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KANTHAL HANDBOOK

KANTHAL HEATING ALLOYS Handbook

KANTHAL AB
Box 502, SE-734 27 Hallstahammar, Sweden
www.kanthal.com
Tel +46 220 210 00
Fax +46 220 211 66
A Sandvik Company

Heating Alloys for


Electric Household Appliances

Copyright by Kanthal AB.


May be reproduced only with proper
acknowledgement of the source.
Catalogue 1-A-4-3
Production: ReklamCenter 03057.
Printed in Sweden by Primatryck, 2003-02.3000
This information, which may be subject to change, is offered solely
for your consideration and should not be taken as warranty or representation for which we assume legal responsibility. It is not to be
understood as permission or recommendation to practice a patented invention without a license and the user should determine
weather relevant patent exist.
KANTHAL, NIKROTHAL, ALKROTHAL, SUPERTHAL,
FIBROTHAL and CUPROTHAL are Registered
Trademarks of Kanthal Group companies in Sweden and other
countries.
NIFETHAL, ECOTHAL

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Kanthal is never far away!


This handbook contains basic technical and product data for our
resistance and resistance heating alloys for the appliance industry.
We have also included design-, calculation- and application guidelines, in order to make it easier to select the right alloy and to design
the right element.
More information is given on www.kanthal.com. There you can find
product news and other Kanthal product information and handbooks
ready to be downloaded as well as information on the Kanthal Group
and the nearest Kanthal office.
Kanthal alloys are also produced in a range for industrial furnaces
and as ready-to-install elements and systems and as precision wire in
very small sizes. Ask for the special handbooks covering those areas.
We have substantial technical and commercial resources at all our
offices around the world and we are glad to help you in different
technical questions, or to try out completely new solutions at our
R & D facilities.
Kanthal is never far away!
Hallstahammar, February 2003

KANTHAL AB
Box 502, SE-734 27 Hallstahammar, Sweden
www.kanthal.com
Tel +46 220 210 00
Fax +46 220 211 66

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Contents

Page

1. Resistance Heating Alloys


NiFe
NIFETHAL 70, NIFETHAL 52
Austenitic Alloys (NiCr, NiCrFe)
NIKROTHAL 80, NIKROTHAL 70, NIKROTHAL 60, NIKROTHAL 40,
NIKROTHAL 20
Ferritic Alloys (FeCrAl)
KANTHAL APM, A-1, A, AF, AE, D, ALKROTHAL
Comparison between KANTHAL and NIKROTHAL
KANTHAL advantages
NIKROTHAL advantages
Summary
Copper Nickel Alloys
CUPROTHAL 49, MANGANINA 43, (CUPROTHAL 30, 15, 10 and 05)
Product varieties

9
11

2. Physical and Mechanical Properties


Table KANTHAL alloys
Table ALKROTHAL, NIKROTHAL and NIFETHAL alloys
Table CUPROTHAL and MANGANINA alloys

12
11
13
14

3. Stranded Resistance Heating Wire


Strand diameter
Standard stocked material
Flexible terminations

15
15
16
16

4. Thin Wide Strip

18

5. Design factors
Operating life
Oxidation properties
Corrosion resistance
Maximum temperature per wire size

20
20
20
21
22

6. Element types and heating applications


Description
Embedded elements
Supported elements
Suspended elements

23
23
24
30
36

4
5
5
6
7
8

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Page

7. Standard Tolerances
Electrical resistance
Diameter of wire
Dimensions of cold rolled ribbon

42
42
42
42

8. Delivery forms
Resistance heating alloys
Resistance alloys

43
43
45

9. Tables
KANTHAL A-1, APM, wire
KANTHAL A, AF, AE, wire
KANTHAL A, AF, AE, ribbon
KANTHAL D, wire
KANTHAL D, DT, ribbon
ALKROTHAL, wire
ALKROTHAL, ribbon
NIKROTHAL 80, 70, wire
NIKROTHAL 60, wire
NIKROTHAL 40, 20, wire
NIKROTHAL 80, 60, 40, ribbon
NIFETHAL 70, 52, wire
CUPROTHAL 49, MANGANINA 43, CUPROTHAL 30, 15, 10 and 05, wire
CUPROTHAL 49, ribbon

47
48
49
50
52
53
55
56
58
59
60
61
63
64
66

10. Appendix
List of symbols
Formulas and definitions
Formulas for values in chapter 9, Tables
Relationship between metric and imperial units
Design calculations for heating elements
Wire gauge conversion table
Temperature conversion table
Miscellaneous conversion factors

68
68
69
73
76
77
82
83
86

11. The complete Kanthal product range

90

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

1. Resistance Heating Alloys


The resistance heating alloys can be
divided into two main groups.
The FeCrAl (KANTHAL) and the NiCr
(NIKROTHAL) based alloys. For lower
temperature applications CuNi and NiFe
based alloys are also used. The different
alloys are described below as well as a
comparison of some of the properties of the
KANTHAL and the NIKROTHAL alloys.

NiFe
Up to 600 C 1110 F:
NIFETHAL 70 and 52
are alloys with low resistivity and high
temperature coefficient of resistance. The
positive temperature coefficient allows
heating elements to reduce power as
temperature increases. Typical applications
are in low temperature tubular elements with
self regulating features.

Spools and Pail Pack.

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Austenitic Alloys (NiCr, NiCrFe)

Ferritic Alloys (FeCrAl)

Up to 1200 C 2190 F: NIKROTHAL 80


is the austenitic alloy with the highest nickel
content. Because of its good workability and
high-temperature strength, NIKROTHAL
80 is widely used for demanding applications
in the electric appliance industry.

Up to 1425 C 2560 F: KANTHAL APM


(Normally used in furnace applications).

Up to 1250 C 2280 F: NIKROTHAL 70


(Normally used in furnace applications).
Up to 1150 C 2100 F: NIKROTHAL 60
has good corrosion resistance, good
oxidation properties and very good form
stability. The corrosion stability is good
except in sulphur containing atmospheres.
Typical applications for NIKROTHAL 60
are in tubular heating elements and as
suspended coils.
Up to 1100 C 2010 F: NIKROTHAL 40
is used as electric heating element material in
domestic appliances and other electric heating equipment at operating temperatures up
to 1100 C 2010 F.
Up to 1050 C 1920 F: NIKROTHAL 20
(Produced on volume based request.)

Up to 1400 C 2550 F: KANTHAL A-1


(Normally used in furnace applications).
Up to 1350 C 2460 F: KANTHAL A
is used for appliances, where its high
resistivity and good oxidation resistance are
particularly important.
Up to 1300 C 2370 F: KANTHAL AF
has improved hot strength and oxidation
properties and is especially recommended
where good form stability properties in
combination with high temperature is
required.
Up to 1300 C 2370 F: KANTHAL AE
is developed to meet the extreme demands in
fast response elements in glass top hobs and
quartz tube heaters. It has exceptional form
stability and life in spirals with large coil to
wire diameter ratio.
Up to 1300 C 2370 F: KANTHAL D
Employed chiefly in appliances, its high
resistivity and low density, combined with
better heat resistance than austenitic alloys,
make it suitable for most applications.
Up to 1100 C 2010 F: ALKROTHAL
is typically specified for rheostats, braking
resistors, etc. It is also used as a heating wire
for lower temperatures, such as heating
cables.

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

KANTHAL Advantages
Higher maximum temperature in air
KANTHAL A-1 has a maximum temperature of 1400 C 2550 F;
NIKROTHAL 80 has a maximum temperature of 1200 C 2190 F.
Longer life
KANTHAL elements have a life 2-4 times
the life of NIKROTHAL when operated in
air at the same temperature.
Higher surface load
Higher maximum temperature and longer
life allow a higher surface load to be applied
on KANTHAL elements.
Better oxidation properties
The aluminium oxide (Al2O3) formed on
KANTHAL alloys adheres better and is
therefore less contaminating. It is also a
better diffusion barrier, better electrical
insulator and more resistant to carburizing
atmospheres than the chromium
oxide (Cr2O3) formed on NIKROTHAL
alloys.

Lower density
The density of the KANTHAL alloys is
lower than that of the NIKROTHAL
alloys. This means that a greater number of
equivalent elements can be made from the
same weight material.
Higher resistivity
The higher resistivity of KANTHAL alloys
makes it possible to choose a material with
larger cross-section, which improves the life
of the element. This is particularly important
for thin wire. When the same cross-section
can be used, considerable weight savings
are obtained. Further, the resistivity of
KANTHAL alloys is less affected by coldworking and heat treatment than is the case
for NIKROTHAL 80.
Higher yield strength
The higher yield strength of KANTHAL
alloys means less change in cross-section
when coiling wires.

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

NIKROTHAL Advantages
Better resistance to sulphur
In atmospheres contaminated with sulphuric
compounds and in the presence of contaminations containing sulphur on the wire surface, KANTHAL alloys have better corrosion
resistance in hot state. NiCr alloys are heavily
attacked under such conditions.
Weight savings with KANTHAL alloys
The lower density and higher resistivity of
KANTHAL alloys means that for a given
power, less material is needed when using
KANTHAL instead of NIKROTHAL alloys.
The result is that in a great number of applications, substantial savings in weight and
element costs can be achieved.
In converting from NiCr to KANTHAL
alloys, either the wire diameter can be kept
constant while changing the surface load, or
the surface load can be held constant while
changing the wire diameter. In both cases,
the KANTHAL alloy will weigh less than
the NiCr alloy.

Higher hot and creep strength


NIKROTHAL alloys have higher hot and
creep strength than KANTHAL alloys.
KANTHAL APM, AF and AE are better in
this respect than the other KANTHAL
grades and have a very good form stability,
however, not as good as that of NIKROTHAL.
Better ductility after use
NIKROTHAL alloys remain ductile after
long use.
Higher emissivity
Fully oxidized NIKROTHAL alloys have a
higher emissivity than KANTHAL alloys.
Thus, at the same surface load the element
temperature of NIKROTHAL is somewhat
lower.
Non-magnetic
In certain low-temperature applications a
non-magnetic material is preferred.
NIKROTHAL alloys are non-magnetic (except NIKROTHAL 60 at low temperatures).
KANTHAL alloys are non-magnetic above
600 C 1100 F.
Better wet corrosion resistance
NIKROTHAL alloys generally have better
corrosion resistance at room temperature
than nonoxidized KANTHAL alloys.
(Exceptions: atmospheres containing sulphur
and certain controlled atmospheres.)

