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# M athemati cal Formula Handbook

Contents
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Bibliography; Physical Constants
1. Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Arithmetic and Geometric progressions; Convergence of series: the ratio test;
Convergence of series: the comparison test; Binomial expansion; Taylor and Maclaurin Series;
Power series with real variables; Integer series; Plane wave expansion
2. Vector Algebra. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Scalar product; Equation of a line; Equation of a plane; Vector product; Scalar triple product;
Vector triple product; Non-orthogonal basis; Summation convention
3. Matrix Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Unit matrices; Products; Transpose matrices; Inverse matrices; Determinants; 22 matrices;
Product rules; Orthogonal matrices; Solving sets of linear simultaneous equations; Hermitian matrices;
Eigenvalues and eigenvectors; Commutators; Hermitian algebra; Pauli spin matrices
4. Vector Calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Notation; Identities; Grad, Div, Curl and the Laplacian; Transformation of integrals
5. Complex Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Complex numbers; De Moivres theorem; Power series for complex variables.
6. Trigonometric Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Relations between sides and angles of any plane triangle;
Relations between sides and angles of any spherical triangle
7. Hyperbolic Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Relations of the functions; Inverse functions
8. Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
9. Differentiation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
10. Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Standard forms; Standard substitutions; Integration by parts; Differentiation of an integral;
Dirac -function; Reduction formulae
11. Differential Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Diffusion (conduction) equation; Wave equation; Legendres equation; Bessels equation;
Laplaces equation; Spherical harmonics
12. Calculus of Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
13. Functions of Several Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Taylor series for two variables; Stationary points; Changing variables: the chain rule;
Changing variables in surface and volume integrals Jacobians
14. Fourier Series and Transforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Fourier series; Fourier series for other ranges; Fourier series for odd and even functions;
Complex form of Fourier series; Discrete Fourier series; Fourier transforms; Convolution theorem;
Parsevals theorem; Fourier transforms in two dimensions; Fourier transforms in three dimensions
15. Laplace Transforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
16. Numerical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Finding the zeros of equations; Numerical integration of differential equations;
Central difference notation; Approximating to derivatives; Interpolation: Everetts formula;
Numerical evaluation of denite integrals
17. Treatment of Random Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Range method; Combination of errors
18. Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Mean and Variance; Probability distributions; Weighted sums of random variables;
Statistics of a data sample x
1
, . . . , x
n
; Regression (least squares tting)
Introduction
This Mathematical Formaulae handbook has been prepared in response to a request from the Physics Consultative
Committee, with the hope that it will be useful to those studying physics. It is to some extent modelled on a similar
document issued by the Department of Engineering, but obviously reects the particular interests of physicists.
There was discussion as to whether it should also include physical formulae such as Maxwells equations, etc., but
a decision was taken against this, partly on the grounds that the book would become unduly bulky, but mainly
because, in its present form, clean copies can be made available to candidates in exams.
There has been wide consultation among the staff about the contents of this document, but inevitably some users
will seek in vain for a formula they feel strongly should be included. Please send suggestions for amendments to
the Secretary of the Teaching Committee, and they will be considered for incorporation in the next edition. The
Secretary will also be grateful to be informed of any (equally inevitable) errors which are found.
This book was compiled by Dr John Shakeshaft and typeset originally by Fergus Gallagher, and currently by
Dr Dave Green, using the T
E
X typesetting package.
Version 1.5 December 2005.
Bibliography
Abramowitz, M. & Stegun, I.A., Handbook of Mathematical Functions, Dover, 1965.
Gradshteyn, I.S. & Ryzhik, I.M., Table of Integrals, Series and Products, Academic Press, 1980.
Jahnke, E. & Emde, F., Tables of Functions, Dover, 1986.
Nordling, C. &

Osterman, J., Physics Handbook, Chartwell-Bratt, Bromley, 1980.
Speigel, M.R., Mathematical Handbook of Formulas and Tables.
(Schaums Outline Series, McGraw-Hill, 1968).
Physical Constants
Based on the Review of Particle Properties, Barnett et al., 1996, Physics Review D, 54, p1, and The Fundamental
Physical Constants, Cohen & Taylor, 1997, Physics Today, BG7. (The gures in parentheses give the 1-standard-
deviation uncertainties in the last digits.)
speed of light in a vacuum c 2997 924 58 10
8
m s
1
(by denition)
permeability of a vacuum
0
4 10
7
H m
1
(by denition)
permittivity of a vacuum
0
1/
0
c
2
= 8854 187 817 . . . 10
12
F m
1
elementary charge e 1602 177 33(49) 10
19
C
Planck constant h 6626 075 5(40) 10
34
J s
h/2 h 1054 572 66(63) 10
34
J s
A
6022 136 7(36) 10
23
mol
1
unied atomic mass constant m
u
1660 540 2(10) 10
27
kg
mass of electron m
e
9109 389 7(54) 10
31
kg
mass of proton m
p
1672 623 1(10) 10
27
kg
Bohr magneton eh/4m
e

B
9274 015 4(31) 10
24
J T
1
molar gas constant R 8314 510(70) J K
1
mol
1
Boltzmann constant k
B
1380 658(12) 10
23
J K
1
StefanBoltzmann constant 5670 51(19) 10
8
W m
2
K
4
gravitational constant G 6672 59(85) 10
11
N m
2
kg
2
Other data
acceleration of free fall g 9806 65 m s
2
(standard value at sea level)
1
1. Series
Arithmetic and Geometric progressions
A.P. S
n
= a + (a + d) + (a + 2d) + + [a + (n 1)d] =
n
2
[2a + (n 1)d]
G.P. S
n
= a + ar + ar
2
+ + ar
n1
= a
1 r
n
1 r
,
_
S

=
a
1 r
for [r[ < 1
_
(These results also hold for complex series.)
Convergence of series: the ratio test
S
n
= u
1
+ u
2
+ u
3
+ + u
n
converges as n if lim
n

u
n+1
u
n

< 1
Convergence of series: the comparison test
If each term in a series of positive terms is less than the corresponding term in a series known to be convergent,
then the given series is also convergent.
Binomial expansion
(1 + x)
n
= 1 + nx +
n(n 1)
2!
x
2
+
n(n 1)(n 2)
3!
x
3
+
If n is a positive integer the series terminates and is valid for all x: the term in x
r
is
n
C
r
x
r
or
_
n
r
_
where
n
C
r

n!
r!(n r)!
is the number of different ways in which an unordered sample of r objects can be selected from a set of
n objects without replacement. When n is not a positive integer, the series does not terminate: the innite series is
convergent for [x[ < 1.
Taylor and Maclaurin Series
If y(x) is well-behaved in the vicinity of x = a then it has a Taylor series,
y(x) = y(a + u) = y(a) + u
dy
dx
+
u
2
2!
d
2
y
dx
2
+
u
3
3!
d
3
y
dx
3
+
where u = x a and the differential coefcients are evaluated at x = a. A Maclaurin series is a Taylor series with
a = 0,
y(x) = y(0) + x
dy
dx
+
x
2
2!
d
2
y
dx
2
+
x
3
3!
d
3
y
dx
3
+
Power series with real variables
e
x
= 1 + x +
x
2
2!
+ +
x
n
n!
+ valid for all x
ln(1 + x) = x
x
2
2
+
x
3
3
+ + (1)
n+1
x
n
n
+ valid for 1 < x 1
cos x =
e
ix
+ e
ix
2
= 1
x
2
2!
+
x
4
4!

x
6
6!
+ valid for all values of x
sin x =
e
ix
e
ix
2i
= x
x
3
3!
+
x
5
5!
+ valid for all values of x
tan x = x +
1
3
x
3
+
2
15
x
5
+ valid for

2
< x <

2
tan
1
x = x
x
3
3
+
x
5
5
valid for 1 x 1
sin
1
x = x +
1
2
x
3
3
+
1.3
2.4
x
5
5
+ valid for 1 < x < 1
2
Integer series
N

1
n = 1 + 2 + 3 + + N =
N(N + 1)
2
N

1
n
2
= 1
2
+ 2
2
+ 3
2
+ + N
2
=
N(N + 1)(2N + 1)
6
N

1
n
3
= 1
3
+ 2
3
+ 3
3
+ + N
3
= [1 + 2 + 3 + N]
2
=
N
2
(N + 1)
2
4

1
(1)
n+1
n
= 1
1
2
+
1
3

1
4
+ = ln 2 [see expansion of ln(1 + x)]

1
(1)
n+1
2n 1
= 1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+ =

4
[see expansion of tan
1
x]

1
1
n
2
= 1 +
1
4
+
1
9
+
1
16
+ =

2
6
N

1
n(n + 1)(n + 2) = 1.2.3 + 2.3.4 + + N(N + 1)(N + 2) =
N(N + 1)(N + 2)(N + 3)
4
This last result is a special case of the more general formula,
N

1
n(n + 1)(n + 2) . . . (n + r) =
N(N + 1)(N + 2) . . . (N + r)(N + r + 1)
r + 2
.
Plane wave expansion
exp(ikz) = exp(ikr cos) =

l=0
(2l + 1)i
l
j
l
(kr)P
l
(cos),
where P
l
(cos) are Legendre polynomials (see section 11) and j
l
(kr) are spherical Bessel functions, dened by
j
l
() =
_

2
J
l+
1
/
2
(), with J
l
(x) the Bessel function of order l (see section 11).
2. Vector Algebra
If i, j, k are orthonormal vectors and A = A
x
i + A
y
j + A
z
k then [A[
2
= A
2
x
+ A
2
y
+ A
2
z
. [Orthonormal vectors
orthogonal unit vectors.]
Scalar product
A B = [A[ [B[ cos where is the angle between the vectors
= A
x
B
x
+ A
y
B
y
+ A
z
B
z
= [ A
x
A
y
A
z ]
_
_
B
x
B
y
B
z
_
_
Scalar multiplication is commutative: A B = B A.
Equation of a line
A point r (x, y, z) lies on a line passing through a point a and parallel to vector b if
r = a + b
with a real number.
3
Equation of a plane
A point r (x, y, z) is on a plane if either
(a) r

## d = [d[, where d is the normal from the origin to the plane, or

(b)
x
X
+
y
Y
+
z
Z
= 1 where X, Y, Z are the intercepts on the axes.
Vector product
AB = n [A[ [B[ sin, where is the angle between the vectors and n is a unit vector normal to the plane containing
A and B in the direction for which A, B, n form a right-handed set of axes.
A B in determinant form

i j k
A
x
A
y
A
z
B
x
B
y
B
z

A B in matrix form
_
_
0 A
z
A
y
A
z
0 A
x
A
y
A
x
0
_
_
_
_
B
x
B
y
B
z
_
_
Vector multiplication is not commutative: A B = B A.
Scalar triple product
A B C = A B C =

A
x
A
y
A
z
B
x
B
y
B
z
C
x
C
y
C
z

= A C B, etc.
Vector triple product
A (B C) = (A C)B (A B)C, (A B) C = (A C)B (B C)A
Non-orthogonal basis
A = A
1
e
1
+ A
2
e
2
+ A
3
e
3
A
1
=

