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Proceeding ICCE 2013 UNPAR

The International Conference on Chemical Engineering UNPAR 2013

The Mass Transfer Coefficient of Red Food Coloring E traction from Rosella
Ariest!a Arlene A"a#$ Anastasia Prima %"a$ Tisadona M&l!antoa$ C!nthia '&ri!aa 1

Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Faku !as Tekno ogi Indus!ri, Uni"ersi!as Ka!o ik Para#$angan J % Cium&u eui! No% '( )andung*(01(1

Rosella is one of the (lant in Indonesia that can )e &sed as nat&ral d!es" The red color in the rosella so&rced from the anthoc!anin in the (etal of the flo*er" The anthoc!anin in the rosella consists of c!anidin+3+sam)&)ioside$ del(hinidin+3+gl&cose$ and del(hinidin+3+sam)&)ioside" Anthoc!anin can )e &sed as a safer nat&ral coloring foodst&ff to re(lace s!nthetic d!es" The (&r(ose of this research is to find o&t the mass transfer coefficient ,-Ca. of the d!es e traction" The mass transfer coefficient is the /al&e sho*ed the distri)&tion of mass transfer$ occ&rred in the e traction (rocesses" Isolation of these d!es is cond&cted )! )atch e traction method" 0atch e traction is accom(lished )! &sing R1 ,Re/erse 1smose. *ater and ethanol 203 as sol/ent *ith stirring$ *ith F4' ,Feed4'ol/ent. ratio 5 167$ 1610$ 1617$ and e traction tem(erat&re 30 0C$ 700C$ and 200C" The higher tem(erat&re of e traction *ill increase the /al&e of - Ca" The e traction *hich &ses etanol 203 as the sol/ent has a greater /al&e of - Ca than the e traction *hich &se R1 *ater as the sol/ent" F4' ratio does not infl&ence the /al&e of - Ca" Ke$+ords6 coefficient$ coloring$ e traction$ food$ red$ Rosella" Nomenclature N -C C C# R 9 % transfer mass /elocit! of red color from the solid s&rface to the sol/ent ,((m4s. transfer mass coefficient of the red color ,s+1. concentration of the red color at a time ,((m. e8&ili)ri&m concentration of the red color ,((m. mass of the red color ,gr. /ol&me ,:. constant

1. Introduction A colored food is interesting" The! can ind&ce (eo(le;s a((etite" <o*e/er$ no*ada!s$ (eo(le *o&ld (refer to &se s!nthetic food d!es rather than nat&ral d!es )eca&se the! are chea(er" <o*e/er$ s!nthetic food coloring *hich is mis&sed )! adding te tile d!e or non+food grade food coloring" It is (ro/ed )! research that some of s!nthetic food coloring s&ch as (hlo ine$ er!throsine$ and rose )engal are harmf&l for the h&man )od! =1>. The anthoc!anin is one of the nat&ral food coloring *hich is safer than that of s!nthetic one" <o*e/er the safet! de(ends on the method of e traction and the so&rce of the feed =2>" In this e (eriment$ the so&rce of anthoc!anin is rosella (etal commonl! &sed as )e/erage and the sol/ents are food grade" 1ne of the alternati/e so&rces for nat&ral coloring is rosella" This coloring can re(lace the s!nthetic food coloring and minimi?e the mis&se" The (art of (lant that can )e &sed for nat&ral coloring is its (etals" Rosella (etals contain /itamin C$ /itamins A$ amino acids$ (rotein$ calci&m and anthoc!anin (igments that form fla/anoids *hich act as an antio idant =2>" Rosella or ,is&iscus sa&dari--a .%$ is one of the flo*er s(ecies *hich comes from Africa" Rosella gro*s from so*ing dr! seeds" Rosella can reach heights &( to 3+7 meters and it )looms almost all thro&gh the !ear" Rosella ha/e a )right color *ith dar- red (etals ,M&-aromah$ 2010." The )enefits of rosella (etals red&ce the /iscosit! of )loods$ hel( digestion$ (re/ent inflammation of the &rinar! tract
1# Corres(onding a&thor" Tel"6 @A2+22+203+2200B fa 6 @A2+22+203+2200" E*mai address/ ariest!a"arleneC&n(ar"ac"id"