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

KANTHAL Resistance Heating Alloys Summary


F
2912

C
1600
2560 F
1425 C

1400

2550 F
1400 C

2460 F
1350 C

2370 F
1300 C

2370 F
1300 C

2552

2370 F
1300 C
2190 F
1200 C

1200

2280 F
1250 C
2100 F
1150 C

2010 F
1100 C

2010 F
1100 C

2192
1920 F
1050 C

1000

1832

800

1472

600

1112

400

752

200

392

-17.8

0
APM

A-1

A
D
KANTHAL

AF

AE

ALKROTHAL

80

70

60
40
NIKROTHAL

20

Fig. 1 - Maximum operating temperature per alloy

Resistivity ( mm2 m-1)


1.600

/cmf
960

1.500

900

KANTHAL A-1/APM
KANTHAL A/AE/AF

1.400

840
KANTHAL D

1.300

780

NIKROTHAL 40
NIKROTHAL 70

1.200

720
NIKROTHAL 60
NIKROTHAL 80

1.100

660

NIKROTHAL 20

1.000

600

0.900
0
0

200
392

400
752

600
1112

Fig. 2 - Resistivity vs. Temperature.

800
1472

1000
1832

1200
2192

540
1400 C
2552 F
Temperature

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Copper-Nickel Alloys
CUPROTHAL 49
(universally known as Constantan) is manufactured under close control from electrolytic
Copper and pure Nickel.
CUPROTHAL 49 has a number of special
characteristics some electrical, some
mechanical which make it a remarkably
versatile alloy. For certain applications, its
high specific resistance and negligible temperature coefficient of resistance are its most
important attributes. For others, the fact that
CUPROTHAL 49 offers good ductility, is
easily soldered and welded and has good
resistance to atmospheric corrosion is more
significant.
Although the range of applications of
CUPROTHAL 49 is so wide, its uses fall into
four principal categories:
An ideal alloy for winding heavy-duty industrial rheostats and electric motor starter
resistance. High specific resistance, together
with good ductility and resistance to corrosion are all important requirements in this
category, and CUPROTHAL 49 satisfies
the most demanding specifications.
CUPROTHAL 49 is widely used in wirewound precision resistors, temperature-stable potentiometers, volume control devices
and strain gauges. (See the Precision Wire
Handbook). In the resistor field, its high
resistance and negligible temperature coefficient of resistance are its main attractions.
The third main category of application
exploits another characteristic of
CUPROTHAL 49. This is the fact that it
develops a high thermal E.M.F. against
certain other metals. CUPROTHAL 49 is
therefore commonly used as a thermocouple alloy.
Low temperature resistance heating
applications, such as heating cables.

MANGANINA 43
has been developed to satisfy many precision
and high stability requirements at, or close
to, room temperature.
In some applications it is essential that the
resistance of the electronic components does
not change either with age or with such
changes of temperature as may be encountered in normal use. These requirements are
fulfilled perfectly by MANGANINA 43.
The resistance of MANGANINA 43 increases very slightly from 15 C to approximately 25 C. Above 25 C the resistance
decreases so that the resistance at 35 C is
about the same as at 15 C. The maximum
change in resistance to be expected is less
than 15 parts per million per degree centigrade. Therefore, for an instrument, which is
calibrated at 25 C, the change in resistance
over the temperature range from 15-35 C is
negligible, except in instances where the
work is of very high precision.
Artificial ageing of assembled coils has
been found necessary to avoid a slow decrease in resistance with time. Baking at a
temperature between 120 C and 140 C
for a period of 24 to 72 hours commonly
does this.
The higher temperature limit must not be
exceeded if damage to enamel or fabric insulation is to be avoided. Regarding E.M.F.
versus copper, MANGANINA 43 generates
not more than 0.003 mV/C between 0 and
100 C.
The main application is in shunts.

10

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Copper-Nickel alloys with medium and low resistivity


CUPROTHAL 30
KANTHAL produces Copper-Nickel
resistivity 30 microhmcm
alloys with resistivities lower than those of
CUPROTHAL 15
CUPROTHAL 49 and MANGANINA 43.
resistivity 15 microhmcm
The main applications are in high current
CUPROTHAL 10
electrical resistances, heating cables, electric
resistivity 10 microhmcm
blankets, fuses, resistors but they are also
CUPROTHAL 05
used in many other applications.
resistivity 5 microhmcm

Different resistors and potentiometers using KANTHAL alloys.

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

11

Product Varieties
1

KANTHAL
KANTHAL APM

Rod

Wire

Strip

Ribbon

Thin
wide
Strip

Welded
tubes

Extruded
tubes

Straightened
wire

KANTHAL AE

ALKROTHAL

KANTHAL A-1
KANTHAL A
KANTHAL D, DT

KANTHAL AF

NIKROTHAL
NIKROTHAL 80
NIKROTHAL 70
NIKROTHAL 60
NIKROTHAL 40

NIKROTHAL 20

KANTHAL/NiFe
NIFETHAL 70

NIFETHAL 52

Copper-Nickel
CUPROTHAL 49
MANGANINA
CUPROTHAL 30
CUPROTHAL 15
CUPROTHAL 10
CUPROTHAL 05

12

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

2. Physical and Mechanical properties


KANTHAL
APM

A-1

AF

AE

1425
2600

1400
2550

1350
2460

1300
2370

1300
2370

22
5.8
Balance

22
5.8
Balance

22
5.3
Balance

22
5.3
Balance

22
5.3
Balance

7.10
0.256

7.10
0.256

7.15
0.258

7.15
0.258

7.15
0.258

mm2m-1
/cmf

1.45
872

1.45
872

1.39
836

1.39
836

1.39
836

Temperature factor of the resistivity, Ct


250 C
480 F
930 F
500 C
1470 F
800 C
1000 C
1830 F
1200 C
2190 F

1,00
1.01
1.03
1.04
1.05

1.00
1.01
1.03
1.04
1.04

1.01
1.03
1.05
1.06
1.06

1.01
1.03
1.05
1.06
1.06

1.01
1.03
1.05
1.06
1.06

1110-6
1210-6
1410-6
1510-6

1110-6
1210-6
1410-6
1510-6

1110-6
1210-6
1410-6
1510-6

1110-6
1210-6
1410-6
1510-6

1110-6
1210-6
1410-6
1510-6

Thermal conductivity at 50 C W m-1K-1


at 122 F
Btu in ft-2h-1 F-1

11
76

11
76

11
76

11
76

11
76

Specific heat capacity, kJ kg-1K-1, 20 C


Btu lb-1 F-1, 68 F

0.46
0.110

0.46
0.110

0.46
0.110

0.46
0.110

0.46
0.110

C
F

1500
2730

1500
2730

1500
2730

1500
2730

1500
2730

Mechanical properties* (approx.)


Tensile strength,
N mm-2
psi

680
98600**

680
110200

725
105200

700
101500

720
104400

N mm-2
psi

470
68200**

545
79000

550
79800

500
72500

520
74500

Hv

230

240

230

230

230

20**

20

22

23

20

Tensile strength at 900 C,


at 1650 F,

-2

N mm
psi

40
5800

34
4900

34
4900

37
5400

34
4900

Creep strength ***


at 800 C,
at 1470 F,
at 1000 C,
at 1830 F,
at 1100 C,
at 2010 F,
at 1200 C,
at 2190 F,

N mm-2
psi
N mm-2
psi
N mm-2
psi
N mm-2
psi

8.2
1190

1.2
70
0.5
70

1.2
70
0.5
70

0.7
100
0.3
40

1.2
170

Magnetic properties

Emissivity, fully oxidized condition

0.70

0.70

0.70

0.70

Max continuous operating temperature


(element temperature in air),
C
F
Nominal composition, %

Cr
Al
Fe
Ni
g/cm3
Ib/in3

Density,
Resistivity at 20 C,
at 68 F

Coefficient of thermal expansion,


20-100 C 68-210 F
20-250 C 68-480 F
20-500 C 68-930 F
20-750 C 68-1380 F
20-1000 C 68-1840 F

Melting point (approx.),

Yield point,
Hardness,
Elongation at rupture,

K-1

0.70

* The values given apply for sizes of approx. 1.0 mm diameter 0.04 in.
** 4.0 mm 0.16 in. Thinner gauges have higher strength and hardness values while the corresponding values are lower for
thicker gauge.
*** Calculated from observed elongation in a Kanthal standard furnace test. 1 % elongation after 1000 hours.

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

13

NIKROTHAL
ALKROTHAL N 80
N 70

N 60

N40

N20

NIFETHAL
70

52

1300
2370

1100
2010

1200
2190

1250
2280

1150
2100

1100
2010

1050
1920

600
1110

600
1110

22
4.8
Balance

15
4.3
Balance

20

80

30

70

15

Balance
60

20

Balance
35

24

Balance
20

Balance
72

Balance
52

7.25
0.262

7.28
0.263

8.30
0.300

8.10
0.293

8.20
0.296

7.90
0.285

7.80
0.281

8.45
0.305

8.20
0.296

1.35
812

1.25
744

1.09
655

1.18
709

1.11
668

1.04
626

0.95
572

0.20
120

0.436)
220

1.01
1.03
1.06
1.07
1.08

1.02
1.05
1.10
1.11

1.02
1.05
1.04
1.05
1.07

1.02
1.05
1.04
1.05
1.06

1.04
1.08
1.10
1.11

1.08
1.15
1.21
1.23

1.12
1.21
1.28
1.32

2.19
3.66

1.93
2.77

1110-6
1210-6
1410-6
1510-6

1110-6
1210-6
1410-6
1510-6

1510-6
1610-6
1710-6
1810-6

1410-6
1510-6
1610-6
1710-6

1610-6
1710-6
1810-6
1810-6

1610-6
1710-6
1810-6
1910-6

1610-6
1710-6
1810-6
1910-6

1310-6

1510-6

1010-6

11
76

16
110

15
104

14
97

14
97

13
90

13
90

17
120

17
120

0.46
0.110

0.46
0.110

0.46
0.110

0.46
0.110

0.46
0.110

0.50
0.119

0.50
0.119

0.52
0.120

0.50
0.120

1500
2730

1500
2730

1400
2550

1380
2515

1390
2535

1390
2535

1380
2515

1430
2610

1435
2620

670
97200

630
91400

810
117500

820
118900

730
105900

675
97900

675
97900

640
92800

610
88500

485
70300

455
66000

420
60900

430
62400

370
53700

340
49300

335
48600

340
49300

340
49300

230

220

180

185

180

180

160

22

22

30

30

35

35

30

30

34
4900

30
4300

100
14500

120
17400

100
14500

120
17400

120
17400

1.2
170
0.5
70

1.2
170
1
140

15
2160
4
580

15
2160
4
580

20
2900
4
580

20
2900
4
580

0.88

0.88

0.88

0.88

0.88

0.70

0.70

0.88

) Magnetic (Curie point approx. 600 C 1100 F)


