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Forces and Moments Transmitted by Slender Members

Contents: Slender members Determination of Forces and moments under point loads Sign conventions for shear force and Bending moment Shear force and Bending moment Diagram Distributed Loading Differential Equilibrium relationships Singularity functions

Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 2

Slender members: These are load carrying elements having much greater length (at least five times) than its lateral dimensions Examples: beam, columns, shafts, rods, stringers, struts, and links. Slender members can be pulled, bent and twisted

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**GENERAL METHOD TO FIND INTERNAL FORCES AND MOMENTS
**

1. A general method for determining the internal forces and moments acting across any section of a slender member which is in equilibrium is to cut and that part is isolated from the system. The isolated part is in equilibrium. Apply the equations of equilibrium to find internal forces and moments

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2.

Mechanics of Solids

x- Section : The section normal to x- axis

**y- section : The section normal to y- axis z- section : The section normal to z- axis
**

Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 7

Y MXY

FXX: Force acting on xsection and is along x- axis Similarly FXY, FXZ, MXX, MXY and MXZ can be explained

FXY FXX MXZ Z FXZ

MXX X

8

Forces and moments acting on a cross section of a member. Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari

Positive face of given section If the outward normal points in a positive coordinate direction then that face is called as positive face Negative face of given section If the outward normal points in a negative coordinate direction then that face is called as Negative face

**NOMENCLATURE FXX :- Axial force :
**

This component tends to elongate the member and is often given the symbol F or Fx.

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Mechanics of Solids

FXY, FXZ :- Shear force:

These components tend to shear one part of the member relative to the adjacent part and are often given the symbols V, or VY and VZ

MXX:- Twisting moment:

This component is responsible for the twisting of the member about its axis and is often given the symbol MT or MTZ. These components cause the member to bend and are often given the symbols Mb, or Mby and Mbz.

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MXY, MXZ :- Bending moments:

Mechanics of Solids

**sign convention for the axial force, shear force, and bending moment.
**

If force or moment component acts on a positive face in a positive coordinate direction then these components are treated as positive If force or moment component acts on a negative face in a negative coordinate direction then these components are treated as positive If force or moment component acts on a positive face in a negative coordinate direction then these components are treated as negative If force or moment component acts on a negative face in a positive coordinate direction then these components are treated as negative

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**Positive axial force Fx is a tensile force
**

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P

P

Positive Force (Tensile)

P

**Negative Force (Compressive)
**

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P

13

If the plane of loading is the x-y plane then only three components occur: The axial force Fxx (F), the shear force Fxy, (V), and the bending moment Mxz (Mb),

**Force and moment components in two dimensions
**

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The shear force, V.

The bending moment, M.

Sagging

Hogging

**Sign conventions for SF and BM
**

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**The steps involved in solving the problems
**

1. Idealize the actual problem, i.e., create a model of the system, and isolate the main structure, showing all forces acting on the structure. 2. Using the equations of equilibrium calculate unknown external forces or support reactions

ΣF=0

&

ΣM= 0

3. Cut the member at a point of interest, isolate one of the segments, and repeat step 2 on that segment.

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Example 3.1 As an example, let us consider a beam supporting a weight near the center and resting on two supports, as shown in Fig. 3a. It is desired to find the forces and moments acting at section C.

**If the beam is not completely rigid, it will tend to bend slightly, as in Fig. b.
**

Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 17

Step 1

**Step 2 ΣF = 0 FY = RA+ RB – W = 0 ΣM = 0 ΣMA = RBL – Wa = 0 Σ MB = Wb – RAL = 0
**

Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari

(a)

(b) (c)

18

**which gives RA = Wb/L and RB = Wa/L. Step 3
**

To find the internal forces and moments consider the beam is cut at point C, which is point of interest

**Calculation of shear force and bending moment at a considered section of a beam.
**

Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 19

Wb V =RA = ; Negative L Wb Mb = RAx = x; Positive L

} ---

(d)

Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams: Graphs that show shear force and bending moment plotted against distance along beam are called as shear force and bending moment diagrams respectively

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x

c

D

**c Part AD i.e. 0 < x < a V = RA = Wb/L (Negative shear) So for the part AD shear force is constant Mb = (Wb/L) x (Positive BM) At x = 0 i.e. At point A; Mb = 0 At x = a i.e. At point D; Mb = Wab/L
**

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x

c

D

Part DB

c

i.e. a < x < L

**V = W - RA = Wa/L (Positive shear) So for the part DB shear force is constant Mb = Wa – (Wa/L) x = (Wa/L) (L- x) (Positive BM) At x = a i.e. At point D; Mb =Wab/L At x = L i.e. At point B; Mb = 0
**

