Lxpandlng ?

our AssessmenL 1oolbox
8rad|ey Iackson, Þh.D.
1he Chlldren's PosplLal
Aurora, CC
kobert Stado|n|k, Ld.D.
llreÞsych, lnc/8randon School
Medway, MA
May 14, 2009
3
rd
Annual norLheasL !uvenlle llresemng
lnLervenuon Conference
WorcesLer, MA
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
Lvldenced 8ased AssessmenLs
! Avold cllnlcal [udgmenL alone
whlch ls a poor and lnconslsLenL
meLhod. (Mllls, 2003)
! Lncourage frameworks LhaL
promoLe sysLemlzauon and
conslsLency, yeL are ßexlble
enough Lo adapL Lo lndlvldual
needs. (uoyle and uolan, 2002)
! Allow for lnLegrauon of sclence
and pracuce. (8orum, 2006)
! CollecL, sLrucLure, and usually
quanufy Lhe lmpresslons of chlld,
careglvers, and professlonals.
(PunL and !ohnson, 1990)
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
Lvldence 8ased AssessmenL of ConducL Þroblems
McMahon and lrlck (2003)
L8 AssessmenL requlres use of a muluple meLhods sLraLegy
!"#$%&'$() +,-%$"#. /0'12. 3-4'156
7$0-&'8%-1 9$-):%$)
7$0-&'8%-1 ;<)$%&-=8")
>&-1:-#$ /8?98%<'2 @2A:)#4$"# ,%8<1$4)
+@BCB. @"D'$#5. B$E%$))'8". F8G'-1 H$A$G=8". F:<)#-"G$ @<:)$. I$-%"'"J B')-<'1'#56
lssues 8elevanL Lo AssessmenL
1) Severe CÞ's cover a broad range of anusoclal and aggresslve behavlors.
Cuu vs. Cu, Cu: overL-coverL, desLrucuve-nondesLrucuve
2) ?ouLh's wlLh CÞ's oûen have a number of ad[usLmenL problems.
3) 1here are a large number of rlsk facLors LhaL can have addluve or lnLeracuve eñecLs.
4) lmpacL of rlsk facLors can dlñer across subgroups of youLhs wlLh CÞ.
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
Lvldenced 8ased AssessmenLs
and llresemng
! Þrevlous auLhors have reporLed on lmporLance of a
comprehenslve dlagnosuc approach. (kolko and kazdln, 1989,
llneman, 1993, Sakhelm and Csborn, 1994, SLadolnlk, 2000, Wllcox, 2006)
! AssessmenL ls Lhe comblnauon of boLh sclenuñc
process and arusuc endeavor. (SLadolnlk, 2000)
! LvaluaLor musL embrace a dlverse array of daLa wlLh
lncreased need for collaLeral conLacLs. (Wllcox, 2006)
! LvaluaLor musL collecL and analyze daLa from
muluple domalns. (llneman, 1993, Pumphreys and kopeL, 1996, kolko, 1999,
SLadolnlk, 2000, Wllcox, 2006)
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
ConsLrucung ?our AssessmenL ÞroLocol
loctots:
1) Þopulauon Served
2) lundlng/lnsurance, eLc.
3) Servlce uellvery Model
4) Þrlor 1ralnlng and
Lxperlence
3) Supervlslon and
1ralnlng CpporLunlues
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
SLausucs 101
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
SLausucs are our frlend
• 1he normal curve
• SLandard devlauons
• SLausucal conñdence
• LsLabllshlng cuLoñ scores
• lalse posluves and false negauves
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
Lxamples
• noL dlsLrlbuLed evenly
• A few aL Lhe exLremes pull Lhe average/mean so LhaL lL
becomes a confuslng summary score
• SLandardlzlng any dlsLrlbuuon helps us Lo compare wlLh more
conslsLency and conñdence
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
SLandardlzed scores
• Mathematically transforming a raw score (or any
score) into a standard score allows us to use what
we know about the normal curve
• Here are some more well-known standard scores
IQ scores (mean = 100, std dev = 15)
GRE/SAT score (mean = 500, std dev = 100)
T scores (mean = 50, std dev = 10)
• For all of these transformations, equal differences
between people will result in equal differences
between the scores, so now we can actually
compare test scores and know what the
differences mean.