) Non-magnetic
3
) Slightly magnetic

) Magnetic up to C/F (Curie point) 610/1130


) Magnetic up to C/F (Curie point) 530/990
6
) 10 %

0.88

14

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

CUPROTHAL 49

MANGANINA 43

CUPROTHAL
30
15

10

05

11
Balance

6
Balance

2
Balance

Nominal composition, %

Ni
Cu
Fe
Other

44
Balance
+
1 Mn

4
Balance

23
Balance

11 Mn

1.5 Mn

Density,

g/cm3
Ib/in3

8.9
0.321

8.4
0.3+2

8.9
0.321

8.9
0.321

8.9
0.321

8.9
0.321

0.49
295

0.43
259

0.30
180

0.15
90

0.10
60

0.05
30

20/60
-55-150

15
15-35

250
20-105

400
20-105

700
20-105

1300
20-105

Linear expansion coefficient


Coefficient x 10-6/C
Temperatur range,
C

14
20-100

18
20-100

16
20-100

16
20-100

16
20-100

16.5
20-100

Thermal conductivity at 50 C, Wm-1K-1


at 122 F
Btu in ft-2h-1 F-1

21
146

22
153

35
243

60
460

90
624

130
901

Specific heat capacity, kJ kg-1K-1, 20 C


Btu lb-1F-1, 68 F

0.41
0.098

0.41
0.098

0.37
0.088

0.38
0.091

0.38
0.091

0.38
0.091

C
F

1280
2336

1020
1868

1150
2102

1100
2012

1095
2003

1090
1994

Mechanical properties* (approx.)


Tensile strength,
N mm-2, min.
psi, min.
N mm-2, max.
psi, max.

420
60900
690
100100

290
42050
640
92800

340
49300
690
100100

250
36200
540
78300

230
33350
680
98600

220
31900
440
63800

Elongation at rupture,

30

30

30

30

30

30

Resistivity at 20 C,
mm2m-1
at 68 F
/cmf
Temperature coefficient of resistance,
Km x 10-6/C
Temperatur range,
C

Melting point (approx.),

Magnetic properties

Non-magnetic

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

15

3. Stranded Resistance Heating Wire


Recognising the need for more preciesly
controlled stranded wire within the cable
industry and working closely with our
cable customers, Kanthal have developed
a range of stranded resistance wires in
the well known NIKROTHAL,
KANTHAL and Nickel alloys.
These alloys possess the optimum
properties for high performance at
elevated temperatures and in other
adverse conditions where reliability and
quality is of paramount consideration.

Alloy
NIKROTHAL 80
NIKROTHAL 60
KANTHAL D
KANTHAL AF
NICKEL
Ni Mn2%

Nominal composition, %
Ni
Cr
Fe
Al
80
20
60
16
Bal.
22
Bal.
4.8
22
Bal.
5.3
99.2
98

Oth.

2 Mn

Resistivity at 20C
mm2 m -1
1.09
1.11
1.35
1.39
0.09
0.11

Max. temp *)
C
1200
1150
1300
1300

) Values given apply for sizes approx. 1.0 mm

Strand diameter
Nominal diameter to be determined from
single-end wire diameters, which have to
meet resistance requirements.
Resistance generally takes priority over
diameter. The calculation is:
Strand normal diameter = single-end
diameter x F
F=3 for 7-strand
F=5 for 19-strand true concentric
F=7 for 37-strand true concentric

Size range
Up to 37 wires (ends) of diameter
between 0.20-0.85 mm.

True Concentric
Successive layers have different lay directions
and lay length.

16

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Standard Stocked Material


Strand size
mm
19 x 0.544
19 x 0.523
KW 0.574
37 x 0.385
KW 0.45
19 x 0.574
19 x 0.523
KW 0.574
19 x 0.574
19 x 0.574
19 x 0.610
KW 0.71

Alloy

Strand diameter
nominal, mm

NIKROTHAL 80
NIKROTHAL 80

2.67

Strand resistance
/m
0.2344-0.2579
0.2886 max.

NIKROTHAL 80

2.76

0.276 max.

26

NIKROTHAL 80
NIKROTHAL 60

2.87
0.297 max.

25
30

Nickel
Ni Mn2%
Ni Mn2%

2.87

0.0243 max.
0.0247 max.
0.0208 max.

21
22
19

KW = King Wire

The Kanthal plant and head office in Hallstahammar, Sweden

Meter per Kilo


(approx.)
26
30

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

17

Flexible Terminations for Industrial Applications


Flex , mm
CSA, mm2
Strands
Weight, gram/m
Current, A
(low temp. <400 C)
Current, A
(high temp. >400 C)
/m, cold

Flex Size
V. Small
2.3
3.18
7 x 0.76 mm
26.24
7

Small
3.75
8.40
19 x 0.75 mm
70
15

Medium
4.2
10.78
19 x 0.85 mm
86
22

Large
6.7
21.65
49 x 0.75 mm
184
44

X. Large
9.3
38.48
49 x 1.00 mm
325
77

15

20

30

45

0.347

0.106

0.102

0.050

0.028

CSA = Cross Sectional Area

18

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook.

4. Thin Wide Strip

Wide and very thin strip has been introduced as an alternative to flattened wire,
ribbon, to offer a wider choice of widths
than what can be offered via wire flattening.
Kanthal has the ability to supply thin wide
resistance strip in the thickness range 0,04
to 0,1 mm in widths up to 275 mm
produced through rolling and slitting to
dimension.

The alloys available in this product form are


primarily the high performing FeCrAl types,
like KANTHAL AF, as specified in the technical section of this handbook.
For a material with very high surface to
volume ratio such as this thin strip, no
standard guidelines for maximum temperature and lifetime are applicable because of
the big influence from the chosen design.
We advice that everyone considering using
this product form should contact Kanthal
for in depth discussions before finalising
dimensions and design of an application.
Kanthal offers advice and technical support
regarding choice of dimensions etc.

Thin strip vertically applied.

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook.

19

Thin strip heating elements for glass


top hot plates.

20

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook.

5. Design Factors
Operating Life

Oxidation properties

The life of the resistance heating alloy is


dependent on a number of factors, among
the most important are:
Temperature
Temperature cycling
Contamination
Alloy composition
Trace elements and impurities
Wire diameter
Surface condition
Atmosphere
Mechanical stress
Method of regulation

When heated, resistance-heating alloys form


an oxide layer on their surface, which slows
down further oxidation of the material. To
accomplish this function the oxide layer
must be dense and resist the diffusion of
gases as well as metal ions. It must also be
thin and adhere to the metal under temperature fluctuations.
The protective oxide layer on KANTHAL
alloys formed at temperatures above 1000 C
1830 F consists mainly of alumina (Al2O3).
The colour is light grey, while at lower temperatures (under 1000 C, 1830 F) the
oxide colour becomes darker. The alumina
layer has excellent electrical insulating properties and good chemical resistance to most
compounds.
The oxide formed on NIKROTHAL
alloys consists mainly of chromium oxide
(Cr2O3). The colour is dark and the electrical
insulating properties inferior to those of
alumina.
The oxide layer on NIKROTHAL alloys
spalls and evaporates more easily than the
tighter oxide layer that is formed on the
KANTHAL alloys.
Results of several life tests according to
ASTM B 78 (modified) are given in Table 1
for KANTHAL and NIKROTHAL alloys.
In the table, the durability of KANTHAL
A-1 wire at 1200 C 2190 F is set at 100 %,
and the durability of the other alloys is related to that figure.

Since these are unique for each application it is difficult to give general guidelines
of life expectations. Recommendations on
some of the important design factors are
given below.
Table 1
Relative Durability Values in %,
KANTHAL and NIKROTHAL Alloys
(ASTM-test wire 0.7 mm 0.028 in)

KANTHAL A-1
KANTHAL AF
KANTHAL AE
KANTHAL D
NIKROTHAL 80
NIKROTHAL 60
NIKROTHAL 40

1100 C
2010 F

1200 C
2190 F

1300 C
2370 F

340
465
550
250
120
95
40

100
120
120
75
25
25
15

30
30
30
25
-

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook.

21

Corrosion Resistance
Corrosive or potentially corrosive constituents can considerably shorten wire life.
Perspiring hands, mounting or supporting
materials or contamination can cause corrosion.
Steam
Steam shortens the wire life. This effect is
more pronounced on NIKROTHAL alloys
than on KANTHAL alloys.
Halogens
Halogens (fluorine, chlorine, bromine and
iodine) severely attack all high-temperature
alloys at fairly low temperatures.
Sulphur
In sulphurous atmospheres KANTHAL
alloys have considerably better durability
than nickel-base alloys. KANTHAL is
particularly stable in oxidising gases containing sulphur, while reducing gases with a
sulphur content diminish its service life.
NIKROTHAL alloys are sensitive to
sulphur.
Salts and oxides
The salts of alkaline metals, boron compounds, etc. in high concentrations and are
harmful to heating alloys.
Metals
Some molten metals, such as zinc, brass,
aluminium and copper, react with the resistance alloys. The elements should therefore
be protected from splashes of molten metals.

Ceramic support material


Special attention must be paid to the ceramic
supports that come in direct contact with the
heating wire. Firebricks for wire support
should have an alumina content of at least
45 %. In high-temperature applications, the
use of sillimanite and high-alumina firebricks
is often recommended. The free silica (uncombined quartz) content should be held low.
Iron oxide lowers the melting point of the
ceramics. Water glass as a binder in cements
must be avoided.
Embedding compounds
Most embedding compounds including
ceramic fibres are suitable for KANTHAL
and NIKROTHAL if composed of alumina,
alumina-silicate, magnesia or zirconia.

22

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook.

