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Contents

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Bibliography; Physical Constants

1. Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Arithmetic and Geometric progressions; Convergence of series: the ratio test;

Convergence of series: the comparison test; Binomial expansion; Taylor and Maclaurin Series;

Power series with real variables; Integer series; Plane wave expansion

2. Vector Algebra. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Scalar product; Equation of a line; Equation of a plane; Vector product; Scalar triple product;

Vector triple product; Non-orthogonal basis; Summation convention

3. Matrix Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Unit matrices; Products; Transpose matrices; Inverse matrices; Determinants; 22 matrices;

Product rules; Orthogonal matrices; Solving sets of linear simultaneous equations; Hermitian matrices;

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors; Commutators; Hermitian algebra; Pauli spin matrices

4. Vector Calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Notation; Identities; Grad, Div, Curl and the Laplacian; Transformation of integrals

5. Complex Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Complex numbers; De Moivres theorem; Power series for complex variables.

6. Trigonometric Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Relations between sides and angles of any plane triangle;

Relations between sides and angles of any spherical triangle

7. Hyperbolic Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Relations of the functions; Inverse functions

8. Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

9. Differentiation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

10. Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Standard forms; Standard substitutions; Integration by parts; Differentiation of an integral;

Dirac -function; Reduction formulae

11. Differential Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Diffusion (conduction) equation; Wave equation; Legendres equation; Bessels equation;

Laplaces equation; Spherical harmonics

12. Calculus of Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

13. Functions of Several Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Taylor series for two variables; Stationary points; Changing variables: the chain rule;

Changing variables in surface and volume integrals Jacobians

14. Fourier Series and Transforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Fourier series; Fourier series for other ranges; Fourier series for odd and even functions;

Complex form of Fourier series; Discrete Fourier series; Fourier transforms; Convolution theorem;

Parsevals theorem; Fourier transforms in two dimensions; Fourier transforms in three dimensions

15. Laplace Transforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

16. Numerical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Finding the zeros of equations; Numerical integration of differential equations;

Central difference notation; Approximating to derivatives; Interpolation: Everetts formula;

Numerical evaluation of denite integrals

17. Treatment of Random Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Range method; Combination of errors

18. Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Mean and Variance; Probability distributions; Weighted sums of random variables;

Statistics of a data sample x

1

, . . . , x

n

; Regression (least squares tting)

Introduction

This Mathematical Formaulae handbook has been prepared in response to a request from the Physics Consultative

Committee, with the hope that it will be useful to those studying physics. It is to some extent modelled on a similar

document issued by the Department of Engineering, but obviously reects the particular interests of physicists.

There was discussion as to whether it should also include physical formulae such as Maxwells equations, etc., but

a decision was taken against this, partly on the grounds that the book would become unduly bulky, but mainly

because, in its present form, clean copies can be made available to candidates in exams.

There has been wide consultation among the staff about the contents of this document, but inevitably some users

will seek in vain for a formula they feel strongly should be included. Please send suggestions for amendments to

the Secretary of the Teaching Committee, and they will be considered for incorporation in the next edition. The

Secretary will also be grateful to be informed of any (equally inevitable) errors which are found.

This book was compiled by Dr John Shakeshaft and typeset originally by Fergus Gallagher, and currently by

Dr Dave Green, using the T

E

X typesetting package.

Version 1.5 December 2005.

Bibliography

Abramowitz, M. & Stegun, I.A., Handbook of Mathematical Functions, Dover, 1965.

Gradshteyn, I.S. & Ryzhik, I.M., Table of Integrals, Series and Products, Academic Press, 1980.

Jahnke, E. & Emde, F., Tables of Functions, Dover, 1986.

Nordling, C. &

Osterman, J., Physics Handbook, Chartwell-Bratt, Bromley, 1980.

Speigel, M.R., Mathematical Handbook of Formulas and Tables.

(Schaums Outline Series, McGraw-Hill, 1968).

Physical Constants

Based on the Review of Particle Properties, Barnett et al., 1996, Physics Review D, 54, p1, and The Fundamental

Physical Constants, Cohen & Taylor, 1997, Physics Today, BG7. (The gures in parentheses give the 1-standard-

deviation uncertainties in the last digits.)

speed of light in a vacuum c 2997 924 58 10

8

m s

1

(by denition)

permeability of a vacuum

0

4 10

7

H m

1

(by denition)

permittivity of a vacuum

0

1/

0

c

2

= 8854 187 817 . . . 10

12

F m

1

elementary charge e 1602 177 33(49) 10

19

C

Planck constant h 6626 075 5(40) 10

34

J s

h/2 h 1054 572 66(63) 10

34

J s

Avogadro constant N

A

6022 136 7(36) 10

23

mol

1

unied atomic mass constant m

u

1660 540 2(10) 10

27

kg

mass of electron m

e

9109 389 7(54) 10

31

kg

mass of proton m

p

1672 623 1(10) 10

27

kg

Bohr magneton eh/4m

e

B

9274 015 4(31) 10

24

J T

1

molar gas constant R 8314 510(70) J K

1

mol

1

Boltzmann constant k

B

1380 658(12) 10

23

J K

1

StefanBoltzmann constant 5670 51(19) 10

8

W m

2

K

4

gravitational constant G 6672 59(85) 10

11

N m

2

kg

2

Other data

acceleration of free fall g 9806 65 m s

2

(standard value at sea level)

1

1. Series

Arithmetic and Geometric progressions

A.P. S

n

= a + (a + d) + (a + 2d) + + [a + (n 1)d] =

n

2

[2a + (n 1)d]

G.P. S

n

= a + ar + ar

2

+ + ar

n1

= a

1 r

n

1 r

,

_

S

=

a

1 r

for [r[ < 1

_

(These results also hold for complex series.)

Convergence of series: the ratio test

S

n

= u

1

+ u

2

+ u

3

+ + u

n

converges as n if lim

n

u

n+1

u

n

< 1

Convergence of series: the comparison test

If each term in a series of positive terms is less than the corresponding term in a series known to be convergent,

then the given series is also convergent.

Binomial expansion

(1 + x)

n

= 1 + nx +

n(n 1)

2!

x

2

+

n(n 1)(n 2)

3!

x

3

+

If n is a positive integer the series terminates and is valid for all x: the term in x

r

is

n

C

r

x

r

or

_

n

r

_

where

n

C

r

n!

r!(n r)!

is the number of different ways in which an unordered sample of r objects can be selected from a set of

n objects without replacement. When n is not a positive integer, the series does not terminate: the innite series is

convergent for [x[ < 1.

Taylor and Maclaurin Series

If y(x) is well-behaved in the vicinity of x = a then it has a Taylor series,

y(x) = y(a + u) = y(a) + u

dy

dx

+

u

2

2!

d

2

y

dx

2

+

u

3

3!

d

3

y

dx

3

+

where u = x a and the differential coefcients are evaluated at x = a. A Maclaurin series is a Taylor series with

a = 0,

y(x) = y(0) + x

dy

dx

+

x

2

2!

d

2

y

dx

2

+

x

3

3!

d

3

y

dx

3

+

Power series with real variables

e

x

= 1 + x +

x

2

2!

+ +

x

n

n!

+ valid for all x

ln(1 + x) = x

x

2

2

+

x

3

3

+ + (1)

n+1

x

n

n

+ valid for 1 < x 1

cos x =

e

ix

+ e

ix

2

= 1

x

2

2!

+

x

4

4!

x

6

6!

+ valid for all values of x

sin x =

e

ix

e

ix

2i

= x

x

3

3!

+

x

5

5!

+ valid for all values of x

tan x = x +

1

3

x

3

+

2

15

x

5

+ valid for

2

< x <

2

tan

1

x = x

x

3

3

+

x

5

5

valid for 1 x 1

sin

1

x = x +

1

2

x

3

3

+

1.3

2.4

x

5

5

+ valid for 1 < x < 1

2

Integer series

N

1

n = 1 + 2 + 3 + + N =

N(N + 1)

2

N

1

n

2

= 1

2

+ 2

2

+ 3

2

+ + N

2

=

N(N + 1)(2N + 1)

6

N

1

n

3

= 1

3

+ 2

3

+ 3

3

+ + N

3

= [1 + 2 + 3 + N]

2

=

N

2

(N + 1)

2

4

1

(1)

n+1

n

= 1

1

2

+

1

3

1

4

+ = ln 2 [see expansion of ln(1 + x)]

1

(1)

n+1

2n 1

= 1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+ =

4

[see expansion of tan

1

x]

1

1

n

2

= 1 +

1

4

+

1

9

+

1

16

+ =

2

6

N

1

n(n + 1)(n + 2) = 1.2.3 + 2.3.4 + + N(N + 1)(N + 2) =

N(N + 1)(N + 2)(N + 3)

4

This last result is a special case of the more general formula,

N

1

n(n + 1)(n + 2) . . . (n + r) =

N(N + 1)(N + 2) . . . (N + r)(N + r + 1)

r + 2

.

Plane wave expansion

exp(ikz) = exp(ikr cos) =

l=0

(2l + 1)i

l

j

l

(kr)P

l

(cos),

where P

l

(cos) are Legendre polynomials (see section 11) and j

l

(kr) are spherical Bessel functions, dened by

j

l

() =

_

2

J

l+

1

/

2

(), with J

l

(x) the Bessel function of order l (see section 11).

2. Vector Algebra

If i, j, k are orthonormal vectors and A = A

x

i + A

y

j + A

z

k then [A[

2

= A

2

x

+ A

2

y

+ A

2

z

. [Orthonormal vectors

orthogonal unit vectors.]

Scalar product

A B = [A[ [B[ cos where is the angle between the vectors

= A

x

B

x

+ A

y

B

y

+ A

z

B

z

= [ A

x

A

y

A

z ]

_

_

B

x

B

y

B

z

_

_

Scalar multiplication is commutative: A B = B A.

Equation of a line

A point r (x, y, z) lies on a line passing through a point a and parallel to vector b if

r = a + b

with a real number.

3

Equation of a plane

A point r (x, y, z) is on a plane if either

(a) r

(b)

x

X

+

y

Y

+

z

Z

= 1 where X, Y, Z are the intercepts on the axes.

Vector product

AB = n [A[ [B[ sin, where is the angle between the vectors and n is a unit vector normal to the plane containing

A and B in the direction for which A, B, n form a right-handed set of axes.

A B in determinant form

i j k

A

x

A

y

A

z

B

x

B

y

B

z

A B in matrix form

_

_

0 A

z

A

y

A

z

0 A

x

A

y

A

x

0

_

_

_

_

B

x

B

y

B

z

_

_

Vector multiplication is not commutative: A B = B A.

Scalar triple product

A B C = A B C =

A

x

A

y

A

z

B

x

B

y

B

z

C

x

C

y

C

z

= A C B, etc.

Vector triple product

A (B C) = (A C)B (A B)C, (A B) C = (A C)B (B C)A

Non-orthogonal basis

A = A

1

e

1

+ A

2

e

2

+ A

3

e

3

A

1

=

A where

=

e

2

e

3

e

1

(e

2

e

3

)

Similarly for A

2

and A

3

.

Summation convention

a = a

i

e

i

implies summation over i = 1 . . . 3

a b = a

i

b

i

(a b)

i

=

i jk

a

j

b

k

where

123

= 1;

i jk

=

ik j

i jk

klm

=

il

jm

im

jl

4

3. Matrix Algebra

Unit matrices

The unit matrix I of order n is a square matrix with all diagonal elements equal to one and all off-diagonal elements

zero, i.e., (I)

i j

=

i j

. If A is a square matrix of order n, then AI = I A = A. Also I = I

1

.

