Sartre and the Collective Neurosis of Our Time Author(s): Douglas Kirsner Source: Yale French Studies, No.

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DOUGLAS KIRSNER

Sartre and theCollective Neurosisof Our Time
FRANZ:

I am thecentury, "I am every manandall mankind. like anyone. -Les S6questr6s d'Altona

Sartre was alwaysinterested in therelation between an individual and hisorhertime.The early Sartre seemedtofocus on themanner inwhich we denythefreedom whichconstitutes us, while thelaterSartre emphasisesthelimitsto thisfreedom, whichresult from ourfamilial and social contexts. In fact, Sartre devoted morepagesto understanding the individual in context thantoanyother matter. How muchcanwe know about a personwho is freeand yet situated?Sartre's studyof Genet showswhatGenetmadeofwhatwas madeofhim.His study ofFlaubert asksbothwhatFlaubert can tellus abouthistimeandwhatthetimecan tellus aboutFlaubert: tocallhima For a manis never anindividual; itwould bemore fitting this reason universal Summed universalized singular. upandfor byhis he in turn it byreproducing in it as a sinresumes himself epoch, ofhuman Universal singularity. bythesingular universality history, in hisprojects, sihe requires gular bytheuniversalizing singularity from ends.' multaneous examination both In thisarticleI want to look at Sartre in the same way in which tobe "as transSartre Sartre himself wanted treated GenetandFlaubert. . .. as Flaubert is to [him]."'2 I want to investigate to posterity parent as the way his culture lived Sartre's"lived experience," empathically himas well as thewayhe livedhis culture, in order to achievethesame endas Sartre How didSartre liveourcontempoachieved withFlaubert. and expresscentralproblems of our rary culture? How did he reflect timeas a "universal Sartre's ownview ofourage is depicted singular"? in The CritiqueofDialectical Reason. It is a pessimistic workwhich ourselvesand our world.The focusseson our radicalalienationfrom us and dominate groups intowhichwe arebornterrorize thevery cateH. E. Barnes 1. Jean-Paul Sartre, TheFamily Idiot,vol. 1,trans. (Chicago: University ofChicagoPress,1981),ix. 2. Sartre, LifeSituations, 123.

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101 on Sat. as though psychoanalytic categories were finalexplanations. tionsbetweenthings. self. insofar as it is reductionist.Our Western ruledbya counterfinality in whichloserwins. althoughit is neitherstereotyped nor reductionist.Advanced technological ofthefetishism of rationality maybe seentoenshrine thefinal outcome as objectsofadministracommodities-human beingsare constituted tion. theposition ofart for art's sake3 The "objectiveneurosis"ofFlaubert's timethenprovided the setting and the impetus for Flaubert'ssubjectively conditionedcreativity. How arewe to define the "objective ofouragein an effort to spirit" understand Sartre in his timeandours? I will attempt to cross-reference Sartre's own statements and writings witha view ofourtimein which thepsychological is firmly rootedin the sociological.Sartre in developing a wayofcharacgoes further terizing Flaubert's neurosisas ourtime. Sartre's Flaubert documents workis specific-he understands through andtexts his owntime..He understands a neurosis required by whatI call the objective spirit.Sartre andalso as reflecting andexpressing uses themethod ofempathy.DOUGLAS KIRSNER 207 worldoflate capitalismis gorieswithwhichwe think.153. This content downloaded from 5.Sartre has often criticized psychoanalysis for its stereotyped use ofcategories as labels. Yet Sartre himself uses psychological catein a nonreductionist on GenetandFlaubert: itis gories wayinhisworks difficult to discussthesingularity ofan individual whichincludesexperienceof childhoodwithoutit.In Searchfora methodSartre of showshow we can use a method to society cross-reference to explaintherelation oftheindividual and. I will approach Sartre himself as a universal singular ofour timein terms oftherela3. that is tosay.118-19. illusions Freedom and choicearefundamentally and choice can becomerealforthere on whichfreedom is no ground ized.13. in The FamilyIdiot. Where has Weblindly produce a world thatcontrols technology become the prevailing human relationsoftenbecome relaideology. whichhe couldnotuse in writing abouthimin understanding thewriter's livedexperience. art for art's sakebecause of hispersonal conflicts heinvented itbecause the of who wanted history the to objective spirit ledsomeone write intheperiod theneurotic ofpostposition 1835to 1840totake romanticism. Ibid. Sartre'sambivalenceabout psychoanalysis doesnotprevent hisusinga similar approach inhislater works. . us. In the Flaubert asinventing the ideaof first two volumes I seem tobeshowing inreality.e. 28 Dec 2013 09:48:47 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .i. Sartre's workis antipsychological insofar as psychology is seen as stripping responsibility from us and placingit somewhere else in the past.

whichobliterated He alwaysrejected and detested could consider surrender. 28 Dec 2013 09:48:47 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .theinterviews following de Beauvoir'sLa Ceermoniedes adieux). myinterest is notin his biography of his world. He perceived his Sartre saw his bodyas "an action essentially.SinceSartre's and Sartre personality all his work.his body.theyprovidemuch iloutlookso permeateand suffuse ofhis world.The Words. money. while The Words revealsmuch ofhis past and innerworld. philosophy. J. polSartre is a Sartrean dream! itics.153.and fantasies.reactions.nature.13. women. biographer's butin understanding the However. 1983)." In factthere is an enormous variety of material whichspans therangeofhis ideas. Simonede Beauvoir." as outsidehis consciousness and disliked it bodily feeling (cenesthesia) to his body.food. (Paris:Gallimard.He always he couldnotlie on thesandorreadin an armchair 1981).Thereare manyinterviews whichincludematerial ofgreat frankness (e. and his past. childhood. after his deathin La Cer6monie In theseinterviews Sartre speaks ofmanyaspectsofhis personal his attitude towards surrender his lifeincluding (l'abandon).Les Sequestres d'Altona)often dealwithissues of relationships "in situation"as well as with action and its consequences.Sartre wrote muchaboutwriting itself andnever separated the writer from his work.a task which requiresa particular kind of mainsprings ofSartre. des adieux (Paris:Gallimard. His literary criticism and biographies such as Saint Genet tellus as muchaboutSartre as abouttheir subjects. is even divided into "Reading"and "Writing. his lumination aboutthefoundations Theywell illustrate need to be in consciouscontrol ofanysituation. literature.These interviews about theperson andhis approach to life.101 on Sat. Les Carnets de la dr6lede guerre Sartre.208 Yale French Studies tionship between theobjective orcollective neurosis andthesubjective neurosis thatSartre discussesin Flaubert. his autobiography. Sartre has provided documentation in abundanceto allow us to knowhimandhisworld.he refused to surrender very Illnesswas theonlytimeSartre tamines cenesthesia. sexual relations.He often tookamphemuch.g. La C&r6monie 4. Novels suchas Nausea andTheAgeofReason giveus a picture ofsome ofSartre's central fantasies.4His Carnetsde la drolede guerre5 provide insight intohiswishesfor andfantasies greatness about thefuture. reading Letme beginthisinvestigation intoSartre's world at the bylooking conducted interviews withSartre extraordinary bySimonede Beauvoir andpublished des adieux. passivityorin bed. This content downloaded from 5.g. His politicaltracts anddramatic pieces(e. areilluminating his own writing. 5.love life.-P.