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
Þercenule
• The percentile of a score tells
you what proportion of the
population received that score
or lower.
• The mean of percentiles is 50%
and the range is 0% to 100%.
• The scores do not have to
follow any particular distribution
so be sure to use a program or
chart that standardizes the
percentiles.
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
• 1 scores help us deLermlne how exLreme a LesL score
acLually ls
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
8eporung LesL resulLs
• 8aw score
• 1 score
• Þercenule
• 1oLal score
• Scale score
• Speclal score
• Crlucal lLem
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
llresemng AssessmenL uomalns
SLadolnlk, 8. (2000)
! 8ehavloral luncuonlng
! Soclal/Lmouonal
luncuonlng
! ÞarenL/lamlly luncuonlng
! School/Cognluve
luncuonlng
! llresemng 8ehavlor
PlsLory
! llre Scene Lvldence
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
8ebovlotol loocuooloq
Assessment Þracnce
Methods:
8ecord revlew
Cllnlcal and CollaLeral lnLervlews
Cbservauon reporLs
SLandardlzed measures
Çuesnons to answer:
Are behavlors acuLe or chronlc?
WhaL ls Lhe raLe of progresslon?
Consensus among reporLers?
ls lmpulslvlLy presenL?
Crlmlnal charges or pollce conLacL?
ulrecL aggresslon Lo people or anlmals?
Þerlods of lmproved behavlor?
CurrenL behavlor?
8ehav|ora| Measures
• @G0$"<-G0 /7/I. KH3. -"2 LFH
• 8ehavloral AssessmenL SysLem for
Chlldren (8ASC)
• Connor's 8aung lorms
Aggress|on Measures
• Aggresslon Cuesuonnalre
• M8&-G8 @"J$% FG-1$ -"2 ,%8&8G-=8"
!"&$"#8%5
• CverL Aggresslon Scale
• lnLervlew for Anu Soclal 8ehavlor
• CLhers
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
Chlld 8ehavlor CheckllsL (Achenbach)
• Self 8eporL lormaL
• ÞarenL, 1eacher, and
?ouLh verslons
• Ages 6 - 18
• 1akes 13 - 20 mlnuLes Lo
compleLe
• CompuLerlzed scorlng
and reporLs
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
C8CL/Achenbach Subscales
• CompeLence Scales (20
lLems, 2 open- ended
quesuons)
– Acuvlues
– Soclal relauons
– School performance
– 1oLal
(e.g., llsL your chlld's sporLs and
raLe how oûen and how well
Lhey do each one compared
Lo oLher same-age chlldren)
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
Chlld 8ehavlor CheckllsL
• Behavior Problems Scales (118 items, plus 2 open-
ended items)
• Parents rate their child for how true each item is now or
within the past 6 months using the following scale:
– 0 = not true (as far as you know)
– 1 = somewhat or sometimes true
– 2 = very true or often true
• Lxample lLems - argues a loL, lmpulslve or acLs wlLhouL
Lhlnklng, seLs ñres, unusually loud, unhappy, sad, or
depressed
• lnLernallzlng, LxLernallzlng, and 1oLal Þroblem Scales
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
Chlld 8ehavlor CheckllsL
Cross Informant Syndromes:
• Anxious/Depressed
• Withdrawn/Depressed
• Somatic Complaints
• Social Problems
• Thought Problems
• Attention Problems
• Rule-Breaking Behavior
• Aggressive Behavior
DSM-oriented scales:
• Affective Problems
• Anxiety Problems
• Somatic Problems
• Attention Deficit/
Hyperactivity Problems
• Oppositional Defiant
Problems
• Conduct Problems
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
novaco Anger Scale and Þrovocauon lnvenLory
novaco, 8. (2003)
" 1wo-pott, self tepott
meosote wltb 85 totol ltems
" Aqes 9 to 84
" lot ose lo teseotcb,
loJlvlJool ossessmeot, ooJ
ootcome evoloouoo
" ueslqoeJ to ossess ooqet os
o ptoblem of psycboloqlcol
foocuooloq ooJ pbyslcol
beoltb
" nooJ 5coteJ
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
novaco Anger Scale and Þrovocauon lnvenLory
(nAS-Þl)
NAS-ÞI Scores
Cogn|nve (CCC)-LhoughLs of [usuñcauon,
susplclon and hosullLy.
