial Ecology Industrial Symbiosis LCA LIP MRF SME WTP Life Cycle Analysis Light Industrial Park Material Recovering Facility Small and Medium Enterprise Wastewater Treatment Plants References 1. 6. Descriptive model and evaluation system to locate sustainable industrial areas.P. Energy. 2. Mirasgedis S. 17.C.. Cucchi E. Lalas D. Sarafidis Y. In addition. Tarantini M. 3. 2008. Athens. 2009. Energy Conversion and Management. 2009. Workshop of TEE Hazardous waste management – Existing and future opportunities. building and management of IAs. As far as environmental benefits are concerned. 2010..

905-911. 19. A case study of industrial symbiosis: Nanning Sugar Co. Yang S. Journal of Cleaner Production. 8.. 39–56. Feng N. Mouzakitis Y. 2008... Greece area and the resulting benefits from the introduction of BAT. 28. Conservation and Recycling. 1211 . The dynamics of industrial symbiosis: a proposal for a conceptual framework based upon a comprehensive literature review. Boons F. 813-820. Environmental Impact Assessment Review...Athens. Spekink W. 2011. 9. Ltd in China. 52.. Resources.