You are on page 1of 31

qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyui

opasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfgh
jklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvb
nmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwer
tyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopas
dfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzx
CASUAL
CONVERSATION
cvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq
Module 1, Lesson 1
wertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuio
pasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghj
klzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbn
mqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwerty
uiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdf
ghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxc
vbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrty
uiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdf
ghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxc

GRAMMAR

LINC HOME STUDY

Module 1 Lesson 1

Part A: What is a contraction?

Lets learn more about contractions.


A contraction is two words shortened into one. A letter (or letters) is left out.
An apostrophe () goes in the place of the missing letter(s).

For answering Yes


(Positively):

You can say:


I am hot.

Im hot.

I am

I m

It is hot.

Its hot.

It is /It has

Its

He is hot.

Hes hot.

He is

Hes

She is hot.

Shes hot.

She is

Shes

They are hot.

Theyre hot.

There is

Theres

We are hot.

Were hot.

We are

Were

There is snow.

Theres snow.

We will

Well

We will have snow.

For answering No
(negatively):

Well have snow.

You can say:


I am not hot.

Im not hot.

I am not

Im not

It is not hot.

It isnt hot.

Is not

isnt

He is not hot

He isnt hot.

Are not

arent

She is not hot

She isnt hot.

Will not

wont

They are not hot.

They arent hot.

We are not hot.

We arent hot.

There is not any snow. There isnt any


snow.
We will not have snow We wont have
snow.

Casual Conversation

Exercise 1
Try the following exercises. Make each sentence negative.
Example:

Its a warm day.


It isnt a warm day.

1. Its a beautiful day. _________________________________________________


2. Im cold. __________________________________________________________
3. Its a sunny day. ____________________________________________________
4. Were cold. ________________________________________________________
5. Theyre warm.______________________________________________________
6. Its windy. _________________________________________________________

Exercise 2
Make these sentences positive.
Example:

It isnt warm.
Its warm.

1. It isnt snowy. _______________________________________________________


2. Im not cold. _________________________________________________________
3. It isnt windy. ________________________________________________________
4. They arent cold. _____________________________________________________
5. We arent cold. ______________________________________________________
6. It wont rain. ________________________________________________________

LINC HOME STUDY

Module 1 Lesson 1

Exercise 3
Practice the following statements:
I am / Im

hot ______________________________

warm _____________________________

cold ______________________________

Exercise 4
Write am or is in the spaces provided.
1. It ___________________________________ very nice today.
2. I ______________________________________fine, thanks.
3. I ________________________________________________well.
4. The weather ___________________________________beautiful.
5. The dog __________________________________fine, too.

Casual Conversation

Exercise 5
Make sentences. Use is or am.
Example:

(Yen, is, today, fine) = Yen is fine today.

1. (I, cold, am) _____________________________________________________.


2. (It, today, is, warm) _______________________________________________ .
3. (It, day, is, isnt it?, a lovely) _________________________________________ .
4. ( I thanks, am, and you?, fine) ________________________________________ .
5. (It, and, is, warm, sunny) ____________________________________________ .

LINC HOME STUDY

Module 1 Lesson 1

Part B: What is a sentence?


A sentence is a group of words that tells about something or someone, or asks about
something or someone.
It shows a complete thought.
A sentence must:

1.

Start with a capital letter.

2.

End with punctuation ( . ? !).

3.

Have a subject (s).

4.

Have a verb (v).

Casual Conversation

Part C: What is the subject (s) of a sentence?


The subject is the
person
place
thing
quality

or

that the sentence is telling about or asking about.


Examples:
Kazik is my friend.

(Person)

The neighbourhood is pretty.

(Place)

The snow is beautiful.

(Thing)

Love is happiness.

(Quality)

The subject is also a noun. A noun is a person, place or thing.