A where

=
e
2
e
3
e
1
(e
2
e
3
)
Similarly for A
2
and A
3
.
Summation convention
a = a
i
e
i
implies summation over i = 1 . . . 3
a b = a
i
b
i
(a b)
i
=
i jk
a
j
b
k
where
123
= 1;
i jk
=
ik j

i jk

klm
=
il

jm

im

jl
4
3. Matrix Algebra
Unit matrices
The unit matrix I of order n is a square matrix with all diagonal elements equal to one and all off-diagonal elements
zero, i.e., (I)
i j
=
i j
. If A is a square matrix of order n, then AI = I A = A. Also I = I
1
.
I is sometimes written as I
n
if the order needs to be stated explicitly.
Products
If A is a (n l) matrix and B is a (l m) then the product AB is dened by
(AB)
i j
=
l

k=1
A
ik
B
k j
In general AB ,= BA.
Transpose matrices
If A is a matrix, then transpose matrix A
T
is such that (A
T
)
i j
= (A)
ji
.
Inverse matrices
If A is a square matrix with non-zero determinant, then its inverse A
1
is such that AA
1
= A
1
A = I.
(A
1
)
i j
=
transpose of cofactor of A
i j
[A[
where the cofactor of A
i j
is (1)
i+j
times the determinant of the matrix A with the j-th row and i-th column deleted.
Determinants
If A is a square matrix then the determinant of A, [A[ ( det A) is dened by
[A[ =

i, j,k,...

i jk...
A
1i
A
2j
A
3k
. . .
where the number of the sufxes is equal to the order of the matrix.
22 matrices
If A =
_
a b
c d
_
then,
[A[ = ad bc A
T
=
_
a c
b d
_
A
1
=
1
[A[
_
d b
c a
_
Product rules
(AB . . . N)
T
= N
T
. . . B
T
A
T
(AB . . . N)
1
= N
1
. . . B
1
A
1
(if individual inverses exist)
[AB . . . N[ = [A[ [B[ . . . [N[ (if individual matrices are square)
Orthogonal matrices
An orthogonal matrix Q is a square matrix whose columns q
i
form a set of orthonormal vectors. For any orthogonal
matrix Q,
Q
1
= Q
T
, [Q[ = 1, Q
T
is also orthogonal.
5
Solving sets of linear simultaneous equations
If A is square then Ax = b has a unique solution x = A
1
b if A
1
exists, i.e., if [A[ ,= 0.
If A is square then Ax = 0 has a non-trivial solution if and only if [A[ = 0.
An over-constrained set of equations Ax = b is one in which A has m rows and n columns, where m (the number
of equations) is greater than n (the number of variables). The best solution x (in the sense that it minimizes the
error [Ax b[) is the solution of the n equations A
T
Ax = A
T
b. If the columns of A are orthonormal vectors then
x = A
T
b.
Hermitian matrices
The Hermitian conjugate of A is A

= (A

)
T
, where A

## is a matrix each of whose components is the complex

conjugate of the corresponding components of A. If A = A

## then A is called a Hermitian matrix.

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors
The n eigenvalues
i
and eigenvectors u
i
of an n n matrix A are the solutions of the equation Au = u. The
eigenvalues are the zeros of the polynomial of degree n, P
n
() = [A I[. If A is Hermitian then the eigenvalues

i
are real and the eigenvectors u
i
are mutually orthogonal. [A I[ = 0 is called the characteristic equation of the
matrix A.
Tr A =

i
, also [A[ =

i
.
If S is a symmetric matrix, is the diagonal matrix whose diagonal elements are the eigenvalues of S, and U is the
matrix whose columns are the normalized eigenvectors of A, then
U
T
SU = and S = UU
T
.
If x is an approximation to an eigenvector of A then x
T
Ax/(x
T
x) (Rayleighs quotient) is an approximation to the
corresponding eigenvalue.
Commutators
[A, B] AB BA
[A, B] = [B, A]
[A, B]

= [B

, A

]
[A + B, C] = [A, C] + [B, C]
[AB, C] = A[B, C] + [A, C]B
[A, [B, C]] + [B, [C, A]] + [C, [A, B]] = 0
Hermitian algebra
b

= (b

1
, b

2
, . . .)
Matrix form Operator form Bra-ket form
Hermiticity b

A c = (A b)

c
Z

O =
Z
(O)

[O[)
Eigenvalues, real Au
i
=
(i)
u
i
O
i
=
(i)

i
O[i) =
i
[i)
Orthogonality u
i
u
j
= 0
Z

j
= 0 i[ j) = 0 (i ,= j)
Completeness b =

i
u
i
(u
i
b) =

i
_
Z

_
=

i
[i) i[)
RayleighRitz
Lowest eigenvalue
0

b

A b
b

b

0

Z

O
Z

[O[)
[)
6
Pauli spin matrices

x
=
_
0 1
1 0
_
,
y
=
_
0 i
i 0
_
,
z
=
_
1 0
0 1
_

y
= i
z
,
y

z
= i
x
,
z

x
= i
y
,
x

x
=
y

y
=
z

z
= I
4. Vector Calculus
Notation
is a scalar function of a set of position coordinates. In Cartesian coordinates
= (x, y, z); in cylindrical polar coordinates = (, , z); in spherical
polar coordinates = (r, , ); in cases with radial symmetry = (r).
A is a vector function whose components are scalar functions of the position
coordinates: in Cartesian coordinates A = iA
x
+ jA
y
+kA
z
, where A
x
, A
y
, A
z
are independent functions of x, y, z.
In Cartesian coordinates (del) i

x
+ j

y
+ k

z

_

z
_

_
grad = , div A = A, curl A = A
Identities
1
+
2
1
2
div(A
1
+ A
2
) div A
1
+ div A
2
1

2
)
1
2
+
2
1
curl(A

+ A

) curl A
1
+ curl A
2
div(A) div A + (grad) A, curl(A) curl A + (grad) A
div(A
1
A
2
) A
2
curl A
1
A
1
curl A
2
curl(A
1
A
2
) A
1
div A
2
A
2
div A
1
+ (A
2
1
(A
1
2
div(curl A) 0, curl(grad) 0
2
A
1
A
2
) A
1
(curl A
2
) + (A
1
2
+ A
2
(curl A
1
) + (A
2
1
7
Grad, Div, Curl and the Laplacian
Cartesian Coordinates Cylindrical Coordinates Spherical Coordinates
Conversion to
Cartesian
Coordinates
x = cos y = sin z = z
x = r cos sin y = r sinsin
z = r cos
Vector A A
x
i + A
y
j + A
z
k A

+ A

+ A
z
z A
r
r + A

+ A

x
i +

y
j +

z
k

+
1

+

z
z

r
r +
1
r

+
1
r sin

Divergence
A
A
x
x
+
A
y
y
+
A
z
z
1

(A

+
1

+
A
z
z
1
r
2
(r
2
A
r
)
r
+
1
r sin
A

sin

+
1
r sin
A

Curl A

i j k

z
A
x
A
y
A
z

z
A

A
z

1
r
2
sin
r
1
r sin

1
r

A
r
rA

rA

sin

Laplacian

x
2
+

2

y
2
+

2

z
2
1

_
+
1

2
+

2

z
2
1
r
2

r
_
r
2

r
_
+
1
r
2
sin

_
sin

_
+
1
r
2
sin
2

2
Transformation of integrals
L = the distance along some curve C in space and is measured from some xed point.
S = a surface area
= a volume contained by a specied surface

## t = the unit tangent to C at the point P

n = the unit outward pointing normal
A = some vector function
dL = the vector element of curve (=

t dL)
dS = the vector element of surface (= n dS)
Then
Z
C
A

t dL =
Z
C
A dL
and when A =
Z
C
() dL =
Z
C
d
Gausss Theorem (Divergence Theorem)
When S denes a closed region having a volume
Z

( A) d =
Z
S
(A n) dS =
Z
S
A dS
also
Z

() d =
Z
S
dS
Z

( A) d =
Z
S
(n A) dS
8
Stokess Theorem
When C is closed and bounds the open surface S,
Z
S
( A) dS =
Z
C
A dL
also
Z
S
(n ) dS =
Z
C
dL
Greens Theorem
Z
S
dS =
Z

() d
=
Z

2
+ () ()

d
Greens Second Theorem
Z

(
2

2
) d =
Z
S
[() ()] dS
5. Complex Variables
Complex numbers
The complex number z = x + iy = r(cos + i sin) = r e
i(+2n)
, where i
2
= 1 and n is an arbitrary integer. The
real quantity r is the modulus of z and the angle is the argument of z. The complex conjugate of z is z

= x iy =
r(cos i sin) = r e
i
; zz

= [z[
2
= x
2
+ y
2
De Moivres theorem
(cos + i sin)
n
= e
in
= cos n + i sin n
Power series for complex variables.
e
z
= 1 + z +
z
2
2!
+ +
z
n
n!
+ convergent for all nite z
sin z = z
z
3
3!
+
z
5
5!
convergent for all nite z
cos z = 1
z
2
2!
+
z
4
4!
convergent for all nite z
ln(1 + z) = z
z
2
2
+
z
3
3
principal value of ln(1 + z)
This last series converges both on and within the circle [z[ = 1 except at the point z = 1.
tan
1
z = z
z
3
3
+
z
5
5

