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Fibonacci number

In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers or Fibonacci series or Fibonacci sequence are the numbers in the following integer sequence: (sequence A000045 in OEIS) or, alternatively,[1]

A tiling with squares whose sides are successive Fibonacci numbers in length

By definition, the first two numbers in the Fibonacci sequence are 0 and 1 (alternatively, 1 and 1), and each subsequent number is the sum of the previous two. In mathematical terms, the sequence Fn of Fibonacci numbers is defined by the recurrence relation with seed values[2]

**in the first form, or
**

A Fibonacci spiral created by drawing circular arcs connecting the opposite corners of squares in the Fibonacci tiling; this one uses squares of sizes 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, and 34. See golden spiral.

in the second form.

The Fibonacci sequence is named after Leonardo of Pisa, who was known as Fibonacci. Fibonacci's 1202 book Liber Abaci introduced the sequence to Western European mathematics,[3] although the sequence had been described earlier in Indian mathematics.[4][5][6] (By modern convention, the sequence begins either with F0€=€0 or with F1€=€1. The Liber Abaci began the sequence with F1€=€1, without an initial 0.) Fibonacci numbers are closely related to Lucas numbers in that they are a complementary pair of Lucas sequences. They are intimately connected with the golden ratio, for example the closest rational approximations to the ratio are 2/1,€3/2,€5/3,€8/5,€...€. Applications include computer algorithms such as the Fibonacci search technique and the Fibonacci heap data structure, and graphs called Fibonacci cubes used for interconnecting parallel and distributed systems. They also appear in biological settings,[7] such as branching in trees, phyllotaxis (the arrangement of leaves on a stem), the fruit sprouts of a pineapple,[8] the flowering of artichoke, an uncurling fern and the arrangement of a pine cone.[9]

This is the nth Fibonacci number. one female. the process should be followed in all m€tr€-v•ttas [prosodic combinations].[4] Parmanand Singh cites Pingala's cryptic formula misrau cha ("the two are mixed") and cites scholars who interpret it in context as saying that the cases for m beats (Fm+1) is obtained by adding a [S] to Fm cases and [L] to the Fm€1 cases. At the end of the fourth month.[6] Susantha Goonatilake writes that the development of the Fibonacci sequence "is attributed in part to Pingala (200 BC).[14] . five happens. in connection with Sanskrit prosody.Fibonacci number 2 Origins The Fibonacci sequence appears in Indian mathematics. At the end of the third month. At the end of the second month the female produces a new pair..[5][10] In the Sanskrit oral tradition. the original female has produced yet another new pair. 700 AD). the number of patterns that are m short syllables long is the Fibonacci number Fm€+€1. there was much emphasis on how long (L) syllables mix with the short (S).. 1135): Variations of two earlier meters [is the variation]. rabbits never die and a mating pair always produces one new pair (one male.[11] However. At the end of the nth month. In the West. the number of pairs of rabbits is equal to the number of new pairs (which is the number of pairs in month n€€€2) plus the number of pairs alive last month (n€€€1). for [a meter of length] four. 700 AD). 13. one female) every month from the second month on. In this way. 1135). the Fibonacci sequence first appears in the book Liber Abaci (1202) by Leonardo of Pisa. [works out examples 8. variations of meters of two [and] three being mixed. Gop•la (c.. so now there are 2 pairs of rabbits in the field. rabbits are able to mate at the age of one month so that at the end of its second month a female can produce another pair of rabbits. but there is still only 1 pair. The puzzle that Fibonacci posed was: how many pairs will there be in one year? ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ At the end of the first month. they mate.[3] Fibonacci considers the growth of an idealized (biologically unrealistic) rabbit population. 1150).[13] The name "Fibonacci sequence" was first used by the 19th-century number theorist ƒdouard Lucas.[12] A page of Fibonacci's Liber Abaci from the Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze showing (in box on right) the Fibonacci sequence with the position in the sequence labeled in Roman numerals and the value in Hindu-Arabic numerals. one male. but is available in a quotation by Gopala (c. later being associated with Virahanka (c. assuming that: a newly born pair of rabbits. making 3 pairs in all in the field. For example. whose own work is lost. and counting the different patterns of L and S within a given fixed length results in the Fibonacci numbers. 21]. the original female produces a second pair. are put in a field. 1150)".. known as Fibonacci. and Hemachandra (c. the female born two months ago produces her first pair also. The series is also discussed by Gopala (before 1135 AD) and by the Jain scholar Hemachandra (c. He dates Pingala before 450 BCE. making 5 pairs. the clearest exposition of the series arises in the work of Virahanka (c.