"9 Sartre to contingency. La C&r6monie des adieux. 10.constructed. "thewaytheylook."ForSartre"the essentialand affective relation impliedthatI embrace.butnotgo as faras thesexualact. AndI didit.13."'. "the boat was hard.385.to embrace her..402.397. thatI explore withmylips. de Beauvoir. This is linkedwith Sartre'saversionto natureand to fecundity whichmanifests itselfbest in his attitudetowardfood.. 28 Dec 2013 09:48:47 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . It's necessaryforfoodto be givenbywork This content downloaded from 5. in contrast .423.. to the past. it is on theground in thegrass."7 He did not like sexual intercourse itself-"just a little pleasure in the end."8 He was notinterested in sex except for his caressing a woman.A cake.He preferred cookedto naturalfoodbecause it was createdby a humanbeing. Ibid. Ibid.DOUGLAS KIRSNER 209 madebymen. Thatis notfor me." his bodyand identified maintained an aggressive attitude towards with thefantasy ofPardillon.Whereas fruit has a tastebychance.Butthesexualact-it existsalso.401.the future.153. Ibid. whichis to say.it is madebybakers.2 Sartre had a strong aversion to shellfish. a heroofcape andsword.. to the solid. itdoesnotcomefrom me.Andconsequently thepull is alwaystowards thefuture. 9."'0 Sartre recalledthata psychologist had hima picture showed ofa boatwhichwas traveling in thewater. water. 12.eventhetastehas beenwilledandrethought byman.like a chocolateor coffee eclair for example.often even-but witha certain indifference.nudewitha nude woman. Withcakes.. oysters 6. 11. Ibid. . but mediocre enough.itis on a tree.It is thusa . whereassurrender is in thepresent orpulls toward thepast. indicated. 7."He made love because it appeasedobligations-notbecause he wantedto do so.to caress. S.101 on Sat.This contradiction mademeprefer activity.Breadis like that. quickly Sartreassociatedthis boat's tearing away fromthe waterwith contingency. Ibid. whowouldconstantly destroy columnsofenemies.He preferred to eat a tart or cake to fruit. thatI caress.etc.on thecontrary.. has a regular shape. completelyhuman object.Itis I whodecided tomake it food. For had alwayshatedtheidea ofsuccumbing Sartre "man orwomanis an activebeing. Ibid.I have alwaysthought thatbread had a relation withmen. nor in any love act. in ovens.6 In sexual activitiesSartre would neversuccumbto "losing consciousnessin orgasm. 8."In other wordsI was rather a masturbator ofwomenthanone who had intercourse.400. "I wouldrather have beenin bed. aremade.402. Unlessotherwise all thetranslations aremine.

His interest in the "for-itself. Our worldtodayhas been described Freud's "narcissistic. or schizoid hysterical patientsseem to have givenway to narcissistic remoteness from the senseoffutility.representing an engulfing mother. notonlyrelated to thebigissues ofourtimebut. Sartre is always concerned withsuch issues as identity. theengulfing pulsive.153. but insteadrelateeverything back to themselves as others. Christopher 14. senseofindifference aboutthemselves careand love ofothers as evena possibility.basicallyfeeling themselves.. loss of self.Loveand Will(London: Lasch. This content downloaded from 5.a fearofinvolvement a lack oftrust in the and others.422.Sartre probably projected on to thewomanhe desired to caressandat thesame aspectsofhimself timedeniedthathe had anypassivelongings himself.101 on Sat.futility. See RolloMay. trust.intrusiveness. a world(life passes themby). if Sartre let himself go sexually. 1978). dependenceand it is possibletobe a selfat all andrelateto other envy-whether people. to give or receive.The actualcoitusis most threat threatening because ofthegreater ofloss ofself.as we have seen. his sexualfantasies areoften infantile thepassive akintothoseofa mother andchild. in theseinterviews can be seen to suffuse his life Sartre's attitudes and workas a whole. 13. The Culture ofNarcissism (New York:Norton. He saw themas emanating froma totallydifferent 13 universe. to receive. Similarly. They findit difficult Lifeis often seen as a gameand a tragic thattheyhave been betrayed.he couldbe swamped andfused withthewoman. is whatwe have created ourselves. to enjoyanyin nature. Yet despiteSartre's hatred ofpasthing thatis simplythere andrefer toactivities more sivity. These are onlya fewselectionsfrom theseinterviews. The viscous or is attractive as well as reslimy.was exemplified in his sexualpreferences andin thefoodhe ate. Souvenir Press."'14 Pre-Oedipalissues receivemuch attention. Theyarenotable to invest in others. 28 Dec 2013 09:48:47 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in whichtheonlything Sartre's is a narcissistic world we can trust It is notsafeto relax. The boat in Sartre's fantasy fights merging with the sea. 1970). theseconcerns involvethe "schizFroma psychoanalytic perspective as "schizoid" and oid" problem.What is clear above all is the refusalof surrender and the absoluteemphasison activity thatSartre appliedin all areas. a greyish oneswhofeelan abiding withanyoneat all." in freedom.The solidboat thattriesto tearitself awayfrom sea is at the same timea partofit. whichare repletewith such musings. to succumb.13. Ibid. The emphasis on freedom and activity andtherefusal ofpassivity bespeaks a deepdread ofdependency andrelationship.to lose oneself foreven a moment.210 Yale French Studies and crustaceans.