This last series converges both on and within the circle [z[ = 1 except at the points z = i.
(1 + z)
n
= 1 + nz +
n(n 1)
2!
z
2
+
n(n 1)(n 2)
3!
z
3
+
This last series converges both on and within the circle [z[ = 1 except at the point z = 1.
9
6. Trigonometric Formulae
cos
2
A + sin
2
A = 1 sec
2
A tan
2
A = 1 cosec
2
A cot
2
A = 1
sin 2A = 2 sin Acos A cos 2A = cos
2
A sin
2
A tan 2A =
2 tan A
1 tan
2
A
.
sin(A B) = sin Acos B cos Asin B cos Acos B =
cos(A + B) + cos(A B)
2
cos(A B) = cos Acos B sin Asin B sin Asin B =
cos(A B) cos(A + B)
2
tan(A B) =
tan A tan B
1 tan Atan B
sin Acos B =
sin(A + B) + sin(A B)
2
sin A + sin B = 2 sin
A + B
2
cos
A B
2
sin A sin B = 2 cos
A + B
2
sin
A B
2
cos A + cos B = 2 cos
A + B
2
cos
A B
2
cos A cos B = 2 sin
A + B
2
sin
A B
2
cos
2
A =
1 + cos 2A
2
sin
2
A =
1 cos 2A
2
cos
3
A =
3 cos A + cos 3A
4
sin
3
A =
3 sin A sin 3A
4
Relations between sides and angles of any plane triangle
In a plane triangle with angles A, B, and C and sides opposite a, b, and c respectively,
a
sin A
=
b
sin B
=
c
sin C
= diameter of circumscribed circle.
a
2
= b
2
+ c
2
2bc cos A
a = b cos C + c cos B
cos A =
b
2
+ c
2
a
2
2bc
tan
A B
2
=
a b
a + b
cot
C
2
area =
1
2
ab sin C =
1
2
bc sin A =
1
2
ca sin B =
_
s(s a)(s b)(s c), where s =
1
2
(a + b + c)
Relations between sides and angles of any spherical triangle
In a spherical triangle with angles A, B, and C and sides opposite a, b, and c respectively,
sin a
sin A
=
sin b
sin B
=
sin c
sin C
cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A
cos A = cos B cos C + sin B sin Ccos a
10
7. Hyperbolic Functions
cosh x =
1
2
( e
x
+ e
x
) = 1 +
x
2
2!
+
x
4
4!
+ valid for all x
sinh x =
1
2
( e
x
e
x
) = x +
x
3
3!
+
x
5
5!
+ valid for all x
cosh ix = cos x cos ix = cosh x
sinh ix = i sin x sin ix = i sinh x
tanh x =
sinh x
cosh x
sech x =
1
cosh x
coth x =
cosh x
sinh x
cosech x =
1
sinh x
cosh
2
x sinh
2
x = 1
For large positive x:
cosh x sinh x
e
x
2
tanh x 1
For large negative x:
cosh x sinh x
e
x
2
tanh x 1
Relations of the functions
sinh x = sinh(x) sech x = sech(x)
cosh x = cosh(x) cosech x = cosech(x)
tanh x = tanh(x) coth x = coth(x)
sinh x =
2 tanh (x/2)
1 tanh
2
(x/2)
=
tanh x
_
1 tanh
2
x
cosh x =
1 + tanh
2
(x/2)
1 tanh
2
(x/2)
=
1
_
1 tanh
2
x
tanh x =
_
1 sech
2
x sech x =
_
1 tanh
2
x
coth x =
_
cosech
2
x + 1 cosech x =
_
coth
2
x 1
sinh(x/2) =
_
cosh x 1
2
cosh(x/2) =
_
cosh x + 1
2
tanh(x/2) =
cosh x 1
sinh x
=
sinh x
cosh x + 1
sinh(2x) = 2 sinh x cosh x tanh(2x) =
2 tanh x
1 + tanh
2
x
cosh(2x) = cosh
2
x + sinh
2
x = 2 cosh
2
x 1 = 1 + 2 sinh
2
x
sinh(3x) = 3 sinh x + 4 sinh
3
x cosh 3x = 4 cosh
3
x 3 cosh x
tanh(3x) =
3 tanh x + tanh
3
x
1 + 3 tanh
2
x
11
sinh(x y) = sinh x cosh y cosh x sinh y
cosh(x y) = cosh x cosh y sinh x sinh y
tanh(x y) =
tanh x tanh y
1 tanh x tanh y
sinh x + sinh y = 2 sinh
1
2
(x + y) cosh
1
2
(x y) cosh x + cosh y = 2 cosh
1
2
(x + y) cosh
1
2
(x y)
sinh x sinh y = 2 cosh
1
2
(x + y) sinh
1
2
(x y) cosh x cosh y = 2 sinh
1
2
(x + y) sinh
1
2
(x y)
sinh x cosh x =
1 tanh (x/2)
1 tanh(x/2)
= e
x
tanh x tanh y =
sinh(x y)
cosh x cosh y
coth x coth y =
sinh(x y)
sinh x sinh y
Inverse functions
sinh
1
x
a
= ln
_
x +
_
x
2
+ a
2
a
_
for < x <
cosh
1
x
a
= ln
_
x +
_
x
2
a
2
a
_
for x a
tanh
1
x
a
=
1
2
ln
_
a + x
a x
_
for x
2
< a
2
coth
1
x
a
=
1
2
ln
_
x + a
x a
_
for x
2
> a
2
sech
1
x
a
= ln
_
_
a
x
+

a
2
x
2
1
_
_
for 0 < x a
cosech
1
x
a
= ln
_
_
a
x
+

a
2
x
2
+ 1
_
_
for x ,= 0
8. Limits
n
c
x
n
0 as n if [x[ < 1 (any xed c)
x
n
/n! 0 as n (any xed x)
(1 + x/n)
n
e
x
as n , x ln x 0 as x 0
If f (a) = g(a) = 0 then lim
xa
f (x)
g(x)
=
f

(a)
g

(a)
(lH opitals rule)
12
9. Differentiation
(uv)

= u

v + uv

,
_
u
v
_

=
u

v uv

v
2
(uv)
(n)
= u
(n)
v + nu
(n1)
v
(1)
+ +
n
C
r
u
(nr)
v
(r)
+ + uv
(n)
Leibniz Theorem
where
n
C
r

_
n
r
_
=
n!
r!(n r)!
d
dx
(sin x) = cos x
d
dx
(sinh x) = cosh x
d
dx
(cos x) = sin x
d
dx
(cosh x) = sinh x
d
dx
(tan x) = sec
2
x
d
dx
(tanh x) = sech
2
x
d
dx
(sec x) = sec x tan x
d
dx
(sech x) = sech x tanh x
d
dx
(cot x) = cosec
2
x
d
dx
(coth x) = cosech
2
x
d
dx
(cosec x) = cosec x cot x
d
dx
(cosech x) = cosech x coth x
10. Integration
Standard forms
Z
x
n
dx =
x
n+1
n + 1
+ c for n ,= 1
Z
1
x
dx = ln x + c
Z
ln x dx = x(ln x 1) + c
Z
e
ax
dx =
1
a
e
ax
+ c
Z
x e
ax
dx = e
ax
_
x
a

1
a
2
_
+ c
Z
x ln x dx =
x
2
2
_
ln x
1
2
_
+ c
Z
1
a
2
+ x
2
dx =
1
a
tan
1
_
x
a
_
+ c
Z
1
a
2
x
2
dx =
1
a
tanh
1
_
x
a
_
+ c =
1
2a
ln
_
a + x
a x
_
+ c for x
2
< a
2
Z
1
x
2
a
2
dx =
1
a
coth
1
_
x
a
_
+ c =
1
2a
ln
_
x a
x + a
_
+ c for x
2
> a
2
Z
x
(x
2
a
2
)
n
dx =
1
2(n 1)
1
(x
2
a
2
)
n1
+ c for n ,= 1
Z
x
x
2
a
2
dx =
1
2
ln(x
2
a
2
) + c
Z
1
_
a
2
x
2
dx = sin
1
_
x
a
_
+ c
Z
1
_
x
2
a
2
dx = ln
_
x +
_
x
2
a
2
_
+ c
Z
x
_
x
2
a
2
dx =
_
x
2
a
2
+ c
Z
_
a
2
x
2
dx =
1
2
_
x
_
a
2
x
2
+ a
2
sin
1
_
x
a
__
+ c
13
Z

0
1
(1 + x)x
p
dx = cosec p for p < 1
Z

0
cos(x
2
) dx =
Z

0
sin(x
2
) dx =
1
2
_

2
Z

exp(x
2
/2
2
) dx =

2
Z

x
n
exp(x
2
/2
2
) dx =
_
_
_
1 3 5 (n 1)
n+1

2
0
for n 2 and even
for n 1 and odd
Z
sin x dx = cos x + c
Z
sinh x dx = cosh x + c
Z
cos x dx = sin x + c
Z
cosh x dx = sinh x + c
Z
tan x dx = ln(cos x) + c
Z
tanh x dx = ln(cosh x) + c
Z
cosec x dx = ln(cosec x cot x) + c
Z
cosech x dx = ln [tanh(x/2)] + c
Z
sec x dx = ln(sec x + tan x) + c
Z
sech x dx = 2 tan
1
( e
x
) + c
Z
cot x dx = ln(sin x) + c
Z
coth x dx = ln(sinh x) + c
Z
sin mx sin nx dx =
sin(m n)x
2(m n)

sin(m + n)x
2(m + n)
+ c if m
2
,= n
2
Z
cos mx cos nx dx =
sin(m n)x
2(m n)
+
sin(m + n)x
2(m + n)
+ c if m
2
,= n
2
Standard substitutions
If the integrand is a function of: substitute:
(a
2
x
2
) or
_
a
2
x
2
x = a sin or x = a cos
(x
2
+ a
2
) or
_
x
2
+ a
2
x = a tan or x = a sinh
(x
2
a
2
) or
_
x
2
a
2
x = a sec or x = a cosh
If the integrand is a rational function of sin x or cos x or both, substitute t = tan(x/2) and use the results:
sin x =
2t
1 + t
2
cos x =
1 t
2
1 + t
2
dx =
2 dt
1 + t
2
.
If the integrand is of the form: substitute:
Z
dx
(ax + b)
_
px + q
px + q = u
2
Z
dx
(ax + b)
_
px
2
+ qx + r
ax + b =
1
u
.
14
Integration by parts
Z
b
a
u dv = uv

b
a

Z
b
a
v du
Differentiation of an integral
If f (x, ) is a function of x containing a parameter and the limits of integration a and b are functions of then
d
d
Z
b()
a()
f (x, ) dx = f (b, )
db
d
f (a, )
da
d
+
Z
b()
a()

f (x, ) dx.
Special case,
d
dx
Z
x
a
f (y) dy = f (x).
Dirac -function
(t ) =
1
2
Z

exp[i(t )] d.
If f (t) is an arbitrary function of t then
Z

(t ) f (t) dt = f ().
(t) = 0 if t ,= 0, also
Z

(t) dt = 1
Reduction formulae
Factorials
n! = n(n 1)(n 2) . . . 1, 0! = 1.
Stirlings formula for large n: ln(n!) n ln n n.
For any p > 1,
Z

0
x
p
e
x
dx = p
Z

0
x
p1
e
x
dx = p!. (
1
/
2
)! =

, (
1
/
2
)! =

/
2
, etc.
For any p, q > 1,
Z
1
0
x
p
(1 x)
q
dx =
p!q!
(p + q + 1)!
.
Trigonometrical
If m, n are integers,
Z
/2
0
sin
m
cos
n
d =
m 1
m + n
Z
/2
0
sin
m2
cos
n
d =
n 1
m + n
Z
/2
0
sin
m
cos
n2
d
and can therefore be reduced eventually to one of the following integrals
Z
/2
0
sin cos d =
1
2
,
Z
/2
0
sin d = 1,
Z
/2
0
cos d = 1,
Z
/2
0
d =

2
.
Other
If I
n
=
Z

0
x
n
exp(x
2
) dx then I
n
=
(n 1)
2
I
n2
, I
0
=
1
2
_

, I
1
=
1
2
.
15
11. Differential Equations
Diffusion (conduction) equation

t
=
2

Wave equation

2
=
1
c
2

t
2
Legendres equation
(1 x
2
)
d
2
y
dx
2
2x
dy
dx
+ l(l + 1)y = 0,
solutions of which are Legendre polynomials P
l
(x), where P
l
(x) =
1
2
l
l!
_
d
dx
_
l
_
x
2
1
_
l
, Rodrigues formula so
P
0
(x) = 1, P
1
(x) = x, P
2
(x) =
1
2
(3x
2
1) etc.
Recursion relation
P
l
(x) =
1
l
[(2l 1)xP
l1
(x) (l 1)P
l2
(x)]
Orthogonality
Z
1
1
P
l
(x)P
l
(x) dx =
2
2l + 1

ll

Bessels equation
x
2
d
2
y
dx
2
+ x
dy
dx
+ (x
2
m
2
)y = 0,
solutions of which are Bessel functions J
m
(x) of order m.
Series form of Bessel functions of the rst kind
J
m
(x) =

k=0
(1)
k
(x/2)
m+2k
k!(m + k)!
(integer m).
The same general form holds for non-integer m > 0.
16
Laplaces equation

2
u = 0
If expressed in two-dimensional polar coordinates (see section 4), a solution is
u(, ) =
_
A
n
+ B
n
_
Cexp(in) + Dexp(in)

## where A, B, C, D are constants and n is a real integer.

If expressed in three-dimensional polar coordinates (see section 4) a solution is
u(r, , ) =
_
Ar
l
+ Br
(l+1)

P
m
l
_
Csin m + Dcos m

## where l and m are integers with l [m[ 0; A, B, C, D are constants;

P
m
l
(cos) = sin
|m|

_
d
d(cos)
_
|m|
P
l
(cos)
is the associated Legendre polynomial.
P
0
l
(1) = 1.
If expressed in cylindrical polar coordinates (see section 4), a solution is
u(, , z) = J
m
(n)
_
Acos m + B sin m
_
Cexp(nz) + Dexp(nz)