Maximum Temperature per Wire Size


The table below gives maximum wire temperatures as a function of wire diameter
when operating in air.
Table 2
Maximum Permissible Temperature as a Function of Wire Size

KANTHAL AF
KANTHAL A
KANTHAL AE
KANTHAL D
NIKROTHAL 80
NIKROTHAL 60
NIKROTHAL 40

Diameter, mm (in):
0.15-0.4
(0.0059-0.0157)
C
F

0.41-0.95
(0.0061-0.0374)
C
F

1.0-3.0
(0.039-0.118)
C
F

>3.0
(>0.118)
C
F

900-1100
1650-2010
925-1050
1700-1920
950-1150
1740-2100
925-1025
1700-1880
925-1000
1700-1830
900-950
1650-1740
900-950
1650-1740

1100-1225
2010-2240
1050-1175
1920-2150
1150-1225
2100-2240
1025-1100
1880-2010
1000-1075
1830-1970
950-1000
1740-1830
950-1000
1740-1830

1225-1275
2240-2330
1175-1250
2150-2300
1225-1250
2240-2300
1100-1200
2010-2190
1075-1150
1970-2100
1000-1075
1830-1970
1000-1050
1830-1920

1300
2370
1350
2460
1300
2370
1300
2370
1200
2190
1150
2100
1100
2010

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

23

6. Element types and heating applications


The Embedded
Element Type

The Supported
Element Type

The wire in the embedded element type is


completely surrounded by solid or granular
insulating material.

The wire, normally in spiral form, is situated


on the surface, in a groove or a hole of the
electrical insulating material.
KANTHAL AE, KANTHAL AF and
NIKROTHAL 80 are generally the best
materials.
In order to avoid deformations on horizontal
coils, the wire temperature should not exceed the values given in Figure 3.

Metal Sheathed Tubular


Elements
KANTHAL D is generally the best heating
wire for tube temperatures below 700 C
1290 F and NIKROTHAL 80 for temperatures above.
To use KANTHAL instead of NiCr gives the
following advantages:
Lower wire weight by some 20-30 % at
the same wire dimension
More even temperature along the element
and lower maximum wire temperature.
This means that the element can be
charged higher for a short time - important when there is a risk of dry boiling
Closer tolerances of rating. Rating and
temperature remains more constant since
the resistivity in hot state does not change
as much as for NiCr
Longer life at high surface loads. The element life is also easier forecasted
KANTHAL is easier to manufacture
when high resistance per length is needed,
since a thicker wire can be used
Less sensitive to corrosion attacks

The Suspended
Element Type
The wire is suspended freely between insulated points and is exposed to the mechanical stress caused by its own weight, its own
spring force and in some cases also from the
forces of an external spring.
NIKROTHAL 80, NIKROTHAL 60,
KANTHAL D and KANTHAL AF are the
best materials.
C
1200

F
2190
KANTHAL AE

2010

1100

1830

1000
KANTHAL D

1650

900

800

10

15

1470
20
D/d ratio

Figure 3. Permissible D/d ratios as a function of


wire temperature in supported spiral elements.

24

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Embedded Elements
Metal Sheathed Tubular Elements

Characteristics
The heating coil is insulated from the encasing metallic tube by granular material (MgO).
The tube is compressed to a round, oval or triangular shape. Terminals may be at either end
or at one end of the element (cartridge type).
Recommended alloy
KANTHAL D in elements with sheath temperature <700C <1290F.
NIKROTHAL 80 in elements with sheath temperature >700C >1290F.
Surface load
Wire: Normally 2-4 times the element surface load (wire surface load is not so critical in this
element type).
Element: 2-25 W/cm2 13-161 W/in2
Typical applications
Very common element, for example: Cooking: Hot plates,
domestic ovens, grills, toaster ovens, frying pans, deep fryers,
rice cookers.
Water and beverage: Boilers, immersion heaters, water kettles,
coffee makers, dish washers, washing machines.
Space heating: Radiators, storage heaters.
Others: Irons, air heaters, oil heaters, glow plugs, sauna heaters.

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

25

Embedded Elements
Elements Embedded in Ceramics

Characteristics
Heating coil is embedded in green ceramics (subsequently fired), or cemented in grooves in
ceramic bodies.
Recommended alloy
KANTHAL A for high temperature firing.
KANTHAL D for other applications.
Surface load
Wire: 5-10 W/cm2 30-60 W/in2
Typical applications
Panel heaters, IR heaters, warming plates, irons, ceramic pots.

26

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Embedded Elements
Coils in grooved Metal Plates

Characteristics
Heating coil and insulating powder are pressed into grooves of a metal plate.
Recommended alloy
KANTHAL D
Surface load
Wire:
4-20 W/cm2 25-130 W/in2
Typical applications
Cast iron plates; also, irons, warming plates, kettles,
domestic ovens.

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

27

Embedded Elements
Cartridge Elements, Powder filled

Characteristics
Straight wire or coil is wound on a threaded ceramic body and insulated by granular
insulating material (MgO) from enveloping metal tube. Terminals are at one end of the
element. Elements are compressed when high-loaded.
Recommended alloy
NIKROTHAL 80 in straight wire elements.
KANTHAL D in coiled wire elements.
Surface load
On tube:
10-25 W/cm2 65-160W/in2 for elements with straight wire.
Other types: about 5 W/cm2 30 W/in2.
Typical applications
Metal dies, plates, etc., refrigerators.

28

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Embedded Elements
Heating Cables and Rope Heaters

Characteristics
Wire is wound on a fibreglass core and insulated by PVC or silicone rubber (higher
temperatures). Fiberglass insulation permits even higher temperatures. Heating cables
with straight or stranded wires, sometimes enclosed in aluminium tube, also occur.
Recommended alloy
KANTHAL D
NIKROTHAL 40
NIKROTHAL 80

CUPROTHAL 30
CUPROTHAL 10
CUPROTHAL 49

Surface load
Wire:
<1 W/cm2 <6W/in2 on wire for PVC and silicone rubber.
2-5 W/cm2 13-30 W/in2 for fibreglass insulation.
Typical applications
Defrosting and de-icing elements,
electric blankets and pads, car seats, baseboard heaters,
floor heating.

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

29

Embedded Elements
Mica Elements

Characteristics
Resistance ribbon or wire is wound on mica sheet or tube and insulated by mica. Elements
are often encapsulated in steel sheaths.
Recommended alloy
KANTHAL D
NIKROTHAL 80
Surface load
Wire:
2-10 W/cm2 13-65 W/in2
Typical applications
Irons, ironing machines, water heaters, plastic moulding
dies, soldering irons.

30

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Supported Elements
Ceramic Cartridge Elements

Characteristics
Most common design consists of round ceramic bodies with longitudinal holes or grooves
for heating coil. Elements are often in metallic tube with terminals at one end.
Often provisions are made to avoid excessive sagging of the coil when the element is
operating vertically.
Recommended alloy
KANTHAL A or D for horizontally operating coils.
NIKROTHAL 80 (usually) for long vertically situated coils when sagging is a problem.
Surface load
Wire:
3-6 W/cm2 20-40 W/in2
Element:
2-5 W/cm2 13-32 W/in2
Typical applications
Liquid heating, storage heaters.

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

31

Supported Elements
Other ceramic elements

Characteristics
Coiled and straight wire is located on smooth ceramic tube or in grooves or holes of ceramic
bodies of various shapes (plates, tubes, rods, cylinders, etc.).
Recommended alloy
KANTHAL A, AF and D.
NIKROTHAL 80 (for pencil bars).
Surface load
Wire:
3-9 W/cm2 20-60 W/in2
Typical applications
Boiling plates, air guns, hobby kilns, radiators.

32

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Supported Elements
Quartz Tube Heaters

Characteristics
Heating coil is placed inside quartz tube (or tube of glass ceramic). When the element is
operating vertically or at an angle, the coil should be tight-wound and pre-oxidized.
For horizontal use, the relative pitch is 1.2-2.0.
Recommended alloy
KANTHAL AE, AF, A and D.
Surface load
Wire:
2-8 W/cm2 13-52 W/in2
Element:
4-8W/cm2 26-52 W/in2
Typical applications
Space heating, toasters, toaster ovens, grills, industrial
infrared dryers etc.

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

33

Supported Elements
Elements on moulded ceramic fibre

Characteristics
Heating coil rests on moulded ceramic fibre plate, with or without grooves. Coils are
cemented or stapled at intervals, or pressed into ribs on this surface.
Thin wide strip, normally in corrugated shape, is more and more common as an
alternative to coiled wire. Ribbon has also been used.
Recommended alloy
KANTHAL AE or AF.
Surface load
Wire:
<10 W/cm2 < 65 W/in2
Ribbon:
4-6 W/cm2 25-40 W/in2
Typical applications
Boiling plates with ceramic hobs (glass top hot plates).

34

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Supported Elements
Bead insulated coils
or stranded wire

Characteristics
Heating coil, or stranded wire, is insulated by ceramic beads. With beads having two holes
heating mats are made.
Recommended alloy
KANTHAL D, NIKROTHAL 80 (for panel heaters).
Surface load
Wire:
1-8 W/cm2 6.5-52 W/in2
Typical applications
Mats for in-situ annealing of welded parts, panel heaters,
waffle irons, domestic ovens, water heater.

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

35

Supported Elements
String Elements

Characteristics
Heating wire wound on insulated steel wire (approx. 2 mm 0.008 in) or fibre glass cord.
Recommended alloy
KANTHAL D.
Surface load
Wire:
<10 W/cm2 <65 W/in2
Typical applications
Stationary hair dryers.

36

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Suspended Elements
Suspended coils

Characteristics
Wire coil is supported at intervals, e.g. by ceramic holders. Fibreglass cord is often placed
inside coil to prevent the coil from falling down in case of element failure.
Recommended alloy
NIKROTHAL 80 and NIKROTHAL 60
KANTHAL D and AF (mainly for wire temperatures below 600C 1110F, where
sagging is no problem).
Surface load
Wire:
7-8 W/cm2 45-50 W/in2 in forced air;
3-4 W/cm2 20-25 W/in2 in natural convection.
Typical applications
Air heaters such as:
laundry dryers, hair dryers, fan heaters, land dryers.

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

37

Suspended Elements
Suspended straight
wires and ribbons

Characteristics
Wire or ribbon may have elastic or fixed suspension.
Elastic: Wire kept straight by springs when heated.
Fixed: Operating temperature is lower and low thermal expansion is advantageous.
Recommended alloy
KANTHAL A and AF (low thermal expansion)
NIKROTHAL 80
Surface load
Wire:
4-12 W/cm2 25-77 W/in2
Typical applications
Radiators, toasters, convection heaters, hair dryers.