A noun can be a proper noun or a common noun.
Proper nouns are nouns that name a particular person, place, or thing.
Common nouns are all other nouns that arent proper nouns.
Examples:
Kazik is my friend.
Proper noun
(subject)

common noun

The neighbourhood is pretty.


common noun
(subject)

LINC HOME STUDY

Module 1 Lesson 1

Part D: What is the verb (v) of a sentence?


The verb shows the
action
or
state of being
of the subject of the sentence.
Examples:
Yen lives in a pretty neighbourhood.
What someone
Does a physical action

Yen likes her neighbourhood.


What someone
Thinks a mental action

Yen is my friend.
What someone
Is a state of being

A sentence is made up of a subject (s) and a verb (v) in order to be a


complete thought.
Subject + Verb = Sentence
(s)
(v)
(complete thought)

Casual Conversation

Part E: What is a pronoun?


A pronoun is a word that can take the place of a noun.
Pronouns that take the place of singular nouns are:
I
Me
You
He
Him
She
Her
It
Pronouns that take the place of plural nouns are:
We
Us
You
They
Them
Examples of singular pronouns are:
Michelle is pretty.

She is pretty. / Shes pretty.

Snow is cold.

It is cold. / Its cold.

Kazik is nineteen.

He is nineteen. / Hes nineteen.

Examples of plural pronouns are:


Yen and Katya are neighbours.

They are neighbours.


Theyre neighbours.

LINC HOME STUDY

Module 1 Lesson 1

Exercise 1
Make a list of five Do action verbs and five think action verbs in the spaces
provided below.
Do Action Verbs

Think Action Verbs

(Physical)

(Mental)

Example:
walk

think

1. ____________________

________________

2. ___________________

________________

3. ___________________

________________

4. ___________________

________________

5. ___________________

________________

Exercise 2
Make five sentences using either a Do action verb or a think action verb.
1. ______________________________________________________________
2. ______________________________________________________________
3. ______________________________________________________________
4. ______________________________________________________________
5. ______________________________________________________________
Exercise 3
Choose the correct pronoun to take the place of the underlined noun.
1. Mr. Rzewinski is another neighbour. (he, she)
2. Everyday Yen goes for a walk. (they, she)
3. Frank is a baby. (it, he)
4. Monica goes to university. (she, it)
5. Yen talks to her neighbours about the weather. (he, she)
6. Monica and Mr. Rzewinski are neighbours. (it, they)
10

Casual Conversation

Part F: When do I use the verb be?


Sentences with the verb be describe people or things.
The verb be can have different forms:
I am
You are
He is / she is / it is
We are
They are
We use the verb be in sentences together with nouns.
Remember: nouns describe a person, place or thing.
Example:
Monica
(subject, noun)
She
(subject, pronoun)

is
(verb)

is
(verb)

student.
(noun)
a

student.
(noun)

We also use the verb be in sentences together with adjectives.


Example:
Monica
(subject, noun)

is
(verb)

great.
(adjective)

She
(subject, pronoun)

is
(verb) (adjective)

great.

Sometimes we put nouns and adjectives together in a sentence with the verb be.
Example:
Monica
(subject, noun)
She
student.
(subject, pronoun)

is
(verb)

is
(verb)

great
student.
(adjective)
(noun)
a
(adjective)

great
(noun)
11

LINC HOME STUDY

Module 1 Lesson 1

The Verb be Statements


Table #1: Positive Statements (be)
Here are some examples of simple sentences.
Pronoun

Verb be

I
You
He
She
It
We
They

+ am
+ are
+ is
+ is
+ is
+ are
+ are

+ noun (student) or adjective (great)

Examples:
I am terrific.
You are pretty.
He is happy.
She is friendly.
It is a hot day.
We are fine.
They are wonderful.
Table #2: Negative Statements (be)
Here are some examples of simple sentences.
Pronoun

Verb be + Not

I
You
He
She
It
We
They

+ am not
+ are not
+ is not
+ is not
+ is not
+ are not
+ are not

12

+ noun (student) or adjective (great)

Casual Conversation

Examples:
I am not sad.
You arent (are not) happy.
He isnt (is not) Canadian.
She isnt (is not) cute.
It isnt (is not) a hot day.
We arent (are not) fine.
They arent (are not) friendly.