## where m and n are integers; A, B, C, D are constants.

Spherical harmonics
The normalized solutions Y
m
l
(, ) of the equation
_
1
sin

_
sin

_
+
1
sin
2

2
_
Y
m
l
+ l(l + 1)Y
m
l
= 0
are called spherical harmonics, and have values given by
Y
m
l
(, ) =

2l + 1
4
(l [m[)!
(l + [m[)!
P
m
l
(cos) e
im

_
(1)
m
for m 0
1 for m < 0
i.e., Y
0
0
=
_
1
4
, Y
0
1
=
_
3
4
cos, Y
1
1
=
_
3
8
sin e
i
, etc.
Orthogonality
Z
4
Y
m
l
Y
m

l
d =
ll

mm

## 12. Calculus of Variations

The condition for I =
Z
b
a
F(y, y

## , x) dx to have a stationary value is

F
y
=
d
dx
_
F
y

_
, where y

=
dy
dx
. This is the
EulerLagrange equation.
17
13. Functions of Several Variables
If = f (x, y, z, . . .) then

x
implies differentiation with respect to x keeping y, z, . . . constant.
d =

x
dx +

y
dy +

z
dz + and

x
x +

y
y +

z
z +
where x, y, z, . . . are independent variables.

x
is also written as
_

x
_
y,...
or

x

y,...
when the variables kept
constant need to be stated explicitly.
If is a well-behaved function then

2

x y
=

2

y x
etc.
If = f (x, y),
_

x
_
y
=
1
_
x

_
y
,
_

x
_
y
_
x
y
_

_
y

_
x
= 1.
Taylor series for two variables
If (x, y) is well-behaved in the vicinity of x = a, y = b then it has a Taylor series
(x, y) = (a + u, b + v) = (a, b) + u

x
+ v

y
+
1
2!
_
u
2

x
2
+ 2uv

2

x y
+ v
2

y
2
_
+
where x = a + u, y = b + v and the differential coefcients are evaluated at x = a, y = b
Stationary points
A function = f (x, y) has a stationary point when

x
=

y
= 0. Unless

2

x
2
=

2

y
2
=

2

x y
= 0, the following
conditions determine whether it is a minimum, a maximum or a saddle point.
Minimum:

2

x
2
> 0, or

2

y
2
> 0,
Maximum:

2

x
2
< 0, or

2

y
2
< 0,
_

_
and

2

x
2

y
2
>
_

2

x y
_
2

2

x
2

y
2
<
_

2

x y
_
2
If

2

x
2
=

2

y
2
=

2

x y
= 0 the character of the turning point is determined by the next higher derivative.
Changing variables: the chain rule
If = f (x, y, . . .) and the variables x, y, . . . are functions of independent variables u, v, . . . then

u
=

x
x
u
+

y
y
u
+

v
=

x
x
v
+

y
y
v
+
etc.
18
Changing variables in surface and volume integrals Jacobians
If an area A in the x, y plane maps into an area A

Z
A
f (x, y) dx dy =
Z
A

x
u
x
v
y
u
y
v

## The Jacobian J is also written as

(x, y)
(u, v)
. The corresponding formula for volume integrals is
Z
V
f (x, y, z) dx dy dz =
Z
V

x
u
x
v
x
w
y
u
y
v
y
w
z
u
z
v
z
w

## 14. Fourier Series and Transforms

Fourier series
If y(x) is a function dened in the range x then
y(x) c
0
+
M

m=1
c
m
cos mx +
M

m=1
s
m
sin mx
where the coefcients are
c
0
=
1
2
Z

y(x) dx
c
m
=
1

y(x) cos mx dx (m = 1, . . . , M)
s
m
=
1

y(x) sinmx dx (m = 1, . . . , M

)
with convergence to y(x) as M, M

## for all points where y(x) is continuous.

Fourier series for other ranges
Variable t, range 0 t T, (i.e., a periodic function of time with period T, frequency = 2/T).
y(t) c
0
+

c
m
cos mt +

s
m
sin mt
where
c
0
=

2
Z
T
0
y(t) dt, c
m
=

Z
T
0
y(t) cos mt dt, s
m
=

Z
T
0
y(t) sinmt dt.
Variable x, range 0 x L,
y(x) c
0
+

c
m
cos
2mx
L
+

s
m
sin
2mx
L
where
c
0
=
1
L
Z
L
0
y(x) dx, c
m
=
2
L
Z
L
0
y(x) cos
2mx
L
dx, s
m
=
2
L
Z
L
0
y(x) sin
2mx
L
dx.
19
Fourier series for odd and even functions
If y(x) is an odd (anti-symmetric) function [i.e., y(x) = y(x)] dened in the range x , then only
sines are required in the Fourier series and s
m
=
2

Z

0
y(x) sinmx dx. If, in addition, y(x) is symmetric about
x = /2, then the coefcients s
m
are given by s
m
= 0 (for m even), s
m
=
4

Z
/2
0
y(x) sin mx dx (for m odd). If
y(x) is an even (symmetric) function [i.e., y(x) = y(x)] dened in the range x , then only constant
and cosine terms are required in the Fourier series and c
0
=
1

Z

0
y(x) dx, c
m
=
2

Z

0
y(x) cos mx dx. If, in
addition, y(x) is anti-symmetric about x =

2
, then c
0
= 0 and the coefcients c
m
are given by c
m
= 0 (for m even),
c
m
=
4

Z
/2
0
y(x) cos mx dx (for m odd).
[These results also apply to Fourier series with more general ranges provided appropriate changes are made to the
limits of integration.]
Complex form of Fourier series
If y(x) is a function dened in the range x then
y(x)
M

M
C
m
e
imx
, C
m
=
1
2
Z

y(x) e
imx
dx
with m taking all integer values in the range M. This approximation converges to y(x) as M under the same
conditions as the real form.
For other ranges the formulae are:
Variable t, range 0 t T, frequency = 2/T,
y(t) =

C
m
e
imt
, C
m
=

2
Z
T
0
y(t) e
imt
dt.
Variable x

, range 0 x

L,
y(x

) =

C
m
e
i2mx

/L
, C
m
=
1
L
Z
L
0
y(x

) e
i2mx

/L
dx

.
Discrete Fourier series
If y(x) is a function dened in the range x which is sampled in the 2N equally spaced points x
n
=
nx/N [n = (N 1) . . . N], then
y(x
n
) = c
0
+ c
1
cos x
n
+ c
2
cos 2x
n
+ + c
N1
cos(N 1)x
n
+ c
N
cos Nx
n
+ s
1
sin x
n
+ s
2
sin 2x
n
+ + s
N1
sin(N 1)x
n
+ s
N
sin Nx
n
where the coefcients are
c
0
=
1
2N

y(x
n
)
c
m
=
1
N

y(x
n
) cos mx
n
(m = 1, . . . , N 1)
c
N
=
1
2N

y(x
n
) cos Nx
n
s
m
=
1
N

y(x
n
) sin mx
n
(m = 1, . . . , N 1)
s
N
=
1
2N

y(x
n
) sin Nx
n
each summation being over the 2N sampling points x
n
.
20
Fourier transforms
If y(x) is a function dened in the range x then the Fourier transformy() is dened by the equations
y(t) =
1
2
Z

y() e
it
d, y() =
Z

y(t) e
it
dt.
If is replaced by 2f , where f is the frequency, this relationship becomes
y(t) =
Z

y( f ) e
i2f t
df , y( f ) =
Z

y(t) e
i2f t
dt.
If y(t) is symmetric about t = 0 then
y(t) =
1

Z

0
y() cos t d, y() = 2
Z

0
y(t) cost dt.
If y(t) is anti-symmetric about t = 0 then
y(t) =
1

Z

0
y() sint d, y() = 2
Z

0
y(t) sint dt.
Specic cases
y(t) = a, [t[
= 0, [t[ >
_
(Top Hat), y() = 2a
sin

2a sinc()
where sinc(x) =
sin(x)
x
y(t) = a(1 [t[/), [t[
= 0, [t[ >
_
(Saw-tooth), y() =
2a

(1 cos ) = a sinc
2
_

2
_
y(t) = exp(t
2
/t
2
0
) (Gaussian), y() = t
0

exp
_

2
t
2
0
/4
_
y(t) = f (t) e
i
0
t
(modulated function), y() =

f (
0
)
y(t) =

m=
(t m) (sampling function) y() =

n=
( 2n/)
21
Convolution theorem
If z(t) =
Z

x()y(t ) d =
Z

## x(t )y() d x(t) y(t) then z() = x() y().

Conversely, xy = x y.
Parsevals theorem
Z

(t) y(t) dt =
1
2
Z

## () y() d (if y is normalised as on page 21)

Fourier transforms in two dimensions

V(k) =
Z
V(r) e
ikr
d
2
r
=
Z

0
2rV(r)J
0
(kr) dr if azimuthally symmetric
Fourier transforms in three dimensions
Examples
V(r)

V(k)
1
4r
1
k
2
e
r
4r
1
k
2
+
2
V(r) ik

V(k)

2
V(r) k
2

V(k)

V(k) =
Z
V(r) e
ikr
d
3
r
=
4
k
Z

0
V(r) r sin kr dr if spherically symmetric
V(r) =
1
(2)
3
Z

V(k) e
ikr
d
3
k
22
15. Laplace Transforms
If y(t) is a function dened for t 0, the Laplace transform y(s) is dened by the equation
y(s) = Ly(t) =
Z

0
e
st
y(t) dt
Function y(t) (t > 0) Transform y(s)
(t) 1 Delta function
(t)
1
s
Unit step function
t
n
n!
s
n+1
t
1
/
2
1
2
_

s
3
t

1
/
2
_

s
e
at
1
(s + a)
sint

(s
2
+
2
cos t
s
(s
2
+
2
)
sinht

(s
2

2
)
cosht
s
(s
2

2
)
e
at
y(t) y(s + a)
y(t ) (t ) e
s
y(s)
ty(t)
dy
ds
dy
dt
sy(s) y(0)
d
n
y
dt
n
s
n
y(s) s
n1
y(0) s
n2
_
dy
dt
_
0

_
d
n1
y
dt
n1
_
0
Z
t
0
y() d
y(s)
s
Z
t
0
x() y(t ) d
Z
t
0
x(t ) y() d
_

_
x(s) y(s) Convolution theorem
[Note that if y(t) = 0 for t < 0 then the Fourier transform of y(t) is y() = y(i).]
23
16. Numerical Analysis
Finding the zeros of equations
If the equation is y = f (x) and x
n
is an approximation to the root then either
x
n+1
= x
n

f (x
n
)
f

(x
n
)
. (Newton)
or, x
n+1
= x
n

x
n
x
n1
f (x
n
) f (x
n1
)
f (x
n
) (Linear interpolation)
are, in general, better approximations.
Numerical integration of differential equations
If
dy
dx
= f (x, y) then
y
n+1
= y
n
+ h f (x
n
, y
n
) where h = x
n+1
x
n
(Euler method)
Putting y

n+1
= y
n
+ h f (x
n
, y
n
) (improved Euler method)
then y
n+1
= y
n
+
h[ f (x
n
, y
n
) + f (x
n+1
, y

n+1
)]
2
Central difference notation
If y(x) is tabulated at equal intervals of x, where h is the interval, then y
n+1/2
= y
n+1
y
n
and