Arousa| (A8C)-elevaLed physlologlcal response
Lo anger.
8ehav|or (8LP)-confronLauonal and
anLagonlsuc behavlors or verballzauons.
Anger kegu|anon (8LC)-suggesLs eñecuve
regulauon skllls, poLenual sLrengLh.
NAS 1otal-overall levels of angry behavlors
and LhoughLs.
Þrovocanon Inventory
ÞI 1ota|-an lndex score of anger lnLenslLy
across a range of provocauons: dlsrespecL,
unfalrness, frusLauon, annoyances.
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
1he Aggresslve AdolescenL
Cogn|nve Character|sncs
narrow bands of lmaglnauon (concreLe-operauonal), hablLually rumlnaLe
on vlolenL self percepuons, and appralse all slLuauons ln a hosule manner.
Añecnve Character|sncs
narrow band of emouonal expresslon, frequenLly seen as unhappy or
unwell (dysphorlc), dlchoLomous expresslon of anger from overconLrolled
Lo underconLrolled.
8ehav|ora| Cop|ng Sk|||s
Lack baslc soclal skllls and have low asseruveness skllls. Þoor
negouaLors and unable Lo delay grauñcauon. need Lo be LaughL how Lo
avold conßlcLs.
uavls, u. (2000). 1be Aqqtesslve AJolesceot. cllolcol ooJ loteoslc lssoes. new
?ork. PaworLh Þress.
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
Añecnve vs. Þredatory Modes of V|o|ence
Añecnve:
# lnLense ans arousal
# LxLreme experlence of emouons
# 8eacuve and lmmedlaLe
# lnLernal or exLernal LhreaL
# Coal ls LhreaL reducuon
# 8apld dlsplacemenL of LargeL
# 1lme llmlLed behavlor
# Þreceded by publlc posLurlng
# Þrlmarlly emouonal
# PelghLened and dlñuse
awareness
Þredatory:
# Mlnlmal or no ans
# no consclous emouons
# Þlanned and purposeful
# no or mlnlmal LhreaL
# Many goals
# no LargeL dlsplacemenL
# no ume llmlL
# Þreceded by prlvaLe rlLual
# Þrlmarlly cognluve
# locused awareness
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
Soclal/Lmouonal luncuonlng
Assessment Þracnce
Methods:
Cllnlcal lnLervlews
ÞarenL lnLervlews
8evlew of 8ecords
CollaLeral ConLacLs
ÞsychlaLry ConsulLauon
Cbservauons
SLandardlzed Measures
Çuesnons to Answer:
AcuLe or Chronlc?
Level of severlLy/lmpalrmenL?
ÞasL lnLervenuons?
Medlcauon needs?
AñecL vs. LhoughL?
uSM lv Classlñcauon?
