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Organizational Behavior (OB) is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. It does this by taking a system approach. That is, it interprets people organization relationships in ter!s of the whole person, whole group, whole organization, and whole social syste!. Its purpose is to build better relationships by achieving hu!an ob"ectives, organizational ob"ectives, and social ob"ectives.
Organizational behavior studies organizations from multiple viewpoints and levels, including behavior within the organization and in relation to other organizations.
Micro organizational behavior refers to individual and group dynamics in an organizational setting. Macro organizational theory studies whole organizations and industries, including how they adapt, and the strategies, structures, and contingencies that guide them.
OB highlights four central characteristics of the field: • It is firmly grounded in the scientific method • It studies individuals, groups, and organizations. • It is interdisciplinary in nature. • It is used as the basis for enhancing orgainsational effectiveness and individual well being. !he study of OB involves: • "onsideration of the interaction among the formal structure #organizational conte$t in which the process of management takes place% • !he technology employed and the methods of carrying out work • !he behaviour of people
• !he process of management • !he e$ternal environment Interrelated dimensions influencing behaviour: • !he Individual & working environment should satisfy individual needs as well as attainment of organizational goals • !he 'roup formal and informal. (nderstanding of groups complements a knowledge of individual behaviour. • !he Organisation & impact of organization structure and design, and patterns of management, on behaviour. • !he )nvironment & technological and scientific development, economic activity, and governmental actions.
http://www.slideshare.net/clickmyemail/intro-to-ob-ppt Providesa set of toolsthat allow: • People to understand, analyze, and describe behavior in organizations • Managers to improve, enhance, or change work behaviors so that individuals, groups and the whole organization can achieve their goals
Generalisationsabouthumanbehaviour: > happy workers are productive workers. > Individuals are most productive when the boss is friendly, reliable and unassuming. > behaviour of good leaders is consistent irrespective of the situations they face. > Interviews are effective selection devices. > Everybody likes a challenging job > People will have to be bullied/intimidated to make them to do their jobs. > Money motivates all. > >People are more concerned about their own salaries than others’. >Members of effective groups do not quarrel among themselves.
A Short Historyof OrganizationalBehavior The Greek philosopher Plato wrote about the essence of leadership. Aristotle addressed the topic of persuasive communication. The writings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius in 500 BC are beginning to influence contemporary thinking about ethics and leadership. The writings of 16th century Italian philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli laid the foundation for contemporary work on
Resource Dependence . the focus of organizational studies shifted to analysis of how human factors and psychology affected organizations. Studies of different compensation systems were carried out. and Organizational Ecology theories. Soon after. Adam Smith advocated a new form of organizational structure based on the division of labour. Henri Fayol . Influential work was done by Herbert Alexander Simon and James G. March and the so-called ". Proponents of scientific management held that rationalizing the organization with precise sets of instructions and time-motion studies would lead to increased productivity. Prominent early scholars included Chester Barnard . Frederick Herzberg . motivation . and the actualization of the goals of individuals within organizations. as the invention of large-scale logistics and operations research led to a renewed interest in rationalist approaches to the study of organizations. the field was strongly influenced by social psychology and the emphasis in academic study was on quantitative research . The Second World War further shifted the field. produced Bounded Rationality . of organizational behavior In the 1960s and 1970s. Frederick Winslow Taylor introduced the systematic use of goal setting and rewards to motivate employees. David McClelland . a transformation propelled by the identification of the Hawthorne Effect . After the First World War. German sociologist Max Weber wrote about rational organizations and initiated discussion of charismatic leadership. with Taylorism representing the peak of this movement. They discovered the importance of formal and informal group dynamics in the work place. resulting in a dramatic shift towards the ‘human relations’ school of thought. Informal Organization . Contingency Theory . This Human Relations Movement focused on teams .organizational power and politics. An explosion of theorizing. One hundred years later. In the 1920s. Carnegie School & quot. Interest grew in theory and methods native to the sciences. Though it traces its roots back to Max Weber and earlier. organizational studies is generally considered to have begun as an academic discipline with the advent of scientific management in the 1890s. among . and Victor Vroom. Australian-born Harvard professor Elton Mayo and his colleagues conducted productivity studies at Western Electric's Hawthorne plant in the United States. In 1776. Abraham Maslow . Institutional Theory . the study of organizations with a complexity theory perspective and complexity strategy. much of it at Stanford University and Carnegie Mellon. including systems theory.