I is sometimes written as I

n

if the order needs to be stated explicitly.

Products

If A is a (n l) matrix and B is a (l m) then the product AB is dened by

(AB)

i j

=

l

k=1

A

ik

B

k j

In general AB ,= BA.

Transpose matrices

If A is a matrix, then transpose matrix A

T

is such that (A

T

)

i j

= (A)

ji

.

Inverse matrices

If A is a square matrix with non-zero determinant, then its inverse A

1

is such that AA

1

= A

1

A = I.

(A

1

)

i j

=

transpose of cofactor of A

i j

[A[

where the cofactor of A

i j

is (1)

i+j

times the determinant of the matrix A with the j-th row and i-th column deleted.

Determinants

If A is a square matrix then the determinant of A, [A[ ( det A) is dened by

[A[ =

i, j,k,...

i jk...

A

1i

A

2j

A

3k

. . .

where the number of the sufxes is equal to the order of the matrix.

22 matrices

If A =

_

a b

c d

_

then,

[A[ = ad bc A

T

=

_

a c

b d

_

A

1

=

1

[A[

_

d b

c a

_

Product rules

(AB . . . N)

T

= N

T

. . . B

T

A

T

(AB . . . N)

1

= N

1

. . . B

1

A

1

(if individual inverses exist)

[AB . . . N[ = [A[ [B[ . . . [N[ (if individual matrices are square)

Orthogonal matrices

An orthogonal matrix Q is a square matrix whose columns q

i

form a set of orthonormal vectors. For any orthogonal

matrix Q,

Q

1

= Q

T

, [Q[ = 1, Q

T

is also orthogonal.

5

Solving sets of linear simultaneous equations

If A is square then Ax = b has a unique solution x = A

1

b if A

1

exists, i.e., if [A[ ,= 0.

If A is square then Ax = 0 has a non-trivial solution if and only if [A[ = 0.

An over-constrained set of equations Ax = b is one in which A has m rows and n columns, where m (the number

of equations) is greater than n (the number of variables). The best solution x (in the sense that it minimizes the

error [Ax b[) is the solution of the n equations A

T

Ax = A

T

b. If the columns of A are orthonormal vectors then

x = A

T

b.

Hermitian matrices

The Hermitian conjugate of A is A

= (A

)

T

, where A

conjugate of the corresponding components of A. If A = A

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

The n eigenvalues

i

and eigenvectors u

i

of an n n matrix A are the solutions of the equation Au = u. The

eigenvalues are the zeros of the polynomial of degree n, P

n

() = [A I[. If A is Hermitian then the eigenvalues

i

are real and the eigenvectors u

i

are mutually orthogonal. [A I[ = 0 is called the characteristic equation of the

matrix A.

Tr A =

i

, also [A[ =

i

.

If S is a symmetric matrix, is the diagonal matrix whose diagonal elements are the eigenvalues of S, and U is the

matrix whose columns are the normalized eigenvectors of A, then

U

T

SU = and S = UU

T

.

If x is an approximation to an eigenvector of A then x

T

Ax/(x

T

x) (Rayleighs quotient) is an approximation to the

corresponding eigenvalue.

Commutators

[A, B] AB BA

[A, B] = [B, A]

[A, B]

= [B

, A

]

[A + B, C] = [A, C] + [B, C]

[AB, C] = A[B, C] + [A, C]B

[A, [B, C]] + [B, [C, A]] + [C, [A, B]] = 0

Hermitian algebra

b

= (b

1

, b

2

, . . .)

Matrix form Operator form Bra-ket form

Hermiticity b

A c = (A b)

c

Z

O =

Z

(O)

[O[)

Eigenvalues, real Au

i

=

(i)

u

i

O

i

=

(i)

i

O[i) =

i

[i)

Orthogonality u

i

u

j

= 0

Z

j

= 0 i[ j) = 0 (i ,= j)

Completeness b =

i

u

i

(u

i

b) =

i

_

Z

_

=

i

[i) i[)

RayleighRitz

Lowest eigenvalue

0

b

A b

b

b

0

Z

O

Z

[O[)

[)

6

Pauli spin matrices

x

=

_

0 1

1 0

_

,

y

=

_

0 i

i 0

_

,

z

=

_

1 0

0 1

_

y

= i

z

,

y

z

= i

x

,

z

x

= i

y

,

x

x

=

y

y

=

z

z

= I

4. Vector Calculus

Notation

is a scalar function of a set of position coordinates. In Cartesian coordinates

= (x, y, z); in cylindrical polar coordinates = (, , z); in spherical

polar coordinates = (r, , ); in cases with radial symmetry = (r).

A is a vector function whose components are scalar functions of the position

coordinates: in Cartesian coordinates A = iA

x

+ jA

y

+kA

z

, where A

x

, A

y

, A

z

are independent functions of x, y, z.

In Cartesian coordinates (del) i

x

+ j

y

+ k

z

_

z

_

_

grad = , div A = A, curl A = A

Identities

grad(

1

+

2

) grad

1

+ grad

2

div(A

1

+ A

2

) div A

1

+ div A

2

grad(

1

2

)

1

grad

2

+

2

grad

1

curl(A

+ A

) curl A

1

+ curl A

2

div(A) div A + (grad) A, curl(A) curl A + (grad) A

div(A

1

A

2

) A

2

curl A

1

A

1

curl A

2

curl(A

1

A

2

) A

1

div A

2

A

2

div A

1

+ (A

2

grad)A

1

(A

1

grad)A

2

div(curl A) 0, curl(grad) 0

curl(curl A) grad(div A) div(grad A) grad(div A)

2

A

grad(A

1

A

2

) A

1

(curl A

2

) + (A

1

grad)A

2

+ A

2

(curl A

1

) + (A

2

grad)A

1

7

Grad, Div, Curl and the Laplacian

Cartesian Coordinates Cylindrical Coordinates Spherical Coordinates

Conversion to

Cartesian

Coordinates

x = cos y = sin z = z

x = r cos sin y = r sinsin

z = r cos

Vector A A

x

i + A

y

j + A

z

k A

+ A

+ A

z

z A

r

r + A

+ A

Gradient

x

i +

y

j +

z

k

+

1

+

z

z

r

r +

1

r

+

1

r sin

Divergence

A

A

x

x

+

A

y

y

+

A

z

z

1

(A

+

1

+

A

z

z

1

r

2

(r

2

A

r

)

r

+

1

r sin

A

sin

+

1

r sin

A

Curl A

i j k

z

A

x

A

y

A

z

z

A

A

z

1

r

2

sin

r

1

r sin

1

r

A

r

rA

rA

sin

Laplacian

x

2

+

2

y

2

+

2

z

2

1

_

+

1

2

+

2

z

2

1

r

2

r

_

r

2

r

_

+

1

r

2

sin

_

sin

_

+

1

r

2

sin

2

2

Transformation of integrals

L = the distance along some curve C in space and is measured from some xed point.

S = a surface area

= a volume contained by a specied surface

n = the unit outward pointing normal

A = some vector function

dL = the vector element of curve (=

t dL)

dS = the vector element of surface (= n dS)

Then

Z

C

A

t dL =

Z

C

A dL

and when A =

Z

C

() dL =

Z

C

d

Gausss Theorem (Divergence Theorem)

When S denes a closed region having a volume

Z

( A) d =

Z

S

(A n) dS =

Z

S

A dS

also

Z

() d =

Z

S

dS

Z

( A) d =

Z

S

(n A) dS

8

Stokess Theorem

When C is closed and bounds the open surface S,

Z

S

( A) dS =

Z

C

A dL

also

Z

S

(n ) dS =

Z

C

dL

Greens Theorem

Z

S

dS =

Z

() d

=

Z

2

+ () ()

d

Greens Second Theorem

Z

(

2

2

) d =

Z

S

[() ()] dS

5. Complex Variables

Complex numbers

The complex number z = x + iy = r(cos + i sin) = r e

i(+2n)

, where i

2

= 1 and n is an arbitrary integer. The

real quantity r is the modulus of z and the angle is the argument of z. The complex conjugate of z is z

= x iy =

r(cos i sin) = r e

i

; zz

= [z[

2

= x

2

+ y

2

De Moivres theorem

(cos + i sin)

n

= e

in

= cos n + i sin n

Power series for complex variables.

e

z

= 1 + z +

z

2

2!

+ +

z

n

n!

+ convergent for all nite z

sin z = z

z

3

3!

+

z

5

5!

convergent for all nite z

cos z = 1

z

2

2!

+

z

4

4!

convergent for all nite z

ln(1 + z) = z

z

2

2

+

z

3

3

principal value of ln(1 + z)

This last series converges both on and within the circle [z[ = 1 except at the point z = 1.

tan

1

z = z

z

3

3

+

z

5

5

This last series converges both on and within the circle [z[ = 1 except at the points z = i.

(1 + z)

n

= 1 + nz +

n(n 1)

2!

z

2

+

n(n 1)(n 2)

3!

z

3

+

This last series converges both on and within the circle [z[ = 1 except at the point z = 1.

9

6. Trigonometric Formulae

cos

2

A + sin

2

A = 1 sec

2

A tan

2

A = 1 cosec

2

A cot

2

A = 1

sin 2A = 2 sin Acos A cos 2A = cos

2

A sin

2

A tan 2A =

2 tan A

1 tan

2

A

.

sin(A B) = sin Acos B cos Asin B cos Acos B =

cos(A + B) + cos(A B)

2

cos(A B) = cos Acos B sin Asin B sin Asin B =

cos(A B) cos(A + B)

2

tan(A B) =

tan A tan B

1 tan Atan B

sin Acos B =

sin(A + B) + sin(A B)

2

sin A + sin B = 2 sin

A + B

2

cos

A B

2

sin A sin B = 2 cos

A + B

2

sin

A B

2

cos A + cos B = 2 cos

A + B

2

cos

A B

2

cos A cos B = 2 sin

A + B

2

sin

A B

2

cos

2

A =

1 + cos 2A

2

sin

2

A =

1 cos 2A

2

cos

3

A =

3 cos A + cos 3A

4

sin

3

A =

3 sin A sin 3A

4

Relations between sides and angles of any plane triangle

In a plane triangle with angles A, B, and C and sides opposite a, b, and c respectively,

a

sin A

=

b

sin B

=

c

sin C

= diameter of circumscribed circle.

a

2

= b

2

+ c

2

2bc cos A

a = b cos C + c cos B

cos A =

b

2

+ c

2

a

2

2bc

tan

A B

2

=

a b

a + b

cot

C

2

area =

1

2

ab sin C =

1

2

bc sin A =

1

2

ca sin B =

_

s(s a)(s b)(s c), where s =

1

2

(a + b + c)

Relations between sides and angles of any spherical triangle

In a spherical triangle with angles A, B, and C and sides opposite a, b, and c respectively,

sin a

sin A

=

sin b

sin B

=

sin c

sin C

cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A

cos A = cos B cos C + sin B sin Ccos a

10

7. Hyperbolic Functions

cosh x =

1

2

( e

x

+ e

x

) = 1 +

x

2

2!

+

x

4

4!

+ valid for all x

sinh x =

1

2

( e

x

e

x

) = x +

x

3

3!

+

x

5

5!