2
y
n
= y
n+1/2
y
n1/2
Approximating to derivatives
_
dy
dx
_
n

y
n+1
y
n
h

y
n
y
n1
h

y
n+
1
/
2
+ y
n
1
/
2
2h
where h = x
n+1
x
n
_
d
2
y
dx
2
_
n

y
n+1
2y
n
+ y
n1
h
2
=

2
y
n
h
2
Interpolation: Everetts formula
y(x) = y(x
0
+h) y
0
+y
1
+
1
3!
(
2
1)
2
y
0
+
1
3!
(
2
1)
2
y
1
+
where is the fraction of the interval h (= x
n+1
x
n
) between the sampling points and = 1 . The rst two
terms represent linear interpolation.
Numerical evaluation of denite integrals
Trapezoidal rule
The interval of integration is divided into n equal sub-intervals, each of width h; then
Z
b
a
f (x) dx h
_
c
1
2
f (a) + f (x
1
) + + f (x
j
) + +
1
2
f (b)
_
where h = (b a)/n and x
j
= a + jh.
Simpsons rule
The interval of integration is divided into an even number (say 2n) of equal sub-intervals, each of width h =
(b a)/2n; then
Z
b
a
f (x) dx
h
3
_
f (a) + 4 f (x
1
) + 2 f (x
2
) + 4 f (x
3
) + + 2 f (x
2n2
) + 4 f (x
2n1
) + f (b)

24
Gausss integration formulae
These have the general form
Z
1
1
y(x) dx
n

1
c
i
y(x
i
)
For n = 2 : x
i
= 05773; c
i
= 1, 1 (exact for any cubic).
For n = 3 : x
i
= 07746, 00, 07746; c
i
= 0555, 0888, 0555 (exact for any quintic).
17. Treatment of Random Errors
Sample mean x =
1
n
(x
1
+ x
2
+ x
n
)
Residual: d = x x
Standard deviation of sample: s =
1

n
(d
2
1
+ d
2
2
+ d
2
n
)
1/2
Standard deviation of distribution:
1

n 1
(d
2
1
+ d
2
2
+ d
2
n
)
1/2
Standard deviation of mean:
m
=

n
=
1
_
n(n 1)
(d
2
1
+ d
2
2
+ d
2
n
)
1/2
=
1
_
n(n 1)
_

x
2
i

1
n
_

x
i
_
2
_
1/2
Result of n measurements is quoted as x
m
.
Range method
A quick but crude method of estimating is to nd the range r of a set of n readings, i.e., the difference between
the largest and smallest values, then

r

n
.
This is usually adequate for n less than about 12.
Combination of errors
If Z = Z(A, B, . . .) (with A, B, etc. independent) then
(
Z
)
2
=
_
Z
A

A
_
2
+
_
Z
B

B
_
2
+
So if
(i) Z = A B C, (
Z
)
2
= (
A
)
2
+ (
B
)
2
+ (
C
)
2
(ii) Z = AB or A/B,
_

Z
Z
_
2
=
_

A
A
_
2
+
_

B
B
_
2
(iii) Z = A
m
,

Z
Z
= m

A
A
(iv) Z = ln A,
Z
=

A
A
(v) Z = exp A,

Z
Z
=
A
25
18. Statistics
Mean and Variance
A random variable X has a distribution over some subset x of the real numbers. When the distribution of X is
discrete, the probability that X = x
i
is P
i
. When the distribution is continuous, the probability that X lies in an
interval x is f (x)x, where f (x) is the probability density function.
Mean = E(X) =

P
i
x
i
or
Z
x f (x) dx.
Variance
2
= V(X) = E[(X )
2
] =

P
i
(x
i
)
2
or
Z
(x )
2
f (x) dx.
Probability distributions
Error function: erf(x) =
2

Z
x
0
e
y
2
dy
Binomial: f (x) =
_
n
x
_
p
x
q
nx
where q = (1 p), = np,
2
= npq, p < 1.
Poisson: f (x) =

x
x!
e

, and
2
=
Normal: f (x) =
1

2
exp
_

(x )
2
2
2
_
Weighted sums of random variables
If W = aX + bY then E(W) = aE(X) + bE(Y). If X and Y are independent then V(W) = a
2
V(X) + b
2
V(Y).
Statistics of a data sample x
1
, . . . , x
n
Sample mean x =
1
n

x
i
Sample variance s
2
=
1
n

(x
i
x)
2
=
_
1
n

x
2
i
_
x
2
= E(x
2
) [E(x)]
2
Regression (least squares tting)
To t a straight line by least squares to n pairs of points (x
i
, y
i
), model the observations by y
i
= +(x
i
x) +
i
,
where the
i
are independent samples of a random variable with zero mean and variance
2
.
Sample statistics: s
2
x
=
1
n

(x
i
x)
2
, s
2
y
=
1
n

(y
i
y)
2
, s
2
xy
=
1
n

(x
i
x)(y
i
y).
Estimators: = y,

=
s
2
xy
s
2
x
; E(Y at x) = +

(x x);
2
=
n
n 2
(residual variance),
where residual variance =
1
n

y
i

(x
i
x)
2
= s
2
y

s
4
xy
s
2
x
.
Estimates for the variances of and

are

2
n
and

2
ns
2
x
.
Correlation coefcient: = r =
s
2
xy
s
x
s
y
.
26
MCW cooling tower
I NSTALLATI ON - OPERATI ON - MAI NTENANCE
M06-1310C I SSUED 10/2013 READ AND UNDERSTAND THI S MANUAL PRIOR TO OPERATI NG OR SERVICI NG THI S PRODUCT.
USER MANUAL
3
contents
Tower Location ............................................................................................................5
Tower Shipment...........................................................................................................6
Receiving Tower ..........................................................................................................6
Hoisting Tower .............................................................................................................6
Tower Installation.........................................................................................................7
Tower Start-Up ......................................................................................................... 11
Tower Operation ....................................................................................................... 13
Wintertime Operation.............................................................................................. 15
Water Treatment and Blowdown .......................................................................... 16
Cooling Tower Cleaning ......................................................................................... 18
Schedule of Tower Maintenance .......................................................................... 20
Seasonal Shutdown Instructions ......................................................................... 22
Prolonged Shutdown .............................................................................................. 23
Maintenance Schedule ........................................................................................... 25
Troubleshooting ........................................................................................................ 26
Additional Information ............................................................................................. 28
Note
This manual contains vital information for the proper installation and
operation of your cooling tower. Carefully read the manual before
installation or operation of the tower and follow all instructions.
Save this manual for future reference.
Indicates presence of a hazard which can cause severe personal
injury, death or substantial property damage if ignored.
Indicates presence of a hazard which will or can cause personal
injury or property damage if ignored.
Indicates special instructions on installation, operation or main-
tenance which are important but not related to personal injury
hazards.
Warning
Caution
Note
The following dened terms are used throughout this manual to bring attention
to the presence of hazards of various risk levels, or to important information
concerning the life of the product.
4
preparation
The Marley MCW cooling tower purchased for this installation represents
the current state of the art in counterow, forced draft cooling tower design.
Thermally and operationally, it is the most efcient cooling tower of its class.
These instructionsas well as those offered separately on motors, fans, oat
valves, etc.are intended to assure that the tower serves you properly for the
maximum possible time. Since product warrantability may well depend upon
your actions, please read these instructions thoroughly prior to operation.
If you have questions about the operation and/or maintenance of this tower,
sales representative. When writing for information, or when ordering parts,
please mention tower serial number shown on the nameplate located on the
access door.
Safety First
The location and orientation of the cooling tower can affect the safety of those
responsible for installing, operating or maintaining the tower. However, since
SPX Cooling Technologies does not determine the location or orientation of
the tower, we cannot be responsible for addressing those safety issues that
are affected by the towers location or orientation. W
ARNING
The following safety issues should be considered by those respon-
sible for designing the tower installation.
access to and from maintenance access doors
the possible need for ladders (either portable or permanent) to
gain access to the discharge level or maintenance access doors
the possible need for external access platforms
potential access problems due to obstructions surrounding the
tower
lockout of mechanical equipment
the possible need for safety cages around ladders
the need to avoid exposing maintenance personnel to the poten-
tially unsafe environment inside the tower.
Those are only some of the safety issues that may arise in the design
process. SPX strongly recommends that you consult a safety engineer
to be sure that all safety considerations have been addressed.
Warning
5
preparation
Several options are available that may assist you in addressing some of these
personnel safety concerns, including:
top of tower access platform with handrail system around the perimeter of
the platform with a ladder for access to the platform
ladder extensions (used where the base of the tower is elevated)
safety cages for fan deck ladders
distribution level access platform with handrail system around the perimeter
of the platform with a ladder for access to the platform
access door platform with handrail system around the perimeter of the
Tower Location
Space available around the tower should be as generous as possible to pro-
mote ease of maintenanceand to permit freedom of airow into and through
the tower. If you have questions about the adequacy of the available space
representative for guidance.
Prepare a stable, level support foundation for the tower, utilizing weight, wind
load, and dimensional information appearing on appropriate Marley submittal
drawings. Supports must be level to insure proper operation of the tower.
The cooling tower must be located at such distance and direction
to avoid the possibility of contaminated tower discharge air being
drawn into building fresh air intake ducts. The purchaser should ob-
tain the services of a Licensed Professional Engineer or Registered
Architect to certify that the location of the tower is in compliance
with applicable air pollution, re, and clean air codes.
Warning
6
Tower Shipment
Unless otherwise specied, MCW towers ship by truck (on at bed trailers),
which lets you receive, hoist, and install the tower in one continuous operation.
Single-cell towers ship on one truck. Multicell towers, depending on their size,
may require more than one truck.
Responsibility for the condition of the tower upon its arrival belongs to the
truckeras does the coordination of multiple shipments, if required.
Receiving Tower
Prior to unloading the tower from the delivering carrier, inspect the shipment
for evidence of damage in transit. If damage is apparent, note the freight bill
accordingly. This will support your future recovery claim.
Find and remove the installation instruction drawings and bills of material
located in a plastic bag in the cold water basin. This information should be
kept for future reference and maintenance purposes.
Hoisting Tower
All MCW models consist of two modules per cell. The upper module includes
eye bolts at the top corners. Hoisting clips on the lower module are attached
to the horizontal cross channels. A Hoisting-Installation label which has
hoisting dimensional information is located on the side casing near the tower
centerline. Remove tower from the carrier and hoist into place according to
the instructions on the label.
MCW upper and lower modules must be hoisted and set separately.
Do not preassemble modules prior to hoisting.
Hoisting clips are provided for ease of unloading and positioning
tower. For overhead lifts or where additional safety is required,
safety slings should also be placed under the tower. Under no
circumstances should you combine the top and bottom modules
of modular models and attempt to hoist them at the same time by
utilizing the hoisting clips alone!
Warning
receiving and hoisting
Caution
7
Tower Installation
These installation instructions are intended to help you prepare
before your tower arrives. If discrepancies exist between these
instructions and those shipped with the tower, the instructions
shipped with the tower will govern.
1. Prior to placement of the tower, conrm that the supporting platform is
level, and that the anchor bolt holes are correctly located in accordance
with Marley drawings.
2. Place the bottom module on your prepared supports, aligning anchor bolt
holes with those in your supporting steel. Make sure that the orientation
agrees with your intended piping arrangement. Attach tower to supporting
steel with four
3
8" diameter bolts and at washers (by others). Position at
washers between the bolt head and the tower basin ange.
3. Before setting top module in place on bottom module, clean any debris
from the underside of the top module ll, skid and beams and from the
top of the bottom module. Apply the mastic sealing strip supplied with
the tower according to the MCW Field Installation Manual As-
sembly Instructions. Place top module on the top peripheral bearing
surface of bottom module, aligning mating holes as it is set in place. At-
tach top module to bottom module with fasteners provided according to
MCW Field Installation Manual Assembly Instructions.
4. Attach your cold water supply piping to the cold water basin outlet connec-
tion in accordance with drawing instructions, utilizing gaskets provided.
Do not support your pipe from the tower or outlet connection
support it externally.
5. Attach makeup water supply piping to appropriately-sized oat valve con-
nection located in cold water basin side wall. Install the drain and overow
according to the MCW Field Installation Manual Assembly Instruc-
tions. If you wish to pipe overow and drain water to a remote discharge
point, make those connections at this time also.
6. Attach your warm water return piping to the inlet connections of the
tower.
Note
installation
Caution
8
Fasteners and components provided by others that are to be at-
tached to the tower must be compatible with the cooling tower
materialsi.e. fasteners in a stainless steel cold water basin must
be stainless steel.
Do not support your pipe from the tower or inlet connectionsupport
it externally.
7. Wire motor in accordance with wiring diagram.
For maintenance/safety purposes, SPX recommends a lockout
type disconnect switch for all mechanical equipment. In addition
to a disconnect switch, the motor should be wired to main power
supply through short circuit protection, and a magnetic starter with
Motor Wiring
Wire motor leads as shown on the motor nameplate matching the supply
voltage. Do not deviate from the motor nameplate wiring.
Either of following symbols may be shown on the motor nameplate
, , Y, or YY. These symbols represent how the motor is constructed on
the inside and in no way have anything to do with a Delta or Wye electrical
distribution system serving the motor.
When using a starter:
Set motor overload protection to 110% of motor nameplate amps.
This setting allows the fan motor to operate during cooler weather.
During cooler weather it is common for the motor to draw 6 to 10%
higher than nameplate amps. High amps are common during tower
commissioning when the tower is dry and the ambient air temperature
is cool.
Do not start the motor more than four to ve times per hour. Short
cycling the tower will cause fuses, breakers or O.L.s to operate and
will decrease motor life.
When using a two-speed starter:
Motor rotation must be the same at slow speed and high speed.
Single winding motor requires a starter with a shorting contactor.
installation
Caution
Warning
Note
Note
9
Two-winding motor requires a starter with out a shorting contactor.
All two-speed starters must have a 20 second time delay relay when
switching from high speed to low speed.
Do not start the motor more than four to fve times per hour (each
low speed start and each high speed start count as one start).
When using a VFD:
Before beginning, ensure that the motor is rated for Inverter Duty
per NEMA MG-1, part 31.
Set the VFD solid state overload protection to 119% of motor name-
plate amps and set maximum current parameter in the VFD to motor
nameplate amps. Maximum current parameter will reduce fan speed
and limit amp draw to nameplate amps during cold weather opera-
tion. If furnished with a mechanical O.L. set this at 110% over motor
nameplate amps.
Motor rotation must be the same in both VFD mode and By-pass
mode.
If cable distance between the VFD and motor is greater than 100 feet
a DV/DT output flter is recommended to avoid damage to the motor.
100 feet distance is based on our feld experience, the VFD manufac-
ture may state different distances and distance does vary depending
on the VFD manufacture.
Program the VFD for variable torque output. Flux vector and constant
torque modes may damage the gearbox.
Do not start and stop the motor using the safety switch at the motor.
If the drive is being commanded to run and the load side is cycled ON
and OFF with the safety switch this may damage the VFD.
Using a VFD in cooling applications has advantages over traditional single
or two speed motor control. A VFD can reduce the cost of electrical energy
being used and provide better temperature control. In addition, it reduces the
mechanical and electrical stress on the motor and mechanical equipment.
Electrical savings can be large during periods of low ambient temperature
when the cooling requirement can be satised at reduced speeds. To benet
from these advantages, it is important that the drive be installed correctly.
Marley supplies VFD and VFD controls specifcally designed for our cool-
ing products. If you have purchased a Marley VFD and/or controls package,
installation
Note