Starting in the 1980s. 1924-1932 – these studies mark the starting point of the field of Organisational Behaviour Initiated as an attempt to investigate how characteristics of the work setting affect employee fatigue and performance (i. physical environment. A leading scholar was Karl Weick FrederickWinslowTaylorFrederickWinslowTaylor(1856–1915) was the first person who attempted to study human behavior at work using a systematic approach. cost and their interaction with each other. task. gather informal job knowledge that employees possess.many others.. Carefully select employees so that they possess skills and abilities that match the needs of the task. informed by anthropology . and experiment with ways of improving the way tasks are performed. and then develop a pay system that provides a reward for performance above the acceptable level. Study the way employees perform their tasks. He faced some strong criticism. speed. 2. Qualitative methods of study became more acceptable. Started in 1924– to examine the relationship between light intensity and employee productivity – a test group and a control group were used – the test group initially did not show any increase or decrease in output in proportion to the . Establish an acceptable level of performance for a task. The HawthorneStudies Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company near Chicago. but his work was very productive and laid many foundation principles for modern management studies Four Principles of Scientific Management 1.e. Taylor studied human characteristics. psychology and sociology . Found that productivity increased regardless of whether illumination was raised or lowered. believing that humans are primarily motivated by money. 3. His overall objective was to reduce and/or remove human variability Taylor worked to achieve his goal of making work behaviors stable and predictable so that maximum output could be achieved. durability. including being accused of telling managers to treat workers as machines without minds. He relied strongly upon monetary incentive systems. cultural explanations of organizations and change became an important part of study. 4. Codify the new methods of performing tasks into written rules and standard operating procedures. social environment. and train them to perform the task according to the established rules and procedures. lighting). capacity.
Components of Attitudes . Third. ore precisely attitudes can be de!ined as a persistent tendency to !eel and behave in a particular way toward some object which may include events or individuals as well.increase/decrease in illumination. #econd. they tend to persist unless something is done to change them. attitudes are directed toward some object about which a person has !eelings $sometimes called %a!!ect&' and belie!s. people. Obviously.slideshare. something besides the level of illumination was causing the change in productivity – the complex human variable. attitudes can !all anywhere along a continuum !rom very !avorable to very un!avorable. The results baffled the researchers. MaryParkerFollett Management must consider the human side Employees should be involved in job analysis Person with the knowledge should be in control of the work process regardless of position Cross-functioning teams used to accomplish projects DouglasMcGregor: Theory X and Theory Y Theory X Average employee is lazy. or events. Subsequent phases brought the level of light down to moonlight intensity: the workers could barely see what they were doing. but productivity increased.net/saransuriyan/organisational-behaviour-ppt ATTITUDE The attitude is the evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects. dislikes work. The control group with unchanged illumination increased output by the same amount overall by the test group. Attitude can be characterized in three ways: "irst. and will try to do as little as possible Manager’s task is to supervise closely and control employees through reward and punishment Theory Y Employees will do what is good for the organization when committed Manager’s task is create a work setting that encourages commitment to organizational goals and provides opportunities for employees to be exercise initiative http://www.
. )!ter introducing a particular policy. Affective Component of Attitude re!ers to the emotional aspect o! attitude. thus !orming your value system. they will be better adjusted to their work. )!!ective and *ehavioural part. Attitudes he p peop e to adapt to their wor" environment# )n understanding o! attitudes is also important because attitudes help the employees to get adjusted to their work. Attitudes he p predict wor" behavior# The !ollowing e. Cognitive Component of Attitude re!ers to opinion or belie! part o! attitude. it is likely to be translated into a particular type o! behavior. These develop over time. e. +hen you !orm your opinion or judgment on the basis o! available in!ormation and decide whether you have a !avorable or un!avorable opinion on that. This is perhaps the most o!ten re!erred part o! attitude and decides mostly the desirable or undesirable aspect attitude.dislike my supervisor. e. such as buying or procuring that object.positive attitude among the employees. Behaviora Component of Attitude re!ers to the behavioral part o! attitude. These in turn give rise to development o! your attitudes. y supervisor is un!air. 4uring the subse5uent week it is !ound that the attendance o! the employees drops sharply !rom the previous standard. that the workers are not too happy about it. -! the management can success!ully develop a.: . -! we have a positive attitude !or a particular object. !ormation of Attitude 1ow attitudes are !ormed2 1ow do you develop your attitude2 3ssentially attitudes are the outward mani!estation o! your inner values and belie!s.: y supervisor gave a promotion to a coworker who deserved it less than me. it the cognitive part o! attitude we are talking about. )s you grow you watch the signi!icant people around you behaving in a particular way0 you are being told to cherish certain things over others and you learn !rom your teachers and peers and come to value certain thins over other. e.: -/m looking !or other work0 -/ve complained about my supervisor to anyone who would listen. 1ere management may conclude that a negative attitude toward new work rules led to increased absenteeism.ample might help to illustrate it. it is !ound !rom an attitude survey.The three basic components o! attitude are (ognitive.