+ valid for all x

cosh ix = cos x cos ix = cosh x

sinh ix = i sin x sin ix = i sinh x

tanh x =

sinh x

cosh x

sech x =

1

cosh x

coth x =

cosh x

sinh x

cosech x =

1

sinh x

cosh

2

x sinh

2

x = 1

For large positive x:

cosh x sinh x

e

x

2

tanh x 1

For large negative x:

cosh x sinh x

e

x

2

tanh x 1

Relations of the functions

sinh x = sinh(x) sech x = sech(x)

cosh x = cosh(x) cosech x = cosech(x)

tanh x = tanh(x) coth x = coth(x)

sinh x =

2 tanh (x/2)

1 tanh

2

(x/2)

=

tanh x

_

1 tanh

2

x

cosh x =

1 + tanh

2

(x/2)

1 tanh

2

(x/2)

=

1

_

1 tanh

2

x

tanh x =

_

1 sech

2

x sech x =

_

1 tanh

2

x

coth x =

_

cosech

2

x + 1 cosech x =

_

coth

2

x 1

sinh(x/2) =

_

cosh x 1

2

cosh(x/2) =

_

cosh x + 1

2

tanh(x/2) =

cosh x 1

sinh x

=

sinh x

cosh x + 1

sinh(2x) = 2 sinh x cosh x tanh(2x) =

2 tanh x

1 + tanh

2

x

cosh(2x) = cosh

2

x + sinh

2

x = 2 cosh

2

x 1 = 1 + 2 sinh

2

x

sinh(3x) = 3 sinh x + 4 sinh

3

x cosh 3x = 4 cosh

3

x 3 cosh x

tanh(3x) =

3 tanh x + tanh

3

x

1 + 3 tanh

2

x

11

sinh(x y) = sinh x cosh y cosh x sinh y

cosh(x y) = cosh x cosh y sinh x sinh y

tanh(x y) =

tanh x tanh y

1 tanh x tanh y

sinh x + sinh y = 2 sinh

1

2

(x + y) cosh

1

2

(x y) cosh x + cosh y = 2 cosh

1

2

(x + y) cosh

1

2

(x y)

sinh x sinh y = 2 cosh

1

2

(x + y) sinh

1

2

(x y) cosh x cosh y = 2 sinh

1

2

(x + y) sinh

1

2

(x y)

sinh x cosh x =

1 tanh (x/2)

1 tanh(x/2)

= e

x

tanh x tanh y =

sinh(x y)

cosh x cosh y

coth x coth y =

sinh(x y)

sinh x sinh y

Inverse functions

sinh

1

x

a

= ln

_

x +

_

x

2

+ a

2

a

_

for < x <

cosh

1

x

a

= ln

_

x +

_

x

2

a

2

a

_

for x a

tanh

1

x

a

=

1

2

ln

_

a + x

a x

_

for x

2

< a

2

coth

1

x

a

=

1

2

ln

_

x + a

x a

_

for x

2

> a

2

sech

1

x

a

= ln

_

_

a

x

+

a

2

x

2

1

_

_

for 0 < x a

cosech

1

x

a

= ln

_

_

a

x

+

a

2

x

2

+ 1

_

_

for x ,= 0

8. Limits

n

c

x

n

0 as n if [x[ < 1 (any xed c)

x

n

/n! 0 as n (any xed x)

(1 + x/n)

n

e

x

as n , x ln x 0 as x 0

If f (a) = g(a) = 0 then lim

xa

f (x)

g(x)

=

f

(a)

g

(a)

(lH opitals rule)

12

9. Differentiation

(uv)

= u

v + uv

,

_

u

v

_

=

u

v uv

v

2

(uv)

(n)

= u

(n)

v + nu

(n1)

v

(1)

+ +

n

C

r

u

(nr)

v

(r)

+ + uv

(n)

Leibniz Theorem

where

n

C

r

_

n

r

_

=

n!

r!(n r)!

d

dx

(sin x) = cos x

d

dx

(sinh x) = cosh x

d

dx

(cos x) = sin x

d

dx

(cosh x) = sinh x

d

dx

(tan x) = sec

2

x

d

dx

(tanh x) = sech

2

x

d

dx

(sec x) = sec x tan x

d

dx

(sech x) = sech x tanh x

d

dx

(cot x) = cosec

2

x

d

dx

(coth x) = cosech

2

x

d

dx

(cosec x) = cosec x cot x

d

dx

(cosech x) = cosech x coth x

10. Integration

Standard forms

Z

x

n

dx =

x

n+1

n + 1

+ c for n ,= 1

Z

1

x

dx = ln x + c

Z

ln x dx = x(ln x 1) + c

Z

e

ax

dx =

1

a

e

ax

+ c

Z

x e

ax

dx = e

ax

_

x

a

1

a

2

_

+ c

Z

x ln x dx =

x

2

2

_

ln x

1

2

_

+ c

Z

1

a

2

+ x

2

dx =

1

a

tan

1

_

x

a

_

+ c

Z

1

a

2

x

2

dx =

1

a

tanh

1

_

x

a

_

+ c =

1

2a

ln

_

a + x

a x

_

+ c for x

2

< a

2

Z

1

x

2

a

2

dx =

1

a

coth

1

_

x

a

_

+ c =

1

2a

ln

_

x a

x + a

_

+ c for x

2

> a

2

Z

x

(x

2

a

2

)

n

dx =

1

2(n 1)

1

(x

2

a

2

)

n1

+ c for n ,= 1

Z

x

x

2

a

2

dx =

1

2

ln(x

2

a

2

) + c

Z

1

_

a

2

x

2

dx = sin

1

_

x

a

_

+ c

Z

1

_

x

2

a

2

dx = ln

_

x +

_

x

2

a

2

_

+ c

Z

x

_

x

2

a

2

dx =

_

x

2

a

2

+ c

Z

_

a

2

x

2

dx =

1

2

_

x

_

a

2

x

2

+ a

2

sin

1

_

x

a

__

+ c

13

Z

0

1

(1 + x)x

p

dx = cosec p for p < 1

Z

0

cos(x

2

) dx =

Z

0

sin(x

2

) dx =

1

2

_

2

Z

exp(x

2

/2

2

) dx =

2

Z

x

n

exp(x

2

/2

2

) dx =

_

_

_

1 3 5 (n 1)

n+1

2

0

for n 2 and even

for n 1 and odd

Z

sin x dx = cos x + c

Z

sinh x dx = cosh x + c

Z

cos x dx = sin x + c

Z

cosh x dx = sinh x + c

Z

tan x dx = ln(cos x) + c

Z

tanh x dx = ln(cosh x) + c

Z

cosec x dx = ln(cosec x cot x) + c

Z

cosech x dx = ln [tanh(x/2)] + c

Z

sec x dx = ln(sec x + tan x) + c

Z

sech x dx = 2 tan

1

( e

x

) + c

Z

cot x dx = ln(sin x) + c

Z

coth x dx = ln(sinh x) + c

Z

sin mx sin nx dx =

sin(m n)x

2(m n)

sin(m + n)x

2(m + n)

+ c if m

2

,= n

2

Z

cos mx cos nx dx =

sin(m n)x

2(m n)

+

sin(m + n)x

2(m + n)

+ c if m

2

,= n

2

Standard substitutions

If the integrand is a function of: substitute:

(a

2

x

2

) or

_

a

2

x

2

x = a sin or x = a cos

(x

2

+ a

2

) or

_

x

2

+ a

2

x = a tan or x = a sinh

(x

2

a

2

) or

_

x

2

a

2

x = a sec or x = a cosh

If the integrand is a rational function of sin x or cos x or both, substitute t = tan(x/2) and use the results:

sin x =

2t

1 + t

2

cos x =

1 t

2

1 + t

2

dx =

2 dt

1 + t

2

.

If the integrand is of the form: substitute:

Z

dx

(ax + b)

_

px + q

px + q = u

2

Z

dx

(ax + b)

_

px

2

+ qx + r

ax + b =

1

u

.

14

Integration by parts

Z

b

a

u dv = uv

b

a

Z

b

a

v du

Differentiation of an integral

If f (x, ) is a function of x containing a parameter and the limits of integration a and b are functions of then

d

d

Z

b()

a()

f (x, ) dx = f (b, )

db

d

f (a, )

da

d

+

Z

b()

a()

f (x, ) dx.

Special case,

d

dx

Z

x

a

f (y) dy = f (x).

Dirac -function

(t ) =

1

2

Z

exp[i(t )] d.

If f (t) is an arbitrary function of t then

Z

(t ) f (t) dt = f ().

(t) = 0 if t ,= 0, also

Z

(t) dt = 1

Reduction formulae

Factorials

n! = n(n 1)(n 2) . . . 1, 0! = 1.

Stirlings formula for large n: ln(n!) n ln n n.

For any p > 1,

Z

0

x

p

e

x

dx = p

Z

0

x

p1

e

x

dx = p!. (

1

/

2

)! =

, (

1

/

2

)! =

/

2

, etc.

For any p, q > 1,

Z

1

0

x

p

(1 x)

q

dx =

p!q!

(p + q + 1)!

.

Trigonometrical

If m, n are integers,

Z

/2

0

sin

m

cos

n

d =

m 1

m + n

Z

/2

0

sin

m2

cos

n

d =

n 1

m + n

Z

/2

0

sin

m

cos

n2

d

and can therefore be reduced eventually to one of the following integrals

Z

/2

0

sin cos d =

1

2

,

Z

/2

0

sin d = 1,

Z

/2

0

cos d = 1,

Z

/2

0

d =

2

.

Other

If I

n

=

Z

0

x

n

exp(x

2

) dx then I

n

=

(n 1)

2

I

n2

, I

0

=

1

2

_

, I

1

=

1

2

.

15

11. Differential Equations

Diffusion (conduction) equation

t

=

2

Wave equation

2

=

1

c

2

t

2

Legendres equation

(1 x

2

)

d

2

y

dx

2

2x

dy

dx

+ l(l + 1)y = 0,

solutions of which are Legendre polynomials P

l

(x), where P

l

(x) =

1

2

l

l!

_

d

dx

_

l

_

x

2

1

_

l

, Rodrigues formula so

P

0

(x) = 1, P

1

(x) = x, P

2

(x) =

1

2

(3x

2

1) etc.

Recursion relation

P

l

(x) =

1

l

[(2l 1)xP

l1

(x) (l 1)P

l2

(x)]

Orthogonality

Z

1

1

P

l

(x)P

l

(x) dx =

2

2l + 1

ll

Bessels equation

x

2

d

2

y

dx

2

+ x

dy

dx

+ (x

2

m

2

)y = 0,

solutions of which are Bessel functions J

m

(x) of order m.

Series form of Bessel functions of the rst kind

J

m

(x) =

k=0

(1)

k

(x/2)

m+2k

k!(m + k)!

(integer m).

The same general form holds for non-integer m > 0.

16

Laplaces equation

2

u = 0

If expressed in two-dimensional polar coordinates (see section 4), a solution is

u(, ) =

_

A

n

+ B

n

_

Cexp(in) + Dexp(in)

If expressed in three-dimensional polar coordinates (see section 4) a solution is

u(r, , ) =

_

Ar

l

+ Br

(l+1)

P

m

l

_

Csin m + Dcos m

P

m

l

(cos) = sin

|m|

_

d

d(cos)

_

|m|

P

l

(cos)

is the associated Legendre polynomial.

P

0

l

(1) = 1.