13. The most problematic important issues in Sartre's lifeand workexpressand reflect theseissuesandtellus muchaboutSartre andourage. of arecalling us toface anddealwith these realproblems positivists.101 on Sat. Literature of the Graveyard (New York: International Publishers. 17.These people "feel cut off. This is notto saythatSartre's views are to be dismissedas "metaphysical pathology" (as Garaudy once called Beingand Nothingness. Schizoid Phenomena. This content downloaded from 5.'who are ultimately and validity found ofdepersonalisation.153. 481. Thesethinkers.Object-Relations and the Self (London: Hogarth Press."Theydo notfeelother peopleat all as being capableofbeingrelatedto as theyare trapped insidetheir ownfantasy unable to become world. 1948). 16. manypeople todaysuffer from schizoid doubts problems whichconcern identity. Guntrip. H. Nothing is assumedandthevery of to relate at all to another idea whether person is good or replacesthe questionof whether a particular relationship am I?" but"AM I?" Lifeseemstohaveno bad-not "whatsort ofperson experiential meaning. H. I wantto arguethatSartre's fitsthisview. ish schoolofobject-relations. 28 Dec 2013 09:48:47 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .1978).For theworldSartre describes is no alien one and his workhas been very popular andinfluential.different. Psychoanalytic Theory. a leadinganalytic thinker oftheBritto Harry According Guntrip. "peoplewhohavedeep-seated aboutthe reality of theirvery'Self. thehuman Itis a sign ofourage. Therapy and the Self (London:Hogarth Press. find existence and insecurity.'6 situation. RogerGaraudy. the tobe suffering various degrees unreality. As manytheories in thehistory ofideasexpress 15.8. isolatedandout dread feeling of'notbelonging.)17On the contrary we mustread themas enlightening us aboutourselves and ourexperience today." Thissurely is schizoid sense oftriviality andmeaninglessness.' ofbeing fundamentally oftouchwiththeir world." a final only thing "unreality.Often thecreative writer distills muchofthemoodofan era. into a philosophy. despair andlossofcontact with theverities ofemotional rationalised reality. apart. involved withrealrelationships. Yet existentialist unlikethe logical thinkers.andis especially sensitive aboutthe flavor andproblems ofhumanrelations. anxiety in existentialism."'15 disillusionment andunderlying Theschizoid sense offutility. a fundamental wehave nocertainties dread that ultimately andthe wecanaffirm is "nothingness. Guntrip.DOUGLAS KIRSNER 211 visionhas nowgivenwayto an ironicandcynical perspective. from to (is apparent) Kierkegaard human toberooted inanxiety Heidegger andSartre.148.1971).

Confronted witha godlessworld.Sartre's view is essentially viscosity pessimistic. uppermost during thefirst year. Thereis no ourcontrol-loser inner coreofbeing. 1964).The "for-itself" in his Studies in Critical Philosophy (LonExistentialism" "Sartre's 18.as Joel Kovelargues.We live ourhistorical our own childconditioning in individualways whichemanatefrom hoodrelations.Let us look at thisworldin moredetail. H.Forexamrationality in an agewhere ple. Books.we arenotlumpsofclay.20 withourtimeas a whole.Our actionsarenotevenwithin so often wins. 28 Dec 2013 09:48:47 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . willnever be united is radically Sartre's world split. We as absencehave an abiding arethemselves defined arenotdefined bywhatwe areandwill. Society is cal ortechnical objectrather thanas a person itself in context and manifests different filtered through the family Whereissues ofidentity are ways at different stagesof development. or on theindividual thefamily maybe a diseaseofproduction through human infused with value. This does not detract butrather tellsus aboutthewayhe livedout history.thebabywill reactto societythrough toissuesrelevant to andwillreactin relation themedium ofthemother effects ofcapitalist The final result society's thatstageofdevelopment. 20. true.212 Yale French Studies so Sartre's ideas need to be an age and are thushistorically situated.The worldis an unfriendly humanbeings who ofmeaning. Frechtman (London: W. as Sartre reminds us in Searchfora Method.theendpointofthelogicoftechnocratic out ofthe self as commodities maybe an emptying peopleare treated as a medifrom childhood on. Marcuse.153. This can resultin thechildbeingtreated in hisownright. bereft senseoffutility.13. Allen. whoproduce experienced as having morevalue thanthehumanbeings IfSartre's lifeandworkaretaken orconsumeit. don:New Left B.101 on Sat. thatis. it doesnotgo far enough.1972). 19. thatSartre's ontological categories are Herbert Marcusehas argued Whilethismaybe in factthehistorical categories oflate capitalism. See J.a thread whichalso linkshisworld emerges worldcan be viewedas an instanceof Sartre's schizoidandnarcissistic worldourneurosis. from thevery realinsights he made historicized.H.Kovel. is consumption in whichthe commodity. "but what we ourselvesmake of what theyhave made of us. Books. Sartre.584.18 says. SaintGenet:ActorandMartyr.TheAge ofDesire(New York:Pantheon This content downloaded from 5. thefactthatwe arebornsmallanddependent suckling is trueofall cultures and ofall times.1982). trans. As Sartre and whatis important is not what people make ofus.butbywhatwe do."19 We are obviously conditioned by our historicalcontextbut are also "transhistorical" in needof beings.