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and -idne!s$ filters to ins in the )od!$ (re/enting /itamin C deficienc!$ )lood circ&lation$ smooth )o*el mo/ements$ decrease the le/els of alcohol a)sor(tion$ retention s(asms$ and man! more" The diseases *hich can )e treated )! rosella are high )lood (ress&re ,h!(ertension.$ -idne! stones$ co&gh$ im(otence$ letharg!$ fe/er$ )leeding g&ms$ s-in diseases$ insect )ites$ sores$ and anemia =3>" Flo*er (arts *hich can )e &sed as a food coloring are the (etals" Rosella (etals contain /itamin C$ /itamin A$ and amino acids" Eighteen of essential amino acids for o&r )od! contained in the Rosella (etals incl&de arginine and lignin that (la! a role in the (rocess of )od! cells rene*ing" Rosella (etals also contain (rotein$ calci&m and anthoc!anin (igments *hich form fla/onoids ,eg6 goss!(etin$ hi)iscetin$ etc". that act as anti+o idant" Anthoc!anin in rosella (etals are del(hinidin+3+gl&coside$ sam)&)ioside$ and c!anidin+3+sam)&)ioside =D>" Anthoc!anin has the highest antio idant acti/it! among the other antio idants ,del(hinidin$ c!anindin$ (elargonidin$ mal/idin$ (eonidin." The anthoc!anin is a (otential antio idant agent aside from its role as nat&ral colorant =7>" The e traction of red d!e de(ends on certain factors$ *hich are tem(erat&re$ ratio of feed to sol/ent$ t!(e of sol/ent$ the s(eed of stiring$ and the e tractor &sed for the e traction (rocess" The s(eed of stiring and the e tractor are the same for all the /ariations" The lac- of information a)o&t tem(erat&re$ t!(e of sol/ent$ and ratio of feed to sol/ent )ecome the )ac-gro&nd of the selected /ariation of this e (eriment$ 2. Material And Methods 2"1 Pretreatment of The E traction Feed The Rosella (etals o)tained from Pasar 0ar& ,traditional mar-et. in 0and&ng$ Indonesia$ *as dried &ntil the *ater content lo*er than E3" The si?e *as red&ced &sing electric dr! )lender &ntil the si?e is +20@A0 mesh" 2"2 'o hlet E traction The 'o hlet e traction *as done &sing R1 *ater and ethanol 203" Ten grams of dried rosella (etals ,+20@A0 mesh. *as e tracted at the )oiling tem(erat&re of each sol/ent" The e tract *as se(arated from the sol/ent &sing /ac&&m e/a(orator then the e tract *as dried in the /ac&&m o/en &ntil the mass remains constant" The e tract from this 'o hlet e traction *as &sed in the determination of ma im&m *a/elength" 2"3 Fetermination of Ma im&m Ga/e :ength The e tract from 'o hlet e traction *as dil&ted in each sol/ent then the a)sor)ance *as meas&red at different /al&e of *a/elength" The ma im&m *a/e length *as at the highest /al&e of the meas&red a)sor)ance" 2"D Main E (eriment The determined amo&nt of sol/ent *as (laced in the )atch e traction e8&i(ment *ith stirring s(eed 1E0 r(m" The tem(erat&re *as /aried and controlled from the *ater )ath *hich *as (laced s&rro&nd the e traction e8&i(ment" The setting of the e8&i(ment can )e seen at Fig&re 1" The sam(le of e traction (rocess *as ta-en e/er! 7 min&tes and the a)sor)ance *as meas&red &sing U9 s(ectro(hotometer" The e traction (rocess *as carried o&t &ntil a)sor)ance sho*ed the constant /al&e" The /ariation *as the t!(e of sol/ent ,Re/erse 1smoses ,R1. *ater and ethanol.$ F4' ratio ,167$ 1610$ 1617.$ and e traction tem(erat&re ,30 0C$ 700C$ and 200C." The a)sor)ance of the sol&tion of e tract *as meas&red e/er! 7 min&tes &ntil reaching the constant /al&e" The /al&e of -Ca *as calc&lated &sing these a)sor)ance data"