38

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Suspended Elements
Open Mica Elements

Characteristics
Straight or corrugated heating wire is wound on one or both sides of a mica sheet or
separated mica strips. Ribbons are frequently used in this application.
Recommended alloy
NIKROTHAL 80, NIKROTHAL 60, KANTHAL D and AF.
Surface load
Wire:
4-7 W/cm2 25-45 W/in2
For toasters:
< 13 W/cm2 <26-52 W/in2 for wire-wound elements
Typical applications
Toasters; also, convection heating, low-watt aquarium heaters.

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

39

Suspended Elements
Zig-zag Elements

Characteristics
Deep-corrugated ribbon is supported by mica sheets. Also radial shape.
Recommended alloy
KANTHAL D, AF and NIKROTHAL 40
Surface load
Wire:
9 W/cm2 60 W/in2
Typical applications
Fan heaters, convection heating.

40

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Suspended Elements
Porcupine Elements

Characteristics
Heating conductor consists of hairpin- shaped wire bends protruding in all directions, with
hole in centre. Element is supported by central insulated rod or insulating tube around its
circumference.
Recommended alloy
KANTHAL D, AF
NIKROTHAL 80
Surface load
Wire:
4W/cm2 25 W/in2 in natural convection,
<12 W/cm2 75 W/in2 in forced convection.
Typical applications
Hot air guns, radiators, convectors, tumble dryers, domestic ovens with forced convection.

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

41

Suspended Elements
Coils immersed
in water

Characteristics
Wire coils operating directly in water.
Recommended alloy
KANTHAL D and AF NIKROTHAL 80.
Surface load
Wire:
Depending on water velocity, 20-60 W/cm2 130-390 W/in2 (even higher figures occur.)
Typical applications
Instantaneous tap water and shower heaters, steam generators.

42

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook.

7. Standard Tolerances
Standard tolerances for wire and ribbon
are given below. Size tolerances do not
apply to material manufactured to
resistance tolerances and vice-versa.

Tolerances on electrical
resistance
Resistance of wire at 20 C
Diameter 0.127 mm 0.0048 in 8 %.
All dimensions >0.127 mm 0.0048 in 5 %.

Resistance of ribbon
For cold rolled strips and ribbon, all widths
and thickness 5%.

Tolerances on dimensions
Tolerances on diameter of wire according to the EN 10 218-2 T4 standard
Wire size,
mm

Max deviation
from nominal
value,
mm

Max ovality,
mm

Tol = 0.015d

Tol = 0.015d

Max ovality = a b

Wire size,
In

Max deviation
from nominal
value,
in

Max ovality,
in

Tol = 0.002975d

Tol = 0.002975d

b
a

Tolerances on dimensions of cold rolled ribbon


Ribbon is normally specified with a resistance tolerance.
If requested, dimension tolerance on width can be applied as below.
Width
mm
in

0.5-1.5
0.020-0.059
1.5-2.5
0.059-0.098
2.5-4.0
0.098-0.159

Thickness
mm
in

0.07-0.2
0.0028-0.008
+0.02 -0.04
+0.0001 -0.0016
+0.04 -0.07
+0.0016 -0.0028

0.2-0.5
0.008-0.020
+0.01 -0.03
+0.0004 -0.0012
+0.03 -0.04
+0.0012 -0.0016
0.08
0.0031

0.5-0.8
0.020-0.031

+0.02 -0.04
+0.0001 -0.0016
+0.12
+0.0047

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook.

43

8. Delivery Forms
In order to avoid transport damage all
goods are carefully packed in card board
boxes or wooden cases, with suitable internal protection.

Resistance Heating alloys (KANTHAL, ALKROTHAL,


NIKROTHAL, NIFETHAL 70 and 52)
Wire
Wire of 1.63 mm is delivered on spools,
such as shown in the figure. Only one
length of wire is wound on each spool. Wire
sizes between 0.40 and 1.63 mm can be
L5

supplied in round Pail Packs (drums) such as


shown in the table below. Wire sizes
>1.65 mm is normally supplied in coils with
an inner diameter of approx. 500-600 mm.

615

D d

d1 60
H

l
D, inner
D, outer

Types of Wire Spools

Spool
No.

Tare
g

Spool measurements, mm
D
d
l

d1

B1
B2
B4
K 200
K 250
K 355

100
115
180
600
1050
1850

75
90
120
200
250
355

16
16
16
36
36
36

40
40
50
125
160
224

100
100
100
160
160
160

Wire dia.
mm

Capacity
approx. kg

120
120
120
200
200
200

0.10-0.19
0.20-0.24
0.25-1.00
0.16-1.20
0.30-1.63
0.50-1.63

1
2
4
10
20
40

Types of Wire Pails (Drum Pack)


Pail
No.

Tare
g

Pail measurements, mm
D, outer
D, inner
height

Material

Wire dia.
mm

Capacity
approx. kg

P50
P100
P200
P350

2600
3500
8500
10000

508
508
500
500

Plastic
Plastic
Cardboard
Cardboard

0.40-1.63
0.40-1.63
0.80-1.63
0.80-1.63

33
50
160-240
250-400

330
330
300
300

150
250
520
820

44

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook.

Thin wide strip


Standard delivery is in coil form on inner
core.
For full width material the core is a recyclable steel tube with inner diameter
400 mm.
For narrow slit widths the core is made of
hard paper or plastic with inner diameter
200-400 mm depending on strip width and
request.
On special demand, narrow slit strip up to
10 mm can be delivered pitch wound on a
special spool.
Coil weight or strip lengths are subject to
special agreements.

Ribbon
Ribbon is normally supplied on K 125
spools. Sizes of section 0.3mm2 are wound
on K 100 spools. If requested, the smallest
sizes can be supplied on K 80 spools.
Rods
Availabel shaved or un-shaved depending on
the alloy.

Types of Ribbon Spools


Spool
No.

Tare
g

Spool measurements, mm
D
d
l

d1

Capacity, kg
KANTHAL

NIKROTHAL

K 80
K 100
K 125
K 200

70
125
200
600

80
100
125
200

16
16
16
36

80
100
125
200

0.7
1.5
3
10

0.8
1.9
3.5
11

50
63
80
125

64
80
100
160

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook.

45

Resistance alloys
(CUPROTHAL 49, 30, 15, 10, 5 and MANGANINA 43)
The wire is normally packed as shown below.
Wire and ribbon can also be specially packed
to individual requirements. To provide additional protection to the materials, spools are
wrapped with plastic film or closed in plastic
boxes.

Wire
Wire up to 1.40 mm is available on spools.
At the request of the customer, wire can also
be supplied in annular drums as detailed
below. The figure shows the drum without
handles.
Wire dimensions from 1.40 to 8.0 are
available in coils. The inner diameter of the
coil is 350 to 650 mm depending on the
alloy type and the diameter.
Wire from 2.00 mm up to 8.0 mm can
be straightened in random or fixed lengths.
Straight lengths are supplied in bundles.

Types of wire Spools


Spool
No.

Wire
diameter
mm

Nominal wire
weight
kg

D
mm

d1
mm

d2
mm

L
mm

I
mm

Tare
g

K 500
K 355
K 250
K 200
K 160
K 125
K 100
K 80

0.80 - 1.40
0.40 - 1.40
0.25 - 1.00
0.25 - 0.80
0.20 - 0.80
0.15 - 0.80
0.127 - 0.25
0.127 - 0.25

90
50
20
14
7
3
1.5
0.5

500
355
250
200
160
125
100
80

315
224
160
125
100
80
63
50

36
36
36
22
22
16
16
16

250
200
200
200
160
125
100
80

189
160
160
160
128
100
80
64

8000
1850
1050
600
350
200
125
70

8
d
h

Fig. 3 - Drum dimensions

Types of Drums
Drum
No.

Wire
diameter
mm

Nominal wire
weight
kg

D
mm

d
mm

h
mm

Tare
g

050 A
020 B

0.50 - 2.30
0.50 - 1.63

55
36

508
508

330
330

250
150

3500
2600

46

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Types of Ribbon Spools


Spool
No.

Tare
g

Spool measurements, mm
D
d
l

d1

Capacity, kg
KANTHAL

NIKROTHAL

K 80
K 100
K 125
K 200

70
125
200
600

80
100
125
200

16
16
16
36

80
100
125
200

0.7
1.5
3
10

0.8
1.9
3.5
11

50
63
80
125

64
80
100
160

Rods
Available shaved or not shaved depending on the
alloy.
In order to avoid transport damage all goods
are carefully packed in cardboard boxes or
wooden cases, with suitable internal protection.

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook.

47

9. Tables
The tables show metric values for wire and
ribbon. There are other editions of this
handbook for Imperial values (SWG and
B&S).
For dimensions in the range 0.12-0.010 mm
0.0047-0.0004 in, we recommend the
Kanthal Precision Technology Handbook.
The larger dimensions and different elements
are described more in detail in the Kanthal
Handbook Resistance Heating Alloys and
Systems for Industrial Furnaces.
For each table is indicated whether there

are standard stock items or not. Standard


stock items may be changed without notice.
Please ask Kanthal for the latest updated
stock list. Standard stock items are normally
supplied directly on order, while non-standard dimensions may take a bit longer.
Kanthal can supply any dimension on
request, provided the volume is large enough.

