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I SSN 0975-4067

Journal of Sanskrit Research Foundation
The New Trivandrum Sanskrit Series
Vol.V. Book.I & II
T.C 39/37
Journal of Sanskrit Research Foundation
Dr.M. Manimohanan
Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit,Kalady
Executive Editor
Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit,Kalady
Managing Editor
Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit,Kalady
Editorial Board
Dr.V.Sisupalapanikkar,Professor of Sanskrit(Rtd.) Uty. of Kerala
Dr.R.Vijayakumar, Professor of Vyakarana, S.S.U.S.Kalady
Dr.K.Muthulakshmi, Associate professor in Vedanta, S.S.U.S.
Dr.K.K.Sundaresan, Registrar, Kalamandalam
Editorial Advisory Board
Dr.T.Devarajan, Professor of Sanskrit(Rtd), University of Kerala
Dr.P.Chithambaran, Rtd.Professor of Vedanta,S.S.U.S. Kalady
Dr.P.K.Dharmarajan, Professor of Sahitya, S.S.U.S. Kalady
Dr..S.Sobhana, Associate professor in Vedanta, S.S.U.S.Kalady
Dr.K.Sekharan, Professor of Sanskrit, University of Calicut
Associate Editor
Views expressed in the articles are those of the authors and not
necessarily those of the publishers
Ia Upaniad and Rmyaa Dr.V.Vasudevan- 7
Bhadrakalikalam- a Reminiscence of
Dhuli Chitra: A study Babu.K -15
Modern and Vedantic Views
on Mental Health Dr.H.Sylaja -38
Cultivation and related income
in the Arthastra Pushpadasan Kuniyil -44
Rmyaa Plays of
Bhsa Dr. N. Vijayamohanan Pillai - 49
The Creative Genius
in Sree Narayana Guru Dr.Asaletha.V -56
Eco Feminism Shamshad Begum.R - 62
Treatise on Vstuvidya Soumya. K -70
Historical and Cultural Aspects Reflected In
Ashtamimahotsava Prabandha Krishnaveni -79
Influence of Buddhism in the Social Health
Environment of Kerala Soumya.c.s -84
-.... .|...... :...-. ...+ -
.... .....|.-...
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E&- Ehi M & .E .E -104
-.|.. :... -. +. ... ..|- :. . |.. -. . |.-..+ -..|
+ . -..-..||.. .......-. .|.. . -.|.
Rmyaa Plays of Bhsa
Dr. N. Vijayamohanan Pillai
Rmyaa is a brilliant blend of poetry, myths, history, fables and
inspiring thoughts. This unparalleled epic of the world contains the
insight of ancient great thinkers of India which direct a person in
achieving the ultimate aim of human life. Rmyaa plays down the
technique of attaining the four pururthas - dharma, artha, kma and
moka - which enable human beings to attain pleasure and perfection
of life. The narration revolves around the life and character of Rma
who upheld the highest ideals of humanity. Though Vlmki, the first
poet mentioned Rma in some verses as the incarnation of Viu, he
mainly illustrated him as an absolute powerful human being. It brings
out the qualities of Rma like kindness, purity, bravery, composure of
mind, dedication to responsibility and selflessness that make him
magnificent and great figure. The story of his life gives out as a guiding
light for anyone in the path of principles, spirituality and moral values.
Its beautiful description sometimes catches the reader to the utmost
stature of pleasure, and sometimes throws in the deepness of sorrow.
Rmyaa has stayed behind as a permanent and stable basis of
motivation down the centuries to the writers in all the literatures in
India. Bhsa, the earliest and most celebrated dramatist in Sanskrit
Literature was also greatly influenced by the first Indian epic poetry,
Rmyaa. Though, Bhsa is one of the most distinguished names in
Classical Sanskrit Literature we have got very little about his life history.
There are a lot of deferential indications about the greatness of Bhsain
50 Kiraval
the works of a long line of later eminent poets like Klidsa and Dadi.
Among the thirteen plays attributed to Bhsa, Abhiekanaka and
Pratimnaka are dealing with the story, characters and situations of
Rmyaa. Bhsadidnt narrate the whole story of Rmyaa in his
dramas. He found out certain dramatic situations from the dikvya
and developed it carefully and successfully as a drama.
Later, another drama of seven acts named Yajaphala was also
ascribed to Bhsa. But most of the scholars refuse its authorship by
Bhsa. It deals with the Rmyaastory up to the meeting of Paraurma
and rrma after the breaking of the bow of Lord iva by the latter as
the wager of getting St. Daaratha, his wives and sons, Sumantra,
Vasiha, Vivmitra, Janaka, Manthar, St , Paraurma etc. are
the charecters in the drama. The play describes three types of yajas
putrayaja, vivha and the yaja of Vivmitra. Kaikey appears as a
spouse of great traits who stands along the wishes of her husband, in
the drama. The seethe of the common characters through a variety of
incidents make the drama a great success. But some of the scholars
have different opinion about the authorship of this drama. They did not
accept Bhsaas the author of Yajabhala.