Note
10
please follow the instructions in the User Manual for that system. Most VFD
problems can be avoided by purchasing the Marley drive system. If you are
installing a VFD other than the Marley drive, please refer to that drives instal-
lation manual.
Improper use of a VFD may cause damage to equipment or personal
injury. Failure to correctly install the VFD drive will automatically
void all warranties associated with the motor and any equipment
that is either electrically or mechanically (directly) attached to the
VFD drive system. The length of this warranty avoidance will be
contingent on properly installing the VFD system and repairing any
damage that may have occurred during its operation. SPX Cool-
ing Technologies does not assume responsibility for any technical
support or damages for problems associate with non-Marley brand
VFD systems.
Changing the operational fan speed from the factory settings could
cause the fan to operate in an unstable region which may result in
damage to the equipment and possible injury.
Mechanical Equipment:
Always shut off electrical power to the tower fan motor prior to
performing any maintenance on the tower. Any electrical switches
should be locked out and tagged out to prevent others from turning
the power back on.
1. Spin the fan manually and observe the action of the sheaves and belts to
be sure that the motor is properly aligned with the fan sheave. See Belt
Tensioning and Sheave Alignment on pages 19 and 20.
2. Momentarily bump (energize) the motor and observe rotation of the fan.
The fan should rotate in a counterclockwise direction when viewed from
the fan inlet side from the motor end. If rotation is backwards, shut off
the fan and reverse two of the three primary leads supplying power to the
motor.
If tower is equipped with a two-speed motor, check for proper rota-
tion at both speeds. Check also to see that starter is equipped with a
20 second time delay which prevents direct switching from high
speed to low speed.
Warning
Warning
Warning
Caution
installation
11
3. Check the torque on the fan and motor sheave after 10 to 60 hours of
operation. See Bushing Fastener Torque Values on page 20.
If the water supply system is not being operatedor if there is no
heat load on the systemmotor amps read at this time may indicate
an apparent overload of as much as 1020%. This is because of the
increased density of unheated air owing through the fan. Deter-
mination of an accurate motor load should await the application of
the design heat load.
Tower Start-Up
Among other sources, outbreaks of Legionnaires Disease have
reportedly been traced to cooling towers. Maintenance and water
treatment procedures that prevent amplication and dissemination
of Legionella and other airborne bacteria should be formulated and
implemented BEFORE systems are operated and continued regularly
thereafter to avoid the risk of sickness or death.
Water System:
1. New installations should be cleaned and treated with biocides by a water
treatment expert before startup.
2. Remove any and all accumulated debris from tower. Pay particular atten-
tion to inside areas of cold water basin, and drift eliminators. Make sure
that cold water suction screens are clear and properly installed.
3. Fill the water system to an approximate depth of 13" in the cold water
basin. This is the recommended operating water level. Adjust the oat valve
so that it is 75% open at that level. Continue flling the system until the
water reaches a level approximately
1
8" below the lip of the overow.
4. Completely open all hot water valves. Start your pump(s) and observe
system operation. Since the water system external to the tower will have
been lled only to the level achieved in the cold water basin, a certain
amount of pump-down of the basin water level will occur before water
completes the circuit and begins to fall from the ll. The amount of initial
pump-down may be insufcient to cause the oat valve to open. However,
you can check its operation by pressing down on the operating lever to
which the stem of the oat valve is attached.

Note
installation
Warning
12
Some trial and error adjustment of the oat valve may be required to
balance the makeup water with tower operation. Ideally, the oat valve
setting will be such that no water is wasted through the overow at pump
shutdown. However, the water level after pump start-up must be deep
enough to assure positive pump suction.
5. Continue pump operation for about 15 minutes, after which it is recom-
mended that the water system be drained, ushed, and relled.
6. While operating the condensing water pump(s) and prior to operating the
cooling tower fan, execute one of the two alternative biocidal treatment
programs described in the following:
Resume treatment with the biocide which had been used prior to shut-
down. Utilize the services of the water treatment supplier. Maintain the
maximum recommended biocide residual (for the specic biocide) for
a sufcient period of time (residual and time will vary with the biocide)
to bring the system under good biological control
or
Treat the system with sodium hypochlorite to a level of 4 to 5 mg/L
free chlorine residual at a pH of 7.0 to 7.6. The chlorine residual must
be held at 4 to 5 mg/L for six hours, measurable with standard com-
mercial water test kits.
If the cooling tower has been in operation and then shut down for a du-
ration of time and not drained, perform one of the two previous biocidal
treatment programs directly to the cooling water storage vessel (cooling
tower sump, drain down tank, etc.) without circulating stagnant water
over the cooling tower ll or operating the cooling tower fan.
After biocidal pretreatment has been successfully completed, cooling
water may be circulated over the tower ll with the fan off.
When biocidal treatment has been maintained at a satisfactory level for
at least six hours, the fan may be turned on and the system returned to
service. Resume the standard water treatment program, including biocidal
treatment.
installation
13
Tower Operation
General:
The cold water temperature obtained from an operating cooling tower will vary
with the following inuences:
1. Heat load: With the fan in full operation, if the heat load increases, the
cold water temperature will rise. If the heat load reduces, the cold water
temperature will reduce.
Note that the number of degrees (range) through which the tower cools
the water is established by the system heat load and the amount of water
being circulated, in accordance with the following formula:
The cooling tower establishes only the cold water temperature attainable
under any operating circumstance.
2. Air wet-bulb temperature: Cold water temperature will also vary with the
wet-bulb temperature of the air entering the louvered faces of the tower.
Reduced wet-bulb temperatures will result in colder water temperatures.
However, the cold water temperature will not vary to the same extent as
the wet-bulb. For example, a 20F reduction in wet-bulb may result in only
a 15F reduction in cold water temperature.
3. Water ow rate: Increasing the water ow rate (GPM) will cause a
slight elevation in cold water temperature, while reducing the water ow
rate will cause the cold water temperature to decrease slightly. However,
at a given heat load (see formula), water ow reductions also cause an
increase in the incoming hot water temperature. Use care to prevent the
hot water from exceeding 125F in order to prevent damage to the tower
components.
4. Air ow rate: Reducing air ow through the tower causes the cold wa-
ter temperature to rise. This is the approved method by which to control
leaving water temperature.
If your tower is equipped with a single-speed motor, the motor may be
shut off when the water temperature becomes too cold. This will cause
the water temperature to rise. When the water temperature then becomes
too warm for your process, the motor can be restarted.
operation
Range F =
GPM x 500
or in SI units
Range C =
Liters/sec x 4.187