choice. We long to escape the freedom demned. 23. SaintGenet. forSartre. but defiance can be seen as appropriate fora world wherethisis theonlyrealfreedom thevery on our left.Therewas neverthePromethean visionofan openfuture. We are "thedesireto be God" butin thiswe area "locked in con"useless passion.1968). Sartre's optimism is thatwe "do not suffer from nothing"22 andSisyphean freedom is a last-ditch standagainstan otherwise invasiveworld.13. But in thiswe are doomedto frustration and despair. withthesilent withoutGod-deprived ofGod. This content downloaded from 5. R.101 on Sat.But even here as in The Wall we cannotbe certain oftheconsequencesofournotgiving in to thedemandsofour masters. deprived ofthefullness ofbeing. Exceptperhapsin the battleof Sisyphus.13. D.the second empiredrawing roomof 21. ofbasic In theworldSartre describes there is a fundamental failure to provide thebasis or thedeveloptrust in bothselfand environment mentof what Laing terms"primary We are ontologicalsecurity. emphasis ontological freedom is an indexofhow farsocial freedom has ceasedto exist. The to turnthe tableson one's torturers ability meansan incontrovertible conviction of meaning. As theindividual lifebecomesa grim is an empty and constant nonentity." Human relationsare intrinsically flict"and sadomasochistic forlove and pleasuresare poorsubstitutes friendship-allrelationships are betweenexploiters and exploited. The abilityto say "no" which a finalrefusal the ultimatefoundation of constituted was.23 Manyscenesin Sartre's literary works aresetin rooms almosthermetically sealed off from the outerworld.Un sequestr& 1'Homme sartrien (Paris:Nizet. Boros. M. theworldis bespeaksa manichaeism evil and liberation is notpossible. 28 Dec 2013 09:48:47 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . hostileothers struggle to preserve a minimalpersonal integrity against in another or or else a self-deceiving loss ofidentity person. For joy consistsin our andcontrolled consciousness ofnotbeingoverwhelmed bythecircumstancesto whichwe are condemned.TheDivided Self(Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.153. ideology to which we are conorganization."21 abandoned bya God who does notcareandlifebecomesa losingbattle withdespair. Certainly itis thefreedom in chainsthatSartre proclaims and sometimes rails against.The roomofthe madmanPierrein La Chambre. Evenwherethere aredreams offreedom. Laing. D. to a freedom we arebasically Condemned we do notwant. 22. The goodLorddoesnotexistbutactsas a silent In factthedialogue partner in Sartrean ontology.544.DOUGLAS KIRSNER 213 withthe "in-itself". Sartre. there is no exitanywhere. The theme of sequestration providesa vital underlying theme in Sartre's work.1965).

trans. 1960.books and ideas was substituted and confirming he lacked.But in his ownright never as a worthwhile withreal was he treated person andvaluedfeelings internal ofhis own. was expected ofhimbyadults. was onlyon his and lateronlywatchedothers'games. Sartre.like a jelly experienced onlyhis falseself. This content downloaded from 5.101 on Sat. it is itself a prison. Our innervoid whichdemandsfulfillment can neverbe filled.The proletariat horizon at theEcoleNormaleanditwas really onlythewarthat brought and membership in society.1967).The youngSartre's reality was systematically invalidated:his being became his being-for-others. fishinside. Clephane(Harmondsworth: The Words. 25.Sartre's mother was treated as a child in the householdwhich was ruledby for herandcame Sartre's Sartre hadno respect domineering grandfather. 28 Dec 2013 09:48:47 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Sartre always saw himselfas marginal-as neverreallybeingin children in earlychildhood. theparthe understood impostor playing forthe emoThe worldof reason.143. He missedthegameswithother anything. These symbolize thehumansituation as one ofimprisonment. Doubrovsky.as ifthiswerenotenough.provide some examples. he was an Sartre felt himself to be in thehandsofadults. an object-even a littleprince. Ibid. It is whichwhatand how the childinternalizes in favor thereality offeeling scarcely suprising thathis workdenigrates ofan intellectual whichsees thehumanbeingas a void.But even then.As he tionally real.and was disgusted withwhathe saw as the "trivialunrein Sartresees childhoodas a "solitary" ality"as the world.a nothingness."24 Sartre's interest in sequestration finds its origin in his own childhoodexperience ofbeing an onlychildwithout peerswhowas shutup in a house wherehis onlyfriends were his grandfather's books. him a sense of solidarity andCamus:A Study inIncarceration.153. We areenveloped byforces beyond ourcontrol and condemned to possessinga freedom we cannotuse authentically.theroominMortssans sepulture wheretheresistance fightersawaittorture anddeath.a cute exhibition piece. 26.87.214 Yale French Studies Huis Clos. S." 24.Our relationswith othersare intrinsically frustrating and.ForSartre. "Sartre YaleFrench Studies 25. Penguin Books. I.25 He was treated heras an oldersister as a doll.26 reality is beyond his control.Feeling empty. 13-14. deathdestroys all thesignificance we thought we could attain. Hoederer's roomin Les Mainssales andthat ofFranzin Les Sequestresd'Altona..a rationality lack. "Lifedoes notonlytakeplace in a prison.meaningful experience he feltas malleableas clay. toregard in needofhisprotection.13.

d'etre cation of beinga soldierof the Party. on the otherhand. Sartre's portrait certhatof a mandeceiving tainly depicts himself. realproletarian manofaction.does not experience his nothingnessas he has mergedwith the Party. Mathieu is ambivalent towards Brunet. This content downloaded from 5.101 on Sat. 28 Dec 2013 09:48:47 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . was stillon thesidelines. absolutecertainty Mathieuseeshimfeeling. Feelingthatthereis nothing insidehim is to losinghis boundaries preferable altogether.nothing likeBrunet. sufficient reason-convictionmustfollowreasonand not vice versa.but neighbouring lives. Ceremonie Antoinne Roquentin had livesother thanmine." He defines himself against-like he knowswhathe is bywhathe is not. A splitbetween lifebased on reasonalone is as much a lie as one based exclusively on inhisactions. Mathieucan either renounce hisfreedom theParty orhe byjoining can maintain his precarious identity bykeeping his distance from the worldthatthreatens to engulf menacing him.DOUGLAS KIRSNER 215 Sartre as a writer feltenviousofthosewho did theactual fighting.153. was mostprofound in myown life.like Mathieu. or else we impersonate whatwe are.He will notlethimself go forfearof losinghimself. a split 27. are. is also untenable. he thewarhe continued to feelmarginal.expressing what."28 with the party. impotent.in my own eyes.Brunet.Thus. intellectualized. W. Brunet'ssoliditywas givenby his identification Mathieu. 28.is really for hisraison on thedelusional identifiis basedon self-deception. Brunet. to the solid. Brunet.trans.27 Sartre La Mathieu. La C&r6monie des adieux. 1961).13. Brunet.After buta "uselessmouth"so far as thecommunist sincehe wasn'ta worker of the partyman. theindecisive. TheAgeofReason. who seemslike a wholeman. Sutton (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. E. Sartre. party was concerned.But Brunet'sstrength and identity arebased on a collusively acceptedmyth. Demanding selfas an embodied refusal wouldbe at stakein a world whoseidentity in whichhe wouldhave to say "Yes.537. grip feelings will neverrulehim.Mathieuhas a constant on himself. yettheopposite position.powerteacher is counterposed self-searching philosophy ful.His attachment to reasonis rationalization.His nothingness forms Sisyphus the boundary betweenhimselfand othersand prevents his merging withthem. He would love nothing morethanto be able to make theleap ofbad faith Yet he cannotact without to becomelike Brunet. saysin theinterviews following des adieux: "Mathieu. resolute. Duped bynature we at all. a caricature. feelings MathieuandBrunet can be seen as twopartsofthesame person. To keep awayfrom his he represses them. bourgeois. ForMathieuthere is a complete reasonandfeeling. evasive.