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W

Wb Ra = L

Wa Rb = L

Wa L

Wb L Wab L

0

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0

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**Continuously Distributed Loads
**

q ΔF

x Δx

ΔF is total force on the length Δx

**ΔF lim Then Intensity of load q = Δx →0 Δx
**

In engineering most common distributions are Uniform Distribution and Linearly Varying Distributions

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**Resultants of Distributed loads
**

1. Two system of forces are said to be statically equivalent if it takes the same set of additional forces to reduce each system to equilibrium 2. A single force which is statically equivalent to a distribution of force is called the resultant of distributed force system 3. In solving problems with distributed loading, it is often more convenient to work with resultant of the distributed load. This is permitted while evaluating external reactions on the member and NOT when calculating internal forces and moments

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Resultant of loads

Fig. 10 A given loading (a), when replaced by its resultant (b), produces the same support reactions but not the same internal forces and moments nor the same deflections.

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Magnitude of resultant and its location for a distributed loading

**Fig. 11 The resultant R of the distributed loading q(x)
**

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• Consider a one-dimensional loading of parallel forces of intensity q(x) in Fig.11. • To determine the magnitude of its resultant R and its location x, we write the equations of equilibrium twice, once using the actual load q(x) and again using the resultant R at x. • The two sets of equations must give identical reaction forces if R is to be the resultant of the distributed load.

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and

and

**Thus, the conditions on R and x are
**

(3.2)

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The first part of equation (3.2) states that the resultant is equal to the total area of the loading diagram while the second part of equation (3.2) states that the line of action of the resultant passes through the centroid of the loading diagram

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**The centroid of an area in the xy plane has the coordinates
**

(3.3)

**where the integrals extend over the area. The centroid of a volume has the coordinates
**

(3.4)

**where the integrals extend over the volume
**

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Cantilever Beam supporting uniformly distributed load as shown in fig. Draw its shear force and bending moment diagrams

MA

A

x x L

w Force/ unit length

RA

x

R A = wL wL MA = Mechanics of Solids 2

2

**Vertically Upward Anticlockwise direction
**

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Shear force

Vx + R A − wx = 0

At x = 0 ; V = -RA = - wL x=L ; V=0 Bending Moment

w

RA

Vx

w

MA

RA

Mx

wx 2 =0 Mx + MA − R Ax + 2

At x = 0 ; M = -MA = - wL2/2 x=L ; M=0

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MA

A

w Force/ unit length

RA

L

Negative shear Linear distribution

0

wL

0

wL2 2

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Parabolic Curve

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Hogging/ Negative BM

34

W kN A C B

w kN/ length D

W = 1.5 kN w= 1.5 kN/m l (AC)= 1.5 m l (CB)= 2.25m l (BD)= 1.5m

ΣFY = 0 = RA + RB – W – w x 1.5 = 0 ΣMA = 0 = RB x 3.75 – W x 1.5 – w x 1.5 x 4.5 = 0

RA = 0.45 kN

RB = 3.3 kN

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1. Consider section x-x is taken in between A and C (0 < x < 1.5) Shear Force Vx + RA = 0 VA= - 0.45 kN VC= - 0.45 kN Bending Moment Mx – RAx = 0 At x= 0 ; MA= 0 At x= 1.5m ; MC= 0.675 kNm

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2. Consider section x-x is taken in between C and B (1.5 < x < 3.75) Shear Force Vx + RA – W = 0 VC= 1.05 kN VB= 1.05 kN

Bending Moment Mx + W (x – 1.5) – RAx = 0 At x= 1.5m ; MC= 0.675 kNm At x= 3.75m ; MB= - 1.6875 kNm

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3. Consider section x-x is taken in between B and D (3.75 < x < 5.25) Shear Force Vx + RA + RB – W – w (x – 3.75) = 0 At x= 3.75m ; VB= - 2.25 kN At x= 5.25m ; VD= 0 Bending Moment Mx – RAX – RB (x – 3.75) + W (x- 1.5) + w (x – 3.75)2/ 2 At x= 3.75m At x= 5.25m

Mechanics of Solids

**; MB= -1.6875 kNm ; MD= 0 kNm
**

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W kN A

w kN/ length B D

C

1.05 kN 0 - 0.45 kN - 2.25 kN 0.675 kNm 0

Shear Force Diagram

Bending Moment Diagram

- 1.6875 kNm

Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 39

Example 3.4 A beam is subjected to Varying distributed load. Calculate internal forces and moments and draw shear force and bending moment diagrams. In given problem varying distributed load is given. For calculating reactions at support the distributed load has to be replaced by a single resultant force at the location x.