If expressed in cylindrical polar coordinates (see section 4), a solution is

u(, , z) = J

m

(n)

_

Acos m + B sin m

_

Cexp(nz) + Dexp(nz)

Spherical harmonics

The normalized solutions Y

m

l

(, ) of the equation

_

1

sin

_

sin

_

+

1

sin

2

2

_

Y

m

l

+ l(l + 1)Y

m

l

= 0

are called spherical harmonics, and have values given by

Y

m

l

(, ) =

2l + 1

4

(l [m[)!

(l + [m[)!

P

m

l

(cos) e

im

_

(1)

m

for m 0

1 for m < 0

i.e., Y

0

0

=

_

1

4

, Y

0

1

=

_

3

4

cos, Y

1

1

=

_

3

8

sin e

i

, etc.

Orthogonality

Z

4

Y

m

l

Y

m

l

d =

ll

mm

The condition for I =

Z

b

a

F(y, y

F

y

=

d

dx

_

F

y

_

, where y

=

dy

dx

. This is the

EulerLagrange equation.

17

13. Functions of Several Variables

If = f (x, y, z, . . .) then

x

implies differentiation with respect to x keeping y, z, . . . constant.

d =

x

dx +

y

dy +

z

dz + and

x

x +

y

y +

z

z +

where x, y, z, . . . are independent variables.

x

is also written as

_

x

_

y,...

or

x

y,...

when the variables kept

constant need to be stated explicitly.

If is a well-behaved function then

2

x y

=

2

y x

etc.

If = f (x, y),

_

x

_

y

=

1

_

x

_

y

,

_

x

_

y

_

x

y

_

_

y

_

x

= 1.

Taylor series for two variables

If (x, y) is well-behaved in the vicinity of x = a, y = b then it has a Taylor series

(x, y) = (a + u, b + v) = (a, b) + u

x

+ v

y

+

1

2!

_

u

2

x

2

+ 2uv

2

x y

+ v

2

y

2

_

+

where x = a + u, y = b + v and the differential coefcients are evaluated at x = a, y = b

Stationary points

A function = f (x, y) has a stationary point when

x

=

y

= 0. Unless

2

x

2

=

2

y

2

=

2

x y

= 0, the following

conditions determine whether it is a minimum, a maximum or a saddle point.

Minimum:

2

x

2

> 0, or

2

y

2

> 0,

Maximum:

2

x

2

< 0, or

2

y

2

< 0,

_

_

and

2

x

2

y

2

>

_

2

x y

_

2

Saddle point:

2

x

2

y

2

<

_

2

x y

_

2

If

2

x

2

=

2

y

2

=

2

x y

= 0 the character of the turning point is determined by the next higher derivative.

Changing variables: the chain rule

If = f (x, y, . . .) and the variables x, y, . . . are functions of independent variables u, v, . . . then

u

=

x

x

u

+

y

y

u

+

v

=

x

x

v

+

y

y

v

+

etc.

18

Changing variables in surface and volume integrals Jacobians

If an area A in the x, y plane maps into an area A

Z

A

f (x, y) dx dy =

Z

A

x

u

x

v

y

u

y

v

(x, y)

(u, v)

. The corresponding formula for volume integrals is

Z

V

f (x, y, z) dx dy dz =

Z

V

x

u

x

v

x

w

y

u

y

v

y

w

z

u

z

v

z

w

Fourier series

If y(x) is a function dened in the range x then

y(x) c

0

+

M

m=1

c

m

cos mx +

M

m=1

s

m

sin mx

where the coefcients are

c

0

=

1

2

Z

y(x) dx

c

m

=

1

y(x) cos mx dx (m = 1, . . . , M)

s

m

=

1

y(x) sinmx dx (m = 1, . . . , M

)

with convergence to y(x) as M, M

Fourier series for other ranges

Variable t, range 0 t T, (i.e., a periodic function of time with period T, frequency = 2/T).

y(t) c

0

+

c

m

cos mt +

s

m

sin mt

where

c

0

=

2

Z

T

0

y(t) dt, c

m

=

Z

T

0

y(t) cos mt dt, s

m

=

Z

T

0

y(t) sinmt dt.

Variable x, range 0 x L,

y(x) c

0

+

c

m

cos

2mx

L

+

s

m

sin

2mx

L

where

c

0

=

1

L

Z

L

0

y(x) dx, c

m

=

2

L

Z

L

0

y(x) cos

2mx

L

dx, s

m

=

2

L

Z

L

0

y(x) sin

2mx

L

dx.

19

Fourier series for odd and even functions

If y(x) is an odd (anti-symmetric) function [i.e., y(x) = y(x)] dened in the range x , then only

sines are required in the Fourier series and s

m

=

2

Z

0

y(x) sinmx dx. If, in addition, y(x) is symmetric about

x = /2, then the coefcients s

m

are given by s

m

= 0 (for m even), s

m

=

4

Z

/2

0

y(x) sin mx dx (for m odd). If

y(x) is an even (symmetric) function [i.e., y(x) = y(x)] dened in the range x , then only constant

and cosine terms are required in the Fourier series and c

0

=

1

Z

0

y(x) dx, c

m

=

2

Z

0

y(x) cos mx dx. If, in

addition, y(x) is anti-symmetric about x =

2

, then c

0

= 0 and the coefcients c

m

are given by c

m

= 0 (for m even),

c

m

=

4

Z

/2

0

y(x) cos mx dx (for m odd).

[These results also apply to Fourier series with more general ranges provided appropriate changes are made to the

limits of integration.]

Complex form of Fourier series

If y(x) is a function dened in the range x then

y(x)

M

M

C

m

e

imx

, C

m

=

1

2

Z

y(x) e

imx

dx

with m taking all integer values in the range M. This approximation converges to y(x) as M under the same

conditions as the real form.

For other ranges the formulae are:

Variable t, range 0 t T, frequency = 2/T,

y(t) =

C

m

e

imt

, C

m

=

2

Z

T

0

y(t) e

imt

dt.

Variable x

, range 0 x

L,

y(x

) =

C

m

e

i2mx

/L

, C

m

=

1

L

Z

L

0

y(x

) e

i2mx

/L

dx

.

Discrete Fourier series

If y(x) is a function dened in the range x which is sampled in the 2N equally spaced points x

n

=

nx/N [n = (N 1) . . . N], then

y(x

n

) = c

0

+ c

1

cos x

n

+ c

2

cos 2x

n

+ + c

N1

cos(N 1)x

n

+ c

N

cos Nx

n

+ s

1

sin x

n

+ s

2

sin 2x

n

+ + s

N1

sin(N 1)x

n

+ s

N

sin Nx

n

where the coefcients are

c

0

=

1

2N

y(x

n

)

c

m

=

1

N

y(x

n

) cos mx

n

(m = 1, . . . , N 1)

c

N

=

1

2N

y(x

n

) cos Nx

n

s

m

=

1

N

y(x

n

) sin mx

n

(m = 1, . . . , N 1)

s

N

=

1

2N

y(x

n

) sin Nx

n

each summation being over the 2N sampling points x

n

.

20

Fourier transforms

If y(x) is a function dened in the range x then the Fourier transformy() is dened by the equations

y(t) =

1

2

Z

y() e

it

d, y() =

Z

y(t) e

it

dt.

If is replaced by 2f , where f is the frequency, this relationship becomes

y(t) =

Z

y( f ) e

i2f t

df , y( f ) =

Z

y(t) e

i2f t

dt.

If y(t) is symmetric about t = 0 then

y(t) =

1

Z

0

y() cos t d, y() = 2

Z

0

y(t) cost dt.

If y(t) is anti-symmetric about t = 0 then

y(t) =

1

Z

0

y() sint d, y() = 2

Z

0

y(t) sint dt.

Specic cases

y(t) = a, [t[

= 0, [t[ >

_

(Top Hat), y() = 2a

sin

2a sinc()

where sinc(x) =

sin(x)

x

y(t) = a(1 [t[/), [t[

= 0, [t[ >

_

(Saw-tooth), y() =

2a

(1 cos ) = a sinc

2

_

2

_

y(t) = exp(t

2

/t

2

0

) (Gaussian), y() = t

0

exp

_

2

t

2

0

/4

_

y(t) = f (t) e

i

0

t

(modulated function), y() =

f (

0

)

y(t) =

m=

(t m) (sampling function) y() =

n=

( 2n/)

21

Convolution theorem

If z(t) =

Z

x()y(t ) d =

Z

Conversely, xy = x y.

Parsevals theorem

Z

(t) y(t) dt =

1

2

Z

Fourier transforms in two dimensions

V(k) =

Z

V(r) e

ikr

d

2

r

=

Z

0

2rV(r)J

0

(kr) dr if azimuthally symmetric

Fourier transforms in three dimensions

Examples

V(r)

V(k)

1

4r

1

k

2

e

r

4r

1

k

2

+

2

V(r) ik

V(k)

2

V(r) k

2

V(k)

V(k) =

Z

V(r) e

ikr

d

3

r

=

4

k

Z

0

V(r) r sin kr dr if spherically symmetric

V(r) =

1

(2)

3

Z

V(k) e

ikr

d

3

k

22

15. Laplace Transforms

If y(t) is a function dened for t 0, the Laplace transform y(s) is dened by the equation

y(s) = Ly(t) =

Z

0

e

st

y(t) dt

Function y(t) (t > 0) Transform y(s)

(t) 1 Delta function

(t)

1

s

Unit step function

t

n

n!

s

n+1

t

1

/

2

1

2

_

s

3

t

1

/

2

_

s

e

at

1

(s + a)

sint

(s

2

+

2

cos t

s

(s

2

+

2

)

sinht

(s

2

2

)

cosht

s

(s

2

2

)

e

at

y(t) y(s + a)

y(t ) (t ) e

s

y(s)

ty(t)

dy

ds

dy

dt

sy(s) y(0)

d

n

y

dt

n

s

n

y(s) s

n1

y(0) s

n2

_

dy

dt

_

0

_

d

n1

y

dt

n1

_

0

Z

t

0

y() d

y(s)

s

Z

t

0

x() y(t ) d

Z

t

0

x(t ) y() d

_

_

x(s) y(s) Convolution theorem

[Note that if y(t) = 0 for t < 0 then the Fourier transform of y(t) is y() = y(i).]

23

16. Numerical Analysis

Finding the zeros of equations

If the equation is y = f (x) and x

n

is an approximation to the root then either

x

n+1

= x

n

f (x

n

)

f

(x

n

)

. (Newton)

or, x

n+1

= x

n

x

n

x

n1

f (x

n

) f (x

n1

)

f (x

n

) (Linear interpolation)

are, in general, better approximations.

Numerical integration of differential equations

If

dy

dx

= f (x, y) then

y

n+1

= y

n

+ h f (x

n

, y

n

) where h = x

n+1

x

n

(Euler method)

Putting y

n+1

= y

n

+ h f (x

n

, y

n

) (improved Euler method)

then y

n+1

= y

n

+

h[ f (x

n

, y

n

) + f (x

n+1

, y

n+1

)]

2

Central difference notation

If y(x) is tabulated at equal intervals of x, where h is the interval, then y

n+1/2

= y

n+1

y

n

and

2

y

n

= y

n+1/2

y

n1/2

Approximating to derivatives

_

dy

dx

_

n

y

n+1

y

n

h

y

n

y

n1

h

y

n+

1

/

2

+ y

n

1

/

2

2h

where h = x

n+1

x

n

_

d

2

y

dx

2

_

n

y

n+1

2y

n

+ y

n1

h

2

=

2

y

n

h

2

Interpolation: Everetts formula

y(x) = y(x

0

+h) y

0

+y

1

+

1

3!

(

2

1)

2

y

0

+

1

3!