and perceive the world around him. management and the organization in general while berated and ill treated organizational members develop a negative attitude. Attitudes provide individua s with a basis for e'pressing their va ues# "or e. . #ometimes people simply see any reason to change their attitude due to unavailability o! ade5uate in!ormation. attitudes help employees adjust to their environment and !orm a basis !or !uture behaviour. The &a ue%E'pressive !unction. -n other words. Attitudes often he p peop e to ad$ust to their wor" environment# +ell-treated employees tend to develop a positive attitude towards their job. Ego%Defensive !unction# Attitudes he p peop e to retain their dignity and se f% image# +hen a young !aculty member who is !ull o! !resh ideas and enthusiasm.!unctions of Attitude )ccording to 6atz. 9rior commitment when people !eel a commitment towards a particular course o! action that have already been agreed upon and thus it becomes di!!icult !or them to change or accept the new ways o! !unctioning. joins the organization. the older members might !eel somewhat threatened by him.ample. even employee wel!are programmes can be perceived as something 7bad/ and as actually against them. The Ad$ustment !unction. attitudes serve !our important !unctions !rom the viewpoint o! organizational behaviour. The 6nowledge "unction. Changing Attitudes Emp oyees( attitudes can be ) changed and sometimes it is in the best interests of managements to try to do so# !or e'amp e* if emp oyees be ieve that their emp oyer does not oo" after their we fare* the management shou d try to change their attitude and he p deve op a more positive attitude in them# +owever* the process of changing the attitude is not a ways easy. -nsu!!icient in!ormation also acts as a major barrier to change attitudes. -! one has a strong negative attitude towards the management. :. There are some barriers wliich have to be overcome i! one strives to change somebody/s attitude. There are two major categories o! barriers that come in the way o! changing attitudes: 8. *ut they tend to disapprove his creative ideas as 7crazy/ and 7impractical/ and dismiss him altogether. )ttitudes provide standards and !rames o! re!erence that allow people to understand. a manager who values hard and sincere work will be more vocal against an employee who is having a very casual approach towards work. whatever the management does. These are as !ollows.
it is o!ten become di!!icult !or him to decide which is right !or him. they are all praise !or a particular policy introduced in the work place. it is o!ten becomes very e!!ective i! you can include him in your own group.ike in the case where one is to choose !rom& between two alternative courses o! action.ike in the case o! the union leader who are all the time vehemently against any management decision. 1owever.ew Information# #ometimes a dramatic change in attitude is possible only by providing relevant and ade5uate in!ormation to the person concerned. Their opinion and recommendation !or something o!ten proves to be more important.ample.. . -! you want to change the attitude o! some body who belongs to a di!!erent group. -! !or e. -! some one helps him in pointing out the positive points in !avour o! the chosen course o! action. Co%opting. Inf uence of friends and peers ) very e!!ective way o! changing one/s attitude is through his !riends and colleagues. . Use of !ear. he might still !eel con!used.ome of the possib e ways of changing attitudes are described be ow# -roviding . /eso ving Discrepancies: +henever %people !ace %a dilemma or con!licting situation they !eel con!used in choosing a particular course o! action. 3ven when he chooses one over the other. he person might resolve the his dilemma. #canty and incomplete in!ormation can be a major reason !or brewing negative !eeling and attitudes. )ttitudes can be changed through the use o! !ear. . the degree o! the arousal o! !ear will have to be taken into consideration as well. chances are high that an individual will slowly accept that even when he had initial reservations !or that. 9eople might resort to change their work habit !or the !ear o! !ear o! unpleasant conse5uences. can be the person who takes active initiative in implementing a new policy when he had participated in that decision making process himsel!. <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< < How Are Employee Attitudes Measured? • The most popular method for getting information about employee attitudes is through attitude surveys.
