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Design of Experiments

BE201Engineering Design Methods 11-April-2000

Todays Journey
Motivating question:
How do you model a physical phenomenon which is not well understood in terms of physical equations?

Obvious answer:
Design of Experiments

Helicopter Problem

Design of Experiments
Design of Experiments (DOE) defn:
A theory which indicates the minimum number of experiments necessary to develop an empirical model of a physical phenomenon and a methodology for setting up the experiments

DOE represents the adoption by scientists and engineers of experimental methods used by psychologists for years

DOE Goal
Overall goal:
To model a performance parameter (i.e., a physical phenomenon) as a function of design variables (i.e., things we can control about the design)

Our approach:
Follow the DOE methodology

DOE Methodology

Step 1: Model Variables


Goal: y = f(x1, x2, x3, ) Identify performance parameter (y) and design variables (x1, x2, x3, )
Design variables = control variables n = # of design variables

Note any noise variables (things which you can not control)

DOE Methodology

Step 2: Variable Targets & Boundaries


Specify target for performance parameter
Use QFD for this

Determine bounds on design variables


Step 6 of RE & Redesign Methodology

DOE Methodology

Step 3: Experimental Plan


Design the experiment
Specify levels of design variables
Scale DV to [-1,+1]

Calculate number of trials, N = (levels)n Decide on the number of replicates


Replicate repeat trial of an experiment

Plan how to measure DV and performance parameter

DOE Methodology

Step 3: Experimental Plan (2)


For a basic linear model
Two factorial experiments (2n) y = 0 + 1x1 + 2x2 + + nxn

Collect data to determine coefficients


Use an experimental matrix to show all permutations of DV

For example, consider a 23 experiment:


N = 23 = 8 trials

DOE Methodology

Step 3: Experimental Plan (3)


Experimental matrix for 23 factorial exp.:
Trial 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Vect. d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d8 d8 x1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 x2 -1 -1 +1 +1 -1 -1 +1 +1 x3 -1 -1 -1 -1 +1 +1 +1 +1 y1(d) y2(d)

DOE Methodology

Step 3: Experimental Plan (4)


-1 = low value of design variable +1 = high value of design variable For the matrix shown, number of replicates is 2

DOE Methodology

Step 4: Testing
Perform tests in rANdOm order Keep noise variables constant (as much as possible)

DOE Methodology

Step 5: Analysis
Determine coefficients
Regression analysis may be used (spreadsheets)

s can be defined in terms of the effect a variable xi has on the perf. parameter
Ei =
h : x i = (+ )

yh y h
N
h : x i =( )

2 responses at high responses at low = N 2

whereh = 1 N

DOE Methodology

Step 5: Analysis (2)


coefficients are then determined as:
Ei i = 2 and 0 =
h= 1

yh
N

y = 0 + 1x1 + 2x2 + 3x3


for a 23 factorial experiment

DOE Methodology

Using the Effects


Each Ei holds useful information about each DV xi
If Ei is near zero, then xi has little effect on y If Ei is large, the xi significantly affects y

A graphical representation of the response vs. each DV (called a response diagram) is helpful in showing these facts

DOE Methodology

Using the Effects (2)


From a response diagram point of view:
Plot values of y vs. xi(-) and xi(+)

Important DV

DV has no effect on perf.

DOE Methodology

Using the Effects (3)


Use a response diagram to check the validity of the linear model assumption
Spread in the data from low to high indicates linear model is weak

DOE Methodology

Replicates
Defn: Replicate is a repeat trial Use to check the significance of results
Replicates rarely produce the exact same responses

Calculate the variance for each trial:


r1 where r = # of replicates yi =
j =1

si2

y ( =

i1

yi

) + + (y
2

ir

yi

yij
r

(average response for trial i )

DOE Methodology

Replicates (2)
For all trials:
Calculate the standard deviation (exp. error) of experiment, sT
sT =
2

si2
i= 1

(average variance

If 3sT < Ei, then xi is significant (i.e., more than noise) within a 99.7% confidence level

DOE Methodology

Interactions of DV
If a pure linear model is weak (from response diagram), use an interaction model
y = 0 + 1x1 + + nxn + 12x1x2 + 13x1x3 ++ n-1,nxn-1xn

Same approach as linear model


Define new DV as x12 = x1x2 , etc. coefficients defined as ij = Eij / 2

DOE Methodology

Interactions of DV (2)
For a 23 factorial experiment, we add DV to the experimental matrix:
Trial 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 x2 -1 -1 +1 +1 -1 -1 +1 +1 x3 -1 -1 -1 -1 +1 +1 +1 +1 x12 +1 -1 -1 x13 +1 -1 +1 x23 +1 +1 x123 -1 +1

DOE Summary
DOE provides a methodical approach to developing an empirical model of a physical phenomenon A basic linear or interaction (nonlinear) model can be constructed by performing [levels]n experiments Significant DV are determined by the DOE analysis

Advanced DOE
For a DOE with more than 2 levels, the number of experiments increases exponentially Instead of completing a full factorial experiment, a fractional experiment may be performed References:
Box, G., Statistics for Experimenters, Wiley, New York, 1978. John, P., Statistical Methods in Engineering and Quality Assurance, Wiley, New York, 1990.