For example. 0010. there are F6 = 8 without consecutive 1s • they are 0000. By symmetry. . there are 2F4 = 6 without an even number of consecutive 0s or 1s • they are 0001. ‚ The number of binary strings of length n without an even number of consecutive 0s or 1s is 2Fn. 1000. . 1010. For example. 20 are:[15] F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15 F16 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 F17 F18 F19 F20 89 144 233 377 610 987 1597 2584 4181 6765 The sequence can also be extended to negative index n using the re-arranged recurrence relation which yields the sequence of "negafibonacci" numbers[16] satisfying Thus the bidirectional sequence is F€8 F€7 F€6 F€5 F€4 F€3 F€2 F€1 F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 €21 13 €8 5 €3 2 €1 1 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 Occurrences in mathematics The Fibonacci numbers occur in the sums of "shallow" diagonals in Pascal's triangle (see Binomial coefficient). 0001. 0110. 0101. 1010 and 1001. out of the 16 binary strings of length 4. the number of strings of length n without consecutive 0s is also Fn+2. out of the 16 binary strings of length 4. For example. out of the 16 binary strings of length 4. 0011. ‚ The number of binary strings of The Fibonacci numbers are the sums of the "shallow" diagonals (shown in red) of Pascal's length n without consecutive 1s is triangle.Fibonacci number 3 List of Fibonacci numbers The first 21 Fibonacci numbers Fn for n€=€0..€2. 1000. 0111. 0101.€1. ‚ The number of binary strings of length n without an odd number of consecutive 1s is the Fibonacci number Fn+1..[17] The Fibonacci numbers can be found in different ways in the sequence of binary strings.. 1110. 1100. the Fibonacci number Fn+2. 0100. 1111. there are F5 = 5 without an odd number of consecutive 1s • they are 0000.

[20] note that „ and … are both solutions of the equations so the powers of „ and … satisfy the Fibonacci recursion. even though it was already known by Abraham de Moivre:[18] where is the golden ratio (sequence A001622 in OEIS). It has become known as Binet's formula. the sequence defined by satisfies the same recurrence If a and b are chosen so that U0€=€0 and U1€=€1 then the resulting sequence Un must be the Fibonacci sequence. the number Fn is the closest integer to Therefore it can be found by rounding.Fibonacci number 4 Relation to the golden ratio Closed-form expression Like every sequence defined by a linear recurrence with constant coefficients. the Fibonacci numbers have a closed-form solution. or in terms of the floor function: . This is the same as requiring a and b satisfy the system of equations: which has solution producing the required formula. In other words and It follows that for any values a and b. and [19] To see this. Computation by rounding Since for all n ‚ 0.

.[21] This convergence does not depend on the starting values chosen. 343. In fact this holds for any sequence which satisfies the Fibonacci recurrence other than a sequence of 0's. 212. which in turn can and 1. Another consequence is that the limit of the ratio of two Fibonacci numbers offset by a particular finite deviation in index corresponds to the golden ratio raised by that deviation. The resulting recurrence relationships yield be decomposed all the way down to a linear combination of if the Fibonacci sequence is extended to negative integers using the . 81. the initial values 19 and 31 generate the sequence 19. in other words: Decomposition of powers of the golden ratio Since the golden ratio satisfies the equation this expression can be used to decompose higher powers Fibonacci numbers as the linear coefficients: This equation can be proved by induction on This expression is also true for Fibonacci rule . so is 13 to 21 almost". we can determine its index within the sequence by Limit of consecutive quotients Johannes Kepler observed that the ratio of consecutive Fibonacci numbers converges. 31. if we already know that the number F > 1 is a Fibonacci number. practically. 0. This can be derived from Binet's formula. Or. excluding 0. and concluded that the limit approaches the golden ratio . 555 .Fibonacci number 5 Or the nearest integer function: Similarly. 131. He wrote that "as 5 is to 8 so is 8 to 13. For example. The ratio of consecutive terms in this sequence shows the same convergence towards the golden ratio. as a linear function of lower powers. 50. etc. and as 8 is to 13..

