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NTFS replaced Microsoft's previous FAT file system, used in MS-DOS and early versions of Windows NTFS !as several improvements over FAT suc! as improved support for metadata and t!e use of advanced data structures to improve performance, relia"ility, and dis# space utili$ation plus additional e%tensions suc! as security access control lists and file system &ournalin' NTFS !as five versions(

v) *, v) ), v) + found in NT , -) and NT ., v, * found in Windows +***, v, ) found in Windows /0, Windows Server +**,, and Windows 1ista

NTFS file system

T!e Microsoft operatin' systems of t!e Windows NT set cannot "e ima'ined wit!out NTFS file system - one of most comple% and successful of e%istin' at present file systems T!e 'iven article will tell you w!at features and disadvanta'es t!is system !as, on w!at principles "ased t!e or'ani$ation of t!e information and !ow to #eep t!e system in t!e sta"le condition, w!at possi"ilities NTFS offers and !ow t!ey can "e used "y t!e common user Part 1. NTFS physical structure 2et's "e'in from t!e common facts T!e NTFS partition t!eoretically can "e almost of any si$e T!e limit certainly e%ists "ut 3 s!all not point at it as it will "e more t!an enou'! for t!e ne%t !undreds of years of computer tec!nolo'y development at any 'rowt! rates W!at a"out practice4 Almost t!e same way T!e ma%imum si$e of t!e partition NTFS at t!e moment is limited only "y t!e !ard dis#s si$es NT. pro"a"ly will !ave some pro"lems at t!e attempt of installation on t!e partition if any of its parts steps "ac# more t!an on 5 67ytes from t!e dis# p!ysical "e'innin' "ut t!is pro"lem concerns only t!e load partition T!e way of NT. * installation on t!e empty dis# is rat!er ori'inal and can lead to incorrect t!ou'!ts a"out NTFS possi"ilities 3f you point t!e installation pro'ram t!at you wis! to format dis# in NTFS, ma%imum si$e w!ic! it will offer you will "e only . 67ytes W!y it is so little if NTFS partition si$e actually is unlimited4 T!e answer is t!at installation section simply does not #now t!is file system (8 T!e installation pro'ram formats t!is dis# in usual FAT w!ic! ma%imum si$e in NT is . 67yte 9wit! usa'e of not a"solutely standard !u'e cluster :. ;7yte8 NT is installed on t!is FAT And durin' t!e first operatin' system load 9in t!e installation p!ase8 t!e fast partition conversion to NTFS is effected so t!at user notice not!in' e%cept t!e stran'e <limitin'< on t!e NTFS si$e at t!e installation time (8 Overview of the Partition Structure. As well as any ot!er system NTFS divides all useful place into clusters - data "loc#s used at a time NTFS supports almost all si$es of clusters - from -)+ "ytes up to :. ;7ytes T!e . ;7ytes cluster is considered to "e some standard NTFS doesn't !ave any anomalies of cluster structure and 3 !ave not!in' to say a"out it NTFS dis# is sym"olically divided into two parts T!e first )+= of t!e dis# are assi'ned to so-called MFT area - t!e space w!ic! MFT metafile 'rows into Any data recordin' into t!is area is impossi"le T!e MFT-area is always #ept empty not to let t!e most important service file 9MFT8 "e fra'mented at 'rowt! T!e rest 55= of t!e dis#s represent usual space for files stora'e

Dis# free space !owever includes all p!ysically free space - free pieces of MFT-area are included t!ere too T!e mec!anism of MFT-area usa'e is li#e t!is( w!en files already cannot "e recorded in usual space, MFT-area is simply reduced 9in operatin' systems current versions -twice8 clearin' t!e space for recordin' files At clearin' t!e usual area, MFT can "e e%tended a'ain T!us it is possi"le for usual files to remain in t!is area and it is normal T!e system tried to #eep it free "ut failed 2ife is 'oin' on T!e metafile MFT all t!e same can "e fra'mented t!ou'! it would "e undesira"le