Pratimnaka is a drama of seven acts. The first act describes the
story of the journey of Rma, St and Lakmaa to the forest. The
last act ends with the story of their returning to Ayodhya. Bhsadid not
narrate the whole Rmyaastory in the drama. He took certain striking
incidents from the Rmyaaand developed it as some interesting
dramatic situations. The name Pratimnaka is given by T. Gaapati
astri, the first editor of the play on the basis of the colophon at the end
of the manuscript.
Pratimnaka starts with the depiction of the coronation of Rma.
Bhsaskillfully incorporate the story of a tree bark there. St is
confabulating with her friends in the first act of the drama. She brings
Kiraval 51
a tree bark from Avadatika, the servant and wears it for a fun. It is the
time she hears the news of Daarathas decision to coronate Rma and
then the obstruction of the same by Kaikey. She accompanied Rma
along with Lakmaa to the forest wearing the same valkala.
Bhsacreate such a dramatic situation there by making a slight deviation
from the original Rmyaastory. Lakmaa decides to accompany
Rma because he considers himself as Rmas right leg and St as
left leg.
gurorme pdaurum tvamek kartumicchasi
tavaiva daksiah pdo mama savyo bhaviyati (I. 27)
Before wearing the tree bark St enquired Avadtik -hal! kim nu
khalu mampi tvat obhate.(Bhasa 2007) She replies -Bhaini!
sarvaobhanyam surpam nma. alaakarotu bhain.(5) Later, the
tree bark also beatifies St during her existence in the forest. We can
see a similar usage in Klidasas Abhijnakuntala -kimiva hi
madhurm madanam nkrtnm.(I. 20) The king Duyanta utters
these words while seeing akuntal at first in a tree bark dress.
Sumantras narrations to Daaratha about the journey of Rma to
the forest, the kings lamentation, Dasararthas death due to the sunder
of his beloved son etc. are the subject of the second act. Daarathas
expression of grief because of the exile of Rma is the central description
of this act. Daaratha laments by calling Rma his son as Sun, Lakmaa
as day and St as shade.
srya iva gato rmah sryam divasa iva lakmaonugatah
sryadivasvasne chyeva na dyate st

(Pratimnaka, II. 7)
Seeing the returning of Sumantra alone without Rma in the chariot
from the forest, Daaratha says that it is the vehicle send by Yama to
bring him. At the time of Daarathas demise Bharata was not in
Ayodhya. He was in his uncles palace at Kekaya. A Messenger was
send to Kekaya to bring him back. Though the messenger brings Bharata
from his uncles house, he doesnt reveal the tragic incidents that
52 Kiraval
happened in Ayodhya. The entering of Pratimgha by Bharata on the
way to Ayodhya along with the messenger is described in the third act.
Bharata infers the tragic death of his father on seeing the statue of
Daaratha along with the forefathers in the statue house.
Though Bharata vituperates his mother Kaikey acrimoniously as the
reason of the exile of his elder brother Rma and the death of his beloved
father Daaratha, she responds in a calm and cool way as a portliness
mother. She hears Bharata patiently and replies that she only motivates
her husband to keep his rectitude. But Bharata decides to go to the
forest for requesting Rma to come back. He says -
tatra ysymi yatrsau vartate lakmaapriyah
nyodhaya tam vinyodhy sydhy yatra raghvah(III. 24)
The fourth act describes the meeting of Bharata and Rma along
with Sumantra in the forest. Though Bharata requests Rma to come
back to Ayodhya repeatedly, he rejects. Rma advises Bharata to rule
the country on behalf of him. The significant incident describes in the
fifth act is the abduction of St by Rvaa. The returning of Sumantra
from the forest, Sumantras description of the life of Rma in the forest
to Bharata and Kaikey etc. are the subject matter in the sixth act. Here
also Bharata blames Kaikey bitterly.
yah svarjyam parityajya tvanniyogadvanam gatah
tasya bhry ht st paryptaste manaorathah.(VI. 13)
Then Kaikey elucidates the incident how Daaratha was cursed by
a sage earlier whose son was died by the hands of Daaratha. In
continuation of her words Sumantra explained the story of the cuss in
detail which reduces the culpability accused on Kaikey by Bharata
and also it dignifies her character. The destruction of Rvaa by Rma
and the coronation of Vibhaa are described in the last act of the
play. While they were enjoying the victory of the battle, Bharata and
Satrughna along with their mothers reached the forest to call back Rma,
Lakmaa and St and they all returned to Ayodhya.
Kiraval 53
Kaikey in the Rmyaaappears so cruel in her debars and benefits
due to the toxic admonitory of Manthara. Thus she pleads her husband
to put in practice of the two boons that he promised her in the past. She
demands the deportation of Rma to the forest for fourteen years and
the coronation of Bharata in Ayodhya. But in Pratimnaka, Kaikey
demands the expatriation of Rma to the forest and the coronation of
Bharata, her son as the kanyulka that Daaratha promised her earlier.
