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Chapter 3

Forces and Moments


Transmitted by Slender
Members
Contents:
Slender members
Determination of Forces and moments under
point loads
Sign conventions for shear force and Bending
moment
Shear force and Bending moment Diagram
Distributed Loading
Differential Equilibrium relationships
Singularity functions
Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 2
Slender members:
These are load carrying elements having much
greater length (at least five times) than its lateral
dimensions
Examples:
beam, columns, shafts, rods, stringers, struts,
and links.

Slender members can be pulled, bent and twisted

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GENERAL METHOD TO FIND
INTERNAL FORCES AND MOMENTS

1. A general method for determining the


internal forces and moments acting across
any section of a slender member which is in
equilibrium is to cut and that part is isolated
from the system.

2. The isolated part is in equilibrium. Apply the


equations of equilibrium to find internal
forces and moments

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x- Section : The section normal to x- axis

y- section : The section normal to y- axis

z- section : The section normal to z- axis


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Y FXX: Force
acting on x-
section and is
MXY along x- axis
Similarly FXY, FXZ,
MXX, MXY and MXZ
FXY can be explained

FXX
FXZ MXX
MXZ
Z X
Forces and moments acting on a
Mechanics of Solids cross section of a member.
Vikas Chaudhari 8
Positive face of given section
If the outward normal points in a positive coordinate
direction then that face is called as positive face
Negative face of given section
If the outward normal points in a negative coordinate
direction then that face is called as Negative face

NOMENCLATURE
FXX :- Axial force :
This component tends to elongate the member
and is often given the symbol F or Fx.
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FXY, FXZ :- Shear force:
These components tend to shear one part
of the member relative to the adjacent
part and are often given the symbols V, or
VY and VZ
MXX:- Twisting moment:
This component is responsible for the
twisting of the member about its axis and is
often given the symbol MT or MTZ.
MXY, MXZ :- Bending moments:
These components cause the member to
bend and are often given the symbols Mb,
or Mby and Mbz.
Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 10
sign convention for the axial force, shear
force, and bending moment.
If force or moment component acts on a positive face in a
positive coordinate direction then these components
are treated as positive
If force or moment component acts on a negative face in
a negative coordinate direction then these components
are treated as positive
If force or moment component acts on a positive face in a
negative coordinate direction then these components
are treated as negative
If force or moment component acts on a negative face in
a positive coordinate direction then these components
are treated as negative
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Positive axial force Fx is a tensile force
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P

P
Positive Force P
(Tensile)

Negative Force P
(Compressive)
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If the plane of loading is the x-y plane then only
three components occur:
The axial force Fxx (F), the shear force Fxy, (V), and
the bending moment Mxz (Mb),

Force and moment components in two dimensions

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The shear force, V. The bending moment, M.

Sagging

Hogging

Sign conventions for SF and BM


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The steps involved in solving the problems
1. Idealize the actual problem, i.e., create a
model of the system, and isolate the main
structure, showing all forces acting on the
structure.
2. Using the equations of equilibrium calculate
unknown external forces or support reactions

ΣF=0 & ΣM= 0


3. Cut the member at a point of interest, isolate
one of the segments, and repeat step 2 on
that segment.
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Example 3.1
As an example, let us consider a beam supporting
a weight near the center and resting on two
supports, as shown in Fig. 3a. It is desired to find
the forces and moments acting at section C.

If the beam is not completely rigid, it will


tend to bend slightly, as in Fig. b.

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Step 1

Step 2
ΣF = 0
FY = RA+ RB – W = 0 (a)
ΣM = 0
ΣMA = RBL – Wa = 0 (b)
Σ MB = Wb – RAL = 0 (c)
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which gives RA = Wb/L and RB = Wa/L.
Step 3
To find the internal forces and moments consider
the beam is cut at point C, which is point of interest

Calculation of shear force and bending moment at a


considered section of a beam.
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Wb
V =RA = ; Negative
L
Wb
Mb = RAx = x; Positive
} --- (d)

L
Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams:
Graphs that show shear force and bending moment
plotted against distance along beam are called as
shear force and bending moment diagrams
respectively

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x c

D
c
Part AD i.e. 0 < x < a
V = RA = Wb/L (Negative shear)
So for the part AD shear force is constant

Mb = (Wb/L) x (Positive BM)


At x = 0 i.e. At point A; Mb = 0

At x = a i.e. At point D; Mb = Wab/L


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x
c

D
c
Part DB i.e. a < x < L
V = W - RA = Wa/L (Positive shear)
So for the part DB shear force is constant

Mb = Wa – (Wa/L) x = (Wa/L) (L- x) (Positive BM)