MFT and its structure NTFS file system is a distin'uis!ed ac!ievement of structurin'( each system component is a file - even system information T!e most important file on NTFS is named MFT or Master File Ta"le - t!e common ta"le of files 3t is situated in MFT area and is t!e centralised directory of all remainin' dis# files and itself MFT is divided into records of t!e fi%ed si$e 9usually ) ;7ytes8, and eac! record corresponds to some file T!e first ): files are !ouse#eepin' and t!ey are inaccessi"le to t!e operatin' system T!ey are named metafiles and t!e very first metafile is MTF itself T!ese first ): elements MFT are t!e only part of t!e dis# !avin' t!e fi%ed position 3t is interestin' t!at t!e second copy of t!e first , records, for relia"ility 9t!ey are very important8 is stored e%actly in t!e middle of t!e dis# T!e remainin' MFT-file can "e stored as well as any ot!er file at any places of t!e dis# 3t is possi"le to re-esta"lis! its position wit! its own !elp usin' t!e "asis - t!e first MFT element Metafiles T!e first ): NTFS files 9metafiles8 are system files >ac! of t!em is responsi"le for some aspect of system operation T!e advanta'e of suc! modular approac! is in ama$in' fle%i"ility - for e%ample on FAT t!e p!ysical failure in t!e FAT area is fatal for all dis# operation As for NTFS it can displace and even fra'ment on t!e dis# all system areas avoidin' any dama'e of t!e surface e%cept t!e first ): MFT elements T!e metafiles are in t!e NTFS dis# root directory, t!ey start wit! a name c!aracter <?<, t!ou'! it is difficult to 'et any information a"out t!em "y standard means @uriously t!at even for t!ese files t!e Auite real si$e is reported, and it is possi"le to find out for e%ample !ow many operatin' system spends on catalo'uin' of all your dis# !avin' loo#ed at ?MFT file si$e 3n t!e followin' ta"le t!e metafiles used at t!e moment and t!eir function are indicated

?MFT ?MFTmirr ?2o'File ?1olume ?AttrDef ? ?7itmap ?7oot ?Buota ?Cpcase

3tself MFT copy of t!e first ): MFT records placed in t!e middle of t!e dis# &ournalin' support file 9see "elow8 !ouse#eepin' information - volume la"el, file system version, etc list of standard files attri"utes on t!e volume root directory volume free space "itmap "oot sector 9"oota"le partition8 file w!ere t!e users ri'!ts on dis# space usa'e are recorded 9"e'an to wor# only in NT-8 File - t!e ta"le of accordance "etween capital and small letters in files names on current volume 3t is necessary "ecause in NTFS file names are stored in Cnicode t!at ma#es :- t!ousand various c!aracters and it is not easy to searc! for t!eir lar'e and small eAuivalents

Files and streams So t!e system !as files and not!in' e%cept files W!at does t!is concept on NTFS include4

First of all t!e compulsory element is t!e record in MFT As it was said a"ove all dis# files are mentioned in MFT All information a"out a file e%cept data itself is stored in t!is place( a file name, its si$e, separate fra'ments position on t!e dis#, etc 3f one MFT record is not enou'! for information, t!en several records are used and not o"li'atory one after anot!er Optional element is file data streams T!e definition <optional< seems to "e a "it stran'e "ut nevert!eless t!ere is not!in' stran'e !ere Firstly a file may not !ave data and in t!is case dis# free space isn't used on it Secondly a file may !ave not very "i' si$e T!en a rat!er successful decision is applied( file data are stored &ust in MFT, in t!e place free from t!e master data in limits of one MFT record T!e files wit! t!e si$e of !undreds "yte usually don't !ave <p!ysical< ima'e in t!e fundamental file area All suc! file data are stored in one place - in MFT