14
Fan cycling limits:
Considering the normal fan and motor sizes utilized on MCW towers,
anticipate that approximately 4 to 5 starts per hour are allowable.
If your tower is equipped with a two-speed motor, greater opportunity
for temperature control is afforded you. When the water temperature
becomes too cold, switching the fan to half-speed will cause the cold
water temperature to risestabilizing at a temperature a few degrees
higher than before. With a further reduction in water temperature, the fan
may be cycled alternately from half-speed to off.
Do not start the motor more than four to fve times per hour (each
low speed start and each high speed start count as one start).
If your tower consists of two or more cells, cycling of motors may be
shared between cells, increasing your steps of operation accordingly.
Multiple fan motors serving a single ll section must be cycled simul-
taneously. This applies to models 901146 thru 901157, 901556 thru
901558, 901756 thru 901758 and 901956 thru 901959 MCW models.
Multicell towers equipped with two-speed motors will maximize energy
savings and minimize sound levels if fans are staged so that all fans are
brought up to low speed before any fan goes to high speed.
For greater insight on cold water temperature control, please read
Cooling Tower Energy and its Management, Technical Report
#H-001-A, available spxcooling.com.
operation
Caution
Note
Note
15
Wintertime Operation:
During operation in subfreezing weather, the opportunity exists for ice to
form in the colder regions of the tower. Your primary concern is to prevent
the formation of destructive ice on the cooling tower ll. Your understand-
ing of cold weather operation will be enhanced if you read Marley Tech-
nical Report H-003 Operating Cooling Towers in Freezing Weather,
augmented by the following guidelines:
1. Do not allow the towers leaving water temperature to drop below a mini-
mum allowable levelabout 35Festablished as follows:
During the coldest days of the rst winter of operation, observe whether any
ice is forming, particularly near the bottom of the ll. If hard ice is present,
you must increase the allowable cold water temperature. If the coldest
possible water is benecial to your process, ice of a mushy consistency
can be tolerated but routine periodic observation is advisable.
If the minimum allowable cold water temperature is established
at or near minimum heat load, it should be safe for all operating
conditions.
Having established the minimum allowable cold water temperature, main-
taining that temperature can be accomplished by fan manipulation, as
outlined in Tower Operation: Item 4 on page 13. However, in towers
of more than one cell, the limiting temperature established applies to the
water temperature of the cell or cells operating at the highest fan speed
not necessarily the net cold water temperature produced by the entire
tower.
2. A fan operating in a forced-draft tower is subject to the risk of freezing.
Icing is a particular danger as this can form not only on the fan blades,
but also the inlet guard. Ice particles can be thrown off and cause severe
damage. The fan casing should be checked so that any water entering it
(either from the tower or external sources) can drain away. If water is al-
lowed to collect in the fan casing, the fan could be frozen into place. This
could result in damage to the drive system if starting were attempted
operation
Caution

16
3. As cold air enters the tower, it causes the falling water to be drawn inward.
Thus, under fan operation, the lower periphery of the tower structure re-
main partly dry, seeing only random splashing from within the towerplus
normal atmospheric moisture from the entering air. Such lightly wetted
areas are most subject to freezing.
Although ice is unlikely to cause structural damage, it may build up suf-
ciently to restrict the free ow of air. This will have the effect of reducing
the towers thermal performance efciency. When excessive ice forms,
stop the fan for a few minutes. With the fan off, the action of the spray
system will cause a slight downward movement of air through the ll and
deice the ll.
Intermittent Wintertime Operation:
If periods of shutdown (nights, weekends, etc.) occur during freezing weather,
measures must be taken to prevent the water in the cold water basinand all
exposed pipeworkfrom freezing. Several methods are used to combat this,
including automatic basin heater systems available from Marley.
Unless some means of freeze prevention is incorporated into your
system, the tower basin and exposed pipework should be drained
at the beginning of each wintertime shutdown period.
If tower basin is drained, verify that all basin heaters have been shut
off either by automatic cutoff or disconnect switch.
It is recommended that you discuss your freeze prevention options with your
local Marley sales representative.
Water Treatment and Blowdown
Maintaining Water Quality:
The steel used in MCW towers has been galvanized with a heavy zinc coat-
ing averaging 2.0 mils in thickness. The MCW stainless steel option is even
more corrosion resistant than galvanized steel in certain environments. Other
materials used (PVC fll, drift eliminators, and louvers, etc.) are selected to
offer maximum service life in a normal cooling tower environment, dened
as follows:
operation
Caution
Warning
17
Circulating water with a pH between 6.5 and 8; a chloride content (as NaCl)
below 500 mg/L; a sulfate content (SO4) below 250 mg/L; total alkalinity (as
CaCO
3
) below 500 mg/L; calcium hardness (as CaCO
3
) above 50 mg/L;
a maximum inlet water temperature not to exceed 125F; no signicant con-
tamination with unusual chemicals or foreign substances; and adequate water
treatment to minimize scaling.
Startup Conditions: The water conditions during the initial tower operation
are crucial in preventing premature corrosion of galvanized steel (white
rust). For at least the rst eight weeks of operation, pH should be controlled
between 6.5 and 8.0 with hardness and alkalinity levels between 100 and
300 mg/L (expressed as CaCO
3
).
Chlorine (if used) shall be added intermittently, with a free residual not to
exceed 1 mg/Lmaintained for short periods. Excessive chlorine levels may
deteriorate sealants and other materials of construction.
An atmosphere surrounding the tower no worse than moderate industrial,
where rainfall and fog are no more than slightly acid, and they do not contain
signicant chlorides or hydrogen sulde (H2S).
Many proprietary chemicals exist for control of scale, corrosion, and biologi-
cal growth and should be used prudently. Also, combinations of chemicals
may cause reactions which reduce treatment effectiveness, and certain
chemicals such as surfactants, biodispersants and antifoams may increase
drift rate.
Unless you purchased a stainless steel MCW, the structure of your
MCW tower consists primarily of galvanized steel, therefore your
water treatment program must be compatible with zinc. In working
with your water treatment supplier, it is important that you recog-
nize the potential effects on zinc of the specic treatment program
you choose.
Note
operation
18
Cooling Tower Cleaning:
Any evaporative-type cooling tower must be thoroughly cleaned on
a regular basis to minimize the growth of bacteria, including Legio-
nella Pneumophila, to avoid the risk of sickness or death. Service
personnel must wear proper personal protective equipment during
decontamination. Do NOT attempt any service unless the fan motor
is locked out.
Operators of evaporative cooling equipment, such as water cooling towers,
should follow maintenance programs which will reduce to an absolute minimum
the opportunity for bacteriological contamination. Public Health Service ofcials
have recommended that good housekeeping procedures be followed, such
as: regular inspections for concentrations of dirt, scale, and algae; periodic
ushing and cleaning; and the following of a complete water treatment program
including biocidal treatment.
The visual inspection should take place at least once a week during the op-
erating season. The periodic ushing and cleaning should be done before
and after each cooling season, but in any event at least twice a year. The drift
eliminators, and easily accessible ll surfaces should be ushed by use of a
moderate-pressure water nozzle, being careful not to cause physical damage.
A reliable water treatment program should be installed and maintained. Filtra-
tion devices may be employed to reduce the suspended solids concentrations,
thus increasing the effectiveness of the water treatment program. See Tower
Startup instructions on page 11.
Blowdown:
A cooling tower cools water by continuously causing a portion of it to evaporate.
Although the water lost by evaporation is replenished by the makeup system, it
exits the tower as pure waterleaving behind its burden of dissolved solids to
concentrate in the remaining water. Given no means of control, this increasing
concentration of contaminants can reach a very high level.
In order to achieve water quality which is acceptable to the cooling tower (as
well as the remainder of your circulating water system), the selected water
treatment company must work from a relatively constant level of concentra-
tions. This stabilization of contaminant concentrations is usually accomplished
by blowdown, which is the constant discharge of a portion of the circulating
water to waste. As a rule, acceptable levels on which to base a treatment
maintenance
Warning
19
schedule will be in the range of 2-4 concentrations. The following table shows
the minimum amount of blowdown (percent of ow) required to maintain dif-
ferent concentrations with various cooling ranges*:
* Range = Difference between hot water temperature coming to tower and cold water tem-
perature leaving tower.
EXAMPLE: 700 GPM circulating rate, 18F cooling range. To maintain 4
concentrations, the required blowdown is 0.458% or .00458 times 700 GPM,
which is 3.2 GPM.
If tower is operated at 4 concentrations, circulating water will contain four
times as much dissolved solid as the makeup water, assuming none of the
solids form scale or are otherwise removed from the system.
When water treatment chemicals are added, they should not be in-
troduced into the circulating water system via the cold water basin
of the cooling tower. Water velocities are lowest at that point, which
results in inadequate mixing.
Belt Tensioning
The belts are adjusted by means of a hinged base with tensioning bolts acces-
sible through the access panel/fan guards. Check tension frequently during
the rst 24-48 hours of run-in operation. To properly adjust the belt tension,
position the fan motor so that moderate pressure on the belt midway between
the sheaves will produce a
1
2"deection. Overtensioning shortens belt and
bearing life. Keep belts free from foreign material which may cause slipping.
Never apply belt dressing as this will damage the belt and cause early failure.
A Dodge

## V-Belt Tension Tester is an alternate method for tensioning V-belts.

Check with you local belt supplier.
maintenance
Cooling Range
Number of Concentrations
1.5X 2.0X 2.5X 3.0X 4.0X 5.0X 6.0X
5F .78 .38 .25 .18 .11 .08 .06
10F 1.58 .78 .51 .38 .25 .18 .14
15F 2.38 1.18 .78 .58 .38 .28 .22
20F 3.18 1.58 1.05 .78 .51 .38 .30
25F 3.98 1.98 1.32 .98 .64 .48 .38
Multipliers are based on drift of 0.02% of the circulating water rate.
Note
20
Sheave Alignment
The motor sheave is to be positioned as close as possible to the motor
in order to minimize torque on the motor bushings.
The motor and fan sheaves may have grooves that are not used. The bot-
tom surface of the motor and fan sheaves must be aligned within
1
8" of
each other and level within
1
2 (
1
8" in 12") in order to not adversely affect
belt and sheave life.
Alignment can be achieved by placing a straight edge across the top of
the sheaves making sure that it is level and measuring down to the bottom
surface of both sheaves at four points.
The belt is to be located in the inboard set of grooves closest to the bear-
ing.
maintenance
Warning
Bushing Fastener
Torque Values
Bushing Fastener Torque ftlb

SH
1
4 - 20 6
SDS
1
4 - 20 6
SD
1
4 - 20 6
SK
5
16 - 18 13
SF
3
8 - 16 22
E
1
2 - 13 35
F
9
16 - 12 65
Schedule of Tower Maintenance
Some maintenance procedures may require maintenance personnel to enter
the tower.
The purchaser or owner is responsible for providing a safe method
for entering or exiting the access door.
Included with this instruction packet are separate User Manuals on each major
operating component of the tower, and it is recommended that you read them
thoroughly. Where discrepancies may exist, the separate User Manuals will
take precedence.
21
The following is recommended as a minimum routine of scheduled mainte-
nance:
Always shut off electrical power to the tower fan motor prior to
performing any inspections that may involve physical contact with
the mechanical or electrical equipment in or on the tower. Lock out
and tag out any electrical switches to prevent others from turning
the power back on. Service personnel must wear proper personal
protective clothing and equipment.
Weekly: Inspect for bacterial growth and general operation conditions. Bacte-
rial growth should be reported to your water treatment expert for immediate
attention.
Monthly (Weekly at start up): Observe, touch, and listen to the tower.
Become accustomed to its normal appearance, sound, and level of vibration.
Abnormal aspects relating to the rotating equipment should be considered
reason to shut down the tower until the problem can be located and cor-
rected. Observe operation of the motor and fan. Become familiar with the
normal operating temperature of the motor, as well as the sight and sound of
all components as a whole.
Inspect drift eliminators and basin trash screens and remove any debris or
scale which may have accumulated. Replace any damaged or worn out com-
ponents. Use of high-pressure water may damage the eliminator material.
Observe operation of the oat valve. Depress the operating lever to make
sure that the valve is operating freely. Inspect the suction screen for plugging.
Remove any debris that may have accumulated.
Check for any buildup of silt on the oor of the cold water basin. Mentally make
note of the amount, if any, so future inspections will enable you to determine
the rate at which it is forming.
Every 3 months: Lubricate fan shaft bearings. While rotating equipment by
hand, grease the bearings until a bead forms around the sealsa maximum
charge of 0.40 ounces is recommended. Mobil SHC 460 grease is recom-
mended.
Semi-Annually: Check the belt tension and condition.
Clean and disinfect cooling tower with biocides. Systems with biofouling, high
general bacterial counts, or positive cultures of legionella may require additional
cleaning. Refer to Cooling Tower Cleaning sectionpage 18. Consult
your water treatment expert as to prudent biological evaluation testing.
maintenance
Warning