• ?rganizational (ommitment .• Using attitude surveys on a regular basis provides managers with valuable feedback on how employees perceive their working conditions. and considers per!ormance important to sel!worth. 1976). coworkers. Managers present the employee with set statements or questions to obtain specific information. • =ob -nvolvement . actively participates in it. and working hours.the degrees to which a person identi!ies with a job. groups. An employee’s cognitive and affective evaluation of his or her job Determinants of Job Satisfaction: • Personality (the enduring ways a person has of feeling. and subordinates. • Employee attitudes and job satisfaction are frequently used interchangeably. pay and job security) • Values (intrinsic and extrinsic work values) • Social Influence (coworkers. and culture) . and behaving) • Work Situation (the work itself. Individual Responses are then combined and analyzed Important Attitudes /e ated to 0rganisations: • =ob #atis!action > is a set o! !avorable or un!avorable !eelings and emotions with which employees view their work. physical working conditions.the degree to which an employee identi!ies with a particular organizational and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.” A pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences (Locke. • Often when people speak of “employee attitudes” they mean “employee job satisfaction. supervisors. =?* #)T-#")(T-?@ A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job • A high level of job satisfaction equals positive attitudes toward the job and vice versa. thinking.
be tardy. • Organizations take actions to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers. and responsive. steal. Customer Satisfaction • Satisfied workers provide better customer service Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction because: • They are more friendly. Absenteeism • Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences. Turnover • Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. which helps build long-term customer relationships Organizational Citizenship behavior (OCB) • Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job. upbeat. and withdraw CognitiveDissonance • A state of tension that is produced when an individual experiences conflict between attitudes and behavior Cognitive Dissonance Theory • Leon Festinger • Any Incompatibility between 2 or more attitudes or between behavior • Internal state that results when individuals notice inconsistency between 2 or more of their attitudes or between their attitudes and their behavior . Workplace Deviance • Dissatisfied workers are more likely to unionize abuse substances. • They are less likely to turnover.The Effectof Job Satisfactionon EmployeePerformance Job Performance • Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more satisfied! • Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers.
Four Stages: 1.net/guruduttreddy/attitudes-8C8DCEDF 93G(39T-?@ • is the process by which organisms interpret and organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience of the world (Lindsay & Norman.wordpress.com/:A8:/88/:B/organisation-behaviour-attitude/ http://www. Organization 4.Self Perception Theory • Daryl Bem • Asserts that we develop our attitudes by observing our own behavior and concluding what attitudes must have caused them http://mbanotesravi.slideshare. Stimulation 2. Interpretation .net/srmacalinao/employee-attitude-and-their-e!!ects http://www. 1977). Registration 3.slideshare.
However.e. Therefore. 1989) and selective perception as a result of activation of cortical maps and neural networks (Rizzolatti & Craighero. when presented with information from two different channels (i. or controlling another person’s perception of oneself (impression management). a person must process information selectively and. judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs (stereotyping). motivation. 1993. The concept is that any action requires the selection of certain aspects of the environment that are action relevant and. causing a person to act erroneously based on another person’s perception (pygmalion effect). when one is working toward a goal. perceptual defense creates an internal barrier that limits the external stimuli passing through the perception process when it is not congruent with the person’s current beliefs. combined with preconceived thoughts. Selective perception occurs when an individual limits the processing of external stimuli by selectively interpreting what he or she sees based on beliefs. This is accomplished through various means such as classifying an individual based on a single characteristic (halo effect).Broadbent (1958) addressed the concept of perceptual vigilance with his filter model. people are selective in what they perceive and tend to filter information based on the capacity to absorb new data.jbpub. A “Selectionfor-Action View” suggests that filtering is not just a consequence of capacity limitations. at the same time. or attitudes (Sherif & Cantril.com/borkowski/chapterC. Broadbent argued that. methods of delivery such as visual and auditory). experience. http://healthadmin. an individual’s perceptual system processes only that which it believes to be most relevant. 1945). suggesting multiple channels of processing (Pashler. 1992). 1987.. Broadbent’s filter theory has been updated in recent years. due to limited capacity. 1998). on the one hand. In any case. but is driven by goal-directed actions (Allport. one will skip over information that does not support one’s plan.pd! SocialPerception Social perceptionis how an individual “sees” others and how others perceive an individual. etc. Recent studies of the brain have also led to new models. Neumann. evaluating a person’s characteristics by comparison to others (contrast effect). perceiving others in ways that really reflect a perceiver’s own attitudes and beliefs (projection). filtering other aspects that are action irrelevant. This is referred to as selective perception. 1987. attitudes. . Van der Heijden. therefore.