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**Fig.12 Example 3.4. A distributed loading is replaced by its resultant.
**

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The external supports RB and MB are now easily obtained by applying the conditions of equilibrium.

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It is not permissible to use the above resultant R to calculate shear force and bending moments within the beams. We can, however, use general method to find the internal forces and bending moments

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(a)

(b)

(c)

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At x= 0 ; V = 0 At x= L ; V = woL / 2

At x= 0 ; M = 0 At x= L ; M = - woL2 / 6

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Parabolic distribution

w oL 2

+ ve Shear

Hogging

Cubic distribution

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**DIFFERENTIAL EQUILIBRIUM RELATIONSHIPS
**

1. It is an alternative procedure for obtaining internal forces and moments for the slender members 2. Instead of cutting a beam in two and applying the equilibrium conditions to one of the segments, very small differential element of the beam will be considered 3. The conditions of equilibrium combined with a limiting conditions will lead us to differential equations connecting the load, the shear force, and the bending moment

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4. Integration of these relationships for particular cases furnishes us with an alternative method for evaluating shear forces and bending moments.

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If the variation of q(x) is smooth and if Δx is very small then R is very nearly given by q Δx and the line of action of R will very nearly pass through the midpoint ‘o’ of the element. The conditions of equilibrium applied to Fig. 14c are then

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Integrating above equations with appropriate conditions will give values of shear forces and bending moments

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Example 3.5 In Fig.15a a beam carrying a uniformly distributed load of intensity q = - wo is supported by a pinned joint at A and a roller support at B. We shall obtain shear-force and bending-moment diagrams by integration of the differential relationships (3.11) and (3.12).

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RA = R B = w o L / 2

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We have two boundary conditions available to find C1 and C2. External moments are absent at either end of the beam, hence

Mb= 0 Mb= 0

C2 yield

Mechanics of Solids

at x = 0 at x = L

Inserting these boundary conditions values of C1 and

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The shear force and bending moment are then given by

The bending moment is maximum when the shear force is zero.

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Example 3.6 Consider the beam shown in Fig. 3.16a with simple transverse supports at A and B and loaded with a uniformly distributed load q = - w0 over a portion of the length. It is desired to obtain the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams.

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**Part AC Shear Force
**

dV1 − wO = 0 dx

Bending Moment

dM b1 dM b1 +V = 0 ⇒ + wO x + C1 = 0 dx dx 1 M b1 + wO x 2 + C1 x = C2 2

V1 − wO x = C1

**Part CB Shear Force
**

dV2 =0 dx

Bending Moment

dM b 2 +V = 0 dx ⇒ dM b 2 + C3 = 0 dx

V2 = C3

Mechanics of Solids

M b 2 + C3 x = C4

Vikas Chaudhari 58

For 4 Constants i.e. C1, C2, C3 and C4 we need to have 4 boundary conditions At x = 0; At x = a; MA = 0 V1 = V2 = VC Mb1 = Mb2 = MC By applying these BC we get values of C1, C2, C3 and C4 as follows

1 a C1 = wO a( − 2) 2 L

C2 = 0

Mechanics of Solids

At x = L; and

MB = 0

Vikas Chaudhari

1 wO a 2 C3 = 2 L 1 C4 = wO a 2 2

59

**Part AC Shear Force
**

1 a V1 = wO x + wO a( − 2) 2 L 1 a 1 ( L + b) VA = wO a ( − 2) = − wO a 2 L 2 L 2 w a VC = O 2L

1 1 a 2 M b1 + wO x + wO a ( − 2) x = 0 2 2 L

Bending Moment

MA = 0 1 2 b M C = wO a ( ) 2 L

**Part CB Shear Force
**

1 wO a 2 V2 = 2 L = VC = VB

**Shear force will be constant in betn C to B
**

Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari

1 1 2 M b2 + wO a x = wO a 2 2L 2 1 2 b M C = wO a ( ) 2 L MB = 0

Bending Moment

60

1 a V1 = wO x + wO a ( − 2) = 0 2 L

x=

a ( L + b) 2L

M b max

wO a 2 ( L + b) 2 = 8 L2

61

Mechanics of Solids

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SINGULARITY FUNCTION METHOD

f n ( x) =< x − a >

n

If x < a, the f n (x) = 0

If x > a, the f n (x) = < x − a >

< x−a > ∫∞< x − a > dx = n + 1 −

x n

Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari

n

n +1

n≥0

62

is called unit concentrated moment

function < x − a > − 2

function < x − a > −1

is called unit concentrated load

Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 63

function < x − a > 0 is called unit step function

**function < x − a > is called unit ramp function
**

1

Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 64

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**Solve the following example using singularity function
**