22
maintenance
Annually: Relubricate motor according to the manufacturers instructions.
Check to see that all bolts are tight in the fan and mechanical equipment
region. Refer to Component User Manuals for torque values.
Inspect the tower thoroughly, making maximum use of instructions given in
the separate user manuals. Check structural bolted connections and tighten
as required. Make preventive maintenance repairs as necessary.
Seasonal Shutdown Instructions
When the system is to be shut down for an extended period of time, it is
recommended that the entire system (cooling tower, system piping, heat
exchangers, etc.) be drained. Leave the basin drains open.
During shutdown, clean the tower (see Warning, page 18) and make any nec-
essary repairs. Pay particular attention to mechanical equipment supports.
Following each years shutdown and cleaning, inspect the towers metal surfaces
for evidence of the need to apply a protective coating. Do not misinterpret
grimeand transient rust from the piping systemas a need to have the tower
painted. If relatively bright metal can be exposed by cleaning, consider that the
galvanizing has remained effective. Unless there is evidence of a generalized
failure of the galvanizing, localized touch-up should be all that is required.
To the extent that the galvanizing (zinc coating) still exists, paint
will not adhere to it readily. Contact the manufacturer of the coating
you intend to use for instructions.
Note
23
maintenance
Tower framework: Check structural bolted connections and tighten as
required.
Fans: Check fan assembly bolting and tighten as required. Use torque values
prescribed in the Fan User Manual.
Fans shaft bearings: If equipped, lubricate fan shaft bearings at close of
each operating seasonsee page 21.
Electric motors: Clean and lubricate motor at close of each operating season
(refer to motor manufacturers recommendations.) Check motor anchor bolts
and tighten as required.
Do not start motor before determining that there will be no interfer-
ence with free rotation of the fan drive.
The motor should be operated for three hours at least once a month. This
serves to dry out windings and re-lubricate bearing surfaces (refer to Marley
Electric Motor User Manual Manual 92-1475 ).
At start of new operating season, make sure bearings are adequately lubricated
before returning motor to service.
Prolonged Shutdown
If shutdown period is longer than seasonal, contact your Marley sales repre-
sentative for additional information.
Caution
24
SPX Cooling Technologies Services
Our interest in your MCW cooling tower does not end with the sale. Having
conceived, designed, and manufactured the most reliable and longest-lasting
cooling tower of its class, we want to make sure that you gain the maximum
possible benet from its purchase.
Therefore, the following services are available which are intended to: assure
the maximum possible service life under your operating conditions; tailor the
operating characteristics to your specic needs; and maintain consistently
optimum thermal performance capability. They are available by contacting
your Marley sales representative.
Replacement parts: A complete stock of parts and components are maintained
at one or more of the various Marley plants. In cases of emergency, they can
normally be shipped within 24 hoursby air freight if necessary. However, you
would obviously benet from anticipating your need in advance, thus avoiding
the cost of special handling.
Be sure to mention your tower serial number (from the tower nameplate) when
ordering parts.
Periodic maintenance: You may wish to contract with SPX for regularly
scheduled visitsfor the purpose of inspecting and reporting your towers
conditionto make recommendations intended to prevent emergencies and
to perform maintenance considered outside the norm.
This service is not intended to replace the important function performed by
your maintenance staff. Their attention assures the towers routine operating
performance, and is invaluable. However, we recognize the unusual manner
in which a cooling tower performs its functionas well as the unique forces
which act upon itmay be considerations which occasionally require the
services of an expert technician.
maintenance
25
maintenance schedule
Maintenance Service Monthly Semi-annually Seasonal Startup or Annually
Inspect General Condition and Operation x x
Observe Operation of:
Mechanicalmotor, fan and drive mechanism x x
Makeup valve (if equipped) x x
Inspect for unusual noise or vibration x x
Inspect and Clean:
Air inlet x x
PVC drift eliminators x x
Distribution system and nozzles x x
Collection basin x x
Fan motor exterior x x
Check:
Collection water basin level x x
Blowdownadjust as required x x
Belt drive:
Fan shaft bearing lubrication (every 3 mo.) every 3 months every 3 months
Check and tighten support fasteners x
Check shaft, sheave and belt alignment x
Check belt tension and condition x x
Check sheave bushing fastener torque x
Fan:
Check and fan assembly fasteners x
Motor:
Lubricate (grease as required) R
Check mounting bolts for tightness x
Operate at least 3 hours a month 3 hours a month 3 hours a month
Basin Heater (if equipped):
Check for proper operation of temp/low water level sensor x
Inspect/clean buildup of contaminant from sensor x x
Structure:
Inspect/tighten all fasteners x x
Inspect and touch up all metal surfaces x
R Refer to Component User Manual
Note: It is recommended at least weekly, that the general operation and condition be observed. Pay atten-
tion to any changes in sound or vibration that may signify a need for closer inspection.
26
troubleshooting
Trouble Cause Remedy
Motor will not start
Power not available at motor terminals
Check power at starter. Correct any bad connections between the control
apparatus and the motor.
Check starter contacts and control circuit. Reset overloads, close contacts,
reset tripped switches or replace failed control switches.
If power is not on all leads at starter, make sure overload and short circuit
devices are in proper condition
Wrong connections Check motor and control connections against wiring diagrams.
Low voltage
Check nameplate voltage against power supply. Check voltage at motor
terminals.
Open circuit in motor winding Check stator windings for open circuits.
Motor or fan drive stuck
Disconnect motor from load and check motor and fan drive for cause of
problem.
Rotor defective Look for broken bars or rings.
Unusual motor noise
Motor running single-phase
Check motor and attempt to start it. Motor will not start if single-phased.
Check wiring, controls and motor.
Motor leads connected incorrectly Check motor connections against wiring diagram on motor.
Bad bearings Check lubrication. Replace bad bearings.
Electrical unbalance Check voltages and currents of all three lines. Correct if required.
Air gap not uniform Check and correct bracket ts or bearing.
Rotor unbalance Rebalance
Cooling fan hitting end belt guard Reinstall or replace fan.
Motor runs hot
Wrong voltage or unbalanced voltage Check voltage and current of all three lines against nameplate values.
Wrong motor RPM
Check nameplate against power supply. Check RPM of motor and drive
ratio.
Bearing overgreased
Remove bearing reliefs. Run motor up to speed to purge excessive
grease.
Wrong lubricant in bearings Change to proper lubricant. See motor manufacturer's instructions.
One phase open
Stop motor and attempt to start it. Motor will not stat if single-phased.
Check wiring, controls and motor.
Poor ventilation
Clean motor and check ventilation openings. Allow ample ventilation
around motor.
Winding fault Check with ohmmeter.
Bent motor shaft Straighten or replace shaft.
Insufcient grease Remove plugs and regrease bearings.
Too frequent starting or speed changes
Limit cumulative accelerations time to a total of 30 seconds/hour. Set on/
off or speed change set points farther apart. Consider installing a Marley
VFD drive for ne temperature control.
Deterioration of grease or foreign material in grease Flush bearings and relubricate.
Bearings damaged Replace bearings.
Motor does not come up to
speed
Voltage too low at motor terminals because of line
drop
Check transformer and setting of taps. Use higher voltage on transformer
terminals or reduce loads. Increase wire size or reduce inertia.
Broken rotor bars
Look for cracks near the rings. A new rotor may be required. Have motor
service person check motor.
Wrong motor rotation Wrong sequence of phases Switch any two of the three motor leads.
27
troubleshooting
Trouble Cause Remedy
Unusual fan drive vibration
Loose bolts and cap screws
Tighten all bolts and cap screws on all mechanical equipment and
supports.
Worn fan shaft bearings.. Check fan shaft endplay. Replace bearings as necessary.
Unbalanced motor Disconnect load and operate motor. If motor still vibrates, rebalance rotor.
Fan noise
Impeller rubbing inside of cylinder
Adjust fan impeller. Adjustment may need to be axial i.e. moving impeller
along the shaft to centralize it between the cylinders or radial by
repositioning bearing or bearings to get the impeller concentric within the
inlets.
Fan shaft bearing. Grease bearings.
Belt squeal or chirping Belt slipping Adjust belt
Scale or foreign substance in
circulating water system
Insufcient blowdown See "Water Treatment" section of this manual.
Water treatment deciency
Consult competent water treating specialist. See "Water Treatment"
section of this manual
Cold water temperature too
warm.
See "Tower Operation."
Entering wet bulb temperature is above design
Check to see if local heat sources are affecting cooling tower. See if
surrounding structures are causing recirculation of tower discharge air.
Discuss remedy with Marley representative.
Design wet bulb temperature was too low.
May have to increase cooling tower size. Discuss remedy with Marley
representative
Actual process load greater than design
May have to increase cooling tower size. Discuss remedy with Marley
representative
Overpumping Reduce water ow rate over cooling tower to design conditions.
Cooling tower starved for air
Check motor current and voltage to be sure of correct contract
horsepower. Clean ll and eliminators. Check to see if nearby structures
or enclosing walls are obstructing normal airow to cooling tower. Discuss
remedy with Marley representative.
Excessive drift exiting cooling
tower
Faulty drift elimination
Check to see that eliminators are clean, free of debris and installed
correctly. Replace damaged or worn out eliminators panels.
Water leaking from fan scroll
Water level in tower too high Adjust water level to correct height
Multiple fan motors serving a single ll section not
being cycled simultaneously
Ensure all fans are operating simultaneously and at the same speed
Increased load requirements: MCW towers are
designed so that cells of either equal or unequal
capacity can be added in the future. This allows you
to compensate for the load increases that normally
occur with the replacement or addition of production
equipmentand still retain continuity with respect to
your cooling tower system.
Tower rebuilding: SPX Cooling Technologies
routinely rebuilds and upgrades cooling towers of all
materials and manufacture. If your tower ever reaches
the limit of its service life, we recommend that you
investigate the cost of rebuilding before you routinely
order a new replacement tower.
Each MCW Class tower includes a document pack-
age containing generalorientation drawings, MC
Field Installation Manual Assembly Instructions,
and tower component manuals. These documents
contain important information relating to safe
installation and operation of the cooling tower.
Field installation is always required for fan guards,
piping inlets and piping outlets. Some optional ac-
cessories, such as platforms, handrails, ladders and
safety cages may also require eld installation. If
installation details are not covered in the MC Field
Installation Manual a separate installation drawing
or manual for each purchased option is included in
the document package along with bills of material.
If you have purchased an option and cant nd the
appropriate installation drawing, contact your local
Marley sales representative before proceeding.
In addition to these specic documents, SPX pub-
lishes numerous technical reports including more
detailed information on a variety of cooling tower op-
eration and service topics. Electronic copies of these
reports are available for download at spxcooling.com.
For complete parts and service assistance, contact
the Marley sales representative in your area. If you
need help locating the ofce nearest you, please
phone 913 664 7400 or check the internet at spx-
cooling.com.