1

2

3

4

‫‪ (III‬ا  ا   و ا  
 وي‬
‫‪ (1.3‬ا! ر وا ج ا و‬
‫‪ (1.13‬ا! ر ا وي‪:‬‬
‫ه ‪ 
$‬وي ‪ & '( )*+$‬اة‬
‫‪, +‬رة‪ ./ ،‬ا ‪4$ 21 +‬ون‬‫‪45‬اري إ ‪ 6‬ا‪. 

( $‬‬

‫‪ 9‬ل‪:‬‬
‫‪94‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪U + 01n→ 38‬‬
‫‪Sr 139‬‬
‫‪54 Xe +3 1 n + γ‬‬

‫‪235‬‬
‫‪92‬‬

‫‪4$ :‬و ت ا  ‪  ;$‬ا! ر أن ‪**  
$ >?*$‬‬
‫  ) ‪ ، 4;
$  
/‬إذا آ ن @‪ ) &1 )  4‬ا ‪ ?+‬ا و ‪( A‬‬
‫‪ (2.13‬ا ج ا وي ‪:‬‬
‫ه ‪ & '( )  
$‬ا‪ :F‬م ا‪  

( $‬ن اة‬
‫أآ‪'+- 49‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ل ‪:‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1 H + 1 H → 2 He→ 2 He + 0 n‬‬

‫‪(2.3‬ا  ا   و ا  
 وي‬
‫‪(1.23‬ا  ا ‪:  .‬‬
‫‪ :‬أن ‪ GH‬ا ! ‪ I‬ت ا‪  .,K‬وا
'ت ا و ‪ .: /‬د ا  ‬

‫‪X 1 + ZA22 X 2 → ZA33 X 3 + ZA44 X 4‬‬

‫‪A1‬‬
‫‪z1‬‬

‫ > ا  ا   ا ‪4+:‬و ‪M2/‬ا ا
 آ ‪: L‬‬

‫‪∆E = [( El ( X 4 ) + El ( X 3 )) − ( E l ( X 2 ) + El ( X 1 )].‬‬
‫أي ‪:‬‬

‫]‬

‫[‬

‫‪∆E = ∆m.C 2 = m( produits ) − m( réactifs ) .C 2‬‬
‫‪5‬‬

‫‪ +?$ (2.23‬ت‬
‫‪1 4:$‬‬
‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻳﺪﺓ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻨﻮﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ‪.‬ﻧﻌﻄﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪, mn = 1,00866 u , mp = 1,00728 u , 1 u = 1,66054 × 10 – 27 g‬‬

‫‪) = 234,99332 u‬‬
‫)‬

‫(‪m‬‬

‫( ‪∆ m = ( 92 mp + 143 mn ) – m‬‬

‫‪∆ m = ( 92 × 1,00728 + 143 × 1,00866) − 234,99332‬‬
‫‪∆ m = 236,90814 – 234,99332 = 1,91148 u‬‬
‫‪L’énoncé donne 1 u = 1,66054 × 10 – 27 kg‬‬
‫‪∆m = 1,911482 .( 1,66054 × 10 – 27) = 3,17964 × 10 – 27 kg‬‬

‫ﺝ‪ -‬ﺍﺣﺴﺐ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﻟﻠﻨﻮﺍﺓ‬
‫‪EL = ∆m × c2‬‬
‫‪EL = 3,17964 × 10 - 27 × ( 2,9979 × 10 8)2‬‬
‫‪EL = 2,85767 × 10 - 10 J‬‬
‫‪1 eV = 1,6022 × 10 - 27 J, ⇔ 1 J = 6,2414 × 10 26 eV‬‬
‫‪EL = 2,85767 × 10 - 10 × 6,2414 × 10 26‬‬
‫‪EL = 1,7836 × 10 9 eV‬‬
‫‪EL = 1783,6 MeV‬‬
‫ﺩ – ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﺛﻢ ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ )‪ U(235‬ﻣﻊ )‪ Ra (226‬ﺫﻭ ‪El =7,66 MeV par nucléon‬‬
‫‪ EL / A = 1783,6 / 235 = 7,5897 MeV par nucléon‬و
ا ورام ‪ 235‬أ اارا  اادم )‪(226‬‬

‫‪6‬‬

‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ‪2‬‬
‫ ت‬

‫آ ا 
ى ب ‪u :‬‬

‫‪1 u = 1,6606 × 10 - 27‬‬
‫‪uranium 235 : 234,9935‬‬
‫‪kg‬‬
‫‪u‬‬
‫‪c = 2,9979 × 10 8 m / s‬‬

‫‪cérium 146 : 145,8782 u‬‬

‫‪23‬‬
‫‪mol‬‬
‫‪A = 6,022 × 10‬‬
‫‪sélénium 85 : 84,9033 u N‬‬
‫‪-1‬‬

‫‪e = 1,602 × 10 - 19 C‬‬

‫آ  ا
‬
‫‪proton : mp = 1,6726 × 10 - 27‬‬
‫‪kg‬‬
‫‪- 27‬‬

‫‪neutron : mn = 1,6749 × 10‬‬
‫‪kg‬‬

‫‪électron : me = 9,1094 × 10 - 31‬‬
‫‪kg‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻋﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻳﺔ ‪ :‬ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻧﺸﻄﺎﺭ‬

‫ﻭ‬

‫ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻳﺪﺗﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺘﻴﻦ‬

‫ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ‪ a‬ﻧﻮﺗﺮﻭﻥ‬

‫‪ (1‬ﺍﻛﺘﺐ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺍ ‪ X‬ﻭ ‪. a‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺳﻮﺩﻱ ‪ 92 + 0 = 58 + X + a × 0 :‬أي ‪X = 34‬‬
‫‪235 + 1 = 146 + 85 + a‬‬
‫‪ a = 5‬و ‪X = 34‬‬
‫‪+5‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪ (2‬ﺍﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻠﻲ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﻮﻝ ﻭﺏ ‪MeV‬‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻠﺔ‬

‫ﻛﺘﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼﺕ ‪ -‬ﻛﺘﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺗﺞ = ‪∆ m‬‬
‫)‪∆ m = (145,8782 + 84,9033 + 5 × 1,0086) - (234,9935 + 1,0086‬‬
‫‪∆ m = 235,8195 - 236,0021 = - 0,1826 u‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ‪E = ∆m × c :‬‬
‫ 
ل ‪:‬‬
‫‪∆ m =- 0,1826 u = 0,1826 × 1,6606 × 10 - 27 = -3,032 × 10 - 28 kg‬‬
‫×‪∆E = ∆ m × c² =- 3,032‬‬
‫‪× 10 - 28 × (2,9979 × 10 8 ) 2‬‬
‫‪∆E = - 2,724981 × 10 - 11 J‬‬
‫‪7‬‬

MeV: ‫ب‬ 

1 MeV = 1 × 10 6 × (1,602 × 10 - 19 C)V = 1,602 × 10 - 13 CV = 1,602 × 10 - 13 J
1 J = 6,24219 × 10 12 MeV
∆E = - 2,724981 × 10 - 11 J = 2,724981 × 10 - 11 × 6,24219 × 10 12 = -170,09849 MeV

8

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