At x = a i.e. At point D; Mb =Wab/L

At x = L i.e. At point B; Mb = 0
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W

Wb Wa
Ra = Rb =
L L
Wa
L
Wb
0
L
Wab
L

0
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Continuously Distributed Loads
q ΔF

x
Δx

ΔF is total force on the length Δx


ΔF
Then Intensity of load q = Δlim
x →0 Δx

In engineering most common distributions are


Uniform Distribution and Linearly Varying
Distributions
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Resultants of Distributed loads
1. Two system of forces are said to be statically
equivalent if it takes the same set of additional forces to
reduce each system to equilibrium
2. A single force which is statically equivalent to a
distribution of force is called the resultant of distributed force
system
3. In solving problems with distributed loading, it is
often more convenient to work with resultant of
the distributed load. This is permitted while
evaluating external reactions on the member and
NOT when calculating internal forces and moments

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Resultant of loads
Fig. 10
A given loading (a),
when replaced by its
resultant (b),
produces the same
support reactions but
not the same internal
forces and moments
nor the same
deflections.

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Magnitude of resultant and its
location for a distributed loading

Fig. 11 The resultant R of the


distributed loading q(x)
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• Consider a one-dimensional loading of parallel
forces of intensity q(x) in Fig.11.
• To determine the magnitude of its resultant R
and its location x, we write the equations of
equilibrium twice, once using the actual load q(x)
and again using the resultant R at x.
• The two sets of equations must give identical
reaction forces if R is to be the resultant of the
distributed load.

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and

and

Thus, the conditions on R and x are

(3.2)

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The first part of equation (3.2) states that the resultant
is equal to the total area of the loading diagram

while the second part of equation (3.2) states that the


line of action of the resultant passes through the
centroid of the loading diagram

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The centroid of an area in the xy plane has the
coordinates

(3.3)

where the integrals extend over the area.


The centroid of a volume has the coordinates

(3.4)

where the integrals extend over the volume


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Cantilever Beam supporting uniformly distributed
load as shown in fig. Draw its shear force and
bending moment diagrams

w Force/ unit length


MA x

A
x x
RA
L

R A = wL Vertically Upward
2
wL
MA = Anticlockwise direction
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Shear force
w
Vx + R A − wx = 0
Vx
At x = 0 ; V = -RA = - wL RA
x=L ; V=0
MA w Mx
Bending Moment
wx 2
Mx + MA − R Ax + =0 RA
2
At x = 0 ; M = -MA = - wL2/2
x=L ; M=0
Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 33
w Force/ unit length
MA

A
RA
L
0 Negative shear

wL Linear distribution

0
wL2 Hogging/
Parabolic Curve Negative BM
2
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W kN
w kN/ length W = 1.5 kN
w= 1.5 kN/m
C B D
A
l (AC)= 1.5 m
l (CB)= 2.25m
l (BD)= 1.5m

ΣFY = 0 = RA + RB – W – w x 1.5 = 0

ΣMA = 0 = RB x 3.75 – W x 1.5 – w x 1.5 x 4.5 = 0

RA = 0.45 kN RB = 3.3 kN

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1. Consider section x-x is taken in between
A and C (0 < x < 1.5)

Shear Force Bending Moment


Vx + RA = 0 Mx – RAx = 0
VA= - 0.45 kN At x= 0 ; MA= 0
VC= - 0.45 kN At x= 1.5m ; MC= 0.675 kNm

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2. Consider section x-x is taken in between
C and B (1.5 < x < 3.75)

Shear Force Bending Moment


Vx + RA – W = 0 Mx + W (x – 1.5) – RAx = 0
VC= 1.05 kN At x= 1.5m ; MC= 0.675 kNm
VB= 1.05 kN At x= 3.75m ; MB= - 1.6875 kNm

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3. Consider section x-x is taken in between
B and D (3.75 < x < 5.25)
Shear Force
Vx + RA + RB – W – w (x – 3.75) = 0
At x= 3.75m ; VB= - 2.25 kN
At x= 5.25m ; VD= 0
Bending Moment
Mx – RAX – RB (x – 3.75) + W (x- 1.5) + w (x – 3.75)2/ 2
At x= 3.75m ; MB= -1.6875 kNm
At x= 5.25m ; MD= 0 kNm
Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 38
W kN
w kN/ length

A D
C B

1.05 kN

0 Shear Force
- 0.45 kN Diagram

- 2.25 kN

0.675 kNm
Bending Moment
0 Diagram

- 1.6875 kNm
Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 39
Example 3.4
A beam is subjected to Varying distributed load.
Calculate internal forces and moments and draw
shear force and bending moment diagrams.