Contrast effectsrelate to an individual’s evaluation of another person’s characteristics based on (or affected by) comparisons with other people who rank higher or lower on the same . or appearance. Projection Whereas. along with his daughter Anna Freud (1936). contrast effect is the perception of an individual based on the comparison to others. A study on obesity conducted with health professionals and researchers reflects the horn effect concept. The study respondents were much quicker to pair “fat’’ with “lazy’’ and other negative traits and/or stereotypes (Schwartz. suggested that projection was a defensive mechanism. Brownell. the term stereotype is defined to mean a conventional image applied to whole groups of people. projection is the attribution of one’s own attitudes and beliefs onto others. Although stereotyping can be positive because it allows us to Contrast Effects Research has provided evidence that perceptions are also subject to what is termed perceptual contrast effects.Halo Effect The halo effect occurs when an individual draws a general impression about another person based on a single characteristic. and valuable– worthless. and the treatment of groups according to a fixed set of generalized traits or characteristics. 2003). Chambliss. 1920). Blair & Billington. if an employee performs a difficult accounting task well due to the manager’s belief of the employee’s high intelligence. smart–stupid. Sigmund Freud (1894). then the manager may also erroneously perceive the employee as having competencies in other areas such as management or technology Opposite to the halo effect is the horn effect. The perceiver may evaluate the other individual high on many traits because of his or her belief that the individual is high in one trait. where we attribute our own attitudes onto someone else as a defense against our feelings of anxiety or guilt. such as intelligence. Study participants were asked to complete an Implicit Associations Test to assess overall implicit weight bias (associating “obese people” and “thin people” with “good” vs “bad”) and three ranges of stereotypes: lazy–motivated. Stereotyping As such. All of us are guilty of unconsciously projecting our own beliefs onto others. sociability. For example. whereby a person evaluates another as low on many traits because of a belief that the individual is low on one trait that is assumed to be critical (Thorndike.
and how we say it as we try to influence the perceptions others have of us. an individual will have the tendency to behave in ways consistent with the expectation. and social anxiety (Thornton and Moore. It is an important element of communication since it allows for information to be shared between the receiver and . Messages are then received and decoded or interpreted by the receiver. The closer the decoded message gets to the intent of the sender. 1993). However. department. but it has also been shown to influence self-esteem. feedback is a necessary component of the communication process. how we do it. Accurate decoding of the message by the receiver is critical to effective communication. In other words. once an expectation is made known by another person. The sender receives and decodes the feedback. A sender uses words and symbols to put forth information into a message for the receiver. To ensure messages are received as intended. or unit of an organization or system who originates the message. The contrast effect not only applies to the perception of attractiveness. . 1992). Impression management incorporates what we do. In other words. Individuals will try to present themselves in ways that will lead to positive evaluations by others by highlighting their achievements and avoiding the disclosure of failures. Feedback is the destination’s reaction to a message (Certo. environmental and personal barriers can hamper the communication process. the more effective the communication. The receiver creates feedback to a message and encodes it before transmitting it back to the sender. Pygmalion Effect The pygmalion effect. Decoding is affected by the receiver’s prior experiences and frames of reference. describes a person’s behavior that is consistent with another individual’s perception whether ornot it is accurate. what we say. Workplace Communication # COMMUNICATION PROCESS Figure 4-1illustrates the communication process. or self-fulfilling prophecy. the contrast effect relates to how an individual is perceived in relation to others around him or her. It shows that the sender is a person. the individual(s) receiving the message. Details on barriers are described in a later section. public selfconsciousness.characteristics.
Manager A asks Manager B to comment on her behavior at a staff meeting. or the performance of a particular individual. B indicates that A was specific.A.. Feedback is any information that individuals receive about their behavior. # FEEDBACK Feedback is any information that individuals receive about their behavior. M. S. For instance. Feedback that identifies or describes how a person communicates.L.sender in a two-way communication. B provides a descriptive feedback of A’s behavior at the staff meeting. and Von Glinow. • Evaluative feedback. clear. and instructive on introducing the staff to the computer database for managing patient accounts. Feedback that provides an assessment of the . Feedback can be information related to the productivity of groups in an organization. (2003) Organizational behavior: Emerging realities for the workplace revo Descriptive feedback. Feedback can be information related to the productivity of Feedback 79 Sender Message • Create • Encode Sender Message • Receive • Decode Barriers • Environment • Personal Feedback • Receive • Decode Feedback • Create • Encode Figure 4-1 The Communication Process Source:McShane.