T!ere is an interestin' case wit! file data >ac! file on NTFS !as a rat!er a"stract constitution - it !as no data, it !as streams One of t!e streams !as t!e !a"itual for us sense - file data 7ut t!e ma&ority of file attri"utes are also streamsD T!us we !ave t!at t!e "ase file nature is only t!e num"er in MFT and t!e rest is optional T!e 'iven a"straction can "e used for t!e creation of rat!er convenient t!in's - for e%ample it is possi"le to <stic#< one more stream to a file, !avin' recorded any data in it - for e%ample information a"out t!e aut!or and t!e file content as it was made in Windows +*** 9t!e most ri'!t "oo#mar# in file properties w!ic! is accessi"le from t!e e%plorer8 3t is interestin' t!at t!ese additional streams are not visi"le "y standard means( t!e o"served file si$e is only t!e si$e of t!e main stream contains t!e traditional data 3t is possi"le for e%ample to !ave a file wit! a $ero len't! and at its deletin' ) 67yte of space is freed &ust "ecause some pro'ram or tec!nolo'y !as stic#ed an additional stream 9alternative data8 of 'i'a"yte si$e on it 7ut actually at t!e moment t!e streams are practically not used, so we mi'!t not "e afraid of suc! situations t!ou'! t!ey are !ypot!etically possi"le Eust #eep in mind t!at

t!e file on NTFS is muc! deeper and more 'lo"al concept t!an it is possi"le to ima'ine &ust o"servin' t!e dis# directories Well and at last( t!e file name can consist of any c!aracters includin' t!e full set of national alp!a"ets as t!e data is represented in Cnicode - ):-"it representation w!ic! 'ives :--,- different c!aracters T!e ma%imum file name len't! is +-- c!aracters The directories T!e directory on NTFS is a specific file storin' t!e references to ot!er files and directories esta"lis!in' t!e !ierarc!ical constitution of dis# data T!e directory file is divided into "loc#s, eac! of t!em contains a file name, "ase attri"utes and reference to t!e element MFT w!ic! already 'ives t!e complete information on an element of t!e directory T!e inner structure of t!e directory is a "inary tree 3t means t!at to searc! t!e file wit! t!e 'iven name in t!e linear directory suc! for e%ample as for FAT, t!e operatin' system s!ould loo# t!rou'! all elements of t!e directory until it finds t!e necessary one T!e "inary tree allocates t!e names of files to ma#e t!e file searc! faster - wit! t!e !elp of o"tainin' "inary answers to t!e Auestions a"out t!e file position T!e "inary tree is capa"le to 'ive t!e answer to t!e Auestion in w!at 'roup t!e reAuired name is situated - a"ove or "elow t!e 'iven element We "e'in wit! suc! Auestion to t!e avera'e element, and eac! answer narrows t!e area of searc! twice T!e files are sorted accordin' to t!e alp!a"et, and t!e answer to t!e Auestion is carried out "y t!e o"vious way - matc!in' of initial letters T!e searc! area w!ic! !as "een narrowed twice starts to "e researc!ed t!e same way startin' a'ain from t!e avera'e element