Mathieuhas committed of how can he feelany pointto life? psychicsuicide.He can do neither with nor withoutrelationships. waiting. he is pushed aroundby personalor impersonal forces.153. Mathieuhas onlya pseudoindependence.onlyhis defenses againstthem.has a lover tionship. devoidof feeling. hisradically a splitegocannotachieve. He is neverreallyunhappy.detached.His compromise rewards.101 on Sat. Feeling is erasedin hisgeneral stateofcontinuous withdrawnness. a form can remaincold. But Mathieu'sfirst definite his bad partson to the live actionmeansthathe has notonlyprojected intothem. evenicy. fliesand cockroaches appear.Ifhe commitshimself to an action. SchizoidPhenomena. Livingbecomes an intellectualexercise. himself to be a shell. If he forgets himself fora moment.His lack ofcommitment is not a happy one sincethere is nothing he desiresmore.This characterizes the schizoiddilemmain whichthe selffeelsso empty thatit reliessuicidallyon relationships withprecisely thoseothers whomight swallowitup.Mathieuneverexplores Feeling anycorefeelings.In a lifefullonly of missed flashwhichcould fuse Mathieuwaits forthe lightning opportunities thisis precisely reasonand emotionin a self-certain what conviction. after his act.He is cut adrift world. yetat thesame time fearsmore. The vitality is in Brunet.Mathieuseeshimself cleansed. theouter world invoking to give his lifemeaning. buthis lifeis fullofchronic frustrain his ownfutile rumintion. Mathieuknowsthisabsurd on theapproaching through firing andfutile timetable backonlyfifteen minutes act will puttheGerman his Gerandhas warned a comrade againstdoingjustthat.Purification comesonly washoutwhoneedsto be thoroughly on his past failures in his putativesuicide in whichhe takesrevenge Germans. This content downloaded from 5. Mathieureaches a and half-out" of relaschizoid compromise in which he is "half-in to theParty butwill notjoin.216 Yale French Studies personality thatcan nevercome together. 58 ff. floating aimlessly. bourgeois living means diminished desiresbutalso diminished geois.13.Intellect andemotionareradically split. as a rotter. Yet by not doinganything.he loses control ofits consequences.Killing first manis his first action-it is his own German. yet intoembracing Mathieucan never reasonhimself it. This demonas thereis nothing leftin him emotionally 29. This is suicidal butalso thathe has puthisvitality Germans. 28 Dec 2013 09:48:47 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .29 He is sympathetic butwillnotcommit butremains attacks bourhimself. In thealoofness andfastidiousness he so enjoys. Commitment is definite forMathieulinkedwith self-destruction. Mathieu ating. Guntrip.

. Beingand Nothingness. trans. All human relationships and vice kind-one's beingis swallowedup byor absorbed byanother versa.one attempts to "appropriate" the "freedom" oftheOtherorsurrenders one's owntohim.30 The self as shell remainsby not being engulfed. E. Guntrip.DOUGLAS KIRSNER 217 in Beingand Nothingness Sartre's analysisof "being-for-others" confirms are of a mutuallydevouring this. Sartre. This represents the Melanie Klein in paranoidpositiondescribedby the psychoanalyst whichall the badnessis outsideand normalintrojections have failed. Sartre.H. forneither symbiosisnor alonenessis a viable alternative. This content downloaded from 5. H. Commitment for Mathieuis lifeand deathat the same time.1961). 28 Dec 2013 09:48:47 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .391-92."Notes on some SchizoidMechanisms" in herEnvyand Gratitudeand OtherWorks (London: Hogarth Press. being-for-others.But "theOther is on principle inapprehensible.13. the Other is tofree himself from I seektoenslave trying mine: while the Other. Alonenessis beingcast out helplesswithout intotheunrelationship friendly and untrustworthy menacing wilderness. Real relationships as opposedsimplyto projections of oneselfon to an ego in a primitive others.. For Sartre action means losingoneselfin it. 32.1966). identified Moreover.3' strates thefinal loss ofselfon theonehandsubjectively andontheother a magicalfeelingof omnipotence which in factis the likelihoodof actualself-annihilation. MelanieKlein.153. the Otherseeks to enslave me. on a constricting and frustrating Symbiosis means a totaldependence mother who will contract to supplyall needs onlyat the priceQfthe child'ssoul. 31.32 is the original Conflict meaningof parent.Sartre presents stageof in a state of projective infantile dependence. Doing what he most wants means self-annihilation. identification with the All relationships involve eithersadism or masochism. Beingand Nothingness.101 on Sat. are not possible. It involvesthe ultimatein projective identification-everything is in the otherwith whom one is psychologically merged.The waitersees himself him-he cannotbe inhis actions primarily as a Waiter. for in the Sartrean menacing projections world. Thereis no autonoand is seen mous selfbehindan actionorrole.. His roledefines withoutbeinghis actions. Mathieu projectively partsof himselfwith the often The other serves as a repository Germans as he hadwiththeParty. Barnes(New York:Washington SquarePress.1975). he fleesme 30. While I attempt tofree myself from the hold ofthe Other. 474-75. PartIII. Personality Structure and Human Interaction (New York:International Universities Press.