(

2

1)

2

y

1

+

where is the fraction of the interval h (= x

n+1

x

n

) between the sampling points and = 1 . The rst two

terms represent linear interpolation.

Numerical evaluation of denite integrals

Trapezoidal rule

The interval of integration is divided into n equal sub-intervals, each of width h; then

Z

b

a

f (x) dx h

_

c

1

2

f (a) + f (x

1

) + + f (x

j

) + +

1

2

f (b)

_

where h = (b a)/n and x

j

= a + jh.

Simpsons rule

The interval of integration is divided into an even number (say 2n) of equal sub-intervals, each of width h =

(b a)/2n; then

Z

b

a

f (x) dx

h

3

_

f (a) + 4 f (x

1

) + 2 f (x

2

) + 4 f (x

3

) + + 2 f (x

2n2

) + 4 f (x

2n1

) + f (b)

24

Gausss integration formulae

These have the general form

Z

1

1

y(x) dx

n

1

c

i

y(x

i

)

For n = 2 : x

i

= 05773; c

i

= 1, 1 (exact for any cubic).

For n = 3 : x

i

= 07746, 00, 07746; c

i

= 0555, 0888, 0555 (exact for any quintic).

17. Treatment of Random Errors

Sample mean x =

1

n

(x

1

+ x

2

+ x

n

)

Residual: d = x x

Standard deviation of sample: s =

1

n

(d

2

1

+ d

2

2

+ d

2

n

)

1/2

Standard deviation of distribution:

1

n 1

(d

2

1

+ d

2

2

+ d

2

n

)

1/2

Standard deviation of mean:

m

=

n

=

1

_

n(n 1)

(d

2

1

+ d

2

2

+ d

2

n

)

1/2

=

1

_

n(n 1)

_

x

2

i

1

n

_

x

i

_

2

_

1/2

Result of n measurements is quoted as x

m

.

Range method

A quick but crude method of estimating is to nd the range r of a set of n readings, i.e., the difference between

the largest and smallest values, then

r

n

.

This is usually adequate for n less than about 12.

Combination of errors

If Z = Z(A, B, . . .) (with A, B, etc. independent) then

(

Z

)

2

=

_

Z

A

A

_

2

+

_

Z

B

B

_

2

+

So if

(i) Z = A B C, (

Z

)

2

= (

A

)

2

+ (

B

)

2

+ (

C

)

2

(ii) Z = AB or A/B,

_

Z

Z

_

2

=

_

A

A

_

2

+

_

B

B

_

2

(iii) Z = A

m

,

Z

Z

= m

A

A

(iv) Z = ln A,

Z

=

A

A

(v) Z = exp A,

Z

Z

=

A

25

18. Statistics

Mean and Variance

A random variable X has a distribution over some subset x of the real numbers. When the distribution of X is

discrete, the probability that X = x

i

is P

i

. When the distribution is continuous, the probability that X lies in an

interval x is f (x)x, where f (x) is the probability density function.

Mean = E(X) =

P

i

x

i

or

Z

x f (x) dx.

Variance

2

= V(X) = E[(X )

2

] =

P

i

(x

i

)

2

or

Z

(x )

2

f (x) dx.

Probability distributions

Error function: erf(x) =

2

Z

x

0

e

y

2

dy

Binomial: f (x) =

_

n

x

_

p

x

q

nx

where q = (1 p), = np,

2

= npq, p < 1.

Poisson: f (x) =

x

x!

e

, and

2

=

Normal: f (x) =

1

2

exp

_

(x )

2

2

2

_

Weighted sums of random variables

If W = aX + bY then E(W) = aE(X) + bE(Y). If X and Y are independent then V(W) = a

2

V(X) + b

2

V(Y).

Statistics of a data sample x

1

, . . . , x

n

Sample mean x =

1

n

x

i

Sample variance s

2

=

1

n

(x

i

x)

2

=

_

1

n

x

2

i

_

x

2

= E(x

2

) [E(x)]

2

Regression (least squares tting)

To t a straight line by least squares to n pairs of points (x

i

, y

i

), model the observations by y

i

= +(x

i

x) +

i

,

where the

i

are independent samples of a random variable with zero mean and variance

2

.

Sample statistics: s

2

x

=

1

n

(x

i

x)

2

, s

2

y

=

1

n

(y

i

y)

2

, s

2

xy

=

1

n

(x

i

x)(y

i

y).

Estimators: = y,

=

s

2

xy

s

2

x

; E(Y at x) = +

(x x);

2

=

n

n 2

(residual variance),

where residual variance =

1

n

y

i

(x

i

x)

2

= s

2

y

s

4

xy

s

2

x

.

Estimates for the variances of and

are

2

n

and

2

ns

2

x

.

Correlation coefcient: = r =

s

2

xy

s

x

s

y

.

26

MCW cooling tower

I NSTALLATI ON - OPERATI ON - MAI NTENANCE

M06-1310C I SSUED 10/2013 READ AND UNDERSTAND THI S MANUAL PRIOR TO OPERATI NG OR SERVICI NG THI S PRODUCT.

USER MANUAL

3

contents

Tower Location ............................................................................................................5

Tower Shipment...........................................................................................................6

Receiving Tower ..........................................................................................................6

Hoisting Tower .............................................................................................................6

Tower Installation.........................................................................................................7

Tower Start-Up ......................................................................................................... 11

Tower Operation ....................................................................................................... 13

Wintertime Operation.............................................................................................. 15

Water Treatment and Blowdown .......................................................................... 16

Cooling Tower Cleaning ......................................................................................... 18

Schedule of Tower Maintenance .......................................................................... 20

Seasonal Shutdown Instructions ......................................................................... 22

Prolonged Shutdown .............................................................................................. 23

Maintenance Schedule ........................................................................................... 25

Troubleshooting ........................................................................................................ 26

Additional Information ............................................................................................. 28

Note

This manual contains vital information for the proper installation and

operation of your cooling tower. Carefully read the manual before

installation or operation of the tower and follow all instructions.

Save this manual for future reference.

Indicates presence of a hazard which can cause severe personal

injury, death or substantial property damage if ignored.

Indicates presence of a hazard which will or can cause personal

injury or property damage if ignored.

Indicates special instructions on installation, operation or main-

tenance which are important but not related to personal injury

hazards.

Warning

Caution

Note

The following dened terms are used throughout this manual to bring attention

to the presence of hazards of various risk levels, or to important information

concerning the life of the product.

4

preparation

The Marley MCW cooling tower purchased for this installation represents

the current state of the art in counterow, forced draft cooling tower design.

Thermally and operationally, it is the most efcient cooling tower of its class.

These instructionsas well as those offered separately on motors, fans, oat

valves, etc.are intended to assure that the tower serves you properly for the

maximum possible time. Since product warrantability may well depend upon

your actions, please read these instructions thoroughly prior to operation.

If you have questions about the operation and/or maintenance of this tower,

and you dont nd the answers in this manual, please contact your Marley

sales representative. When writing for information, or when ordering parts,

please mention tower serial number shown on the nameplate located on the

access door.

Safety First

The location and orientation of the cooling tower can affect the safety of those

responsible for installing, operating or maintaining the tower. However, since

SPX Cooling Technologies does not determine the location or orientation of

the tower, we cannot be responsible for addressing those safety issues that

are affected by the towers location or orientation. W

ARNING

The following safety issues should be considered by those respon-

sible for designing the tower installation.

access to and from maintenance access doors

the possible need for ladders (either portable or permanent) to

gain access to the discharge level or maintenance access doors

the possible need for external access platforms

potential access problems due to obstructions surrounding the

tower

lockout of mechanical equipment

the possible need for safety cages around ladders

the need to avoid exposing maintenance personnel to the poten-

tially unsafe environment inside the tower.

Those are only some of the safety issues that may arise in the design

process. SPX strongly recommends that you consult a safety engineer

to be sure that all safety considerations have been addressed.

Warning

5

preparation

Several options are available that may assist you in addressing some of these

personnel safety concerns, including:

top of tower access platform with handrail system around the perimeter of

the platform with a ladder for access to the platform

ladder extensions (used where the base of the tower is elevated)

safety cages for fan deck ladders

distribution level access platform with handrail system around the perimeter

of the platform with a ladder for access to the platform

access door platform with handrail system around the perimeter of the

platform with a ladder for access to the platform

Tower Location

Space available around the tower should be as generous as possible to pro-

mote ease of maintenanceand to permit freedom of airow into and through

the tower. If you have questions about the adequacy of the available space

and the intended conguration of the tower, please contact your Marley sales

representative for guidance.

Prepare a stable, level support foundation for the tower, utilizing weight, wind

load, and dimensional information appearing on appropriate Marley submittal

drawings. Supports must be level to insure proper operation of the tower.

The cooling tower must be located at such distance and direction

to avoid the possibility of contaminated tower discharge air being

drawn into building fresh air intake ducts. The purchaser should ob-

tain the services of a Licensed Professional Engineer or Registered

Architect to certify that the location of the tower is in compliance

with applicable air pollution, re, and clean air codes.

Warning

6

Tower Shipment

Unless otherwise specied, MCW towers ship by truck (on at bed trailers),

which lets you receive, hoist, and install the tower in one continuous operation.

Single-cell towers ship on one truck. Multicell towers, depending on their size,

may require more than one truck.

Responsibility for the condition of the tower upon its arrival belongs to the

truckeras does the coordination of multiple shipments, if required.

Receiving Tower

Prior to unloading the tower from the delivering carrier, inspect the shipment

for evidence of damage in transit. If damage is apparent, note the freight bill

accordingly. This will support your future recovery claim.

Find and remove the installation instruction drawings and bills of material

located in a plastic bag in the cold water basin. This information should be

kept for future reference and maintenance purposes.

Hoisting Tower

All MCW models consist of two modules per cell. The upper module includes

eye bolts at the top corners. Hoisting clips on the lower module are attached

to the horizontal cross channels. A Hoisting-Installation label which has

hoisting dimensional information is located on the side casing near the tower

centerline. Remove tower from the carrier and hoist into place according to

the instructions on the label.

MCW upper and lower modules must be hoisted and set separately.

Do not preassemble modules prior to hoisting.

Hoisting clips are provided for ease of unloading and positioning

tower. For overhead lifts or where additional safety is required,

safety slings should also be placed under the tower. Under no

circumstances should you combine the top and bottom modules

of modular models and attempt to hoist them at the same time by

utilizing the hoisting clips alone!

Warning

receiving and hoisting

Caution

7

Tower Installation

These installation instructions are intended to help you prepare

before your tower arrives. If discrepancies exist between these

instructions and those shipped with the tower, the instructions

shipped with the tower will govern.

1. Prior to placement of the tower, conrm that the supporting platform is

level, and that the anchor bolt holes are correctly located in accordance

with Marley drawings.

2. Place the bottom module on your prepared supports, aligning anchor bolt

holes with those in your supporting steel. Make sure that the orientation

agrees with your intended piping arrangement. Attach tower to supporting

steel with four

3

8" diameter bolts and at washers (by others). Position at

washers between the bolt head and the tower basin ange.

3. Before setting top module in place on bottom module, clean any debris

from the underside of the top module ll, skid and beams and from the

top of the bottom module. Apply the mastic sealing strip supplied with

the tower according to the MCW Field Installation Manual As-

sembly Instructions. Place top module on the top peripheral bearing

surface of bottom module, aligning mating holes as it is set in place. At-

tach top module to bottom module with fasteners provided according to

MCW Field Installation Manual Assembly Instructions.