is an individual in the group knowledgeable? Does he or she have the skills helpful to this group? What attitudes does he or she have toward the group as they work together to accomplish their tasks? Is the individual able to plan and organize within a schedule that contributes to the group’s goal attainment? • Group feedback. • Individual feedback. Relational feedback. Feedback that provides advice about how one should behave or communicate. Feedback that focuses on a particular individual in a group. In the above case. Specific issues that relate to task feedback include the quantity or quality of a group’s output. Like the questions raised at the individual feedback level. This level of feedback emphasizes how a group gets along while working together. then B has provided positive evaluative feedback of A’s interaction with the staff. surveys. For instance.person who communicates. Feedback that focuses on how well the group is performing. Manager A asks Manager B how she could have made changes to better communicate her message to her staff. are patients satisfied with the new outpatient clinic? Did the group complete the project on time? Procedural feedback refers to whether a correct procedure was used appropriately at the time by the group. This type of advice is prescriptive feedback. For example. B suggests for A to be friendlier and more cooperative by giving the staff specific times that A is available for help with the new computer database. similar questions are asked for the group. Feedback that provides information about interpersonal dynamics within a group. Task or procedural feedback. • Prescriptive feedback. and that causes the staff to feel comfortable when going to A for help or asking questions. It is the means by which . For example. Feedback at this level involves issues of effectiveness and appropriateness. and audio # COMMUNICATION CHANNELS Another important component of the communication process is selecting the appropriate communication channel. if Manager B evaluates Manager A’s behavior and concludes that she is instructive and helpful. Do team members within the group have adequate knowledge to complete a task? Have they developed a communication network to facilitate their objectives? Feedback can be in the form of questionnaires. It is effective when it is combined with the descriptive and prescriptive forms of feedback.
E-mail allows messages to be rapidly created. Messages can be clearly defined through concrete and specific instructions rather than abstract words or generalization Other Computer-Aided Communication In addition to e-mail technology. There are two types of channels: verbal and nonverbal.Rakich. There are four basic forms of nonverbal communication: proxemics. Proxemicsis the study of an individual’s perception and use of space Kinesics refers to body language. Personalbarriersarisefromthe natureof individual . BARRIERSTO COMMUNICATION As illustratedin Figure4-1 (page79). Environmentalbarriersare characteristicof the organizationand its environmentalsetting. and sent to many people at the same time. Dialogue is a form of verbal communication. E-mail is a preferred channel for coordinating work and schedules. which is used to convey meanings and messages. The various channels of communication and the amount of information transmitted through each type are illustrated in Figure 4-2. kinesics. saved. Computer-Aided Communication Electronic mail has revolutionized the way we communicate. Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal communication is sharing information without using words to encode messages. It is a process in which participants are exposed to new information.messages are transmitted. 2003). and paralanguage (Nelson & Quick. severalformsof barrierscan impedethe communicationprocess.Longest.and Darr (2000)classifythesebarriersinto two categories:environmentaland personal. Verbal Communication Verbal communication relies on spoken or written words to share information with others. other forms of technology have infused healthcare organizations and directly enhance and impact the communication process. facial and eye behavior. The process involves a series of meetings of organizational members that represent different views on issues of mutual interest. One can select any part of the message to read and skip to important parts of the message. It is a discussion or conversation between people. changed.