The matrix representation gives the following closed expression for the Fibonacci numbers: . and the properties of eigenvalues. and the matrix Taking the determinant of both sides of this equation yields Cassini's identity Additionally. with . Using these facts. since for any square matrix A. and the elements of the eigenvectors of A. One implication of the above expression is this: if it is known that a number z is a Fibonacci number.Fibonacci number 6 Matrix form A 2-dimensional system of linear difference equations that describes the Fibonacci sequence is The eigenvalues of the matrix A are and . In this formula. This property can be understood in terms of the continued fraction representation for the golden ratio: The Fibonacci numbers occur as the ratio of successive convergents of the continued fraction for formed from successive convergents of any continued fraction has a determinant of +1 or €1. are in the ratios and and . and thus it is a 2†2 unimodular matrix. can be computed rapidly using any of the previously discussed closed-form expressions. the most straightforward. Since . brute-force test is the identity is the closest integer to which is true if and only if z is a Fibonacci number. Recognizing Fibonacci numbers The question may arise whether a positive integer z is a Fibonacci number. we may determine an n such that F(n) = z by the following: . the following identities can be derived: In particular. we can derive a direct formula for the nth element in the Fibonacci series as an analytic function of n: The matrix has a determinant of €1.

with 1 sum in the last group. the third 1+1+2. this result still holds for the case .. and in the event that z is a Fibonacci number. From this one derives the criterion that z is a Fibonacci number if and only if the closed interval contains a positive integer. meaning the empty sum will "add up" to 0. Similarly. q) is true if and only if p and q are successive Fibonacci numbers. and so on. it is easy to show that this interval contains at most one integer. it may be shown that the sum of the first Fibonacci numbers up to the nth is equal to the n+2nd Fibonacci number minus 1.Fibonacci number 7 Alternatively. may be shown by dividing the F(n) sums of 1s and 2s that add to n€1 into two non-overlapping groups. gives two more identities: and . Here the order of the summand matters. and in the second group the remaining terms add to n€3. One group contains those sums whose first term is 1 and the other those sums whose first term is 2. In the first group the remaining terms add to n€2. For example.[24] In symbols: This is done by dividing the sums adding to n+1 in a different way. so there are F(n€2) sums. a positive integer z is a Fibonacci number if and only if one of square.. Combinatorial identities Most identities involving Fibonacci numbers can be proven using combinatorial arguments using the fact that Fn can be interpreted as the number of sequences of 1s and 2s that sum to n € 1. [22] or is a perfect are A slightly more sophisticated test uses the fact that the convergents of the continued fraction representation of ratios of successive Fibonacci numbers. the second group those that start 1+2. F(n-1) in the second group. the inequality (with coprime positive integers p. For example. So the total number of sums is F(n)€+€F(n€€€1)€+€. until the last group which consists of the single sum where only 1's are used. with the convention that F0 = 0. and so on. This can be taken as the definition of Fn.€+€F(1)+1 and therefore this quantity is equal to F(n€+€2) A similar argument. That is.[23] For . Somewhat remarkably. so it has F(n€1) sums. and that F1 = 1. 1 + 2 and 2 + 1 are considered two different sums. So there are a total of F(n€1)+F(n€2) sums altogether. this time by the location of the first 2. showing this is equal to F(n). grouping the sums by the position of the first 1 rather than the first 2. Specifically. the contained integer is equal to the next successive Fibonacci number after z. meaning no sum will add up to €1. and thus has two distinct successors. The number of sums in the first group is F(n). the nth Fibonacci number is the sum of the previous two Fibonacci numbers. but it must be stated carefully since appears twice in the Fibonacci sequence. the first group consists of those sums that start with 2. the recurrence relation or in words.

The number of bits of precision needed to perform each multiplication doubles at each step.Fibonacci number 8 In words.[25] A different trick may be used to prove or in words. The last is an identity for doubling n. Fn€€€1. from which the identity follows by comparing areas. In this case note that Fibonacci rectangle of size Fn by F(n€+€1) can be decomposed into squares of sizea Fn. and the sum of the first Fibonacci numbers with even index up to F2n is the (2n+1)th Fibonacci number minus 1.[26] of which a special case is Doubling identities of this type can be used to calculate Fn using O(log€n) long multiplication operations of size n bits. More generally. other identities of this type are by Cassini's identity. the sum of the squares of the first Fibonacci numbers up to Fn is the product of the nth and (n€+€1)th Fibonacci numbers. this is O(n€log€n€log€log€n) bit operations. Some of the most noteworthy are:[26] (Catalan's identity) (Cassini's identity) (d'Ocagne's identity) where Ln is the n'th Lucas Number. the sum of the first Fibonacci numbers with odd index up to F2n-1 is the (2n)th Fibonacci number. . if the fast Sch‡nhage•Strassen multiplication algorithm is used. Other identities There are numerous other identities which can be derived using various methods. These can be found experimentally using lattice reduction. and are useful in setting up the special number field sieve to factorize a Fibonacci number. so the performance is limited by the final multiplication. and so on to F1=1.