3t is necessary to realise t!at to searc! one file amon' )*** files for e%ample FAT s!ould do a"out -** matc!in's 9most pro"a"ly t!e file will "e found in t!e middle of t!e searc!8 and t!e system on t!e "asis of a tree - at all a"out )* 9+F)* G )*+ Savin' of searc! time is in fact Don't t!in# t!at in traditional systems 9FAT8 everyt!in' is so uncared-for( firstly t!e maintenance of t!e "inary tree files list is rat!er comple% and secondly - even FAT in fulfilment of t!e modern system 9Windows+*** or WindowsH58 uses similar searc! optimisation T!is is &ust one more fact to "e added to your #nowled'e 3t would "e desira"le also to clear up t!e widespread mista#e 9w!ic! 3 a"solutely s!ared recently8 t!at to add a file in t!e directory as a tree is more difficult t!an in t!e linear directory T!ese operations are compara"le enou'! on time To add a file in t!e directory it is necessary at first to "e sure t!at t!e file wit! suc! name is not present yet t!ere and t!en we s!all !ave some pro"lems in t!e linear system wit! t!e searc! of a file descri"ed a"ove T!ese pro"lems compensate wit! interest t!e ease of file addition in t!e directory W!at information can "e 'ot &ust !avin' read a directory file4 T!is is w!at is 'iven "y t!e command dir To effect t!e elementary navi'atin' on t!e dis# it is not necessary to 'o in MFT for eac! file, it is only necessary to read t!e most common information a"out files from directories files T!e main dis# directory - root - differs from t!e usual directories "y not!in' e%cept t!e special reference to it from t!e metafile MFT "e'innin' Journalising NTFS is a fail-safe system w!ic! can correct itself at practically any real failure Any modern file system is "ased on suc! concept as transaction - t!e action made w!olly and correct or not made at all NTFS &ust doesn't !ave intermediate 9erratic or incorrect8 conditions t!e data variation Auantum cannot "e divided on "efore failure or after it "rin'in' "rea#ups and muddle - it is eit!er accomplis!ed or cancelled !ample 1. T!e data record on t!e dis# is "ein' carried out Suddenly it is clarified t!at it is impossi"le to record in t!e place w!ere we !ave &ust decided to record t!e ne%t c!un# of data "ecause of t!e p!ysical surface dama'e T!e NTFS "e!aviour is rat!er lo'ical in t!is case( t!e record transaction is rolled away w!olly - t!e system realises t!at t!e record is not effected T!e place is mar#ed as failure and t!e data are recorded in anot!er place and t!e new transaction starts

!ample ". T!e case is more comple% - t!e data record on t!e dis# is "ein' carried out Suddenly t!e power is turned out and t!e system re"oots On w!at p!ase !as t!e record stopped and w!ere is t!e data4 T!e transaction lo' comes to !elp T!e system !avin' realised t!e desire to write on t!e dis# !as fla''ed in t!e metafile ?2o'File t!is condition At re"oot t!is file is studied to find out t!e uncompleted transactions w!ic! were interrupted "y t!e cras! and w!ic! result is unpredicta"le All t!ese transactions are cancelled( t!e place w!ere t!e record was carried out is mar#ed a'ain as free, MFT inde%es and elements are resulted in t!e condition t!ey were "efore failure, and t!e system remains sta"le in w!ole And w!at a"out t!e situation if t!e error !as ta#en place at record in t!e &ournal4 3t is not terri"le( t!e transaction eit!er !as not started 9t!ere is only an attempt to record t!e intention to ma#e it8 or was already completed - t!at is t!ere is an attempt to record t!at t!e transaction is already fulfilled 3n t!e last case at t!e followin' load t!e system itself will Auite clear up t!at actually everyt!in' is recorded correctly and will not pay any attention to t!e <unfinis!ed< transaction And nevert!eless remem"er t!at &ournalisin' is not t!e a"solute panacea "ut only a mean to reduce t!e num"er of errors and system failures An ordinary NTFS user will !ardly ever note t!e error of t!e system or will !ave to launc! c!#ds# >%perience s!ows t!at NTFS is restored in t!e completely correct condition even at failures in t!e moments very muc! loaded "y dis# activity Iou can even defra'ment t!e dis# and in t!e pea# of t!is process pus! reset - t!e pro"a"ility of data losses even in t!is case will "e very low 3t is important to realise !owever t!at t!e system of NTFS restoration 'uarantees t!e correctness of t!e w!ole file system only, not your data 3f you effected dis# writin' and !ave 'ot a cras! - often t!e correct data cannot "e restored T!e miracles do not !appen #ompression Files on t!e NTFS volume !ave one rat!er useful attri"ute - <compressed< NTFS !as "uilt - in support of dis# compression >arlier Stac#er or Dou"leSpace was used for t!is purpose Any file or directory in t!e individual order can "e stored on t!e dis# in t!e compressed form and t!is process is completely clear for applications T!e file compression !as very muc! !i'! speed and only one lar'e ne'ative property !u'e virtual fra'mentation of compressed files w!ic! !owever does not "ot!er any"ody T!e compression is carried out "y "loc#s of ): clusters and uses so-called < virtual clusters < T!is decision is e%tremely fle%i"le and permit to ac!ieve interestin' effects - for e%ample a !alf of file can "e compressed and a !alf is not 3t is ac!ieved "ecause t!e information stora'e a"out compression rate of t!e defined fra'ments is very similar to usual file fra'mentation( for e%ample t!e typical record of p!ysical layout for real, not compressed file( T!e file clusters from ) to .,-rd are stored in t!e dis# clusters from .**-t! T!e file clusters from .. to -+-nd are stored in t!e dis# clusters from 5-,*-t! 0!ysical layout of a typical compressed file( T!e file clusters from ) to H-t! are stored in t!e dis# clusters from .**-t! T!e file clusters from )* to ): are not stored anyw!ere T!e file clusters from )J to )5 are stored in t!e dis# clusters from .*H-t! T!e file clusters from )H to ,:-t! are not stored anyw!ere