48

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

KANTHAL A-1, APM


Wire

Standard
stock items

Alloy

Diameter range
mm

Resistivity
mm2m-1

Density
gcm-3

KANTHAL A-1
KANTHAL APM

10.0-0.050
10.0-0.20

1.45
1.45

7.10
7.10

To obtain resistance at working temperature, multiply by the factor Ct in the following table:
C
Ct

20
1.00

Diameter
mm
A-1
APM

10.0
9.5
8.25
8.0
7.35
7.0
6.54
6.5
6.0
5.83
5.5
5.0
4.75
4.62
4.5
4.25
4.11
4.06
4.0
3.75
3.65
3.5
3.35
3.25
3.2

1)

10.0
9.5
9.27
8.25
8.0
7.35
7.0
6.5
6.0
5.5
5.0
4.75
4.5
4.25

4.0
3.75
3.5
3.25

100
1.00

200
1.00

300
1.00

400
1.00

500
1.01

600
1.02

700
1.02

800
1.03

at 20 C
/m

Resistance
cm2/1)
Weight
at 20 C
g/m

Cross
Surface sectional
area
area
cm2/m
mm2

Diameter
mm
A-1
APM

0.0185
0.0205
0.0215
0.0271
0.0288
0.0342
0.0377
0.0432
0.0437
0.0513
0.0543
0.0610
0.0738
0.0818
0.0865
0.0912
0.102
0.109
0.112
0.115
0.131
0.139
0.151
0.165
0.175
0.180

17017
14590
13555
9555
8713
6757
5837
4760
4673
3676
3372
2831
2127
1824
1678
1551
1306
1181
1139
1089
897
827
730
640
584
558

314
298
291
259
251
231
220
205
204
188
183
173
157
149
145
141
134
129
128
126
118
115
110
105
102
101

3.0
2.95
2.9
2.8
2.65
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.34
2.3
2.25
2.2
2.05
2.03
2.0
1.83
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0

558
503
479
380
357
301
273
239
236
201
190
169
139
126
119
113
101
94.2
91.9
89.2
78.4
74.3
68.3
62.6
58.9
57.1

78.5
70.9
67.5
53.5
50.3
42.4
38.5
33.6
33.2
28.3
26.7
23.8
19.6
17.7
16.8
15.9
14.2
13.3
12.9
12.6
11.0
10.5
9.62
8.81
8.30
8.04

3.0
2.9
2.8
2.6
2.5

2.3
2.2

2.0
1.8
1.7

1.5

1.2
1.0

cm2/ = I2 Ct /p (I = Current, Ct = temperature factor, p = surface load W/cm2)

900
1.03

1000
1.04

1100
1.04

1200
1.04

1300
1.04

1400
1.05

at 20 C
/m

Resistance
cm2/1)
Weight
at 20 C
g/m

Cross
Surface sectional
area
area
cm2/m
mm2

0.205
0.212
0.220
0.235
0.263
0.273
0.295
0.321
0.337
0.349
0.365
0.381
0.439
0.448
0.462
0.551
0.570
0.639
0.695
0.721
0.821
0.942
1.09
1.28
1.53
1.85

459
437
415
374
317
299
266
235
218
207
194
181
147
142
136
104
99
83.6
73.7
69.7
57.4
46.7
37.4
29.4
22.6
17.0

94.2
92.7
91.1
88.0
83.3
81.7
78.5
75.4
73.5
72.3
70.7
69.1
64.4
63.8
62.8
57.5
56.5
53.4
51.2
50.3
47.1
44.0
40.8
37.7
34.6
31.4

50.2
48.5
46.9
43.7
39.2
37.7
34.9
32.1
30.5
29.5
28.2
27.0
23.4
23.0
22.3
18.7
18.1
16.1
14.8
14.3
12.5
10.9
9.42
8.03
6.75
5.58

7.07
6.83
6.61
6.16
5.52
5.31
4.91
4.52
4.30
4.15
3.98
3.80
3.30
3.24
3.14
2.63
2.54
2.27
2.09
2.01
1.77
1.54
1.33
1.13
0.950
0.785

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook.

49

KANTHAL A, AF, AE
Wire

Standard
stock items

Alloy

Diameter range
mm

Resistivity
mm2m-1

Density
gcm-3

KANTHAL A
KANTHAL AF
KANTHAL AE

10.0-0.05
10.0-0.10
10.0-0.20

1.39
1.39
1.39

7.15
7.15
7.15

To obtain resistance at working temperature, multiply by the factor Ct in the following table:
C
Ct

20
1.00

Diameter
mm
A
AF

10

1)

10.0
8.25
8.0
7.5
7.35
7.0
6.54
6.5
6.0
5.83
5.5
5.2
5.0
4.75
4.62
4.5
4.25
4.11
4.0
3.75
3.65
3.5
3.25
3.2
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3

100
1.00

200
1.01

300
1.01

400
1.02

500
1.03

600
1.04

at 20 C
/m

Resistance
cm2/1)
Weight
at 20 C
g/m

Cross
Surface sectional
area
area
cm2/m
mm2

0.0177
0.0260
0.0277
0.0315
0.0328
0.0361
0.0414
0.0419
0.0492
0.0521
0.0585
0.0655
0.0708
0.0784
0.0829
0.0874
0.0980
0.105
0.111
0.126
0.133
0.144
0.168
0.173
0.197
0.210
0.226
0.262
0.283
0.307
0.335

17751
9968
9089
7489
7048
6089
4965
4875
3834
3517
2953
2496
2219
1902
1750
1618
1363
1232
1136
936
863
761
609
582
479
433
390
312
277
245
216

314
259
251
236
231
220
205
204
188
183
173
163
157
149
145
141
134
129
126
118
115
110
102
101
94.2
91.1
88.0
81.7
78.5
75.4
72.3

562
382
359
316
303
275
240
237
202
191
170
152
140
127
120
114
101
94.9
89.8
79.0
74.8
68.8
59.3
57.5
50.5
47.2
44.0
38.0
35.1
32.3
29.7

78.
53.5
50.3
44.2
42.4
38.5
33.6
33.2
28.3
26.7
23.8
21.2
19.6
17.7
16.8
15.9
14.2
13.3
12.6
11.0
10.5
9.62
8.30
8.04
7.07
6.61
6.16
5.31
4.91
4.52
4.15

700
1.04

800
1.05

Diameter
mm
A
AF

0.90
0.85
0.80
0.75
0.70
0.65
0.60
0.55
0.50
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.30
0.25
0.20
0.15

2.25
2.2
2.0
1.8
1.7
1.65
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.95
0.90
0.85
0.80
0.75
0.70
0.65
0.60
0.55
0.50
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.30

cm2/ = I2 Ct /p (I = Current, Ct = temperature factor, p = surface load W/cm2)

900
1.05

1000
1.06

1100
1.06

1200
1.06

1300
1.06

at 20 C
/m

Resistance
cm2/1)
Weight
at 20 C
g/m

Cross
Surface sectional
area
area
cm2/m
mm2

0.350
0.366
0.442
0.546
0.612
0.650
0.691
0.787
0.903
1.05
1.23
1.46
1.77
1.96
2.18
2.45
2.77
3.15
3.61
4.19
4.92
5.85
7.08
8.74
11.1
14.4
19.7
28.3
44.2
78.7

202
189
142
104
87.2
79.7
72.7
59.9
48.7
39.0
30.7
23.6
17.8
15.2
12.9
10.9
9.09
7.49
6.09
4.87
3.83
2.95
2.22
1.62
1.14
0.761
0.479
0.277
0.142
0.0599

70.7
69.1
62.8
56.5
53.4
51.8
50.3
47.1
44.0
40.8
37.7
34.6
31.4
29.8
28.3
26.7
25.1
23.6
22.0
20.4
18.8
17.3
15.7
14.1
12.6
11.0
9.42
7.85
6.28
4.71

28.4
27.2
22.5
18.2
16.2
15.3
14.4
12.6
11.0
9.49
8.09
6.79
5.62
5.07
4.55
4.06
3.59
3.16
2.75
2.37
2.02
1.70
1.40
1.14
0.898
0.688
0.505
0.351
0.225
0.126

3.98
3.80
3.14
2.54
2.27
2.14
2.01
1.77
1.54
1.33
1.13
0.950
0.785
0.709
0.636
0.567
0.503
0.442
0.385
0.332
0.283
0.238
0.196
0.159
0.126
0.0962
0.0707
0.0491
0.0314
0.0177

50

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

KANTHAL A, AF, AE
Ribbon

Alloy

Resistivity
mm2m-1

Density
gcm-3

KANTHAL A, AF, AE

1.39

7.15

To obtain resistance at working temperature, multiply by the factor Ct in the following table:
C
Ct

20
1.00

100
1.00

ResisThick- tance
Width ness
at 20 C
mm
mm
/m

2.5

2.0

1)

1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15

0.378
0.420
0.472
0.540
0.630
0.755
0.944
1.26
1.89
2.52
3.78
0.504
0.560
0.630
0.719
0.839
1.01
1.26
1.68
2.52
3.36
5.04
0.604
0.671
0.755
0.863
1.01
1.21
1.51
2.01
3.02
4.03
6.04
0.755
0.839
0.944
1.08
1.26
1.51
1.89
2.52
3.78
5.04

200
1.01

300
1.01

400
1.02

500
1.03

600
1.04

700
1.04

cm2/1)
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

ResisThick- tance
Width ness
at 20 C
mm
mm
/m

265
234
203
174
146
119
93.2
68.3
44.5
33.0
21.7
159
139
121
103
85.8
69.5
54.0
39.3
25.4
18.8
12.3
116
101
87.4
74.1
61.6
49.6
38.4
27.8
17.9
13.2
8.60
79.4
69.1
59.3
50.0
41.3
33.1
25.4
18.3
11.6
8.54

26.3
23.7
21.0
18.4
15.8
13.2
10.5
7.89
5.26
3.95
2.63
19.7
17.8
15.8
13.8
11.8
9.87
7.89
5.92
3.95
2.96
1.97
16.4
14.8
13.2
11.5
9.87
8.22
6.58
4.93
3.29
2.47
1.64
13.2
11.8
10.5
9.21
7.89
6.58
5.26
3.95
2.63
1.97

100
98.0
96.0
94.0
92.0
90.0
88.0
86.0
84.0
83.0
82.0
80.0
78.0
76.0
74.0
72.0
70.0
68.0
66.0
64.0
63.0
62.0
70.0
68.0
66.0
64.0
62.0
60.0
58.0
56.0
54.0
53.0
52.0
60.0
58.0
56.0
54.0
52.0
50.0
48.0
46.0
44.0
43.0

3.68
3.31
2.94
2.58
2.21
1.84
1.47
1.10
0.736
0.552
0.368
2.76
2.48
2.21
1.93
1.66
1.38
1.10
0.828
0.552
0.414
0.276
2.30
2.07
1.84
1.61
1.38
1.15
0.920
0.690
0.460
0.345
0.230
1.84
1.66
1.47
1.29
1.10
0.920
0.736
0.552
0.368
0.276

2.0
1.8

1.5

1.2

1.0

800
1.05

0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30

cm2/ = I2 Ct /p (I = Current, Ct = temperature factor, p = surface load W/cm2)