.Fibonacci number 9 Power series The generating function of the Fibonacci sequence is the power series This series has a simple and interesting closed-form solution for :[27] This solution can be proven by using the Fibonacci recurrence to expand each coefficient in the infinite sum defining : Solving the equation for results in the closed form solution. .[28] or more generally In particular. . there is also the closed form and there is a nice nested sum of squared Fibonacci numbers giving the reciprocal of the golden ratio. Reciprocal sums Infinite sums over reciprocal Fibonacci numbers can sometimes be evaluated in terms of theta functions. For example. we can write the sum of every odd-indexed reciprocal Fibonacci number as and the sum of squared reciprocal Fibonacci numbers as If we add 1 to each Fibonacci number in the first sum. math puzzle-books note the curious value for all integers More generally.

233. ƒ (sequence A005478 in OEIS). In fact. Despite that. m). As there are arbitrarily long runs of composite numbers. there are therefore also arbitrarily long runs of composite Fibonacci numbers. 89. the reciprocal Fibonacci constant has been proved irrational by Richard Andrˆ-Jeannin. apart from F4 = 3. but none is yet known. Millin series gives a remarkable identity:[29] which follows from the closed form for its partial sums as N tends to infinity: Primes and divisibility Divisibility properties Every 3rd number of the sequence is even and more generally.[30] Fkn is divisible by Fn. Y. gcd(Fn. F6 and F12) every Fibonacci number has a prime factor that is not a factor of any smaller Fibonacci number (Carmichael's theorem).[36][37] .Fibonacci number 10 Results such as these make it plausible that a closed formula for the plain sum of reciprocal Fibonacci numbers could be found. 13. so. the Fibonacci sequence satisfies the stronger divisibility property Fibonacci primes A Fibonacci prime is a Fibonacci number that is prime. Siksek proved that only 8 and 144 are non-trivial perfect powers. but it is not known whether there are infinitely many.[35] Any three consecutive Fibonacci numbers. every kth number of the sequence is a multiple of Fk. 1597. are relatively prime: that is. 5. 8 and 144 (F1 = F2. Thus the Fibonacci sequence is an example of a divisibility sequence. M. With the exceptions of 1. Bugeaud. Fibonacci primes with thousands of digits have been found. Fn+2) = 1. taken two at a time. Mignotte. More generally.[32] Attila Peth‰ proved[33] in 2001 that there are only finitely many perfect power Fibonacci numbers. gcd(Fn. and S. 3. Fn+1) = gcd(Fn. 514229. any Fibonacci prime must have a prime index.[31] 144 is the only nontrivial square Fibonacci number. In 2006. 28657. Fm) = Fgcd(n. The first few are: 2.[34] No Fibonacci number greater than F6 = 8 is one greater or one less than a prime number.

Also.[41] For example. F11 = 89. F9 = 34 = 2†17. F1 = 1. implying that all odd divisors of Fn (as the products of odd prime divisors) are …€1€(mod€4). F13 = 233. F15 = 610 = 2†5†61 . F7 = 13.Fibonacci number 11 Prime divisors of Fibonacci numbers The divisibility of Fibonacci numbers by a prime p is related to the Legendre symbol follows: which is evaluated as If p is a prime number then For example. Such primes (if there are any) Examples of all the cases: For odd n. [38][39] It is not known whether there exists a prime p such that would be called Wall•Sun•Sun primes. all odd prime divisors of Fn are …€1€(mod€4). F5 = 5. if p „ 5 is an odd prime number then:[40] . F3 = 2.