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Note6 ,1. CondenserB ,2. ThermostatB ,3. 'am(ling de/iceB ,D. Gater)athB ,7. 'tirring motorB ,A. Im(ellerB ,2. 't&ffing )o B ,E. 0atch E tractor Fig" 1" 0atch E traction E8&i(ment 3. Result And Discussion The mass transfer coefficients *ere determined )! the first order -inetic model" According to 'am&n =A>$ the s(eed of leaching de(ends on the t*o main ste(s$ *hich are$ the mass transfer of the e tract from the inside of solid (hase to the solid s&rface and the mass transfer from the solid s&rface to the sol/ent" If there is no difference )et*een the t*o ste(s$ the s(eed of e traction is determined )! the )oth ste(" <o*e/er$ if there is a significant difference of the t*o ste(s$ the s(eed of e traction is determined )! the slo*er ste(" In d!e e traction of rosella$ the si?e of the solid (hase is made to small (ieces ,+20@A0 mesh. in order to get the faster diff&sion (rocess of the d!e so that the diff&sion coefficient can )e neglected" The determining (rocess is the mass transfer (rocess from the s&rface of the solid (hase to the li8&id (hase of the sol/ent" The /elocit! of mass transfer of the d!e from the s&rface of the solid (hase to the li8&id (hase of the sol/ent follo*s the first e8&ation6
N = kC ( C # C )

,1. The /al&e of C is e tract concentration ,the red d!e. in the sol&tion and the C# is the e tract concentration in the sol&tion in the e8&ili)ri&m *ith the e tract concentration on the solid s&rface" The mass transfer coefficient is calc&lated &sing mathematical method a((ro imation *ith se/eral ass&m(tions$ these are$ the si?e of the solid is &niform and the /ol&me of the sistem is constant in the *hole e traction (rocess$ the densit! of feed ,solid (hase. and sol/ent ,li8&id (hase. are constant$ and the (rocess is isothermal" The e tract mass )alance in the )atch e tractor is6 Rin Rou! + Rso u!e = R!o!a ,2.

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0 0 + kC C # C 0 = 0

dC d!


0eca&se of the constant /ol&me of the s!stem$ the e8&ation )ecomes6

kc C # C =

dC d!

dC + kC "C = kC "C # d! ,7. The first order differential e8&ation is sol/ed &sing the integrating factor method$ and then the e8&ation *ill )ecome6
C = e
kC d!

e kC d! k "C # + K C


C = C # + Ke kC !
,2. At ! = 0 $ the C = 0 $ and the e8&ation *ill )ecome6

C = C # + Ke kC "0

K = C #
C = C # 1 e kC !


C = C # C #e kC !
,11. The ne t ste( is doing the linier regression on the e8&ation ,11. so the e8&ation *ill )ecome6
ln C # C = ln C # kC "!

# F&rthermore$ the ma-ing of the c&r/e is doing )! (lotting the data of I ln ( C C ) J as the

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ordinat and I ! J as the a)sis" The line e8&ation of the linier regression is6

$ = a1 + & ,13. # Gith $ = ln ( C C ) $ 1 = ! $ a = kC $ and & = ln C #

The ma im&m *a/e length of anthoc!anin is in the range of 717 K 7D7 nm and the ma im&m *a/e length of red color is 700 K 770 nm" The ma im&m *a/e length of the e tract is 7D0 nm$ this sho*s that the /al&e lies on the range of anthoc!anin and red color *a/e length" The a)sor)ance of the e traction (rocess increases from time to time &ntil it reaches a constant /al&e" Therefore$ it can )e concl&ded that the red d!e of rosella is sta)le at R1 *ater and ethanol 203 at different tem(erat&res *hich are /aried in the e (eriments" The /al&e of -C of R1 *ater and ethanol 203 as sol/ent can )e seen in the Ta)le 1 and the gra(h can )e seen in Fig" 2" The /al&e of -C in the ethanol 203 as sol/ent is )igger than R1 *ater as sol/ent" This (henomenon sho*s that the sol&)ilit! of the d!e is )etter in ethanol 203 than R1 *ater" It can )e seen that at the R1 *ater as sol/ent$ at the F4' 5 167$ the /al&e of -C is increasing as the tem(erat&re increases" The higher the tem(erat&re is$ the faster the mass transfer ,of the d!e.$ and the )igger the mass transfer coefficient *ill )e" The tem(erat&re increases the sol&)ilit! of the sol&te in the sol/ent$ so the leaching rate also increases =2>" <o*e/er$ the tendenc! of the F6' ratios is different from that of the tem(erat&re" At F6' 5 1610$ there are almost no differences of the -C /al&e and at F6' 5 1617$ the -C /al&e decreases as the tem(erat&re increases" This (henomenon also occ&rs in ethanol 203 as sol/ent" The increase of -C /al&e occ&rs at F6' 5 167" The constant - C /al&e is at F6' 5 1617 and the decrease of - C /al&e occ&rs at F6' 5 1610" Ethanol 203 gi/es higher /al&e of the mass transfer coefficient at all /ariations" Then it can )e concl&ded that the sol&)ilit! of the d!e is )etter at the ethanol 203"