900
1.05

7.55
0.839
0.933
1.05
1.20
1.40
1.68
2.10
2.80
4.20
5.60
8.39
1.01
1.12
1.26
1.44
1.68
2.01
2.52
3.36
5.04
6.71
10.1
11.2
12.6
1.57
1.80
2.10
2.52
3.15
4.20
6.30
8.39
12.6
14.0
15.7
18.0
1.89
2.16
2.52
3.02
3.78
5.04

1000
1.06

1100
1.06

1200
1.06

1300
1.06

cm2/1)
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

5.56
66.7
57.9
49.6
41.7
34.3
27.4
21.0
15.0
9.53
6.97
4.53
49.6
42.9
36.5
30.6
25.0
19.9
15.1
10.7
6.75
4.91
3.18
2.84
2.51
25.4
21.1
17.2
13.5
10.2
7.15
4.45
3.22
2.07
1.84
1.63
1.41
19.1
15.8
12.7
9.93
7.41
5.16

1.32
11.8
10.7
9.47
8.29
7.10
5.92
4.74
3.55
2.37
1.78
1.18
9.87
8.88
7.89
6.91
5.92
4.93
3.95
2.96
1.97
1.48
0.987
0.888
0.789
6.31
5.53
4.74
3.95
3.16
2.37
1.58
1.18
0.789
0.710
0.631
0.553
5.26
4.60
3.95
3.29
2.63
1.97

42.0
56.0
54.0
52.0
50.0
48.0
46.0
44.0
42.0
40.0
39.0
38.0
50.0
48.0
46.0
44.0
42.0
40.0
38.0
36.0
34.0
33.0
32.0
31.8
31.6
40.0
38.0
36.0
34.0
32.0
30.0
28.0
27.0
26.0
25.8
25.6
25.4
36.0
34.0
32.0
30.0
28.0
26.0

0.184
1.66
1.49
1.32
1.16
0.994
0.828
0.662
0.497
0.331
0.248
0.166
1.38
1.24
1.10
0.966
0.828
0.690
0.552
0.414
0.276
0.207
0.138
0.124
0.110
0.883
0.773
0.662
0.552
0.442
0.331
0.221
0.166
0.110
0.0994
0.0883
0.0773
0.736
0.644
0.552
0.460
0.368
0.276

(cont.)

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook.

51

(cont.)

KANTHAL A, AF, AE
Ribbon

Alloy

Resistivity
mm2m-1

Density
gcm-3

KANTHAL A, AF, AE

1.39

7.15

To obtain resistance at working temperature, multiply by the factor Ct in the following table:
C
Ct

20
1.00

100
1.00

ResisThick- tance
Width ness
at 20 C
mm
mm
/m

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

1)

0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080

7.55
10.1
15.1
16.8
18.9
21.6
25.2
30.2
2.40
2.80
3.36
4.20
5.60
8.39
11.2
16.8
18.7
21.0
24.0
28.0
33.6
2.70
3.15
3.78
4.72
6.30
9.44
12.6
18.9
21.0
23.6
27.0
31.5
37.8
3.60
4.32
5.40
7.19
10.8
14.4
21.6
24.0
27.0

200
1.01

300
1.01

400
1.02

cm /
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

3.18
2.28
1.46
1.30
1.14
0.991
0.842
0.695
13.3
10.7
8.34
6.20
4.29
2.62
1.88
1.19
1.06
0.934
0.809
0.686
0.566
11.1
8.90
6.88
5.08
3.49
2.12
1.51
0.953
0.848
0.746
0.645
0.546
0.450
7.23
5.56
4.08
2.78
1.67
1.18
0.741
0.659
0.578

1.32
0.987
0.658
0.592
0.526
0.460
0.395
0.329
4.14
3.55
2.96
2.37
1.78
1.18
0.888
0.592
0.533
0.474
0.414
0.355
0.296
3.68
3.16
2.63
2.10
1.58
1.05
0.789
0.526
0.474
0.421
0.368
0.316
0.263
2.76
2.30
1.84
1.38
0.921
0.691
0.460
0.414
0.368

24.0
23.0
22.0
21.8
21.6
21.4
21.2
21.0
32.0
30.0
28.0
26.0
24.0
22.0
21.0
20.0
19.8
19.6
19.4
19.2
19.0
30.0
28.0
26.0
24.0
22.0
20.0
19.0
18.0
17.8
17.6
17.4
17.2
17.0
26.0
24.0
22.0
20.0
18.0
17.0
16.0
15.8
15.6

1)

500
1.03

600
1.04

700
1.04

800
1.05

900
1.05

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

ResisThick- tance
Width ness
at 20 C
mm
mm
/m

0.184
0.138
0.0920
0.0828
0.0736
0.0644
0.0552
0.0460
0.580
0.497
0.414
0.331
0.248
0.166
0.124
0.0828
0.0745
0.0662
0.0580
0.0497
0.0414
0.515
0.442
0.368
0.294
0.221
0.147
0.110
0.0736
0.0662
0.0589
0.0515
0.0442
0.0368
0.386
0.322
0.258
0.193
0.129
0.097
0.0644
0.0580
0.0515

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.070
0.060
0.050
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.040
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.040
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050

cm2/ = I2 Ct /p (I = Current, Ct = temperature factor, p = surface load W/cm2)

30.8
36.0
43.2
5.0
6.3
8.4
12.6
16.8
25.2
28.0
31.5
36.0
42.0
50.4
63.0
10.1
15.1
20.1
30.2
33.6
37.8
43.2
50.4
60.4
75.5
12.6
18.9
25.2
37.8
42.0
47.2
54.0
63.0
75.5
25.2
33.6
50.4
56.0
63.0
71.9
83.9
101

1000
1.06

1100
1.06

1200
1.06

1300
1.06

cm /
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

0.499
0.423
0.347
4.37
3.18
2.14
1.27
0.894
0.556
0.493
0.432
0.373
0.315
0.258
0.203
1.59
0.927
0.645
0.397
0.351
0.307
0.264
0.222
0.182
0.143
1.11
0.635
0.437
0.265
0.234
0.203
0.174
0.146
0.119
0.397
0.268
0.159
0.139
0.121
0.103
0.0858
0.0695

0.322
0.276
0.230
1.97
1.58
1.18
0.789
0.592
0.395
0.355
0.316
0.276
0.237
0.197
0.158
0.987
0.658
0.493
0.329
0.296
0.263
0.230
0.197
0.164
0.132
0.789
0.526
0.395
0.263
0.237
0.210
0.184
0.158
0.132
0.395
0.296
0.197
0.178
0.158
0.138
0.118
0.0987

15.4
15.2
15.0
22.0
20.0
18.0
16.0
15.0
14.0
13.8
13.6
13.4
13.2
13.0
12.8
16.0
14.0
13.0
12.0
11.8
11.6
11.4
11.2
11.0
10.8
14.0
12.0
11.0
10.0
9.80
9.60
9.40
9.20
9.00
10.0
9.00
8.00
7.80
7.60
7.40
7.20
7.00

1)

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

0.0451
0.0386
0.0322
0.276
0.221
0.166
0.110
0.0828
0.0552
0.0497
0.0442
0.0386
0.0331
0.0276
0.0221
0.138
0.0920
0.0690
0.0460
0.0414
0.0368
0.0322
0.0276
0.0230
0.0184
0.110
0.0736
0.0552
0.0368
0.0331
0.0294
0.0258
0.0221
0.0184
0.0552
0.0414
0.0276
0.0248
0.0221
0.0193
0.0166
0.0138

52

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

KANTHAL D
Wire

Standard
stock items

Alloy

Diameter range
mm

Resistivity
mm2m-1

Density
gcm-3

8.0-0.020

1.35

7.25

To obtain resistance at working temperature, multiply by the factor Ct in the following table:
C
Ct

20
1.00

Diameter
mm

Resistance
at 20 C
cm2/1)
/m
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

Diameter
mm

Resistance
at 20 C
cm2/1)
/m
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Cross
Surface sectional
area
area
cm2/m mm2

8.0
6.5
6.0
5.5
5.0
4.75
4.5
4.25
4.06
4.0
3.75
3.65
3.5
3.25
3.0
2.95
2.8
2.65
2.5
2.0
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1

0.0269
0.0407
0.0477
0.0568
0.0688
0.0762
0.0849
0.0952
0.104
0.107
0.122
0.129
0.140
0.163
0.191
0.198
0.219
0.245
0.275
0.430
0.531
0.595
0.671
0.764
0.877
1.02
1.19
1.42

364
241
205
172
142
128
115
103
93.9
91.1
80.1
75.9
69.8
60.1
51.2
49.6
44.6
40.0
35.6
22.8
18.4
16.5
14.6
12.8
11.2
9.62
8.20
6.89

251
204
188
173
157
149
141
134
128
126
118
115
110
102
94.2
92.7
88.0
83.3
78.5
62.8
56.5
53.4
50.3
47.1
44.0
40.8
37.7
34.6

50.3
33.2
28.3
23.8
19.6
17.7
15.9
14.2
12.9
12.6
11.0
10.5
9.62
8.30
7.07
6.8
6.16
5.5
4.91
3.14
2.54
2.27
2.01
1.77
1.54
1.33
1.13
0.950

1.0
0.95
0.90
0.85
0.80
0.75
0.70
0.65
0.60
0.55
0.50
0.45
0.42
0.40
0.35
0.32
0.30
0.28
0.25
0.22
0.20
0.19
0.18
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.13

1.72
1.90
2.12
2.38
2.69
3.06
3.51
4.07
4.77
5.68
6.88
8.49
9.74
10.7
14.0
16.8
19.1
21.9
27.5
35.5
43.0
47.6
53.1
59.5
67.1
76.4
87.7
102

5.69
5.14
4.61
4.11
3.64
3.20
2.79
2.41
2.05
1.72
1.42
1.15
1.00
0.911
0.698
0.583
0.512
0.446
0.356
0.276
0.228
0.206
0.184
0.165
0.146
0.128
0.112
0.0962

31.4
29.8
28.3
26.7
25.1
23.6
22.0
20.4
18.8
17.3
15.7
14.1
13.2
12.6
11.0
10.1
9.42
8.80
7.85
6.91
6.28
5.97
5.65
5.34
5.03
4.71
4.40
4.08

1)

100
1.00

200
1.01

9358
5019
3948
3041
2285
1959
1666
1403
1223
1170
964
889
784
627
493
469
401
340
286
146
107
89.8
74.9
61.7
50.2
40.2
31.6
24.3

300
1.01

400
1.02

500
1.03

600
1.04

700
1.05

800
1.06

cm2/ = I2 Ct /p (I = Current, Ct = temperature factor, p = surface load W/cm2)

900
1.07

1000
1.07

18.3
15.7
13.3
11.2
9.36
7.71
6.27
5.02
3.95
3.04
2.28
1.67
1.35
1.17
0.784
0.599
0.493
0.401
0.286
0.195
0.146
0.125
0.107
0.0898
0.0749
0.0617
0.0502
0.0402

1100
1.07

1200
1.08

1300
1.08

0.785
0.709
0.636
0.567
0.503
0.442
0.385
0.332
0.283
0.238
0.196
0.159
0.139
0.126
0.0962
0.0804
0.0707
0.061
0.0491
0.0380
0.0314
0.0284
0.0254
0.0227
0.0201
0.0177
0.0154
0.0133

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook.

