CATSDRIFT (((video on dealing with passage analysis) !-writing-literary-essays (essay tips)

"he acronym #$"% &'()" **++ is a fairly easy mnemonic, standing for the text elements mentioned above. -f course all these overlap and are interconnected, and this does not imply the order in which you should address them - different texts have different emphases - although it does ma.e sense to start with the #$" ( Content, Aim and Theme) before proceding to more detailed analysis of language. "hey cannot be treated in isolation and, if your overview is feasible, will be connected and mutually supportive. (t is very important not to /ump to a conclusion about an interpretation on first reading0 wait until you have gathered all your evidence before forming an opinion, otherwise it will be distorted or incomplete because you will leave out points which do no fit in with your pre-conceived /udgement. Content - $t the beginning of your critical response comment on what appears to be happening, to whom, when and where and why. "he content is the vehicle for the theme. Aim 1 2hy was the text written3 "o warn, entertain, teach, express an opinion, relieve emotion, moc., admire3 "he answer may be multiple, but it is usually possible to identify the primary aim. 4enre is an indication of aim and needs to be defined as predominantly descriptive, narrative, lyrical, reflective, discursive or argumentative. Theme 1 5ot to be confused with #ontent, this is what the text is really about, ie the issues and ideas the text is exploring and which hold it together. "hey are li.ely to be abstract concepts, such as loss, betrayal, change, division. Syntax 1 "his refers to sentence formations, word orders and grammatical structures0 it is what happens when individual words are /oined to ma.e larger building bloc.s, and includes observations on types of utterance - eg 6uestions, imperatives, negatives, passives, parentheses - and therefore involves at punctuation. Diction – &iction is the selection of vocabulary which combines to ma.e up register and semantic field. )or instance, do the words come from scientific or 7iblical 8nglish, are they mostly mono- or polysyllabic or hyphenated, contemporary or archaic3 (ndividual words can contribute to the overall effect of a text, or change its tone and mood, and must be studied carefully for the reasons for their choice, compared to available alternatives with different associations. #hoice of diction also influences sound, and this is where you notice onomatopoeia, assonance, alliteration, echoes etc. 'emember to explain the effect these devices are having on the text and reader response, rather than /ust listing technical terms. Rhythm - $pplicable to prose as well as verse, rhythm describes the pace and flow and beat of the language, its 9dance:, which affects the mood of the text . Rhyme - #hec. whether a poem has a regular scheme or occasional use of rhyme and if so identify the pattern and its effect on the mood of the poem. 'hyme schemes are denoted using letters of the alphabet eg abab, cdcd etc. for alternate rhyme, aabbcc etc. for couplets. *asculine/strong rhyme accents the final syllable, whereas wea./feminine rhyme leaves the last syllable unstressed. ;alf-rhyme or para-rhyme, is

time of year. weather. <ou may also come across anapaests (~~/).ing together the incongruous yet similar . bitter. na>ve or mad3 Vie !oint 1 2here are we loo. it can be crucial in determining meaning. race or class viewpoints represented3 $re we being manipulated into sharing assumptions3 "he use of viewpoint often produces an ironic effect. Imagery .ow long are the lines.presents pictures to the brain. melancholic. poetry the former. (f we say the prose text is poetic. and is a way of ma. narrator.ow do you feel after reading the text3 (s there a mood change during or at the end3 . Voice 1 . %ome metres. location and imagery contribute to the creation of mood3 "ennyson:s Mariana is a good example of use of mood created by environment. and Paradise Lost. ecstatic. "he most common metre in 8nglish poetry is iambic pentameter. tetrameter and hexameter exist. "he anapaest suggests rapidity of movement and has the bounding energy of galloping horses and military action as in 7yron:s 9"he $ssyrian came down li. divided. the author. dactyls (/==) and spondees (//).ow can we tell3 (s the 9(: persona trustworthy. . Metre 1 applies only to verse. lend themselves more to comedy and invite parody because of their unnaturalness (reverse iamb) and childishness eg 9&ouble. "here may be irregularities of metre for emphasis or variety within a #oy *istress:. blow the wind southerly:.ow does the poem or passage appear on the page3 . *etaphors are more understated and therefore more subtle than similes0 prose tends to use the latter. toil and trouble:/ )ire burn.ow is it shaped.e a wolf on the fold. (nternal rhyme is the repeating at the end of the line of a sound already used within from3 . or one of the characters3 $re there alternate voices3 . dispassionate. when the words alone can mislead you (eg 7rowning:s My Last Duchess. blow the wind. *etre should not force a reader to put the stress where it would not naturally fall. indented3 . and was more popular prior to the twentieth century. whimsical. and all sonnets.ow do colours. for instance. trochees (/~). notably the trochee. (magery can convey irony with its double vision. Form 1. (ambic pentameter (called blank verse if unrhymed) is what %ha. yo. #ommenting on metre is only constructive if you attempt to interpret its effect.: "he dactyl tends to be used for mournful and elegiac effects eg 97low the wind. especially in detecting irony or satire. double.where the consonants stay the same but the vowel changes eg 9mystery: and 9mastery:. and cauldron bubble: (Macbeth). time of day.) $re other gender. sinister3 <ou need 6uite a wide vocabulary to distinguish tone precisely. .ow is our view restricted by reader positioning3 $re we getting only one point of view3 . this may mean that it is full of figurative language. stanzas3 $nd what effect do all of these have structurally and visually3 Tone 1 "he most neglected aspect of text. wistful. paragraphs. about your voice: is it exuberant.ow many people are there in the text3 2ho are we listening to. but iambic memorable both the everyday and the poignant. of forcing analogies to be recognised. Mood 1 is connected to atmosphere.) 'ead the text in your head and thin.ow might the other person(s) involved have viewed the situation differently3 (see *arvell:s 9"o . 'hyme may serve to highlight a similarity or contrast between rhymed words. even if generally regular.espeare:s plays are predominantly written in. resigned.