Measures
• N$)"$)) !"&$"#8%5
• 9'118" @281$)G$"# /1'"'G-1 !"&$"#8%5
+9@/!6
• Mlllon Þre-AdolescenL Cllnlcal lnvenLory
(M-ÞACl)
• 8orschach lnkbloL 1esL
• Chlldren's uepresslon lnvenLory
• 1rauma SympLom CheckllsL for Chlldren
• ÞersonallLy lnvenLory for ?ouLh
• Cllnlcal AssessmenL of lnLerpersonal
8elauonshlps (CAl8)
• 1hemauc Appercepuon 1esL (1esL)
• Soclal Skllls 8elauonshlp lnvenLory (SS8l)
• 1rauma and AuachmenL 8ellef Scale
• MMÞl-A
• Þro[ecuve urawlngs
• CLhers
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
!esness lnvenLory-
8evlsed (!l-8)
• ?ouLh self-reporL
• 160 Lrue/false lLems
• Ages 8 yrs and older
• CompuLerlzed scorlng, hand-
scorlng LemplaLes, onllne
admlnlsLrauon
• 30 - 43 mlnuLes
uSM-lv Scales
• ConducL ulsorder
• Cpposluonal ueñanL ulsorder
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
!esness lnvenLory-8evlsed
ÞersonallLy Scales
• Soclal Malad[usLmenL
• value CrlenLauon
• lmmaLurlLy
• Auusm
• Allenauon
• ManlfesL Aggresslon
• WlLhdrawal-
uepresslon
• Soclal AnxleLy
• 8epresslon
• uenlal
• Asoclal lndex
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
!esness SubLype Þroñles
• undersoclallzed, Acuve
• undersoclallzed, Þasslve
• ConformlsL
• Croup-CrlenLed
• ÞragmausL
• ÞragmausL
• AuLonomy-
CrlenLed
• lnLrospecuve
• lnhlblLed
• Adapuve
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
1rauma SympLom CheckllsL (1SCC)
• ?ouLh self-reporL measure
of posL-Lraumauc dlsLress
• 34 lLems
• Ages 8 - 16
• Pand Scored
• Þroñle lorm
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
1SCC
valldlLy Scales
• underresponse
• Pyperresponse
Cllnlcal Scales
• AnxleLy
• uepresslon
• Anger
• Þosuraumauc SLress
• ulssoclauon (3)
• Sexual Concerns (3)
• Crlucal lLems
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
Mlllon AdolescenL Cllnlcal lnvenLory (MACl)
Mlllon, 1. (2006)
9@/! 3$-#:%$)
" 160 ltems, 1toe/lolse,
self tepott meosote
" Aqes 1J-19
" 5ommotlzeJ lo
compotet qeoetoteJ
oottouve tepotts
" íxomloes tbtee Jlsuoct
coteqotles. ,$%)8"-1'#5
,-O$%"). >DE%$))$2
/8"G$%"), ooJ /1'"'G-1
F5"2%84$)
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
Mlllon AdolescenL Cllnlcal lnvenLory
(MACl)
7-)$ H-#$ +7H6 !"#$%E%$#-=8")
" MAcl tow scotes ote ttoosfotmeJ loto 8k scotes
" 8k scotes ote o meosote of tbe tote ot wblcb o
cbotoctetlsuc ls pteseot lo tbe ootm popolouoo.
" lot eocb MAcl scole 8k scotes ote oocboteJ ot 75 ooJ 85.
85= tepteseots oJolesceots fot wbom tbls ttolt ls most ptomloeot
75= tepteseots oJolesceots fot wbom tbe ttolt ls ptomloeot ot pteseot
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
Mlllon AdolescenL Cllnlcal lnvenLory
(MACl)
letsooollty louetos
-#%-'#) -"2 P$-#:%$) G84<'"$ #8 P8%4 - E-O$%"
? F#51$ 2$%'&$2 P%84 G84<'"'"J #0%$$ E81-%'=$)Q R6 E-'"?E1$-):%$. S6 -G=&$?E-))'&$T -"2 U6
)$1P?8#0$%
5cole. Nome.