the next triangle has sides of length 34. The Fibonacci numbers are also an example of a complete sequence. Skipping 21. the resulting sequence must be periodic with period at most€n2-1. and 16 (21€€€5). Specifically. 4. This means that every positive integer can be written as a sum of Fibonacci numbers. Determining the Pisano periods in general is an open problem. the largest number in a Pythagorean triple. every positive . every second Fibonacci number is the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle with integer sides. the number of digits in is asymptotic to . The first triangle in this series has sides of length 5. for every integer there are either 4 or 5 Fibonacci numbers with d decimal digits. the next triangle has sides of length 13.[42][43] 12 Periodicity modulo n It may be seen that if the members of the Fibonacci sequence are taken mod€n.[45] Yuri Matiyasevich was able to show that the Fibonacci numbers can be defined by a Diophantine equation. Any four consecutive Fibonacci numbers Fn. 12 (5€+€4€+€3). Applications The Fibonacci numbers are important in the computational run-time analysis of Euclid's algorithm to determine the greatest common divisor of two integers: the worst case input for this algorithm is a pair of consecutive Fibonacci numbers. and 5 (8€€€3). Fn+2 and Fn+3 can also be used to generate a Pythagorean triple in a different way[44]: Example 1: let the Fibonacci numbers be 1. Skipping 8. and 3. More generally. although for any particular n it can be solved as an instance of cycle detection. 3 and 5. As a consequence. 30 (13€+€12€+€5). and the shorter leg is equal to the difference between the preceding bypassed Fibonacci number and the shorter leg of the preceding triangle.Fibonacci number All known factors of Fibonacci numbers F(i) for all i < 50000 are collected at the relevant repositories. Right triangles Starting with 5. Then: Magnitude Since is asymptotic to . The length of the longer leg of this triangle is equal to the sum of the three sides of the preceding triangle in this series of triangles. where any one number is used once at most. but they only represent triangle sides when€n€>€2. c can be calculated directly: These formulas satisfy for all n. This series continues indefinitely. the number of digits in is asymptotic to . in the base b representation. 2. b. which led to his original solution of Hilbert's tenth problem. or in other words. The triangle sides a. Fn+1. The lengths of the periods for various n form the so-called Pisano periods (sequence A001175 in OEIS).

and.[47][48] In music. such as branching in trees. . Fibonacci numbers arise in the analysis of the Fibonacci heap data structure. and the curve of waves. the seeds on a sunflower.[50] The Fibonacci numbers are also found in the family tree of honeybees. Since the conversion factor 1. This is known as Zeckendorf's theorem. It is commonly thought that the third movement of Bˆla Bart‹k's Music for Strings. called the Fibonacci search technique. the spirals of shells. The Fibonacci cube is an undirected graph with a Fibonacci number of nodes that has been proposed as a network topology for parallel computing.609344 for miles to kilometers is close to the golden ratio (denoted „).g. to determine the length or size of content or formal elements. shift the register down the Fibonacci sequence instead. the decomposition of distance in miles into a sum of Fibonacci numbers becomes nearly the kilometer sum when the Fibonacci numbers are replaced by their successors.Fibonacci number integer can be written in a unique way as the sum of one or more distinct Fibonacci numbers in such a way that the sum does not include any two consecutive Fibonacci numbers. To convert from kilometers to miles.. Fibonacci numbers are used by some pseudorandom number generators. e. Fibonacci numbers are sometimes used to determine tunings. Such arrangements involving consecutive Fibonacci numbers appear in a wide variety of plants. The Zeckendorf representation of a number can be used to derive its Fibonacci coding. as in visual art. relating to the breeding of rabbits. A one-dimensional optimization method. A tape-drive implementation of the polyphase merge sort was described in The Art of Computer Programming.[8] the flowering of artichoke. This method amounts to a radix 2 number register in golden ratio base „ being shifted. Fibonacci numbers are used in a polyphase version of the merge sort algorithm in which an unsorted list is divided into two lists whose lengths correspond to sequential Fibonacci numbers • by dividing the list so that the two parts have lengths in the approximate proportion „. arrangement of leaves on a stem.[46] The Fibonacci number series is used for optional lossy compression in the IFF 8SVX audio file format used on Amiga computers.[51] PrzemysŒaw Prusinkiewicz advanced the idea that real instances can in part be understood as the expression of certain algebraic constraints on free groups. numerous poorly substantiated claims of Fibonacci numbers or golden sections in nature are found in popular sources. uses Fibonacci numbers. The number series compands the original audio wave similar to logarithmic methods such as Š-law. and a sum of Fibonacci numbers that satisfies these conditions is called a Zeckendorf representation. and Celesta was structured using Fibonacci numbers. specifically as certain Lindenmayer grammars.[9] In addition. Percussion.[52] Yellow Chamomile head showing the arrangement in 21 (blue) and 13 (aqua) spirals.[7] in two consecutive Fibonacci numbers.[49] 13 In nature Further information: Patterns in nature Fibonacci sequences appear in biological settings. an uncurling fern and the arrangement of a pine cone. the fruitlets of a pineapple.