The Verb be Questions


We put the verb be before the subject to make questions.
Table #3: Questions (be)
Verb be

Pronoun

Am
Are
Is
Is
Is
Are
Are

+I
+ you
+ he
+ she
+ it
+ we
+ they

+ noun (student) or adjective (happy)?

Example:
Am I first?
Are you a Canadian?
Is he a teacher?
Is she married?
Is it hot?
Are we late?
Are you Americans?
Are they citizens?

13

LINC HOME STUDY

Module 1 Lesson 1

Exercise 1
Fill in the blanks using the verb be. Look at Table 1 and 2 for help.
Example:
Positive sentence: You ________________.
Negative sentence: She ________________.

You are beautiful.


She isnt happy.

1. positive sentence:

You

_____________

2. positive sentence:

He

_________________

3. negative sentence:

It

_________________

4. negative sentence:

They

_____________

5. positive sentence:

We

_________________

6. negative sentence:

You

_____________

7. positive sentence:

She

_____________

8. negative sentence:

_________________

9. positive sentence:

_________________

10. negative sentence:

We

_________________

Exercise 2
Tell me about yourself. Fill in the blanks.
I am _________________________________________________________
I am not _______________________________________________________
My best friend is ________________________________________________
My apartment is _________________________________________________
My apartment isnt _______________________________________________

14

Casual Conversation

Exercise 3
Write 10 sentences about different people in your family (e.g. father, mother, sister,
brother, daughter, son, grandfather, grandmother, uncle, aunt, cousins)
Use the verb be to make your sentences.

Exercise 4
Tell me the name of this famous person.
She is French Canadian.
She is very thin.
She is very famous.
She is a singer.
She is ____________________________.
Describe three famous people. Read these descriptions to your learning partner. Tell
your partner to guess the names of these people.
1.
2.
3.

15

LINC HOME STUDY

Module 1 Lesson 1

Exercise 5
Fill in the blanks by using the verb be to make questions.
1. ______________________________________________a doctor?
2. ______________________________________________friends?
3. ______________________________________________windy?
4. ______________________________________________a nurse?
5. ______________________________________________tired?
6. ______________________________________________soldiers?
7. ______________________________________________Tuesday?
8. ______________________________________________divorced?
9. ______________________________________________sleepy?
10. ______________________________________________parents?

Exercise 6
Answer these questions using the verb be:
Example:

Are you tired today?


Yes, I am.
or No, I am not. or No, Im not.

1. Are you rich?


____________________________________________________________
2. Are you sleepy now?
____________________________________________________________
3. Is your husband / wife home?
____________________________________________________________
4. Is your apartment small?
____________________________________________________________

16

Casual Conversation

5. Is English your first language?


____________________________________________________________
6. Are you tired in the morning?
____________________________________________________________
7. Is your family big?
____________________________________________________________
8. Are you busy on weekends?
____________________________________________________________

Exercise 7
Now, make some questions using the verb be. Ask your learning partner these
questions.
1. Are you _____________________________________________________?
2. Are you _____________________________________________________?
3. Are you _____________________________________________________?
4. Is __________________________________________________________?
5. Is __________________________________________________________?
6. Is __________________________________________________________?

17

LINC HOME STUDY

Module 1 Lesson 1

Exercise 8
Ask your learning partner about his / her best friend.
Example:
Is he / she tall?
Is he / she beautiful?
Is he / she a teacher?
Is _________________________________________________________?
Is _________________________________________________________?
Is _________________________________________________________?
Is _________________________________________________________?
Is _________________________________________________________?
Is _________________________________________________________?
Is _________________________________________________________?

18

Casual Conversation

Part G: When do I use the present continuous tense?