Kaikey reveals this to Bharata in the third act of the drama Jta!
ulkalubdh nanu praavy.(Bhasa 2007 p. 34).

The significant
point appears here that the king really offered the kingdom to the son
of Kaikey if she married him. Such a diversion in the story brings in
by Bhsadignifies the character of Kaikey in the drama.
Abhiekanaka deals with the story of Kikindhkda,
Sundarakda and Yuddhakda of Rmyana. The drama consists of
six acts. rrma, St, Laksmaa, Sugrva, Bl, Tr, Rvaa,
Vibhsaa, Lord Varua, Lord Agni, Vidydharas, akukara and
other rkasas, Hanmn and other vnaras etc. are the characters
appeared in the drama. The first Act of the drama describes the fight
between Bl and Sugrva. While they are fighting each other Rma
kills Bl with his arrows as agreed with Sugrva. After the death of
Bl, Sugrva becomes the king of Kikindha and the leader of vnaras
as per the direction of Rma.
The story in the second act happens in Laka. Hanmn reaches
Laka in order to find out St. The conversation between Rvana and
St, meeting of Hanmn and St etc. are the subjects here. The
avocations of Hanmn in Laka are described in the third act. He
destroys the Aoka garden and kills Aksakumra. At last he is defeated
by Indrajit and put before Rvaa. Hanmn discloses the aim of his
arrival to Rvaa. He is released by igniting fire on his tail. Dialogues
between Rvana and Vibhsaa also count in here. Hanmn informs
54 Kiraval
the condition of St in Laka to Rma, Lakmaa, Sugrva and others
in the fourth a Act.
During their debate, Vibhaa who is afraid of his brother, Rvaa
reaches there and takes refuge in Rma. Hearing the words of
Vibhaa, Rma asks Varua to give a way to Laka through the
ocean. Varua appears before him and accepts to give his requirement.
They are all along with vnaras go to Laka through the path given by
Varua along the ocean. Fifth act of the drama is the conversation
between Rvaa and St. Rvana requests St repeatedly to accept
him and to refuse Rma.
ste bhvam parityajya mnusesmin gatyui
adyaiva tvm vialki! mahatm riyamavpnuhi.

(V. 9)
The war between Rma and Rvaa is presented in the drama
through the words of two vidydharas in the last Act. St enters in
fire to prove her chastity at the end of the play. But Lord Agni gives
back her to Rma. Abhiekanaka says the story of two coronations
made by Rma the coronation of Sugrva in the first act and the
coronation of Vibhaa in the last act. The character Bl comes in
the first act of the drama. The questions rise by Bl prior to his death
and the replies of Rma are enthusiastic thought provoking.
Bhsa gives much importance to the character of Bl in
Abhiekanaka. He is described as a tragic character in the play. Rma
decided to kill Bl because of the agreement done with Sugrva in the
presence of Hanmn. While Bl questions Rma in the last moments
of his life, he replies some other reasons based on dharma.
bhavat vnarendrea dharmdharmou vijnat
tmnam mgamuddiya bhrtdrbhimaranam(I. 20)
But Bali doesnt satisfy with his reply. He points out that Sugrva
also did the same deed. But he was not punished. Rama replied that
daditastvam hi dadyatvd, addyo naiva dandyate.
incorporating such a discussion Bhsahighlights the character of Bl
Kiraval 55
in the drama.
Bharata and Kaikey are the two shining characters in the
Pratimnaka. Considering Kaikey as the reasons for the two evils,
ie. Rmas sojourn and Daarathas death, Bharata scolds her angrily.
He calls her as a river of polluted water in between the holy rivers
Ganga and Yamuna, ie. the other two mothers, Kausaly and Sumitr.
mama mtuca mtuca madhyasth tvam na sobhase
gagyamunayormadhye kunadva praveit. ( III. 16)
Bharata questions Kaikey for connecting rjyaulka and the
expatriation of Rma to the forest in the third Act of Pratimnaka.
Then Kaikey replies that she will say the reason in the correct place
and in the correct time. She discloses the curse story of Daaratha in
the correct time in the sixth act and in the correct place in the presence
of Sumantra, the other person who knows the details of the curse.
Abhiekanaka and Pratimnaka were performed in the Kerala
stage as a serial by professional actors called Ckyars. These two plays
along with the caryacdmai of aktibhadra are referred to as
Rmyaatrilogy in Kerala.
Works Cited
Bhasa. The Abhishekanataka of Bhasa. Ed. Sastri T. Ganapati.
Trivandrum: TSS, 1913. Print.
Bhasa. Pratimanatakam : Ed. Rupanarayana Tripathi and
Manikya Lala Sastri. J ayapura: Hamsa Prakasana, 2007. Print.
Kalidasa. The Abhijnanasakuntalam. Ed. M. R. Kale and
Raghavabhatta. Bombay: Gopal Narayan &, 1920. Print.