Apartfrom indifference-which is no relationship at all or withdrawalfrom relationship-hateis theonlyalternative relation to love. Sartre's applies many Retreat into indifference is the true ofthe lovewhich isfelt to opposite betoodangerous toexpress. 33." Thus a satisfying sado-masochistic equilibrium is impossible. thatSartre bytheemotions describes reflect the internal bad objectsof a barelydevelopedinner is thebreast thatmay world. an attempt to destroy thebadrejecting sideofa person in the ofleaving hope their good responsive sideavailable. Wecanonly really hatea ifwe want person their love. relationships are doomed to frustration.The close relation ofthishateto love is paralleled by Guntrip's view ofhatred: Itis lovegrown angry because ofrejection.As Guntrip remarks. a struggle toalter them. Want noone. any feeling. andquickly feelsunwanted. One wants havetheOther notas an objectorinstrument. cancelshis object-relations becausethey frightening and dangerous to of situations.Hateis an expression offrustrated love needs. SchizoidPhenomena. make nodemands. becausehe is alwaysfeeling sensitive very oftheschizoidwho deserted in his inner world. ForSartre hateinvolves mywishing theOther deadso thatI will notbe an objectfor him. This leads to a sadisticdriveto incorposeparateness rateor absorbthe Otherwiththe concomitant fearof destroying the to as subject orperson.218 Yale French Studies whenI seek him and possessesme whenI fleehim. Againwe find theparanoid positiondescribed byMelanie Kleinwhere relationship is equivalentto persecution.13. 26. precisely uponwhichtheself cannotdepend.101 on Sat.33 to Sartre theself.153. One wishes to "absorb"and "assimilate"the Otherto achieverecognition. Butonecannot haveone'scakeandeatit. one is in perpetualdangerand has no security. without do relationships. abolish allexternal cold and andbealoof. This content downloaded from 5.but it is One seeks to controland secure the freedom theunconstrained freedom oftheOther. so inherAccording of satisfactory fulfilment thathe feelshe needs to be entlydeprived certain oftheOther-which he cannotbe bythenatureoftheOther's and subjectivity. in theouterworldaregenSartre's ofbeing-for-others conceptions oftheinner The relationships erated world. thatis required forsecurerecognition. of the Other. as a nothingness. 28 Dec 2013 09:48:47 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The Other uponwhomtheselfcannot rely be snatched "The schizoidis away at any time."Guntrip's description aretoofrustrating. is so empty. very person he desires. Guntrip.

with interhisshell andis busy only goes into introverted.whydoes no one leave? badobjectworld as an imageoftheinner Huis Clos maybe regarded situation.in ingless.35 ora concentration camp is often house. closed "Second Empire"drawfrustrate ech otherin thehermetically ing-room which is theirHell. Outwhom hefeels thesamedevouring nalobjects towards seemsfutile and meanand in consciousness everything wardly fearsloss of his object. Guntrip.Howeverat oftheother people"sinceeach personacts as torturer knocking. "On theNatureandAimsofPsychoanalytical 39. ofPsychoanalysis Journal International 198ff. .including Garcin.a prison. his notpushing Inez. . theinternal degree 34. Garcin concludesthat "Hell is other two.36 is "runon hate. SchizoidPhenomena.13.outoftheroomis his needfor However.101 on Sat. 1958. Treatment."and the This system selfis thevictimofa largeamountofpersecution. ing.and this indicatesjust how prisonwhich is verydifficult ofinternal obsystem thepersonholds on to his persecutory strongly prisons-it is felt ject-relations. is whatSartre's is basicallyabout.37 is that of the interThe persecutory internal object-relationship since the nalized bad parentswhom it is impossibleto do without. It is personwould thenbe all alone withoutany relationship better to be hatedthanignored-far to be something thannothbetter to have some is partofa struggle to keepgoing. "the mostforto constitute Melanie Kleinis understood by Fairbairn This inner world midableresistance in psychoanalytical treatment". 28 Dec 2013 09:48:47 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .The schizoid. one stagethedoorto their prison opensto Garcin'sinsistent leaves.DOUGLAS KIRSNER 219 is turned libido inwards. 422. Fairbairn.The closedsystem closedsystem ofpersecuofindependence. Theyare "inseparables.38. Manypeopledo notwanttoleave their to be farmoredangerous outside."This whichis a "closed system"thatis a "staticinternal concern withimprisclosedsystem withsequestration. 36. Ibid. W. Further. Thepatient attitude." 35. D. Ofcoursetheprison inwhichtheperson byhimself. Butitis a himself has beenerected finds to breach. 27.. The depressive ofhimself. at all. ifHell reallyis other people. addition.34 lossofhisego. R. Thewithdrawn notbe moved byanything.who notleavingandfor claimsthathis reasonfor her"confirmation. Structure. fears ofbeing-for-others ofSartre's analysis Huis Clos is a dramatization and constantly thwart The three occupants in Beingand Nothingness.This inner by worldofbad objectsrevealed onment. Personality 37. This content downloaded from 5." hateshim.153. Guntrip."Garcin butno one. dreamed ofas a torture in whichtheselfis a prisoner.

butits destroyer In Satre'sstory becameimmortal.4' stories. for Garcin. he takesa rifle at peoplein thestreet. to preserve a precarious Lifeis a constant anysenseofreality."42 to be a "bad somebody" body. from he is essentially cut off Alonein a crowd. SchizoidPhenomena. Sartre. Theoneissuethat is much worse than the choice between good andbadobjects isthe choice between any sort ofobjects andnoobjects atall. 39. 137.220 Yale French Studies tion "confers a sense ofpower. 40. All resources maintainthis separation. The ancientGreekof thatname achievednotoriety down the by burning ofDiana at Ephesus. if hostile.eluhimself character ofbeingitself."38 Identification with powerful objects. 1960).if onlyoverthe self. Guntrip. givessome security. is overwhelmed existence Roquentin bytheviscous.it is imperative thatInez stayto providea meaningful. Hilbert carries outBreton's and shootsrandomly puresurrealist act.101 on Sat. SchizoidPhenomena.153. 28 Dec 2013 09:48:47 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .He has no place in the worldand feelsno sense of continuity. 205. This content downloaded from 5. 238. "Erostratus" in his collection.13. SchizoidPhenomena.Further. (London: Pantheon. The nothingness as Roquentinexperiences or impingement himself is a defenseagainstengulfment by an over38. 42.L. Guntrip writes: Theentire world ofinternal badobjects is a colossal defence against lossoftheegobydepersonalisation.It is better a period ofthe Futility is a basicthemein Nausea whichchronicles ofRoquentin. has a haterelationship withInez. a stranger everywhere. evenwhere theseareself-destructive. thisnobody becomesrecognised as someInstantly thana "weak nonentity. trans. Guntrip. struggle are marshaled to individuation as any sortof ego at all. The worstultimateterror is to be a "psyche in a vacuum.whichis preferaexample.39 This is whythe inmatesin Huis Clos darenot leave their prison. involvement in an essentially world.Nobodyremembers thebuilder ofthetemtemple ple. He experiences as a sive.nongraspable dullandjellylike andis a constant observer ofhis ownlack of sensation. Romeaningless for fearthathe maydisapwatchoverhimself quentin keepsconstant pear. ble to beingalone in absoluteisolation. Hell is not otherpeople-it is beingutterly alone. since Estelleis ofno accountto Garcin.relationship. Guntrip.Persecution is preferable todepersonalisation. 41."140 ofHuis Clos are The irresolvable relationships staunchdefenses againstpersonalannihilation. Guntrip.Self-conscious. Personality Structure. Alexander Intimacy. first This is veryclearin one ofSartre's Erostratus. 431-32.