3t is visi"le t!at t!e compressed file !as <virtual< clusters w!ic! don't !ave t!e real information As soon as t!e system sees suc! virtual clusters, it realises at once t!at t!e data of t!e previous "loc# multiple to): s!ould "e decompressed and t!e data &ust will fill in virtual clusters and t!is is all al'orit!m Security NTFS contains a lot of means for differentiation of t!e o"&ects ri'!tsK it is supposed to "e t!e most perfect file system from all nowadays e%istin' 3n t!eory it is undou"tedly so, "ut in current implementations unfortunately t!e ri'!ts system is far enou'! from t!e ideal and is a !ard "ut not always lo'ical set of t!e c!aracteristics T!e ri'!ts assi'ned to any o"&ect and unam"i'uously "y t!e system itself T!e lar'e variations and additions of t!e ri'!ts were carried out already several times and at t!e creation of Windows +*** t!ey came to t!e rational enou'! set NTFS file system ri'!ts are close connected wit! t!e system itself, and t!at means t!ey are not o"li'atory to "e #ept "y anot!er system if it is 'iven p!ysical access to t!e dis# For preventin' p!ysical access in Windows+*** 9NT-8 t!e standard possi"ility was ta#en 9a"out t!is see "elow8 T!e ri'!ts system in its current condition is rat!er comple% and 3 dou"t t!at 3 can tell somet!in' interestin' and useful to t!e