which is Fn€2. 500 n€Ž€F(j) for some index j which depends on r. Thus. is the number of female ancestors.[26] ‚ Starting with other integers. no floret has a neighbor at exactly the same angle from the center.. typically the outermost and thus most conspicuous. L2 = 3. Because this ratio is irrational. for example functions or strings†one essential example is Fibonacci polynomials. an egg was fertilized by a male.[56] ‚ Adding other objects than integers. however. The number of ancestors at each level. The Padovan sequence and Perrin numbers have P(n) = P(n • 2) + P(n • 3). and a female bee will have two. and Ln = Ln€1 + Ln€2. Fn. . Vogel in 1979. it hatches a male or drone bee. The resulting sequences are known as n-Step Fibonacci numbers.. or more. but this is true only of one range of radii.[55] (This is under the unrealistic assumption that the ancestors at each level are otherwise unrelated. 5 great-great-grandparents. so the florets pack efficiently. Because the rational approximations to the golden ratio are of the form F(j):F(j€+€1). dividing the circle in the golden ratio. This sequence of numbers of parents is the Fibonacci sequence. ‚ Generalizing the index to real numbers using a modification of Binet's formula. plus the number of male ancestors. 2 grandparents. the distance from the center. according to the following rules: ‚ If an egg is laid by an unmated female.Fibonacci number 14 A model for the pattern of florets in the head of a sunflower was proposed by H. which is Fn€1. 3 great-grandparents. the nearest neighbors of floret number n are those at Illustration of Vogel's model for n=1€.) Generalizations The Fibonacci sequence has been generalized in many ways. If one traces the ancestry of any male bee (1 bee). he has 1 parent (1 bee). Primefree sequences use the Fibonacci recursion with other starting points in order to generate sequences in which all numbers are composite.[54] The bee ancestry code Fibonacci numbers also appear in the description of the reproduction of a population of idealized honeybees.51•. and so on. it hatches a female. ‚ Letting a number be a linear function (other than the sum) of the 2 preceding numbers. a male bee will always have one parent. 4 numbers (tetranacci numbers). ‚ Not adding the immediately preceding numbers. approximately 137. is the golden angle. The Pell numbers have Pn = 2Pn • 1 + Pn • 2. ‚ If.[53] This has the form where n is the index number of the floret and c is a constant scaling factor. These include: ‚ Generalizing the index to negative integers to produce the Negafibonacci numbers. The divergence angle. ‚ Generating the next number by adding 3 numbers (tribonacci numbers). the florets thus lie on Fermat's spiral. Lucas numbers have L1 = 1. It is often said that sunflowers and similar arrangements have 55 spirals in one direction and 89 in the other (or some other pair of adjacent Fibonacci numbers).