4. Attach your cold water supply piping to the cold water basin outlet connec-

tion in accordance with drawing instructions, utilizing gaskets provided.

Do not support your pipe from the tower or outlet connection

support it externally.

5. Attach makeup water supply piping to appropriately-sized oat valve con-

nection located in cold water basin side wall. Install the drain and overow

according to the MCW Field Installation Manual Assembly Instruc-

tions. If you wish to pipe overow and drain water to a remote discharge

point, make those connections at this time also.

6. Attach your warm water return piping to the inlet connections of the

tower.

Note

installation

Caution

8

Fasteners and components provided by others that are to be at-

tached to the tower must be compatible with the cooling tower

materialsi.e. fasteners in a stainless steel cold water basin must

be stainless steel.

Do not support your pipe from the tower or inlet connectionsupport

it externally.

7. Wire motor in accordance with wiring diagram.

For maintenance/safety purposes, SPX recommends a lockout

type disconnect switch for all mechanical equipment. In addition

to a disconnect switch, the motor should be wired to main power

supply through short circuit protection, and a magnetic starter with

overload protection.

Motor Wiring

Wire motor leads as shown on the motor nameplate matching the supply

voltage. Do not deviate from the motor nameplate wiring.

Either of following symbols may be shown on the motor nameplate

, , Y, or YY. These symbols represent how the motor is constructed on

the inside and in no way have anything to do with a Delta or Wye electrical

distribution system serving the motor.

When using a starter:

Set motor overload protection to 110% of motor nameplate amps.

This setting allows the fan motor to operate during cooler weather.

During cooler weather it is common for the motor to draw 6 to 10%

higher than nameplate amps. High amps are common during tower

commissioning when the tower is dry and the ambient air temperature

is cool.

Do not start the motor more than four to ve times per hour. Short

cycling the tower will cause fuses, breakers or O.L.s to operate and

will decrease motor life.

When using a two-speed starter:

Motor rotation must be the same at slow speed and high speed.

Single winding motor requires a starter with a shorting contactor.

installation

Caution

Warning

Note

Note

9

Two-winding motor requires a starter with out a shorting contactor.

All two-speed starters must have a 20 second time delay relay when

switching from high speed to low speed.

Do not start the motor more than four to fve times per hour (each

low speed start and each high speed start count as one start).

When using a VFD:

Before beginning, ensure that the motor is rated for Inverter Duty

per NEMA MG-1, part 31.

Set the VFD solid state overload protection to 119% of motor name-

plate amps and set maximum current parameter in the VFD to motor

nameplate amps. Maximum current parameter will reduce fan speed

and limit amp draw to nameplate amps during cold weather opera-

tion. If furnished with a mechanical O.L. set this at 110% over motor

nameplate amps.

Motor rotation must be the same in both VFD mode and By-pass

mode.

If cable distance between the VFD and motor is greater than 100 feet

a DV/DT output flter is recommended to avoid damage to the motor.

100 feet distance is based on our feld experience, the VFD manufac-

ture may state different distances and distance does vary depending

on the VFD manufacture.

Program the VFD for variable torque output. Flux vector and constant

torque modes may damage the gearbox.

Do not start and stop the motor using the safety switch at the motor.

If the drive is being commanded to run and the load side is cycled ON

and OFF with the safety switch this may damage the VFD.

Using a VFD in cooling applications has advantages over traditional single

or two speed motor control. A VFD can reduce the cost of electrical energy

being used and provide better temperature control. In addition, it reduces the

mechanical and electrical stress on the motor and mechanical equipment.

Electrical savings can be large during periods of low ambient temperature

when the cooling requirement can be satised at reduced speeds. To benet

from these advantages, it is important that the drive be installed correctly.

Marley supplies VFD and VFD controls specifcally designed for our cool-

ing products. If you have purchased a Marley VFD and/or controls package,

installation

Note

Note

10

please follow the instructions in the User Manual for that system. Most VFD

problems can be avoided by purchasing the Marley drive system. If you are

installing a VFD other than the Marley drive, please refer to that drives instal-

lation manual.

Improper use of a VFD may cause damage to equipment or personal

injury. Failure to correctly install the VFD drive will automatically

void all warranties associated with the motor and any equipment

that is either electrically or mechanically (directly) attached to the

VFD drive system. The length of this warranty avoidance will be

contingent on properly installing the VFD system and repairing any

damage that may have occurred during its operation. SPX Cool-

ing Technologies does not assume responsibility for any technical

support or damages for problems associate with non-Marley brand

VFD systems.

Changing the operational fan speed from the factory settings could

cause the fan to operate in an unstable region which may result in

damage to the equipment and possible injury.

Mechanical Equipment:

Always shut off electrical power to the tower fan motor prior to

performing any maintenance on the tower. Any electrical switches

should be locked out and tagged out to prevent others from turning

the power back on.

1. Spin the fan manually and observe the action of the sheaves and belts to

be sure that the motor is properly aligned with the fan sheave. See Belt

Tensioning and Sheave Alignment on pages 19 and 20.

2. Momentarily bump (energize) the motor and observe rotation of the fan.

The fan should rotate in a counterclockwise direction when viewed from

the fan inlet side from the motor end. If rotation is backwards, shut off

the fan and reverse two of the three primary leads supplying power to the

motor.

If tower is equipped with a two-speed motor, check for proper rota-

tion at both speeds. Check also to see that starter is equipped with a

20 second time delay which prevents direct switching from high

speed to low speed.

Warning

Warning

Warning

Caution

installation

11

3. Check the torque on the fan and motor sheave after 10 to 60 hours of

operation. See Bushing Fastener Torque Values on page 20.

If the water supply system is not being operatedor if there is no

heat load on the systemmotor amps read at this time may indicate

an apparent overload of as much as 1020%. This is because of the

increased density of unheated air owing through the fan. Deter-

mination of an accurate motor load should await the application of

the design heat load.

Tower Start-Up

Among other sources, outbreaks of Legionnaires Disease have

reportedly been traced to cooling towers. Maintenance and water

treatment procedures that prevent amplication and dissemination

of Legionella and other airborne bacteria should be formulated and

implemented BEFORE systems are operated and continued regularly

thereafter to avoid the risk of sickness or death.

Water System:

1. New installations should be cleaned and treated with biocides by a water

treatment expert before startup.

2. Remove any and all accumulated debris from tower. Pay particular atten-

tion to inside areas of cold water basin, and drift eliminators. Make sure

that cold water suction screens are clear and properly installed.

3. Fill the water system to an approximate depth of 13" in the cold water

basin. This is the recommended operating water level. Adjust the oat valve

so that it is 75% open at that level. Continue flling the system until the

water reaches a level approximately

1

8" below the lip of the overow.

4. Completely open all hot water valves. Start your pump(s) and observe

system operation. Since the water system external to the tower will have

been lled only to the level achieved in the cold water basin, a certain

amount of pump-down of the basin water level will occur before water

completes the circuit and begins to fall from the ll. The amount of initial

pump-down may be insufcient to cause the oat valve to open. However,

you can check its operation by pressing down on the operating lever to

which the stem of the oat valve is attached.

Note

installation

Warning

12

Some trial and error adjustment of the oat valve may be required to

balance the makeup water with tower operation. Ideally, the oat valve

setting will be such that no water is wasted through the overow at pump

shutdown. However, the water level after pump start-up must be deep

enough to assure positive pump suction.

5. Continue pump operation for about 15 minutes, after which it is recom-

mended that the water system be drained, ushed, and relled.

6. While operating the condensing water pump(s) and prior to operating the

cooling tower fan, execute one of the two alternative biocidal treatment

programs described in the following:

Resume treatment with the biocide which had been used prior to shut-

down. Utilize the services of the water treatment supplier. Maintain the

maximum recommended biocide residual (for the specic biocide) for

a sufcient period of time (residual and time will vary with the biocide)

to bring the system under good biological control

or

Treat the system with sodium hypochlorite to a level of 4 to 5 mg/L

free chlorine residual at a pH of 7.0 to 7.6. The chlorine residual must

be held at 4 to 5 mg/L for six hours, measurable with standard com-

mercial water test kits.

If the cooling tower has been in operation and then shut down for a du-

ration of time and not drained, perform one of the two previous biocidal

treatment programs directly to the cooling water storage vessel (cooling

tower sump, drain down tank, etc.) without circulating stagnant water

over the cooling tower ll or operating the cooling tower fan.

After biocidal pretreatment has been successfully completed, cooling

water may be circulated over the tower ll with the fan off.

When biocidal treatment has been maintained at a satisfactory level for

at least six hours, the fan may be turned on and the system returned to

service. Resume the standard water treatment program, including biocidal

treatment.

installation

13

Tower Operation

General:

The cold water temperature obtained from an operating cooling tower will vary

with the following inuences:

1. Heat load: With the fan in full operation, if the heat load increases, the

cold water temperature will rise. If the heat load reduces, the cold water

temperature will reduce.

Note that the number of degrees (range) through which the tower cools

the water is established by the system heat load and the amount of water

being circulated, in accordance with the following formula:

The cooling tower establishes only the cold water temperature attainable

under any operating circumstance.

2. Air wet-bulb temperature: Cold water temperature will also vary with the

wet-bulb temperature of the air entering the louvered faces of the tower.

Reduced wet-bulb temperatures will result in colder water temperatures.

However, the cold water temperature will not vary to the same extent as

the wet-bulb. For example, a 20F reduction in wet-bulb may result in only

a 15F reduction in cold water temperature.

3. Water ow rate: Increasing the water ow rate (GPM) will cause a

slight elevation in cold water temperature, while reducing the water ow

rate will cause the cold water temperature to decrease slightly. However,

at a given heat load (see formula), water ow reductions also cause an

increase in the incoming hot water temperature. Use care to prevent the

hot water from exceeding 125F in order to prevent damage to the tower

components.

4. Air ow rate: Reducing air ow through the tower causes the cold wa-

ter temperature to rise. This is the approved method by which to control

leaving water temperature.

If your tower is equipped with a single-speed motor, the motor may be

shut off when the water temperature becomes too cold. This will cause

the water temperature to rise. When the water temperature then becomes

too warm for your process, the motor can be restarted.

operation

Range F =

Heat Load (Btu/hr)

GPM x 500

or in SI units

Range C =

Heat Load (kilowatts)

Liters/sec x 4.187

14

Fan cycling limits:

Considering the normal fan and motor sizes utilized on MCW towers,

anticipate that approximately 4 to 5 starts per hour are allowable.

If your tower is equipped with a two-speed motor, greater opportunity

for temperature control is afforded you. When the water temperature

becomes too cold, switching the fan to half-speed will cause the cold

water temperature to risestabilizing at a temperature a few degrees

higher than before. With a further reduction in water temperature, the fan

may be cycled alternately from half-speed to off.

Do not start the motor more than four to fve times per hour (each

low speed start and each high speed start count as one start).

If your tower consists of two or more cells, cycling of motors may be

shared between cells, increasing your steps of operation accordingly.

Multiple fan motors serving a single ll section must be cycled simul-

taneously. This applies to models 901146 thru 901157, 901556 thru

901558, 901756 thru 901758 and 901956 thru 901959 MCW models.

Multicell towers equipped with two-speed motors will maximize energy

savings and minimize sound levels if fans are staged so that all fans are

brought up to low speed before any fan goes to high speed.