We use present continuous to describe an action in progress. The action takes place:
now

at this moment

right now

Present Continuous Statements


Structure:
Subject (person or thing) + the verb be (am, is, are, am not, isnt, arent) + verb (basic form
+ ing).
I
(subject)

am
(verb be)

walking
(verb basic form + ing)

We can also add an object (dinner, movie, etc.), place (school, kitchen, etc.) and time (now,
at this moment, etc.) to the sentence.
or
He
(subject)

is
(verb be)

cooking
(verb basic form + ing)

dinner
(object)

now.
(time)

Remember: Spelling Rules


When a verb ends with e, we change drop the e before we add the ending.
write writing
close closing
take taking
When a verb ends with a vowel followed by a consonant, we add the same consonant to
the ing construction.
run running
sit sitting
get getting

19

LINC HOME STUDY

Module 1 Lesson 1

Table #4: Positive Statements (present continuous)


Pronoun Verb be
I

+ am

(or Im)

You

+ are

(or youre)

He

+ is

(or hes)

She

+ is

(or shes)

It

+ is

(or its)

We

+ are

(or were)

You

+ are

(or youre)

They

+ are

(or theyre)

Examples:
I am skating.
You are reading.
He is laughing.
She is swimming.
It is raining.
We are cooking.
You are biking.
They are sleeping.

20

+ verb + ing (read+ing, walk+ing)

Casual Conversation

Table #5: Negative Statements (present continuous)


Pronoun

Verb be

+ am not

(or Im not)

You

+ are not

(or youre not)

He

+ is not

(or hes not)

She

+ is not

(or shes not)

It

+ is not

(or its not)

We

+ are not

(or were not)

You

+ are not

(or youre not)

They

+ are not

(or theyre not)

+ verb + ing (read+ing, walk+ing)

Examples:
I am not drinking.
You are not skating.
He is not writing.
She is not listening.
It is not snowing.
We are not shopping.
You are not eating.
They are not working.

21

LINC HOME STUDY

Module 1 Lesson 1

Present Continuous Questions


We put the verb be in front of a subject to make questions.
Table #6: Questions (present continuous)
Verb be

Pronoun

Am

+I

Are

+ you

Is

+ he

Is

+ she

Is

+ it

Are

+ we

Are

+ you

Are

+they

Examples:
Am I disturbing you?
Are you watching TV?
Is he helping you?
Is she sleeping?
Is it raining now?
Are we getting there?
Are they driving this car now?

22

+ verb + ing (read+ing, walk+ing)

Casual Conversation

Exercise 1
Make sentences using the verb be and the present continuous tense.
Example:
(I, take home books)

I am taking home books.

1. (They, listen to language tapes) ______________________________________


2. (The librarian, help Ronny) __________________________________________
3. (I, get a library card) ________________________________________________
4. (You, read a magazine) _____________________________________________
5. (Juan, save money) ________________________________________________

23

LINC HOME STUDY

Exercise 2
Match each sentence with the correct picture by drawing a line.

They are walking in the park.

He is reading the newspaper.

We are watching a play.

You are listening to music.

He is eating.

24

Module 1 Lesson 1

Casual Conversation

Exercise 3
Fill in the blanks by using the correct form of the verb be and the present continuous
tense.
Example: I think am thinking about this answer.
1. They (eat) ____________________________ breakfast in the kitchen now.
2. She (sing) ____________________________ a beautiful song.
3. We (sit) ____________________________ in the living room at this moment.
4. John (drive) ____________________________ on a highway now.
5. Betty (not/watch) ____________________________ TV now.
6. Paul and Claudio (not/play) ____________________________ soccer.
7. The weather is very nice. It isnt ____________________________.
8. She (write) ____________________________ a letter to a friend.
Exercise 4
Complete these sentences by adding a subject and a noun/ adjective and
object/place/time. If you need to, review Part G on page
Example: She is reading a book now.
1.

watching

2.

sleeping

3.