[11] [Agrawala.2. . P€‚inik€lƒna Bh€ratavar„a (Hn. Retrieved December 31. Math. [9] A. math. "Generating functions of Fibonacci-like sequences and decimal expansions of some fractions" (http:/ / www.com/meta/p206842_index. Paedagogicae Ny…regyh†ziensis.2. Math. Mircea Martin (2002). " Millin Series (http:/ / mathworld. [28] K‡hler. Nikola• Nikolaevich.. [14] Martin Gardner (1996).quote: "Before Fibonacci wrote his work. The Mathematical Gazette. Fibonacci and Lucas perfect powers. Wie erkennt man eine Fibonacci Zahl?. Mignotte. Parmanand (1985). doi:10.Fibonacci number 15 Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] See for example Beck and Geoghegan (2010). Semesterber. 969•1018. 9). Singh Historia Math 12 (1985) 229•244]" p.. ISBN€0-19-858120-3. ISBN€0-88385-506-2. The Art Of Computer Programming.1006/jtbi. google. The Mathematical Association of America. maths. html). ISBN€3-7643-6135-2. Fibonacci Quarterly 2: 109•113. [12] Velankar. Bugeaud. [30] Weisstein." p. Varanasi-I: TheChowkhamba Vidyabhawan. google. San Jose.. 156 [20] Following Ball p. html). Edouard Lucas . 521. [26] Weisstein. maths. p. . 7 [18] Weisstein. Toward a Global Science (http:/ / books.153 [15] The website (http:/ / www.). Strena seu de Nive Sexangula (1611). [19] Ball p. [27] Glaister. [16] Knuth. "Fibonacci is a Square" (http:/ / www.html> [17] Lucas p. "The Fibonacci numbers" (http:/ / www.€92. ac. . p. html)" from MathWorld. University of Surrey Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences. ISBN€978-0-321-33570-8. . D. [See P. Knott/ Fibonacci/ fibtable. ac. The Fairmont Hotel.12. " Binet's Fibonacci Number Formula (http:/ / mathworld. ca/ Scanned/ 23-1/ kohler. p. "Science". Brousseau (1969). Donald. Ballantine Books. uk/ hosted-sites/ R.. Susantha Goonatilake (1998). Lucas p. html) has the first 300 Fn factored into primes and links to more extensive tables. surrey. 2011. "Square Fibonacci Numbers Etc" (http:/ / math. com/ ?id=MooMkK6ERuYC& pg=PA100& dq=knuth+ gopala+ fibonacci#v=onepage& ). is remembered today mainly because a 19th-century French number theorist. "Fibonacci's Rabbits" (http:/ / www. 163(2006). 3 Sigler (trans.101. [13] Knott. html#Rabbits).1996. com/ FibonacciPrime. I. 133. [35] Ross Honsberger Mathematical Gems III (AMS Dolciani Mathematical Expositions No.allacademic. Ron. . [24] Lucas p. 155-156 [21] Kepler.. pdf) (PDF).0026. Oxford University Press.€544. pp.€126. [23] M. 2008-12-11 <http://research. Ann. p. math. Couder (1996). My Friends. For example the 21 sequences when m€=€7 are: [gives list].5. com/ ?id=56LNfE2QGtYC& pg=PA50& dq=rhythms). The Fibonacci Quarterly 10 (4): 417-419.€50. fq. the sequence Fn had already been discussed by Indian scholars. S.. A New Year Gift: On Hexagonal Snow. who made valuable contributions to mathematics.21 explicitly. ISBN 0-88385-318-3. . p. ISBN€978-0-7394-7582-9. Ira (October 1972). Eric W. both Gopala (before 1135AD) and Hemachandra (c.1016/0315-0860(85)90021-7. attached the name Fibonacci to a number sequence that appears in a trivial problem in Liber abaci. wolfram. (2). [8] Jones. Eric W. The Fibonacci Quarterly 23 (1): 29•35. 243•246. Journal of Theoretical Biology 178 (178): 255•274. Judy. surrey. "Chapter 1". S. [36] Paulo Ribenboim. Fibonacci Numbers. com/ BinetsFibonacciNumberFormula. Eric W. " Fibonacci Prime (http:/ / mathworld. " Fibonacci Number (http:/ / mathworld.) (2002). pdf) (PDF). William Wilson (2006). edu/ ~checkman/ SquareFibonacci.. surrey. G‘nter (February 1985). Fibonacci power series. Diophantine properties of linear recursive sequences II. Siksek: Classical and modular approaches to exponential Diophantine equations. Knott/ Fibonacci/ fibtable. Mathematical Circus. Historia Mathematica 12 (3): 229•244.13. ac. ntnu. google. Volume 1 (http:/ / books. ISBN€81-7758-754-4. In this way Indian prosodists were led to discover the Fibonacci sequence. [5] Singh. page 180. com/ FibonacciNumber. [33] A. [34] Y. uk/ hosted-sites/ R. "Phyllotaxis as a Dynamical Self Organizing Process" (http:/ / www. who had long been interested in rhythmic patterns. 1985. or Bona (2011). pp. 2012. pdf) (PDF). html)" from MathWorld. "Fibonacci Statistics in Conifers".1150) mentioned the numbers 1.quote: "It is ironic that Leonardo.. no/ ~jarlet/ Douady96. com/ ?id=SI5ip95BbgEC& pg=PA126& dq=Virahanka+ Fibonacci). [32] J H E Cohn (1964). •V•ttaj€tisamuccaya‚ of kavi Virahanka.8. wolfram. . V. com/ MillinSeries. wolfram. [29] Weisstein. (1998) 45. Springer-Verlag 2000. "Negafibonacci Numbers and the Hyperbolic Plane" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Mathematical Association of America. 