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as we have given enough time to finish it. The experiments are about how to determine hot-water solubility of wood. Secondly, we would like to thank our dearest lecturer for WTE 219, Miss Noorshashillawati Azura binti Mohammad for her taught and guidance during the experiment. She helped us so much during her lecture in order to ensure that we manage to perform well during our experiment. Nevertheless, we also want to express our deepest gratitude to our dedicated lab assistant, Mr. Rudaini for showing us the proper way of completing our experiment. He helped us so much by showing us the proper method to handle the experiment, hence to get the best result. We hope that on the following experiments, we can perform better with lots of improvement for the next experiment, together with guidance from our lecture. Thank you
TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE 1 2 3 4 5 6 CONTENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT TABLE OF CONTENT INTRODUCTION MATERIALS METHOD RESULT DISCUSSION CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY
EXPERIMENT 3: DETERMINATION OF HOT-WATER SOLUBILITY OF WOOD Introduction This experiment provides a measure of extraneous components, such as tannins, gum, sugars and colouring matter, and in addition, starches. Material and apparatus Stainless Petri dish Sawdust Spatula Oven Desiccators class Gooch crucible Erlenmeyer flask Distilled water reflex condenser Filtering crucible Procedure
1. Weigh out accurately about 2 gram, of air-dry sawdust in stainless steel
Petri dish 0.001 gram. 2. Then transfer sawdust to a 250ml, Erlenmeyer flask, submerged in a boiling water bath, and add 100ml of distilled water.
3. Attach the reflux condenser and digest for three hour, making certain
the water level is held just above the solution level in the flask.
4. Filter the contents of the flask to tare filtering crucible, wash with hot
water and dry in oven to constant weight at 105°c in 24 hours.
5. Lastly, take sample and put in Desiccators class and then weigh it and
take the reading.
RESULT w1 w2
A (gram) 19.492 21.492 10.833
Calculation Wt. of stainless steel Petri dish=19.492 g (w1) Wt. of stainless steel Petri dish + A.D. sawdust =19.492+2 =21.492 gram (W2) Wt of A.D. sawdust= W2-W1=2 gram (W3) Wt of O.D. sawdust=W3X =2 x 0.9869 =1.9738 gram Wt. of crucible=10.833gram (Y1) Wt. of crucible + O.D. extract=10.833 + 21.8334 =32.666 gram (Y2) Wt. of O.D. extract= y2-y1 = 32.666 - 10.833 =21.833 gram (Y3) %Hot water solubility= (W3X-Y3) x 100 = ((1.9738 x 21.833)/1.9738) x 100 W3X =21833 %
Discussion Question 1 What is the name of extractive that soluble in hot water? Answer Starches Question 2 Why we use hot water? Answer Starch only can be soluble in hot water.
Conclusion The percent of water solubility is 21833 % BIBLIOGRAPHY
Miss Noorshashillawati Azura Binti Mohammad, Laboratory Manual Wood Chemistry (WTE 219), University Technology Mara, 26400 Bandar Pusat Jengka, Pahang.