driving

4.

washing

5.

listening to

6.

dancing

____

____

25

LINC HOME STUDY

Module 1 Lesson 1

7.

playing

8.

talking

9.

eating

10.

drinking

____
____

Exercise 5
Some of the sentences below have mistakes in them. Underline these mistakes.
1. She is watching TV in the bedroom.
2. He is riding on a bicycle.
3. Mark and Paul is playing baseball now.
4. Susan is sleeping on a sofa.
5. He is writeing a letter to his mother.
6. They are cuting the grass at this moment.
7. She are smiling at me.
8. They arent eatting dinner now.
Now, correct each sentence above and rewrite each one in the space below.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
26

Casual Conversation

Exercise 6
Like Yen in the reading, go for a walk around your neighbourhood. Describe what you
see, who you speak to, what you hear, etc.
Example:

A woman is crossing the street.


A child is riding a bicycle.

Now, you write:

Exercise 7
It is Monday, 8 a.m. Tell me what is happening in your house. Use your imagination.
Example: Im watching TV.
My daughter is talking on the phone.
Write at least six sentences.

27

LINC HOME STUDY

Module 1 Lesson 1

Exercise 8
Make questions using the verb be and the present continuous tense.
Example:

(a book, now, you, read)


Are you reading a book now?

1. (drink, he, in the kitchen)


2. (to the radio, listen, they, in the bedroom)
3. (my car, in his garage, repair, a mechanic)

______________________
___________________
______________________

4. (sing, she, a song)

___________________

5. (John, paint, the living room)

___________________

6. (you, sleep)

______________________

7. (have, they, a party, now)

___________________

8. (Lili, read, her daughter, to, a story)

___________________

Exercise 9
Change these sentences into questions using the verb be and the present continuous
tense.
Example:

We are singing loudly


Are we singing loudly?

1. They are smiling at her.

______________________

2. Rafiq is riding a bus to school.

________________

3. She is vacuuming the living room.

________________

4. He is reading a magazine.

___________________

5. They are watering the flowers.

___________________

6. The dog is barking.


7. Arafa is studying English.
8. It is snowing.

28

_________________________
___________________
___________________________

Casual Conversation

Exercise 10
Some of the questions below have mistakes. Underline these mistakes.
1. Are they taking computer classes?
2. Is she jogging now?
3. Is he read a letter in the bedroom?
4. Are John playing guitar in the living room?
5. Is she taking a shower now?
6. Is they mowing the grass?
7. Is she cleaning the bathroom?
8. Are Mark and Cleo drinking beer now?
Now, correct sentences above and rewrite each one.
1. ______________________________________________________________
2. ______________________________________________________________
3. ______________________________________________________________
4. ______________________________________________________________
5. ______________________________________________________________
6. ______________________________________________________________
7. ______________________________________________________________
8. ______________________________________________________________

29

LINC HOME STUDY

Module 1 Lesson 1

Exercise 11
Complete these questions.

1.
2.

___________
___________

she

3. Are

in the kitchen?

______
_______________________

4.

?
?

__________________

5.

you

6.

listening

7. Is

now?

________?
________ ?
_____________________________ ?

8.

he

9.

they

_______________________?
________________ ?

Exercise 12
Answer these questions about you and your family.
1. Are you wearing jeans now?

_______________________

2. Is your wife / husband working now?

______________________

3. Is your radio playing a song at this moment?

_______________________

4. Are you sitting now?

________________________________

5. Are you feeling tired?

__________________________

6. Are you getting hungry?

__________________________

7. Is your wife / husband doing something in the house?


8. Is your fridge making noises at this moment?

30

___________________
_______________________

Casual Conversation

Exercise 13
Tell your learning partner that it is now Sunday, 11:30 a.m.
Ask your learning partner about things that he /she and his / her family members are
doing.
Example:

Are you walking in a park?


Is your daughter talking on the phone?

Think of at least six questions:


______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

31