1995. uk/ hosted-sites/ R. Acta Math.. P. 17(2001). wolfram. 100 (3d ed). 1969]. Fibonacci Quarterly (7): 525•532. Retrieved April 11. asu. . 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ISBN 0-387-94457-5. [53] Vogel. 2. encyclopediaofmath. org/ papers/ #webdocs)]].co. redgolpe. ed. 343).. "A better way to construct the sunflower head". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. (2002).org/index. H (1979). 73•74. Mudd Math Fun Facts. Przemyslaw. php/ Zeckendorf_representation). html) ‚ Implementation to calculate Fibonacci sequence in Lisp (http://wikinternet. Springer-Verlag. cx/ index. "Optimality of the Symmetric Fibonacci Search Technique". edu/ ~dsimanek/ pseudo/ fibonacc. edu/ newstudents/ shared/ puzzles/ fibbee.htm) at MathPages ‚ Scientists find clues to the formation of Fibonacci spirals in nature (http://www.mathpages. [49] Zeckendorf representation (http:/ / www. Wilde (1966). [44] Koshy. [55] The Fibonacci Numbers and the Ancestry of Bees (http:/ / www1.encyclopediaofmath. Encyclopedia of Mathematics. Addison•Wesley. [39] Franz Lemmermeyer (2000). Princeton. ISBN€978-1-55608-010-4 ‚ Fibonacci Sequence (http://www. . p. External links ‚ Hazewinkel. New York: Springer. edu/ funfacts/ ffiles/ 20004. (2003). ISBN€0-201-89683-4. ‚ Sigler. Mathematical Biosciences 44 (44): 179•189. "Fibonacci GCD's. [46] M. php?title=IFF#Fibonacci_Delta_Compression). 5. Thˆorie des nombres. [51] "Marks for the da Vinci Code: B•" (http:/ / www. The Art of Computer Programming. OEIS Foundation. "Fibonacci numbers" (http://www. and Other Mathematical Explorations.27 p.co. 2. pp.org/A000045)". shtml). [41] Lemmermeyer.€581. Avriel and D. Donald E. htm). ISBN 3-540-66957-4. hmc. [40] Lemmermeyer. ex. Fractals. Springer. [52] Prusinkiewicz. Volume 1: Fundamental Algorithms (3rd ed. Computer Science For Fun: CS4FN.bbc. org/ maths/ bee-davinci. " Fibonacci n-Step Number (http:/ / mathworld. ISBN€0-387-97092-4.28. math. php). please. Geoghegan.: Princeton University Press. Springer. Springer-Verlag. (1997). [47] Amiga ROM Kernel Reference Manual.uk/iplayer/console/b008ct2j/In_Our_Time_Fibonacci_Sequence)) ‚ " Sloane's A000045 : Fibonacci Numbers (http://oeis. pp. Lindenmayer. . Keith M. multimedia. Laurence E. New York: Springer. Mikl‹s (2011).com/home/kmath078/kmath078. 1. The Art of Proof: Basic Training for Deeper Mathematics.com/wordpress/code/lisp/ fibonacci-number/) .).. Przemyslaw. (2001). N. . com/ ) collects all known factors of F(i) with 10000<i<50000. ISBN€0-691-11321-1. [48] IFF • MultimediaWiki (http:/ / wiki. James Hanan (1989). Counting Rabbits. html). Aristid (1990). 73. html)" from MathWorld. Sources and Studies in the History of Mathematics and Physical Sciences. ‚ Periods of Fibonacci Sequences Mod m (http://www. Francis E.28. wolfram. Fibonacci Quarterly (3): 265•269. ‚ Lucas. php?title=p/f040020). p. New Jersey: World Scientific. Fibonacci‚s Liber Abaci: A Translation into Modern English of Leonardo Pisano‚s Book of Calculation.physorg. (p. Thomas (2007). ISBN€0-12-372487-2. Reciprocity Laws. org/ index. Elementary number theory with applications.bbc. 64. [[The Algorithmic Beauty of Plants (http:/ / algorithmicbotany. "Chapter 8: Fibonacci's Rabbits Revisited". Michiel. cs4fn. ‚ Beck. Eric W. Lindenmayer Systems. com/ Fibonaccin-StepNumber. The New Book of Prime Number Records. ƒdouard (1891). lhup. 978-0-387-40737-1 (paperback).Fibonacci number [37] Su. american. Ross (2010). [43] Factors of Fibonacci and Lucas numbers (http:/ / fibonacci. [42] Fibonacci and Lucas factorizations (http:/ / mersennus. New York: Springer.25•2. ISBN‡978-0-387-97297-8.1016/0025-5564(79)90080-4 [54] Prusinkiewicz." (http:/ / www. Addison•Wesley 1991. net/ fibonacci/ ) collects all known factors of F(i) with i<10000. math. [38] Paulo Ribenboim (1996). [56] Weisstein.‡101ƒ107.J. ( listen now (http://www. 16 References ‚ Ball. ISBN€0-387-95419-8(hardback). ex 2. Academic Press. [50] "Fibonacci Flim-Flam" (http:/ / www. Matthias. and Plants (Lecture Notes in Biomathematics). Strange Curves. Gauthier-Villars. [45] Knuth. 73•74.com/news97227410. et al. doi:10. ‚ B‹na. ex.).J. pp.uk/programmes/b008ct2j) on In Our Time at the BBC. A Walk Through Combinatorics (third ed.

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