readers 3f you are interested in t!is topic, you can find a lot of "oo#s on t!e NT networ# arc!itecture w!ere it is descri"ed more t!an in detail T!e description of file system constitution can "e completed, it is necessary to descri"e only some &ust practical or ori'inal t!in's $ard %in&s T!is t!in' is in NTFS for a rat!er lon' time "ut it was used very seldom - and nevert!eless( Lard 2in# is w!en t!e same file !as two names 9some directory entries are pointin' to t!e same MFT record8 2et us admit t!at t!e same file !as t!e names ) t%t and + t%t( if a user deletes file ), file + will remain 3f !e deletes file +, file ) will remain T!at means "ot! names are completely eAual from t!e moment of creation A file is p!ysically deleted only w!en its last name is deleted Sym'olic %in&s (NT)* T!ere is muc! more practical possi"ility permittin' to ma#e t!e virtual directories, very muc! as virtual dis#s - "y t!e command su"st in DOS T!e applications are wide enou'!( first it is t!e simplification of t!e directories system 3f you do not li#e t!e directory Documents and settin'sMAdministratorMDocuments, you can lin# it in t!e root directory and t!e system will 'o on communicatin' wit! t!e directory "y t!e former way "ut you - wit! muc! s!orter name completely eAuivalent to it For creation of suc! lin#s it is possi"le to use t!e pro'ram &unction 9&unction $ip 9)- ;7ytes8, ,: ;7ytes8 w!ic! was written "y t!e #nown tec!nician Mar# Nussinovic! 9!ttp(OOwww sysinternals comO8 T!e pro'ram wor#s only in NT- 9Windows +***8 as well as possi"ility itself AttentionD 0lease #eep in mind t!at t!ese sym"olic lin#s can "e deleted correctly "y rm command 7e very carefully - deletin' t!e lin# wit! e%plorer or any ot!er file mana'er w!ic! do not #now suc! concepts as sym"olic lin#in' will delete t!e information t!e lin# is pointin' toD ncryption (NT)* T!ere is a useful possi"ility for people w!o are trou"led a"out t!eir secrets - eac! file or directory can also "e encrypted and t!us cannot "e read "y anot!er NT installation 3n com"ination wit! standard and very muc! safe password on t!e system itself t!is possi"ility provides t!e safety of selected "y you important data for t!e ma&ority of applications Part ". Features of NTFS defragmentatoin 2et's return to one interestin' enou'! and important moment - NTFS fra'mentation and defra'mentation T!e situation wit! t!ese two concepts at t!e moment can not "e called satisfactory in any way At t!e very "e'innin' it was said t!at NTFS is not su"&ect to file fra'mentation 3t is not e%actly so and t!e statement was c!an'ed - NTFS prevents fra'mentation 3t is not e%actly so eit!er T!at is it certainly prevents "ut 3t is already clear t!at NTFS is a system w!ic! is predisposed to fra'mentation inspite of official statements 7ut it doesn't suffer from it All internal structures are constructed in suc! way t!at fra'mentation does not !inder to find data fra'ments fast 7ut it doesn't save from t!e p!ysical effect of fra'mentation - waste dis# !eads motions To the source of the problem... As it is #nown t!e system fra'ments files t!e "est way w!en t!e free space is "ein' ended, w!en it is necessary to use small-si$ed unused space remained from ot!er files T!e first NTFS property w!ic! directly promotes serious fra'mentation appears !ere NTFS dis# is divided into two areas 3n "e'innin' of t!e dis# t!ere is MFT area - t!e area w!ere MFT 'rows 9Master File Ta"le8 T!e area occupies minimum )+= of t!e dis#, and t!e data record in t!is area is impossi"le 3t is made not to let MFT "e fra'mented 7ut w!en all remainin' dis# is "ein' filled in - t!e area is reduced twice(8 And so on T!us we !ave not sin'le pass of t!e dis# endin', "ut several 3n result if NTFS wor#s at t!e dis# filled on a"out H*= - fra'mentation 'rows 'reatly T!e incidental result - t!e dis# filled more t!an on 55= is almost impossi"le to "e defra'mented - even defra'mentation A03 cannot transfer t!e data in MFT area 3t is possi"le t!at we will not !ave free space for a manoeuvre NTFS wor#s and wor#s and is fra'mented - even in t!e case of free space is far from e%!austin' T!is is promoted "y t!e stran'e al'orit!m of findin' free space for file stora'e - second serious omission T!e action al'orit!m at any record is li#e t!is( some definite dis# ran'e is ta#en and filled in wit! a file 3t is done "y t!e very interestin' al'orit!m( at first lar'e unused space is filled in and t!en small one 3 e t!e typical allocation of file fra'ments accordin' to t!e si$e on fra'mented NTFS loo#s so 9si$es of fra'ments8( ): - ): - ): - ): - ): - P"ac#Q - )- - )- - )- - P"ac#Q - ). - ). - ). ) - ) - ) -) - )

So t!e process 'oes up to most small-si$ed unused space in ) cluster, in spite of t!e fact t!at on t!e dis# t!ere are also muc! lar'er pieces of free space