1 lottovetslve
2o loblblteJ
2b uolefol
J 5obmlsslve
12 utomouzloq
1J íqolsuc
6o uotoly
6b lotcefol
19 coofotmloq
8o Opposluoool
8b 5elf ueptecouoq
24 8otJetlloe 1eoJeocy
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
Mlllon AdolescenL Cllnlcal lnvenLory
(MACl)
íxptesseJ coocetos
-P8G:) ') 8" P$$1'"J) -"2 -V#:2$) -<8:# ')):$) #0-# G8"G$%" #0$ -281$)G$"#
?'"#$")'#5 8P #08)$ P$$1'"J) ') %$W$G#$2 ') )G8%$ $1$&-=8"
? '#X) E$%G$E=8"). "8# 8<A$G=&$15 8<)$%&-<1$ 8% <$0-&'8%-1 G%'#$%'-
FG-1$Q M-4$Q
@ !2$"=#5 B'Y:)'8"
7 F$1P B$&-1:-=8"
/ 7825 B')-EE%8&-1
B F$D:-1 B')G84P8%#
> ,$$% !")$G:%'#5
3 F8G'-1 !")$")'=&'#5
Z 3-4'15 B')G8%2
C /0'120882 @<:)$
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
Mlllon AdolescenL Cllnlcal lnvenLory
(MACl)
/1'"'G-1 F5"2%84$)
--))$))$) 2')8%2$%) #0-# 4-"'P$)# #0$4)$1&$) '" )E$G'[G P8%4
?<$)# )$$" -) -" $D#$")'8" 8% 2')#8%=8" 8P #0$ -281$)G$"#X) E$%)8"-1'#5
?-%$ #%-")'$"#. #0$5 (-D -"2 (-"$ 2$E$"2'"J 8" )#%$))8%)
Sca|e: Name:
AA Laung uysfuncuons
88 SubsLance Abuse Þroneness
CC uellnquenL Þredlsposluon
uu lmpulslve ÞropenslLy
LL Anxlous leellngs
ll uepresslve AñecL
CC Sulcldal 1endency
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
,-%$"# \3-4'15 3:"G=8"'"J
Assessment Þracnce:
Methods:
ulrecL lnLervlew
uaLa from collaLeral reporLers
Pome vlslL
Mllleu observauon reporLs
SLandardlzed measure
Çuesnons to answer:
Cverall emouonal cllmaLe?
8elauonshlp/auachmenL quallLy?
ulsclpllne pracuces?
lamlly resources?
ÞarenL menLal healLh?
MarlLal sLrengLh?
Measures:
Þarenung SLress lndex
lamlly ConßlcL Scale
ÞarenL-Chlld 8elauonshlp lnvenLory
3-4'15 @))$))4$"# 9$-):%$ !!!
Alabama ÞarenL Cuesuonnalre
CLhers
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
lamlly AssessmenL Measure-verslon 3
Sklnner, 8., SLelnhauer, Þ., and SanLa-8arbara, !. (1993)
3@9 !!! 3$-#:%$)
" 5elf tepott meosote, tokes
J0-40 mlootes to complete
" Aqes 10 ooJ olJet
" ltovlJes o poooutouve
Jesctlpuoo of fomlly
stteoqtbs ooJ weokoesses
" coo be completeJ by oll
membets of tbe fomlly
" J 5coles. Ceoetol 5cole,
uyoJlc kelouoosblp 5cole,
5elf-kouoq 5cole
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
lamlly AssessmenL Measure-verslon 3
lAM lll
3@9 !!! F:<)G-1$)
K-)] @GG84E1')04$"#? <-)'G #-)]) 4$#. W$D'<1$. -1#$%"-=&$ )81:=8") -%$ $DE18%$2
H81$ ,$%P8%4-"G$?P-4'15 :"2$%)#-"2) $DE$G#-=8") 8P %81$). -"2 -J%$$). -2-E# #8 "$(
%81$)
/844:"'G-=8"? 2'%$G#. G1$-%. 8E$". ):^G'$"#
@Y$G=&$ >DE%$))'8"?P:11 %-"J$ 8P -Y$G# (0$" -EE%8E%'-#$ -"2 ('#0 G8%%$G# '"#$")'#5