He is stuckin a state of and the world. 148-49. she will satisfy enoughofthechild'sneedsand the child will not turnfromthe otherin rage.1965).13.while at the same time a wall is erected arounditselfkeepingreality at a distance.Thereis a rageat theworld notproviding to an extent fulfillment. 191. I am afraid of entering intocontact withthem.252. 35.The beginnings world has in thefirst six months oflife." This lightcreates an unspeakable in Roquentin.43 The ego is withdrawn the self. 28.At this earlystageof development the babywill have just begunthe longjourney towards separation and individuation. Sartre. for possible." Objects providea terrible threatthen because Roquentin has projected his own innerworldontothe entire outerworld. 28 Dec 2013 09:48:47 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Roquentin'sworldis totallynarin on himself as the onlysourceofsolace and cissistic. This content downloaded from 5. Anything beyond physicalgratification his bodywhichhe has emotionally from himself wouldlead to splitoff engulfment. disgust 43. Sinceitis a threat for theworld is tobe keptas distant as Roquentin.153. 175.22.DOUGLAS KIRSNER 221 intothe deepestrecessesof whelming reality. A feeling ofinner value and integrity can onlyemerge from a warm.out ofreach of beinghurt. alienated."Roquentin remembered holdinga pebble which occasioneda feelingof "sweet disgust" whichpassedfrom thepebbleon tohishandsbringing about"a sortof nausea of the hands. Baldick(Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. The mother is seenas badandrejecting infant. trans. Nausea.Roquentin's myshouldemerge not eached even this level of development. Ifthe shehas notsufficiently of the fulfilled theearlier demands mother is goodenough.he has turned cannotafford of relationships. Even objectsrepelhim-"it's unbearable.101 on Sat. 31-32. Roquentin's pathological pseudoindependence reflects the factthathe is not able to be withanyoneelse. it wouldbe impossible is a functo feelanything butfutile.185. in a feeling ofengulfment. a ragewhichis defended against by a cynicaland cold detachment.Thus.Even the sun through its "impoverishing light"of "cold rays"projects "a pitilessjudgment on all creatures. R. To do this he or she must be able to internalize goodaspectsofthemother andnotbe paralysed bya feeling thatnothing goodor reliableexistsoutsidehim orherself. Forsecurity tionofgoodobject-relations. confusion betweenhimself from exFrom a psychoanalytic perspective Roquentin's repulsion istencemayconstitute a refusal breast and milkwhich ofthemother's because is viewedas nauseating. reliablehumanrelationship thatis personal on both sides and through towardautonomyin relawhich growth ofautonotionships ofmature dependence mayoccur.Objectshavea poweroverhim. justas ifthey wereliving animals.

Awarenessof existence."He later sees existencerapinghim frombehind. withdrawn andisolatedthanto be engulfed bythepersecution ofhis ownprojected bad maternal objects.For Roquentin thegreat manypeopledo not knowtheyexist.so muchso thathe feels"itis I whoaminsideit. his disgust and disdainfor Roquentin's onlyway out is to express andhardas theworld through writing a story which"wouldbe beautiful The hardness of their existence.especially splitoff wouldobviously for"a dullorganic sensation.13.it is so menacing. andgratuitousness andat thesametimeprovokes nausea." bodyexcept Roquentin liketo be ridofhis body.44 While many of Sartre'scharacters would lifeis an unending ideallylike to be alone. whichthreatens disintegration exhaustive alternatives of aloneSartre's Nausea well illustrates isolatedorhe will will keephimself nessandfusion-eitherRoquentin involve be mergedwith existenceitself." of steel and make people ashamed withthe sweet and steel would be separateand definite and contrast andnausea. Butnauseaovercomes him. because awarenessof existencebringsa union with objects oftheself. superfluity. all relationships are betweenexploiter Needinganother is seentoinvolve whichexistsin thedemands.theycannotbe.For Sartreall relationships is alone.222 Yale French Studies His only real pleasureand obsessionis lookingat himselfin a mirror. oozingmerging ofexistence anxiety oftheself. person humiliation. nausea he feelswhen his withdrawn state is threatened.It takesoverhisinsidesas well as being outside.theydo not experience and theouterworld.he does notfeelit as his own. See OttoKemberg. brings tingency. struggle Sartrean characters lack what Sartretermsa "mandateto live" from parents who wouldtreat themempathetically.Thoughhe has a narcissistic fascination with it.101 on Sat. Therefore to preserve a precarious individuation. northefrightening boundary between themselves engulfment.145.His faceandbodyareactually from his him. He sees himself as belowthevegetable level-his facedisgusts his eyes. ForSartre thisis a 44.ofthepersecutory soft.1976). 28 Dec 2013 09:48:47 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Better to be whichthreaten annihilation and disintegration repelled. perspective and exploited.153. This content downloaded from 5.which normalpeople hide fromthemofconwithit knowledge selvesbecausetheyarenot detached. rage and envyof othersas well as the inability to expressgratitude and a hatredof dependency. Fromthisnarcissistic therealselffor Sartre theft. giddiness. ObjectRelations Theory and ClinicalPsychoanalysis (New York:International Universities Press.