Necall compressed files - at active overwritin' of t!e lar'e volumes compressed information on NTFS t!e !u'e Auantity of <!oles< are "ecause of reallocation Rompressed cluster 'roups on t!e dis# 3f any file area "e'an to "e compressed "etter or worse, it is necessary eit!er to ta#e it from a continuous c!ain and to place in anot!er place or to strap in si$e reservin' unused space 3t is impossi"le to say t!at NTFS prevents file fra'mentation On t!e contrary it fra'ments t!em wit! pleasure NTFS fra'mentation can surprise any person familiar wit! file system operation in !alf a year of wor# T!erefore it is necessary to launc! defra'mentation 7ut !ere all our pro"lems are not ended, t!ey only start Means of the decision+ 3n NT t!ere is standard A03 defra'mentation 3t !as t!e interestin' limit for files "loc# relocatin'( it is possi"le to transfer not less t!an ): clusters 9D8 at once, and t!ese clusters s!ould start from t!e position): clusters ali'ned in a file 3n common, t!e operation is carried out e%tremely for ): clusters T!e results( ) + , 3t is impossi"le to transfer anyt!in' in t!e unused space less t!an ): clusters 9e%cept compressed files "ut it is not interestin' at t!e moment8 A file "ein' transferred in anot!er place leaves 9in t!e new place8 <t!e temporarily occupied space< addin' it on t!e si$e up to multiplicity to ): clusters At attempt to transfer a file t!e wron' way 9<not multiply to ): <8 t!e result is often unpredicta"le Somet!in' is &ust not transferred, "ut t!e w!ole arena is 'racefully littered wit <t!e temporary occupied space< T!ese <t!e temporarily occupied space< serves for simplification of system restoration in t!e case of a mac!ine failure and is usually freed !alf a minute later

Nevert!eless it would "e lo'ical to use t!is A03 if it is in stoc# And it is used T!erefore t!e standard defra'mentation process wit! t!e corrections on limitation A03 consists of t!e followin' p!ases 9not necessarily in t!is order8(

Files e%traction from MFT area Not specially - &ust "ecause it is impossi"le to put t!em "ac# T!is p!ase is !armless and even some!ow useful Files defra'mentation Cnconditionally it is a useful process "ut a "it complicated "y limitin's of relocatin's multiplicity - we !ave to move files more t!at it would "e ot!erwise necessary MFT, pa'efile sys and directories defra'mentation 3t is possi"le t!rou'! A03 only in Windows+***, in t!e opposite case - at re"oot, as a separate process li#e in old Dis#eeper T!e addition of files is closer to t!e "e'innin' - so-called free space defra'mentation 3t is a terri"le process

3f we want to put files on end in t!e "e'innin' of t!e dis#, we s!all put one file 3t leaves unused space from its end up to t!e "loc# 9): clusters8 "oundary for ali'nment T!en we put t!e followin', and after t!at we !ave t!e unused space of si$e less t!an ): clusters T!en it is impossi"le to fill in it t!rou'! A03 defra'mentationD 3n result "efore optimisation t!e overview of free space loo#ed li#e t!is( t!ere were a lot of unused space of t!e same si$e After optimisation - one <!ole< at t!e end of t!e dis#, and a lot of small S ): clusters ones in t!e section filled "y files W!at places are first to "e filled in4 mall-si$ed <!oles< S ): clusters ta#in' place closer to t!e "e'innin' of t!e dis# Any file slowly "uilt on optimised dis# will consist of 'reat num"er of fra'ments T!en t!e dis# can "e optimised a'ain And t!en once a'ain T!us t!ere are two a"out eAuivalent options T!e first one is to optimise t!e dis# often "y suc! defra'mentator payin' no attention to suc! 'reat fra'mentation of t!e newly created files T!e second variant is not to c!an'e anyt!in' and put up wit! re'ular "ut muc! wea#er fra'mentation of all dis# files W!ile t!ere is only one defra'mentator w!ic! i'nores A03 defra'mentation and wor#s more directly - Norton Speeddis# - * for NT W!en it is compared to all remainin' - Dis#eeper, OTO defra', etc - t!e main difference is not mentioned 3t is &ust "ecause t!is pro"lem is carefully !idden Speeddis# is t!e uniAue for today pro'ram w!ic! can optimise t!e dis# completely not esta"lis!in' small fra'ments of free space Cnfortunately t!e defra'mentator wor#in' t!rou'! A03 w!ic! ma#es unused space S): clusters was placed in Windows +*** All remainin' defra'mentators are &ust !armful at one-time application 3f you launc!ed it even one time, you would need to launc! it t!en at least once a mont! to "e saved from new files fra'mentation T!is is t!e pro"lem of NTFS defra'mentation "y old means Part ,. -hat to select+ Any of t!e represented nowadays file systems is rat!er old and NTFS is a very old systemD 0@ for a lon' time used only operatin' system DOS and FAT is owed it "y its appearance 7ut some systems aimed to t!e future were developed and e%isted t!en Two suc! systems o"tained t!e wide reco'nition - NTFS created for t!e operatin' system Windows NT , ) and L0FS - a true friend of OSO+