!"&81&$4$"#? $4E-#0'G '"&81&$4$"#. G8"G$%" P8% 8#0$%). ":%#:%'"J
/8"#%81? E-O$%") 8P '"W:$"G$. -2-E#-<1$. E%$2'G#-<1$ 5$# W$D'<1$. G8")#%:G=&$
_-1:$) -"2 M8%4)?G8")')#$"# ('#0 P-4'15 ):<J%8:E. $DE1'G'# -"2 '4E1'G'# %:1$) -%$
G8")')#$"#
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
lamlly AssessmenL Measure-verslon 3
lAM lll
!"#$%E%$=&$ Z:'2$1'"$)Q
" >1$&-#$2 )G8%$) +K`ab6 4:)# <$ '"#$%E%$#$2 P8% -1#$%"-=&$
$DE1-"-=8") +>DQ !"&81&$4$"#6
" K0$ 48%$ P-4'15 4$4<$%) (08 '"2'G-#$ -"2 $1$&-#$2 )G8%$ '" -
E-%=G:1-% -%$-. #0$ 48%$ 1']$15 '# ') E%8<1$4-=Gc
" K8#-1 ":4<$% 8P $1$&-#$2 )G8%$) G8%%$1-#$) #8 8&$%-11 P-4'15
E-#0818J5c
" Z%$-#$% 2')G%$E-"G'$) -48"J )E8:)$ E%8[1$) ):JJ$)# 4-%'#-1 2')G8%2
" B'Y$%$"# )G8%$) $1$&-#$2 P8% 2'Y$%$"# 4$4<$%) 8P #0$ P-4'15 ):JJ$)#
E$%G$E=8" 2'Y$%$"G$)c
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
llresemng 8ehavlor PlsLory
Assessment Þracnce
Methods:
Fire History Interview-Child
Parent Interview
Structured Interview Tools
Record Review
Collateral Reports
Questions to Answer:
When ? How?
Where? Who?
What? Why?
Structured Interv|ew 1oo|s:
Children’s Firesetting Interview
Firesetting Risk Interview
Graphing Technique
Oregon Screening Tool
FIRE Protocol
Fire Risk Interviews (Child, Parent,
Family)-FEMA
Others
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
urawlngs
use of drawlngs durlng
Lhe assessmenL
lnLervlew can help Lo:
• lmmerse Lhe chlld ln Lhe
memory
• Lngage Lhe chlld ln
muluple modallues of
sharlng (verbal, vlsual)
1ypes of drawlngs
• Self
• 1ree
• lamlly dolng
someLhlng
• Safe ñre
• unsafe ñre
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
lndlvldual ñre graphs
• lrom a llsL of all ñreseLs/ñreplay, Lhe chlld
selecLs a slgnlñcanL ñre lncldenL and deLalls
Lhe sequence of evenLs before, durlng and
aûer Lhe ñre
• CarLoon or panel Lechnlque for ñre drawlngs
• Wrluen graph encourages chlld/Leen Lo llnk
LhoughLs and feellngs Lo Lhe sequence of
evenLs
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
Wrluen llre Craph
• uescrlbe Lhe slLuauon & Lhe sequence of evenLs
• usually aware of evenLs occurrlng durlng Lhe
ñreseL and aûer
• locus on Lhe evenLs before ñreseL
• Slow down Lhe descrlpuon
• Ask clarlfylng quesuons
• locus on posslble preclplLaung Lrlggers earller ln
Lhe day/week/monLh
• Add correspondlng LhoughLs and feellngs
8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.
8lbllography

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8. !ackson, Þh.u. & 8. SLadolnlk, Ld.u.

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