In given problem varying distributed load is given.


For calculating reactions at support the distributed
load has to be replaced by a single resultant force
at the location x.

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Fig.12 Example 3.4. A distributed loading is replaced
by its resultant.
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The external supports RB and MB are now easily
obtained by applying the conditions of equilibrium.

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It is not permissible to use the above resultant R to
calculate shear force and bending moments within
the beams.

We can, however, use general method to find the


internal forces and bending moments

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(a)

(b)

(c)

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At x= 0 ; V = 0
At x= L ; V = woL / 2

At x= 0 ; M = 0
At x= L ; M = - woL2 / 6
Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 45
w oL
Parabolic distribution 2 + ve Shear

Hogging
Cubic distribution

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DIFFERENTIAL EQUILIBRIUM
RELATIONSHIPS
1. It is an alternative procedure for obtaining internal
forces and moments for the slender members

2. Instead of cutting a beam in two and applying the


equilibrium conditions to one of the segments, very
small differential element of the beam will be considered

3. The conditions of equilibrium combined with a limiting


conditions will lead us to differential equations connecting
the load, the shear force, and the bending moment
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4. Integration of these relationships for particular
cases furnishes us with an alternative method for
evaluating shear forces and bending moments.

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If the variation of q(x) is smooth and if Δx is very
small then R is very nearly given by q Δx and the
line of action of R will very nearly pass through the
midpoint ‘o’ of the element.

The conditions of equilibrium applied to Fig. 14c


are then

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Integrating above equations with appropriate
conditions will give values of shear forces and
bending moments

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Example 3.5
In Fig.15a a beam carrying a uniformly distributed load
of intensity q = - wo is supported by a pinned joint at A
and a roller support at B. We shall obtain shear-force
and bending-moment diagrams by integration of the
differential relationships (3.11) and (3.12).

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RA = R B = w o L / 2

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We have two boundary conditions available to find
C1 and C2.
External moments are absent at either end of the beam,
hence
Mb= 0 at x = 0
Mb= 0 at x = L
Inserting these boundary conditions values of C1 and
C2 yield
Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 54
The shear force and bending moment are then
given by

The bending moment is maximum when the shear


force is zero.

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Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 56
Example 3.6
Consider the beam shown in Fig. 3.16a with simple
transverse supports at A and B and loaded with a
uniformly distributed load q = - w0 over a portion of the
length. It is desired to obtain the shear-force and
bending-moment diagrams.

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Part AC
Shear Force Bending Moment
dV1 dM b1 dM b1
− wO = 0 +V = 0 ⇒ + wO x + C1 = 0
dx dx dx
1
V1 − wO x = C1 M b1 + wO x 2 + C1 x = C2
2
Part CB
Shear Force Bending Moment
dV2 dM b 2 dM b 2
=0 +V = 0 ⇒ + C3 = 0
dx dx dx
V2 = C3 M b 2 + C3 x = C4

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For 4 Constants i.e. C1, C2, C3 and C4 we need
to have 4 boundary conditions

At x = 0; MA = 0 At x = L; MB = 0

At x = a; V1 = V2 = VC and
Mb1 = Mb2 = MC
By applying these BC we get values of C1, C2,
C3 and C4 as follows
1 a 1 wO a 2
C1 = wO a( − 2) C3 =
2 L 2 L
C2 = 0 1
C4 = wO a 2
2
Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 59
Part AC
Shear Force Bending Moment
1 1 a
1 a M b1 + wO x + wO a ( − 2) x = 0
2
V1 = wO x + wO a( − 2) 2 2 L
2 L
1 a 1 ( L + b) MA = 0
VA = wO a ( − 2) = − wO a
2 L 2 L
w a 2
1 2 b
VC = O M C = wO a ( )
2L 2 L

Part CB
Shear Force Bending Moment
1 wO a 2 1 1
V2 = = VC = VB M b2 + wO a x = wO a 2
2

2 L 2L 2
1 2 b
Shear force will be M C = wO a ( )
2 L
constant in betn C to B
MB = 0
Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 60
1 a
V1 = wO x + wO a ( − 2) = 0
2 L

a ( L + b)
x=
2L

wO a 2 ( L + b) 2
M b max =
8 L2

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SINGULARITY FUNCTION METHOD

f n ( x) =< x − a > n

If x < a, the f n (x) = 0

If x > a, the f n (x) = < x − a > n

n +1
< x−a >
x

∫−∞< x − a > dx = n + 1 n≥0


n

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function < x − a > − 2
is called unit concentrated moment

function < x − a > −1


is called unit concentrated load
Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 63
function < x − a > 0
is called unit step function

function < x − a > 1

is called unit ramp function


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Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 65
Solve the following example using singularity
function
a2
∑ M A = 0 = RB L − wO 2
C
a2
RB = wO
2L
a
∑ BM = 0 = − R A L + wO a (
2
+ b)