For greater insight on cold water temperature control, please read

Cooling Tower Energy and its Management, Technical Report

#H-001-A, available spxcooling.com.

operation

Caution

Note

Note

15

Wintertime Operation:

During operation in subfreezing weather, the opportunity exists for ice to

form in the colder regions of the tower. Your primary concern is to prevent

the formation of destructive ice on the cooling tower ll. Your understand-

ing of cold weather operation will be enhanced if you read Marley Tech-

nical Report H-003 Operating Cooling Towers in Freezing Weather,

augmented by the following guidelines:

1. Do not allow the towers leaving water temperature to drop below a mini-

mum allowable levelabout 35Festablished as follows:

During the coldest days of the rst winter of operation, observe whether any

ice is forming, particularly near the bottom of the ll. If hard ice is present,

you must increase the allowable cold water temperature. If the coldest

possible water is benecial to your process, ice of a mushy consistency

can be tolerated but routine periodic observation is advisable.

If the minimum allowable cold water temperature is established

at or near minimum heat load, it should be safe for all operating

conditions.

Having established the minimum allowable cold water temperature, main-

taining that temperature can be accomplished by fan manipulation, as

outlined in Tower Operation: Item 4 on page 13. However, in towers

of more than one cell, the limiting temperature established applies to the

water temperature of the cell or cells operating at the highest fan speed

not necessarily the net cold water temperature produced by the entire

tower.

2. A fan operating in a forced-draft tower is subject to the risk of freezing.

Icing is a particular danger as this can form not only on the fan blades,

but also the inlet guard. Ice particles can be thrown off and cause severe

damage. The fan casing should be checked so that any water entering it

(either from the tower or external sources) can drain away. If water is al-

lowed to collect in the fan casing, the fan could be frozen into place. This

could result in damage to the drive system if starting were attempted

operation

Caution

16

3. As cold air enters the tower, it causes the falling water to be drawn inward.

Thus, under fan operation, the lower periphery of the tower structure re-

main partly dry, seeing only random splashing from within the towerplus

normal atmospheric moisture from the entering air. Such lightly wetted

areas are most subject to freezing.

Although ice is unlikely to cause structural damage, it may build up suf-

ciently to restrict the free ow of air. This will have the effect of reducing

the towers thermal performance efciency. When excessive ice forms,

stop the fan for a few minutes. With the fan off, the action of the spray

system will cause a slight downward movement of air through the ll and

deice the ll.

Intermittent Wintertime Operation:

If periods of shutdown (nights, weekends, etc.) occur during freezing weather,

measures must be taken to prevent the water in the cold water basinand all

exposed pipeworkfrom freezing. Several methods are used to combat this,

including automatic basin heater systems available from Marley.

Unless some means of freeze prevention is incorporated into your

system, the tower basin and exposed pipework should be drained

at the beginning of each wintertime shutdown period.

If tower basin is drained, verify that all basin heaters have been shut

off either by automatic cutoff or disconnect switch.

It is recommended that you discuss your freeze prevention options with your

local Marley sales representative.

Water Treatment and Blowdown

Maintaining Water Quality:

The steel used in MCW towers has been galvanized with a heavy zinc coat-

ing averaging 2.0 mils in thickness. The MCW stainless steel option is even

more corrosion resistant than galvanized steel in certain environments. Other

materials used (PVC fll, drift eliminators, and louvers, etc.) are selected to

offer maximum service life in a normal cooling tower environment, dened

as follows:

operation

Caution

Warning

17

Circulating water with a pH between 6.5 and 8; a chloride content (as NaCl)

below 500 mg/L; a sulfate content (SO4) below 250 mg/L; total alkalinity (as

CaCO

3

) below 500 mg/L; calcium hardness (as CaCO

3

) above 50 mg/L;

a maximum inlet water temperature not to exceed 125F; no signicant con-

tamination with unusual chemicals or foreign substances; and adequate water

treatment to minimize scaling.

Startup Conditions: The water conditions during the initial tower operation

are crucial in preventing premature corrosion of galvanized steel (white

rust). For at least the rst eight weeks of operation, pH should be controlled

between 6.5 and 8.0 with hardness and alkalinity levels between 100 and

300 mg/L (expressed as CaCO

3

).

Chlorine (if used) shall be added intermittently, with a free residual not to

exceed 1 mg/Lmaintained for short periods. Excessive chlorine levels may

deteriorate sealants and other materials of construction.

An atmosphere surrounding the tower no worse than moderate industrial,

where rainfall and fog are no more than slightly acid, and they do not contain

signicant chlorides or hydrogen sulde (H2S).

Many proprietary chemicals exist for control of scale, corrosion, and biologi-

cal growth and should be used prudently. Also, combinations of chemicals

may cause reactions which reduce treatment effectiveness, and certain

chemicals such as surfactants, biodispersants and antifoams may increase

drift rate.

Unless you purchased a stainless steel MCW, the structure of your

MCW tower consists primarily of galvanized steel, therefore your

water treatment program must be compatible with zinc. In working

with your water treatment supplier, it is important that you recog-

nize the potential effects on zinc of the specic treatment program

you choose.

Note

operation

18

Cooling Tower Cleaning:

Any evaporative-type cooling tower must be thoroughly cleaned on

a regular basis to minimize the growth of bacteria, including Legio-

nella Pneumophila, to avoid the risk of sickness or death. Service

personnel must wear proper personal protective equipment during

decontamination. Do NOT attempt any service unless the fan motor

is locked out.

Operators of evaporative cooling equipment, such as water cooling towers,

should follow maintenance programs which will reduce to an absolute minimum

the opportunity for bacteriological contamination. Public Health Service ofcials

have recommended that good housekeeping procedures be followed, such

as: regular inspections for concentrations of dirt, scale, and algae; periodic

ushing and cleaning; and the following of a complete water treatment program

including biocidal treatment.

The visual inspection should take place at least once a week during the op-

erating season. The periodic ushing and cleaning should be done before

and after each cooling season, but in any event at least twice a year. The drift

eliminators, and easily accessible ll surfaces should be ushed by use of a

moderate-pressure water nozzle, being careful not to cause physical damage.

A reliable water treatment program should be installed and maintained. Filtra-

tion devices may be employed to reduce the suspended solids concentrations,

thus increasing the effectiveness of the water treatment program. See Tower

Startup instructions on page 11.

Blowdown:

A cooling tower cools water by continuously causing a portion of it to evaporate.

Although the water lost by evaporation is replenished by the makeup system, it

exits the tower as pure waterleaving behind its burden of dissolved solids to

concentrate in the remaining water. Given no means of control, this increasing

concentration of contaminants can reach a very high level.

In order to achieve water quality which is acceptable to the cooling tower (as

well as the remainder of your circulating water system), the selected water

treatment company must work from a relatively constant level of concentra-

tions. This stabilization of contaminant concentrations is usually accomplished

by blowdown, which is the constant discharge of a portion of the circulating

water to waste. As a rule, acceptable levels on which to base a treatment

maintenance

Warning

19

schedule will be in the range of 2-4 concentrations. The following table shows

the minimum amount of blowdown (percent of ow) required to maintain dif-

ferent concentrations with various cooling ranges*:

* Range = Difference between hot water temperature coming to tower and cold water tem-

perature leaving tower.

EXAMPLE: 700 GPM circulating rate, 18F cooling range. To maintain 4

concentrations, the required blowdown is 0.458% or .00458 times 700 GPM,

which is 3.2 GPM.

If tower is operated at 4 concentrations, circulating water will contain four

times as much dissolved solid as the makeup water, assuming none of the

solids form scale or are otherwise removed from the system.

When water treatment chemicals are added, they should not be in-

troduced into the circulating water system via the cold water basin

of the cooling tower. Water velocities are lowest at that point, which

results in inadequate mixing.

Belt Tensioning

The belts are adjusted by means of a hinged base with tensioning bolts acces-

sible through the access panel/fan guards. Check tension frequently during

the rst 24-48 hours of run-in operation. To properly adjust the belt tension,

position the fan motor so that moderate pressure on the belt midway between

the sheaves will produce a

1

2"deection. Overtensioning shortens belt and

bearing life. Keep belts free from foreign material which may cause slipping.

Never apply belt dressing as this will damage the belt and cause early failure.

A Dodge

Check with you local belt supplier.

maintenance

Cooling Range

Number of Concentrations

1.5X 2.0X 2.5X 3.0X 4.0X 5.0X 6.0X

5F .78 .38 .25 .18 .11 .08 .06

10F 1.58 .78 .51 .38 .25 .18 .14

15F 2.38 1.18 .78 .58 .38 .28 .22

20F 3.18 1.58 1.05 .78 .51 .38 .30

25F 3.98 1.98 1.32 .98 .64 .48 .38

Multipliers are based on drift of 0.02% of the circulating water rate.

Note

20

Sheave Alignment

The motor sheave is to be positioned as close as possible to the motor

in order to minimize torque on the motor bushings.

The motor and fan sheaves may have grooves that are not used. The bot-

tom surface of the motor and fan sheaves must be aligned within

1

8" of

each other and level within

1

2 (

1

8" in 12") in order to not adversely affect

belt and sheave life.

Alignment can be achieved by placing a straight edge across the top of

the sheaves making sure that it is level and measuring down to the bottom

surface of both sheaves at four points.

The belt is to be located in the inboard set of grooves closest to the bear-

ing.

maintenance

Warning

Bushing Fastener

Torque Values

Bushing Fastener Torque ftlb

SH

1

4 - 20 6

SDS

1

4 - 20 6

SD

1

4 - 20 6

SK

5

16 - 18 13

SF

3

8 - 16 22

E

1

2 - 13 35

F

9

16 - 12 65

Schedule of Tower Maintenance

Some maintenance procedures may require maintenance personnel to enter

the tower.

The purchaser or owner is responsible for providing a safe method

for entering or exiting the access door.

Included with this instruction packet are separate User Manuals on each major

operating component of the tower, and it is recommended that you read them

thoroughly. Where discrepancies may exist, the separate User Manuals will

take precedence.

21

The following is recommended as a minimum routine of scheduled mainte-

nance:

Always shut off electrical power to the tower fan motor prior to

performing any inspections that may involve physical contact with

the mechanical or electrical equipment in or on the tower. Lock out

and tag out any electrical switches to prevent others from turning

the power back on. Service personnel must wear proper personal

protective clothing and equipment.

Weekly: Inspect for bacterial growth and general operation conditions. Bacte-

rial growth should be reported to your water treatment expert for immediate

attention.

Monthly (Weekly at start up): Observe, touch, and listen to the tower.

Become accustomed to its normal appearance, sound, and level of vibration.

Abnormal aspects relating to the rotating equipment should be considered

reason to shut down the tower until the problem can be located and cor-

rected. Observe operation of the motor and fan. Become familiar with the

normal operating temperature of the motor, as well as the sight and sound of

all components as a whole.

Inspect drift eliminators and basin trash screens and remove any debris or

scale which may have accumulated. Replace any damaged or worn out com-

ponents. Use of high-pressure water may damage the eliminator material.

Observe operation of the oat valve. Depress the operating lever to make

sure that the valve is operating freely. Inspect the suction screen for plugging.

Remove any debris that may have accumulated.

Check for any buildup of silt on the oor of the cold water basin. Mentally make

note of the amount, if any, so future inspections will enable you to determine

the rate at which it is forming.

Every 3 months: Lubricate fan shaft bearings. While rotating equipment by

hand, grease the bearings until a bead forms around the sealsa maximum

charge of 0.40 ounces is recommended. Mobil SHC 460 grease is recom-

mended.

Semi-Annually: Check the belt tension and condition.