”Listeningis a process that integratesphysical. Usingmultiplechannelsto reinforcecomplexmessagesdecreasesthe likelihoodof misunderstanding. Longestandcoauthors(2000)provideus with severalguidelinesfor overcomingbarriers: 1. A managementphilosophythat encouragesthe free flowof communicationis constructive. Reducingthe numberof links(levelsin the organizationalhierarchy or stepsbetweenthe senderin the healthcareorganizationand the receiverwhois an externalstakeholder)reducesopportunitiesfor distortion.However. Dueto inadequateattentionpaid to the message.but doesnot understandit.and intellectualinputsinto the quest for meaningand understanding. Thepower/statusbarriercan be removedby consciouslytailoring wordsand symbolsso that messagesare understandable. Recognizingthat environmentand personalbarriersexist is the first step to effectivecommunication.positiveactionsare neededto overcomethesebarriers(see Table4-1).one can consciouslyminimizetheir impact.the receiveris not really “listening. EFFECTIVECOMMUNICATIONFORKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT . Environmentalbarriersare reducedif receiversand sendersensure that attentionis givento their messagesand that adequatetimeis devotedto listeningto whatis beingcommunicated. 5. PersonalBarriers Personalbarriersarisedueto an individual’sframeof referenceor beliefs andvalues. 2.EnvironmentalBarriers Examplesof environmentalbarriersincludecompetitionfor attention andtimebetweensendersand receivers.Theyare basedon one’ssocioeconomicbackgroundand prior experiencesand shapehowmessagesare encodedanddecoded.reinforcingwordswith actions significantlyimprovescommunicationamong differentpower/statuslevels. emotional. 4.By becomingcognizantof their existence.The receiverhearsthe message. 3.Onemay alsoconsciouslyor unconsciouslyengagein selectiveperceptionor be influencedby fear or jealously.Multipleand simultaneousdemandscause messagesto be incorrectlydecoded.
analyticvs. Context. Feedback. unit. intuitive. To planstrategiccommunication. • The receiverof the messageshouldbe cuedas to the purposeof the message. consistentlywith the organization’svalues. 3.managersmustdevelopa methodologyfor thinking throughandeffectivelycommunicatingwith superiors. A managermustmakean intentionaleffort to master communicationskills and usethemstrategically.verbalvs. Employeesare the organization’sbraincells. Sperryand Whiteman(2003)provideus with a strategiccommunication plan. STRATEGICCOMMUNICATION Strategiccommunicationis an intentionalprocessof presentingideasin a clear.team. whichconsistsof five components..Tacticsor methodsusedto reinforcethe message.and strategy. The followingsummarizesthesekey elements: • An effectivecommunicatormusthavea desireto communicate. The organizationalimportanceof the communication. written). StrategicCommunication93 47688_CH04_077_110. staff.downward.qxd3/9/054:51PMPage934. elicit a responseor reaction.Effectivecommunicationbrings knowledgeinto the organizationanddisseminatesit to employeeswho requirethat information. whichincludesconsiderationof differencesin how othersperceiveand processinformation(e.horizontally.andpersuasiveway. Outcome.g. 5. 2.mission. concrete.Upwardcommunicationoccursbetween .or arriveat a decision.and diagonallywithin organizations.Thewaythe messageis receivedand its impacton the individual.Communicationplaysan importantrole in knowledgemanagement. concise. that is. whichis influencedboth by one’spersonalvaluesandthe expectationthat the communicationwill be receivedin a meaningfulway. • An effectivecommunicatormusthavean understandingof how otherslearn. Messages. abstractvs. and peers. Tactical reinforcement.Thekey informationthat staff needto know. or organization FLOWSOF INTRAORGANIZATIONALCOMMUNICATION Communicationcan flowupward. whetherthe messageis to provideinformation. 1.that is.Thespecificresult that an individualwantsto achieve. and communicationrepresentsthe nervous systemthat carriesinformationandsharedmeaningto vital partsof the organizationalbody.
participativetechniquescan improve employeeperformanceand satisfaction. (2000)providesus with severalformsof intraorganizationalcommunication for healthcareorganizations. • Grievanceprocedure.supervisorsand subordinates.union–managementcommittees.and holdingexit interviewsfor thoseleavingthe organization.This allowsemployeesto makean appealupwardbeyondtheir immediatesupervisor. This includesverbal and nonverbalcommunication.It is an invitation for subordinatesto comein andtalk to the superioraboutthingsthat troublethem.administeringattitudequestionnaires.determinestaff morale.Throughthe use of informalinvolvementof subordinatesor formalparticipationprograms suchas qualityimprovementteams.The departmentof humanresourcesin a healthcareorganizationcan facilitate subordinateinitiatedcommunicationby conductingconfidential counseling. Longestet al.Theuse of an ombudspersonprovidesan outlet for personswhofeel theyhavebeentreatedunfairly.collectdata for performanceassessments.Upwardflowbecomesespeciallyimportantwith increased organizationalcomplexity. Thesupervisor’sdooris alwaysopento subordinates.and revealemployeethoughtsand feelingsaboutthe organization.as well as communications on a one-to-onebasis.suchas instructionsfor completing tasks. 94 CHAPTER4 WORKPLACECOMMUNICATION 47688_CH04_077_110. UpwardFlow The purposesof upwardcommunicationfloware to providemanagers with informationto makedecisions. Downwardcommunicationsincludemeetingwith .identifyproblemareas.questionnaires. Diagonalflowoccursbetweendifferentlevelsof differentdepartments. • Opendoorpolicy. DownwardFlow Downwardcommunicationinvolvespassinginformationfromsupervisorsto subordinates.Sinceemployeescan partic Ombudsperson.Downwardcommunicationprimarilyinvolvespassingon informationfromsupervisorsto subordinates.Horizontalflowis frommanagerto manager or fromco-workerto co-worker.andsuggestion boxes.and exit interviews.It protectsthe individual fromarbitraryactionby their direct supervisorandencourages communicationaboutcomplaints.Informationgained fromtheseformsof communicationcan be usedto makeimprovements. • Participativedecisionmakingtechniques.qxd3/9/054:51PMPage94• Counseling.