T!e implantation of new systems was difficult 3n )HH- at appearance WindowsH- no"ody t!ou'!t t!at somet!in' needed to "e c!an'ed FAT,+ appeared in Windows H- OSN+ didn't c!an'e t!e essence of t!e system w!ic! &ust does not 'ive t!e possi"ility to or'anise effective operation wit! a plenty of data "ut widen t!e "oarders L0FS 9Li'! 0erformance File System8 actively used till nowadays "y OSO+ users !as s!own itself as enou'! successful system, "ut also it !ad essential disadvanta'es - complete a"sence of automatic restora"ility means, e%cessive comple%ity of data structure and t!e low-level of fle%i"ility NTFS could not win personal computers for a lon' time "ecause of t!e fact t!at for or'anisation of effective operation wit! t!e data structures it demanded si'nificant memory si$es T!e systems wit! . or 5 M7yte 9standard of )HH--)HH:8 were &ust una"le to 'et t!ou'! any plus from NTFS T!erefore it !ad incorrect reputation of a slow and "ul#y system Actually it does not fit t!e reality - modern computer systems wit! memory more t!an :. M"ytes 'et &ust !u'e increase of productivity from NTFS usa'e 3n t!e 'iven ta"le all essential pluses and minuses of t!e widespread presently systems suc! as FAT,+, FAT and NTFS are s!own to'et!er 3t is !ardly reasona"le to discuss ot!er systems, as now HJ= of t!e users ma#e c!oice "etween WindowsH5, Windows NT. * and Windows +*** 9NT- *8, and ot!er variants are &ust not present FAT Systems Ma%imal volume si$e Ma%imal files count File name File attri"utes Security @ompression Fault tolerance >conomy 0erformance DOS, WindowsH%, all NTs + 67ytes around :-*** FAT,+ 9vFAT8 WindowsH5, NTnear "y unlimited near "y unlimited NTFS NT., NTnear "y unlimited near "y unlimited

2on' names 9up to +-- c!ars8, 2on' names 9up to +-- 2on' names 9up to +-- c!ars8, unicode system c!aracter set c!ars8, system c!aracter set c!aracter set 7asic set no no middle minimal !i'! for small files count 7asic set no no low improved 9small clusters8 All t!at pro'rammers want yes 9capa"ility of p!ysical encryption, startin' from NT- *8 yes fully 9automatic8 ma%imal

as for FAT, "ut also additional penalty for "i' very effective for all volumes volumes

3t would "e desira"le to tell t!at if your operatin' system is NT 9Windows +***8, t!en to use any file system w!ic! differs from NTFS means to limit t!e convenience and fle%i"ility of operatin' system operation NT and especially Windows +*** wit! NTFS are two parts of a unit A lot of useful NT possi"ilities are directly connected wit! p!ysical and lo'ical structure of t!e file system, and you s!ould use FAT or FAT,+ t!ere only for compati"ility - if you !ave t!e tas# to read t!ese dis#s from any ot!er systems