Fig" 2 The Chart of -C at All 9ariation


Table 1 The /al&e of -C for all /ariations Tem(erat&r F6' -C ,10004s. e ,0C. ,gr4gr. R1 *ater Ethanol 203 30 167 A$D 2$2 1610 E$1 77$7 1617 2 11$H 70 167 2 13$A 1610 7$H E$2 1617 7$2 17$A 20 167 2$7 3A$1 1610 2 2$A 1617 D$2 12$D

Proceeding ICCE 2013 UNPAR

The e (erimental design is &sed to find o&t the significance of the /ariation" From the ta)le of AN19A ,ta)le 2. it can )e concl&ded that all the factors that infl&ences the mass transfer in the d!e e traction" There are interactions of t*o com)inations from the factor of tem(erat&re$ t!(e of sol/ent$ and F6'$ and also the three com)ination of them" Table 2 AN19A of Mass Transfer Coefficient Fo Fo 9ariation from calc&lation ta)le Tem(erat&re 122$0D202 3$77 ,A. 'ol/ent ,0. A$12HD2 D$D1 F6' ,C. 77E$2E172 3$77 Interaction of 3E$7221A 3$77 A0 Interaction of 22$D0HE1 2$H3 AC Interaction of E$272EE 3$77 0C Interaction of DH$H22AH 2$H3 A0C Conclusion 1" The highest /al&e of transfer mass coefficient of R1 *ater and ethanol 203 is o)tained at F6' 5 1610 and tem(erat&re 30oC" 2" Ethanol 203 gi/es the higher /al&e of mass transfer coefficient" 3" T!(e of sol/ent$ tem(erat&re$ and F6' infl&ence the /al&e of mass transfer coefficient" D" There are interaction of t*o com)ination from the factor of tem(erat&re$ t!(e of sol/ent$ and F6'$ and also the three com)ination of them" References =1> Mit?&tani$ Ta-ahar&$ 200H" To icit! of Lanthene Food F!es )! Inhi)ition of <&man Fr&g+Meta)oli?ing En?!mes in a Noncom(etiti/e Manner$ Mo&rnal of En/ironmental and P&)lic <ealth$ 9ol&me 200H ,200H.$ (" 1+H" =2> E&ro(ean Food 'afet! A&thorit!$ 2013" 'cientific 1(inion on the re+e/al&ation of anthoc!anins ,E 1A3. as a food additi/e$ EF'A Mo&rnal$ 11,D.6 31D7" =3> Mardiah$ 'a*arni$ <"$ R" G" Ashadi"$ A" Raha!&$ 200H" )udi 2a$a dan Pengo a#an Rose a si 3era# 4egudang 3an-aa!$ Ceta-an 1$ Agromedia P&sta-a$ Ma-arta =D> M&-aromah$ Um&$ 2010" %adar 9itamin C$ M&t& Fisi-$ (<$ dan M&t& 1rganole(ti- 'ir&( Rosela 0erdasar-an Cara E-stra-si$ 4kri5si$ Uni/ersitas M&hamadi!ah 'emarang " =7> Gang$ <ongB Cao$ N&oh&aB and Prior$ Ronald :"$ 1HH2" 1 !gen Radical A)sor)ing Ca(acit! of Anthoc!anins$ Mo&rnal of Agric&lt&ral and Food Chemistr!$ 9ol&me D7 ,2.$ ((" 30D+30H" =A> 'am&n$ 200E" %oefisien Transfer Massa 9ol&metris E-stra-si Oat Garna Alami dari Rim(ang %&n!it ,Kurkuminoid. di Falam Tang-i 0er(engad&-$ Ekui i&rium 0o % 6$ ("1E" =2> As)i$ 0"A"$ 1HHD" Mass Transfer on A Closed+c!cle 'olid+:i8&id E traction Unit$ Pertani-a Mo&rnal of 'cience and Technolog!$ 9ol"2$ No"2$ (" 232+2D1"

Proceeding ICCE 2013 UNPAR