L2 − b 2
RA = wO
2L

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q ( x ) = q ( x )1 + q ( x ) 2 + q ( x ) 3 + q ( x ) 4
q ( x)1 = R A < x > −1
q ( x) 2 = − w0 < x > 0

q ( x) 3 = w0 < x − a > 0

q ( x) 4 = RB < x − L > −1
Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 67
Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 68
L2 − b 2
VA = − RA = − wO
2L
a2
VC = wO
2L
a2
VB = wO
2L

MA = 0
a 2b
M C = wO
2L
MB = 0

Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 69


1 a
V1 = wO x + wO a ( − 2) = 0
2 L

a ( L + b)
x=
2L

wO a 2 ( L + b) 2
M b max =
8 L2

Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 70


12kN
20kN Distance betn 20kN
A C D B forces is 0.6m
RA 20kN RB

l (AC)= l (CD)= l (DB)= 2m


R A + R B = 12kN
RB × 6 − 12 × 4 − 20 × 0.6 = 0

R A = 2kN
RB = 10kN

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q ( x ) = q ( x )1 + q ( x ) 2 + q ( x ) 3 + q ( x ) 4

q ( x)1 = R A < x − 0 > −1 = 2 < x − 0 > −1


q( x) 2 = M 0 < x − 2 > − 2 = 12 < x − 2 > − 2

q ( x) 3 = −12 < x − 4 > −1


q ( x) 4 = RB < x − 6 > −1 = 10 < x − 6 > −1
x
V = − ∫ q ( x)dx
Mechanics of Solids −∞ Vikas Chaudhari 72
V = - [ 2 < x − 0 > 0 + 12 < x − 2 > −1
− 12 < x − 4 > + 10 < x − 6 > ]
0 0

V for AC

VAC = - [ 2 < x − 0 > ] = −2 × 1 = −2kN


0

V for CD

VCD = - [ 2 < x − 0 > ] = −2 × 1 = −2kN


0

Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 73


V for DB

VDB = - [ 2 < x − 0 > + 12 < x − 4 > ]


0 0

= −2 × 1 + 12 × 1 = 10kN
x
M = − ∫ Vdx
−∞

V = - [ 2 < x − 0 > 0 + 12 < x − 2 > −1


− 12 < x − 4 > + 10 < x − 6 > 0 ]
0

Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 74


x
M = − ∫ − [2 < x − 0 > 0+ 12 < x − 2 > −1
−∞
− 12 < x − 4 > + 10 < x − 6 > 0 ]
0

M = [2 < x − 0 > + 12 < x − 2 > 0


1

− 12 < x − 4 > + 10 < x − 6 > ]


1 1

M for AC

M AC = 2 < x − 0 >1 = 2 x

MA =0 M C = 4kNm
Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 75
M for CD

M CD = 2 < x − 0 >1 + 12 < x − 2 > 0

M CD = 2 x + 12

M C = 2 × 2 + 12 = 16kNm

M D = 2 × 4 + 12 = 20kNm

Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 76


M for DB

M DB = 2 < x − 0 > + 12 < x − 2 >1 0

− 12 < x − 4 > 1

M DB = 2 x + 12 − 12( x − 4)

M D = 2 × 4 + 12 = 20kNm

M B = 2 × 6 + 12 − 12 × 2 = 0

Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 77


12kN
20kN
A C D B

RA 20kN RB

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Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 79
RB = P M b = Px −
PL
2
PL
MB = PL
2 M bA = −
2
VA = VB = − P PL
M bB =
2

Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 80


0
SFD
-P
PL
2
BMD
0
PL

2
Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 81
Exercise Problems
Find the values of shear force and bending
moment for the give beams. Draw the shear
force and bending moment diagrams. Use
the general method for analysis.

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Ex. 1

Ex. 2

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Ex. 3

Ex. 4

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Ex. 5

Ex. 6

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Ex. 7

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Solve the Exercise problems 1- 7 using
singularity function method.
Solve the Exercise problems 2, 3, 6, and
7 using differential equilibrium
relationships. Ignore the values of point
loads and concentrated moments given in
those problems.
Note: The values of SF & BM for the problem solved by General
method and Singularity function method will be same. But values of
SF and BM of the problem solved by differential equilibrium method
will not be same as we are considering only uniform distributed loads
and neglecting the point loads and concentrated moments.

Mechanics of Solids Vikas Chaudhari 87