Clean and disinfect cooling tower with biocides. Systems with biofouling, high

general bacterial counts, or positive cultures of legionella may require additional

cleaning. Refer to Cooling Tower Cleaning sectionpage 18. Consult

your water treatment expert as to prudent biological evaluation testing.

maintenance

Warning

22

maintenance

Annually: Relubricate motor according to the manufacturers instructions.

Check to see that all bolts are tight in the fan and mechanical equipment

region. Refer to Component User Manuals for torque values.

Inspect the tower thoroughly, making maximum use of instructions given in

the separate user manuals. Check structural bolted connections and tighten

as required. Make preventive maintenance repairs as necessary.

Seasonal Shutdown Instructions

When the system is to be shut down for an extended period of time, it is

recommended that the entire system (cooling tower, system piping, heat

exchangers, etc.) be drained. Leave the basin drains open.

During shutdown, clean the tower (see Warning, page 18) and make any nec-

essary repairs. Pay particular attention to mechanical equipment supports.

Following each years shutdown and cleaning, inspect the towers metal surfaces

for evidence of the need to apply a protective coating. Do not misinterpret

grimeand transient rust from the piping systemas a need to have the tower

painted. If relatively bright metal can be exposed by cleaning, consider that the

galvanizing has remained effective. Unless there is evidence of a generalized

failure of the galvanizing, localized touch-up should be all that is required.

To the extent that the galvanizing (zinc coating) still exists, paint

will not adhere to it readily. Contact the manufacturer of the coating

you intend to use for instructions.

Note

23

maintenance

Tower framework: Check structural bolted connections and tighten as

required.

Fans: Check fan assembly bolting and tighten as required. Use torque values

prescribed in the Fan User Manual.

Fans shaft bearings: If equipped, lubricate fan shaft bearings at close of

each operating seasonsee page 21.

Electric motors: Clean and lubricate motor at close of each operating season

(refer to motor manufacturers recommendations.) Check motor anchor bolts

and tighten as required.

Do not start motor before determining that there will be no interfer-

ence with free rotation of the fan drive.

The motor should be operated for three hours at least once a month. This

serves to dry out windings and re-lubricate bearing surfaces (refer to Marley

Electric Motor User Manual Manual 92-1475 ).

At start of new operating season, make sure bearings are adequately lubricated

before returning motor to service.

Prolonged Shutdown

If shutdown period is longer than seasonal, contact your Marley sales repre-

sentative for additional information.

Caution

24

SPX Cooling Technologies Services

Our interest in your MCW cooling tower does not end with the sale. Having

conceived, designed, and manufactured the most reliable and longest-lasting

cooling tower of its class, we want to make sure that you gain the maximum

possible benet from its purchase.

Therefore, the following services are available which are intended to: assure

the maximum possible service life under your operating conditions; tailor the

operating characteristics to your specic needs; and maintain consistently

optimum thermal performance capability. They are available by contacting

your Marley sales representative.

Replacement parts: A complete stock of parts and components are maintained

at one or more of the various Marley plants. In cases of emergency, they can

normally be shipped within 24 hoursby air freight if necessary. However, you

would obviously benet from anticipating your need in advance, thus avoiding

the cost of special handling.

Be sure to mention your tower serial number (from the tower nameplate) when

ordering parts.

Periodic maintenance: You may wish to contract with SPX for regularly

scheduled visitsfor the purpose of inspecting and reporting your towers

conditionto make recommendations intended to prevent emergencies and

to perform maintenance considered outside the norm.

This service is not intended to replace the important function performed by

your maintenance staff. Their attention assures the towers routine operating

performance, and is invaluable. However, we recognize the unusual manner

in which a cooling tower performs its functionas well as the unique forces

which act upon itmay be considerations which occasionally require the

services of an expert technician.

maintenance

25

maintenance schedule

Maintenance Service Monthly Semi-annually Seasonal Startup or Annually

Inspect General Condition and Operation x x

Observe Operation of:

Mechanicalmotor, fan and drive mechanism x x

Makeup valve (if equipped) x x

Inspect for unusual noise or vibration x x

Inspect and Clean:

Air inlet x x

PVC drift eliminators x x

Distribution system and nozzles x x

Collection basin x x

Fan motor exterior x x

Check:

Collection water basin level x x

Blowdownadjust as required x x

Belt drive:

Fan shaft bearing lubrication (every 3 mo.) every 3 months every 3 months

Check and tighten support fasteners x

Check shaft, sheave and belt alignment x

Check belt tension and condition x x

Check sheave bushing fastener torque x

Fan:

Check and fan assembly fasteners x

Motor:

Lubricate (grease as required) R

Check mounting bolts for tightness x

Operate at least 3 hours a month 3 hours a month 3 hours a month

Basin Heater (if equipped):

Check for proper operation of temp/low water level sensor x

Inspect/clean buildup of contaminant from sensor x x

Structure:

Inspect/tighten all fasteners x x

Inspect and touch up all metal surfaces x

R Refer to Component User Manual

Note: It is recommended at least weekly, that the general operation and condition be observed. Pay atten-

tion to any changes in sound or vibration that may signify a need for closer inspection.

26

troubleshooting

Trouble Cause Remedy

Motor will not start

Power not available at motor terminals

Check power at starter. Correct any bad connections between the control

apparatus and the motor.

Check starter contacts and control circuit. Reset overloads, close contacts,

reset tripped switches or replace failed control switches.

If power is not on all leads at starter, make sure overload and short circuit

devices are in proper condition

Wrong connections Check motor and control connections against wiring diagrams.

Low voltage

Check nameplate voltage against power supply. Check voltage at motor

terminals.

Open circuit in motor winding Check stator windings for open circuits.

Motor or fan drive stuck

Disconnect motor from load and check motor and fan drive for cause of

problem.

Rotor defective Look for broken bars or rings.

Unusual motor noise

Motor running single-phase

Check motor and attempt to start it. Motor will not start if single-phased.

Check wiring, controls and motor.

Motor leads connected incorrectly Check motor connections against wiring diagram on motor.

Bad bearings Check lubrication. Replace bad bearings.

Electrical unbalance Check voltages and currents of all three lines. Correct if required.

Air gap not uniform Check and correct bracket ts or bearing.

Rotor unbalance Rebalance

Cooling fan hitting end belt guard Reinstall or replace fan.

Motor runs hot

Wrong voltage or unbalanced voltage Check voltage and current of all three lines against nameplate values.

Wrong motor RPM

Check nameplate against power supply. Check RPM of motor and drive

ratio.

Bearing overgreased

Remove bearing reliefs. Run motor up to speed to purge excessive

grease.

Wrong lubricant in bearings Change to proper lubricant. See motor manufacturer's instructions.

One phase open

Stop motor and attempt to start it. Motor will not stat if single-phased.

Check wiring, controls and motor.

Poor ventilation

Clean motor and check ventilation openings. Allow ample ventilation

around motor.

Winding fault Check with ohmmeter.

Bent motor shaft Straighten or replace shaft.

Insufcient grease Remove plugs and regrease bearings.

Too frequent starting or speed changes

Limit cumulative accelerations time to a total of 30 seconds/hour. Set on/

off or speed change set points farther apart. Consider installing a Marley

VFD drive for ne temperature control.

Deterioration of grease or foreign material in grease Flush bearings and relubricate.

Bearings damaged Replace bearings.

Motor does not come up to

speed

Voltage too low at motor terminals because of line

drop

Check transformer and setting of taps. Use higher voltage on transformer

terminals or reduce loads. Increase wire size or reduce inertia.

Broken rotor bars

Look for cracks near the rings. A new rotor may be required. Have motor

service person check motor.

Wrong motor rotation Wrong sequence of phases Switch any two of the three motor leads.

27

troubleshooting

Trouble Cause Remedy

Unusual fan drive vibration

Loose bolts and cap screws

Tighten all bolts and cap screws on all mechanical equipment and

supports.

Worn fan shaft bearings.. Check fan shaft endplay. Replace bearings as necessary.

Unbalanced motor Disconnect load and operate motor. If motor still vibrates, rebalance rotor.

Fan noise

Impeller rubbing inside of cylinder

Adjust fan impeller. Adjustment may need to be axial i.e. moving impeller

along the shaft to centralize it between the cylinders or radial by

repositioning bearing or bearings to get the impeller concentric within the

inlets.

Fan shaft bearing. Grease bearings.

Belt squeal or chirping Belt slipping Adjust belt

Scale or foreign substance in

circulating water system

Insufcient blowdown See "Water Treatment" section of this manual.

Water treatment deciency

Consult competent water treating specialist. See "Water Treatment"

section of this manual

Cold water temperature too

warm.

See "Tower Operation."

Entering wet bulb temperature is above design

Check to see if local heat sources are affecting cooling tower. See if

surrounding structures are causing recirculation of tower discharge air.

Discuss remedy with Marley representative.

Design wet bulb temperature was too low.

May have to increase cooling tower size. Discuss remedy with Marley

representative

Actual process load greater than design

May have to increase cooling tower size. Discuss remedy with Marley

representative

Overpumping Reduce water ow rate over cooling tower to design conditions.

Cooling tower starved for air

Check motor current and voltage to be sure of correct contract

horsepower. Clean ll and eliminators. Check to see if nearby structures

or enclosing walls are obstructing normal airow to cooling tower. Discuss

remedy with Marley representative.

Excessive drift exiting cooling

tower

Faulty drift elimination

Check to see that eliminators are clean, free of debris and installed

correctly. Replace damaged or worn out eliminators panels.

Water leaking from fan scroll

Water level in tower too high Adjust water level to correct height

Multiple fan motors serving a single ll section not

being cycled simultaneously

Ensure all fans are operating simultaneously and at the same speed

Increased load requirements: MCW towers are

designed so that cells of either equal or unequal

capacity can be added in the future. This allows you

to compensate for the load increases that normally

occur with the replacement or addition of production

equipmentand still retain continuity with respect to

your cooling tower system.

Tower rebuilding: SPX Cooling Technologies

routinely rebuilds and upgrades cooling towers of all

materials and manufacture. If your tower ever reaches

the limit of its service life, we recommend that you

investigate the cost of rebuilding before you routinely

order a new replacement tower.

Each MCW Class tower includes a document pack-

age containing generalorientation drawings, MC

Field Installation Manual Assembly Instructions,

and tower component manuals. These documents

contain important information relating to safe

installation and operation of the cooling tower.

Field installation is always required for fan guards,

piping inlets and piping outlets. Some optional ac-

cessories, such as platforms, handrails, ladders and

safety cages may also require eld installation. If

installation details are not covered in the MC Field

Installation Manual a separate installation drawing

or manual for each purchased option is included in

the document package along with bills of material.

If you have purchased an option and cant nd the

appropriate installation drawing, contact your local

Marley sales representative before proceeding.

In addition to these specic documents, SPX pub-

lishes numerous technical reports including more

detailed information on a variety of cooling tower op-

eration and service topics. Electronic copies of these

reports are available for download at spxcooling.com.

For complete parts and service assistance, contact

the Marley sales representative in your area. If you

need help locating the ofce nearest you, please

phone 913 664 7400 or check the internet at spx-

cooling.com.

additional information

SPX COOLI NG TECHNOLOGI ES, I NC.

7401 W 129 STREET

OVERLAND PARK, KANSAS 66213 USA

P: 913 664 7400

F: 913 664 7439

spxcooling@spx.com

In the interest of technological progress, all products are subject to design

and/or material change without notice

ISSUED 10/2013 M06-1310C

COPYRIGHT 2013 SPX Corporation

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