C

a2 ∑ M A = 0 = RB L − wO 2 a2 RB = wO 2L

a M B = 0 = − RA L + wO a( + b) ∑ 2 L2 − b 2 RA = wO 2L

Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 66

q ( x ) = q ( x )1 + q ( x ) 2 + q ( x ) 3 + q ( x ) 4

q ( x)1 = R A < x > −1

q ( x) 2 = − w0 < x >

0

q ( x) 3 = w0 < x − a >

Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari

0

q ( x) 4 = RB < x − L > −1

67

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L2 − b 2 VA = − RA = − wO 2L a2 VC = wO 2L a2 VB = wO 2L

MA = 0 a 2b M C = wO 2L MB = 0

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1 a V1 = wO x + wO a ( − 2) = 0 2 L

x=

a ( L + b) 2L

M b max

wO a 2 ( L + b) 2 = 8 L2

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A RA 20kN

C

20kN

12kN D B RB

Distance betn 20kN forces is 0.6m

R A + R B = 12kN R A = 2kN

RB = 10kN

Mechanics of Solids

l (AC)= l (CD)= l (DB)= 2m

RB × 6 − 12 × 4 − 20 × 0.6 = 0

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q ( x ) = q ( x )1 + q ( x ) 2 + q ( x ) 3 + q ( x ) 4

q ( x)1 = R A < x − 0 > −1 = 2 < x − 0 > −1

q( x) 2 = M 0 < x − 2 > − 2 = 12 < x − 2 > − 2

q ( x) 3 = −12 < x − 4 > −1

q ( x) 4 = RB < x − 6 > −1 = 10 < x − 6 > −1

V = − ∫ q ( x)dx

Mechanics of Solids

x

−∞

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V = - [ 2 < x − 0 > 0 + 12 < x − 2 > −1 0 0 − 12 < x − 4 > + 10 < x − 6 > ]

V for AC

VAC = - [ 2 < x − 0 > ] = −2 × 1 = −2kN

0

V for CD

VCD = - [ 2 < x − 0 > ] = −2 × 1 = −2kN

0

Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 73

V for DB

VDB = - [ 2 < x − 0 > + 12 < x − 4 > ]

0

0

= −2 × 1 + 12 × 1 = 10kN

M = − ∫ Vdx

−∞ x

V = - [ 2 < x − 0 > 0 + 12 < x − 2 > −1 0 − 12 < x − 4 > + 10 < x − 6 > 0 ]

Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 74

M = − ∫ − [2 < x − 0 > 0+ 12 < x − 2 > −1

−∞

x

− 12 < x − 4 > + 10 < x − 6 > 0 ]

0

M = [2 < x − 0 > + 12 < x − 2 > 0

1

− 12 < x − 4 > + 10 < x − 6 > ]

1

1

M for AC

M AC = 2 < x − 0 >1 = 2 x

MA =0

Mechanics of Solids

M C = 4kNm

Vikas Chaudhari 75

M for CD

M CD = 2 < x − 0 >1 + 12 < x − 2 > 0 M CD = 2 x + 12 M C = 2 × 2 + 12 = 16kNm M D = 2 × 4 + 12 = 20kNm

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M for DB

M DB = 2 < x − 0 > + 12 < x − 2 >

1

0

− 12 < x − 4 >

1

M DB = 2 x + 12 − 12( x − 4) M D = 2 × 4 + 12 = 20kNm M B = 2 × 6 + 12 − 12 × 2 = 0

Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 77

A RA 20kN

C

20kN

12kN D B RB

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RB = P

PL MB = 2

VA = VB = − P

PL M b = Px − 2 PL M bA = − 2 PL M bB = 2

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0 -P

PL 2

SFD

0 PL − 2 Mechanics of Solids

BMD

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Exercise Problems

Find the values of shear force and bending moment for the give beams. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams. Use the general method for analysis.

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Ex. 1

Ex. 2

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Ex. 3

Ex. 4

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Ex. 5

Ex. 6

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Ex. 7

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Solve the Exercise problems 1- 7 using singularity function method. Solve the Exercise problems 2, 3, 6, and 7 using differential equilibrium relationships. Ignore the values of point loads and concentrated moments given in those problems.

Note: The values of SF & BM for the problem solved by General method and Singularity function method will be same. But values of SF and BM of the problem solved by differential equilibrium method will not be same as we are considering only uniform distributed loads and neglecting the point loads and concentrated moments.

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