A communicationnetwork is the interactionpatternbetween andamonggroupmembers. Diagonalflowsare growingin importance.a decentralizednetwork can createcommunicationoverload. 2002).To reducecommunicationoverload.and clinical andadministrationinformationsystems.2002). 2000).a facilitator shouldbe usedto monitorgroupdiscussions. Groupsgenerallydeveloptwo typesof communicationnetworks:centralizedand decentralized(Figure4-4).diagonal flowis especiallyuseful in healthcarefor efficientcommunicationand coordinationof patientcare. Whena communicationoverloadis produced.task forces.Theall-channelnetworktendsto be fast and accuratecomparedwith the centralizednetworksuchas the chainor Y-pattern networks(Longestet al. Furthermore. For example..and crossfunctional projectteamsare all usefulformsof horizontalcommunication. Nevertheless.newsletters. policies.committees.. DiagonalFlow The least usedchannelof communicationin healthcareorganizationsis diagonalflow.proceduralmanuals. HorizontalFlow Upwardand downwardcommunicationsare inadequatefor effectiveorganizational performance. In a group settingwherea dominantleadertakesover groupdiscussionsby controllingthe numberof messagesand amountof . Decentralizednetworksalloweachgroupmemberto talk to every othergroupmemberwithoutrestrictions. COMMUNICATIONNETWORKS Flowsof communicationcan be combinedinto patternscalledcommunicationnetworks.and procedures(Spillanet al.horizontalflowor lateral communication mustalso occur.in whichtoo muchinformationor too complexcommunicationmayoccur(Keyton.bulletinboards.An open.all-channelor decentralizednetworkis best usedfor groupdiscussions. Thesenetworksare interconnectedby communicationchannels. The purposeof lateral communicationis the sharingof informationamongpeersat similarlevelsto keep organizationalstaff informedof all currentpractices.Whilediagonalflowdoesnot followthe typical hierarchicalchainof command. andproblemsolving.employees.A networkcreatesstructurefor the group becauseit controlswhocan and shouldtalk to whom(Keyton.decisionmaking.2002). A centralizednetworkrestrictsthe numberof peoplein the communicationchain.messagesmayconflict with eachother andresult in confusionor disagreement.writtenmemos.coordinatingthe continuumof patientcare requirescommunicationamongmultipleunits.In complexhealthcareorganizations.
in which too fewor simplemessagesare transmitted.whichhave their ownnetworks.communicationoccursupwardand downwardand followsline authority relationships.and whofinally reportsto the CEOof a largehospital.Accordingto someestimates. thereare informalcommunicationflows. . Sucha networkcan createcommunicationunderload. This networkdelineatesthe chain of commandand showsclear linesof authority ■ INFORMALCOMMUNICATION In additionto formalcommunicationflowsand networkswithinhealthcareorganizations.Employeeshavealwaysreliedon the oldestcommunicationchannel— the corporategrapevine.group membersfeel isolatedfromgroupdiscussionsandgenerallyfeel dissatisfied.The grapevineis an unstructuredandinformalnetworkfoundedon social relationshipsratherthan organizationalchartsor job descriptions.An exampleis a staff nurse whoreportsto the chargenurse. whoreportsto the vice presidentfor clinicalservices.75 percentof employeestypicallyreceivenewsfromthe grapevinebeforethey hear aboutit throughformalchannels(McShane& VonGlinow.whoreportsto the directorof nursing.2003).In the chain network.informationbeingpassed.groupmembersdo not interactexceptthrough the leader.In this typeof network.