the target and the intoxication oftheinfant "whenthevalorization loveis accomplished through badly ornotatall. itself. my in mydestiny. Sartre. 48. Heinz Kohut. 46. These heroes are This content downloaded from 5.e..DOUGLAS KIRSNER 223 failureof love."47 his characters Sartre claimsthatin constructing he removed from themimportant aspectsofhimself: "My manicpassionfor writing.g. incapableofliving.. 410.maternal defines as non-sense.45 Yet empathy is preare the resultof earlydeprivation lack." On the otherhand archer.144.101 on Sat. "The essentialdifference between AntoineRoquentin and me is thatI wrotethestory ofAntoineRoquentin."deals withthe obstaclesthatstandin the the The mother needs to mirror way of empathic comprehension. Sartre. of it. TheFamilyIdiot.Nausea and Huis Clos) lies in the factthatmost oftheseontologically insecurecharacters have always beendeprived live in constant need ofempathic so thatthey mirroring In his Carnetsde la dr6lede guerre Sartre wondered whyhe was different from thecharacters he had created-RoquentinandMathieu.13." Ata inadequacy experience later oflife.Theyare. TheRestoration oftheSelf(New York:International Universities Press. will developpathologically and narcissistically.Theyare me decapitated.. the fieldofdepthpsychology goes so faras usingit in defining Psychoanalysis forKohut.410.48 So whileidentifying Roquentin and Mathieuwithhimself. Ibid.as it were. and bythis pride. Les Carnets de la dr6lede guerre." the child empathically. Butitis instructive tolookatwhatSartre finds lacking in and Mathieu. myfaith mymetaphysical optimism. Sartre also differentiates himself from them.Ifthechildis development not mirrored i. 47. butthe pointthemandated childcan questionthemeaning ifhis philosophical childwill be at a severedisadvantage questionings of empathy.There 45.frozen sectionsofSartre.153. ofthe childto abouthow vital empathy is to theproper development as a natural humanendowment and he Kohutsees empathy maturity.1. Perhapsthe importanceofmirrors in Sartre's work(e.. and mostofhis characters ciselywhatSartre has written a gooddeal The American psychoanalyst.Sartre's claim to a "metaphysical Roquentin optimism" doesnotcomethrough in hisworkwhichI havediscussed above. 28 Dec 2013 09:48:47 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 133ff. fact I broughtabout a fatal defilementin them. does not feel "understood.1977). The mandatedchild "is the conscious arrowthat is awakenedin mid-flight and discoverssimultaneously to the distant of flight. HeinzKohut."46 oftheinfant andtobe in tunewithhisneeds.

Ibid. Writing can keeptheforces ofthenight at bay. biographical..critical.97. philosophical. 53. 50. "To Show. Sartre's worldof artistic fantasy was generated as a child in his grandfather's library and had sufficient to allow Sartreto autonomy ofhis literature. speaksoftheyoung BerliozortheyoungGoethe.52 andin Sartre's case it has a compulsive quality. His "manicpassionto write"can be understood in theseterms.101 on Sat. ofsomeofthethemes see D.30."'5'writingmay well have been a therapy Sartre's constant flowofwordsmay be his way ofgiving himself the milkofparadise deniedbythenauseating described in thiswritreality ing.The yetthe deeperhe probedthe less real thesepossibilities 49. Sartre. seemed.224 Yale French Studies is no groundin his philosophy foran optimistic optionto emerge. cure. sophicalworkswhichprovidethe same pictureof our world.153. As withGenetwhosetenyears ofwriting toa "psychoanalytical amounted forSartrehimself.53 in a dehumanized andto Sartre wanted torescuesubjectivity world.. Sartre'spride and faithin his destinyis an interesting explanation whichrelatescloselyto his manicpassionfor since Sartre saw writing his destiny primarily as thatofa writer. Sartre.The viofRoquentin sionsandexperiences andMathieuarethoseofBeingand whether it is literary.96. 1977). Sartre wantedtohavethelifeof a great ofhimself as "theyoung as one writer49 andeventhought Sartre. material. in a better find thepossibility ofgoodreciprocal relationships society. orpolitical. TheSchizoidWorld ofJean-Paul Sartre and R. This content downloaded from 5. 52." Yale French Studies 30. bearsthesame Thisis confirmed shapeandthesameissuesarisein all ofthem. Sartrewished to be whichhe wrote understood as a childofourtime-a timefor expressing of changeas he saw internal and the possibilities and external reality I haveattempted as a wholein Sartre's world them. in thiswriting But the worlddescribed as thatof Roquentinand is This is confirmed in his philoMathieu nonetheless thatof Sartre. Formoredetailed discussion in thisarticle. 28 Dec 2013 09:48:47 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Kirsner. torender intelligible his schizoidand narcissistic ofa guiding whichexpresses terms threat perspective. 1960. All ofSartre's Nothingness. 51. SaintGenet. D. autobiographical. 544.To Demonstrate. bywhat Simonede Beauvoir has communicated aboutSartre andhis workfrom her Primeof Life to La Ceremoniedes adieux.13. in writing depicttheschizoidcontent theinvestment itself provided a counterweight to the despairofthelandscapethathe painted. Ibid."50 Sartre had viewed literature notjust as his vocationbutas his salvation. Laing(New Jersey: Humanities Press.

yetwe find of bleakerview developing as Sartre senses the increasing power the socialworldto control eventheperception ofthealternatives available to us. managerial regards oneself. some of the foremost problemsof our era. 28 Dec 2013 09:48:47 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . tingly orunwittingly collaborate In his personal andphilosophical refusal ofsurrender. Itrepresents thetotalabandonment ofbasic trust in ourselves and ourworldto provide for ourvitalneeds. Sartre wants is consciously directed activity to dominate thebodyandnature. Whatever else he has contributed. This content downloaded from 5. Sartre the echoingthe view of the bodyand the worldthathas enshrined This is thelogic of ofWestern formanycenturies. others and theenvironment as objectsto be quantified and manipulated.153. ForSartre theworldis a vastprisonin whichtheprisoners witoftheir in theperpetuation servitude. theOther. and natureis itself an instanceofthelogicwhichhas ledtoourcollective insanity today. project civilisation domination which views the worldas thereto be subduedand conform of rationality that trolled and uses an instrumental. Sartre has oflifein themodern expressed thevagaries and paradoxes world. butthissituation neednotbe understood as ontologically inherent in history.101 on Sat."Whyshouldwe accuse Sartrean philosophy whenthelogicoftheworldat largepushesus so farin thatdirection? a "universal ofourtimein that he describes Sartre is truly singular" in his work. are Near nuclearcatastrophe and ecologicaldisaster thatuses a logicwhose "parapartoftherunaway madnessofa system and "developdoxical" consequenceis thoughtless technologization of beingschizoid ment.13.DOUGLAS KIRSNER 225 a still early Sartrean selfcan at leastrefuse to be controlled. Sartre's refusal of surrender to the body. Yet has Sartre gonetoo far? is oneinwhichourworst fears The worldSartre portrays areseento be finally true. andrepresents in his approaches andperspectives.

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