53

KANTHAL D, DT
Ribbon

Alloy

Resistivity
mm2m-1

Density
gcm-3

KANTHAL D
KANTAHL DT

1.39
1.37

7.25
7.25

To obtain resistance at working temperature, multiply by the factor Ct in the following table:
C
Ct

20
1.00

100
1.00

ResisThick- tance
Width ness
at 20 C
mm
mm
/m

2.5

2.25

1)

1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20

0.367
0.408
0.459
0.524
0.611
0.734
0.917
1.22
1.83
2.45
3.67
0.489
0.543
0.611
0.699
0.815
0.978
1.22
1.63
2.45
3.26
4.89
0.587
0.652
0.734
0.839
0.978
1.17
1.47
1.96
2.93
3.91
5.87
0.652
0.725
0.815
0.932
1.09
1.30
1.63
2.17
3.26

200
1.01

300
1.01

400
1.02

500
1.03

600
1.04

700
1.05

cm2/1)
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

ResisThick- tance
Width ness
at 20 C
mm
mm
/m

273
240
209
179
150
123
96.0
70.3
45.8
33.9
22.4
164
144
124
106
88.3
71.6
55.6
40.5
26.2
19.3
12.7
119
104
90.0
76.3
63.4
51.1
39.5
28.6
18.4
13.5
8.86
99.7
86.9
74.8
63.3
52.4
42.2
32.5
23.5
15.0

26.7
24.0
21.3
18.7
16.0
13.3
10.7
8.00
5.34
4.00
2.67
20.0
18.0
16.0
14.0
12.0
10.0
8.0
6.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
16.7
15.0
13.3
11.7
10.0
8.34
6.67
5.00
3.34
2.50
1.67
15.0
13.5
12.0
10.5
9.00
7.50
6.00
4.50
3.00

100
98.0
96.0
94.0
92.0
90.0
88.0
86.0
84.0
83.0
82.0
80.0
78.0
76.0
74.0
72.0
70.0
68.0
66.0
64.0
63.0
62.0
70.0
68.0
66.0
64.0
62.0
60.0
58.0
56.0
54.0
53.0
52.0
65.0
63.0
61.0
59.0
57.0
55.0
53.0
51.0
49.0

3.68
3.31
2.94
2.58
2.21
1.84
1.47
1.10
0.736
0.552
0.368
2.76
2.48
2.21
1.93
1.66
1.38
1.10
0.828
0.552
0.414
0.276
2.30
2.07
1.84
1.61
1.38
1.15
0.920
0.690
0.460
0.345
0.230
2.07
1.86
1.66
1.45
1.24
1.04
0.828
0.621
0.414

2,25
2.0

1.75

1.5

1.25

800
1.06

0.15
0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090

cm2/ = I2 Ct /p (I = Current, Ct = temperature factor, p = surface load W/cm2)

900
1.07

4.35
6.52
0.734
0.815
0.917
1.05
1.22
1.47
1.83
2.45
3.67
4.89
7.34
0.839
0.932
1.05
1.20
1.40
1.68
2.10
2.80
4.19
5.59
8.39
1.40
1.63
1.96
2.45
3.26
4.89
6.52
9.78
10.9
12.2
1.96
2.35
2.93
3.91
5.87
7.83
11.7
13.0

1000
1.07

1100
1.07

1200
1.08

1300
1.08

cm2/1)
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

11.0
7.21
81.8
71.1
61.1
51.5
42.5
34.1
26.2
18.8
12.0
8.79
5.72
65.6
56.9
48.7
40.9
33.6
26.8
20.5
14.7
9.30
6.80
4.41
31.5
25.8
20.4
15.5
11.0
6.95
5.06
3.27
2.93
2.58
18.9
14.9
11.2
7.92
4.94
3.58
2.30
2.05

2.25
1.50
13.3
12.0
10.7
9.34
8.00
6.67
5.34
4.00
2.67
2.00
1.33
11.7
10.5
9.34
8.17
7.00
5.84
4.67
3.50
2.33
1.75
1.17
7.00
6.00
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.50
1.00
0.900
0.800
5.00
4.17
3.34
2.50
1.67
1.25
0.834
0.750

48.0
47.0
60.0
58.0
56.0
54.0
52.0
50.0
48.0
46.0
44.0
43.0
42.0
55.0
53.0
51.0
49.0
47.0
45.0
43.0
41.0
39.0
38.0
37.0
44.0
42.0
40.0
38.0
36.0
34.0
33.0
32.0
31.8
31.6
37.0
35.0
33.0
31.0
29.0
28.0
27.0
26.8

0.311
0.207
1.84
1.66
1.47
1.29
1.10
0.920
0.736
0.552
0.368
0.276
0.184
1.61
1.45
1.29
1.13
0.966
0.805
0.644
0.483
0.322
0.242
0.161
0.966
0.828
0.690
0.552
0.414
0.276
0.207
0.138
0.124
0.110
0.690
0.575
0.460
0.345
0.230
0.173
0.115
0.104

(cont.)

54

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

(cont.)

KANTHAL D, DT
Ribbon

Alloy

Resistivity
mm2m-1

Density
gcm-3

KANTHAL D
KANTAHL DT

1.39
1.37

7.25
7.25

To obtain resistance at working temperature, multiply by the factor Ct in the following table:
C
Ct

20
1.00

100
1.00

ResisThick- tance
Width ness
at 20 C
mm
mm
/m

1.25
1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

1)

0.080
0.070
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090

14.7
16.8
2.45
2.93
3.67
4.89
7.34
9.78
14.7
16.3
18.3
21.0
24.5
29.3
3.26
4.08
5.43
8.15
10.9
16.3
18.1
20.4
23.3
27.2
32.6
3.67
4.59
6.11
9.17
12.2
18.3
20.4
22.9
26.2
30.6
36.7
5.24
6.99
10.5
14.0
21.0
23.3

200
1.01

300
1.01

400
1.02

500
1.03

600
1.04

700
1.05

cm2/1)
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

ResisThick- tance
Width ness
at 20 C
mm
mm
/m

1.81
1.57
13.1
10.2
7.63
5.32
3.27
2.35
1.50
1.34
1.18
1.02
0.867
0.716
8.59
6.38
4.42
2.70
1.93
1.23
1.09
0.962
0.833
0.707
0.583
7.09
5.23
3.60
2.18
1.55
0.981
0.873
0.768
0.664
0.563
0.463
4.20
2.86
1.72
1.22
0.763
0.678

0.667
0.584
4.00
3.34
2.67
2.00
1.33
1.00
0.667
0.600
0.534
0.467
0.400
0.334
3.00
2.40
1.80
1.20
0.900
0.600
0.540
0.480
0.420
0.360
0.300
2.67
2.13
1.60
1.07
0.800
0.534
0.480
0.427
0.374
0.320
0.267
1.87
1.40
0.934
0.700
0.467
0.420

26.6
26.4
32.0
30.0
28.0
26.0
24.0
23.0
22.0
21.8
21.6
21.4
21.2
21.0
28.0
26.0
24.0
22.0
21.0
20.0
19.8
19.6
19.4
19.2
19.0
26.0
24.0
22.0
20.0
19.0
18.0
17.8
17.6
17.4
17.2
17.0
22.0
20.0
18.0
17.0
16.0
15.8

0.0920
0.0805
0.552
0.460
0.368
0.276
0.184
0.138
0.0920
0.0828
0.0736
0.0644
0.0552
0.0460
0.414
0.331
0.248
0.166
0.124
0.0828
0.0745
0.0662
0.0580
0.0497
0.0414
0.368
0.294
0.221
0.147
0.110
0.0736
0.0662
0.0589
0.0515
0.0442
0.0368
0.258
0.193
0.129
0.097
0.0644
0.0580

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

800
1.06

0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.040
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.040
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050

cm2/ = I2 Ct /p (I = Current, Ct = temperature factor, p = surface load W/cm2)

900
1.07

26.2
29.9
34.9
41.9
6.11
8.15
12.2
16.3
24.5
27.2
30.6
34.9
40.8
48.9
61.1
9.78
14.7
19.6
29.3
32.6
36.7
41.9
48.9
58.7
73.4
12.2
18.3
24.5
36.7
40.8
45.9
52.4
61.1
73.4
24.5
32.6
48.9
54.3
61.1
69.9
81.5
97.8

1000
1.07

1100
1.07

1200
1.08

1300
1.08

cm2/1)
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

0.595
0.514
0.435
0.358
3.27
2.21
1.31
0.920
0.572
0.508
0.445
0.384
0.324
0.266
0.209
1.64
0.954
0.664
0.409
0.362
0.316
0.272
0.229
0.187
0.147
1.14
0.654
0.450
0.273
0.240
0.209
0.179
0.150
0.123
0.409
0.276
0.164
0.144
0.124
0.106
0.0883
0.0716

0.374
0.327
0.280
0.233
1.60
1.20
0.800
0.600
0.400
0.360
0.320
0.280
0.240
0.200
0.160
1.00
0.667
0.500
0.334
0.300
0.267
0.233
0.200
0.167
0.133
0.800
0.534
0.400
0.267
0.240
0.213
0.187
0.160
0.133
0.400
0.300
0.200
0.180
0.160
0.140
0.120
0.100

15.6
15.4
15.2
15.0
20.0
18.0
16.0
15.0
14.0
13.8
13.6
13.4
13.2
13.0
12.8
16.0
14.0
13.0
12.0
11.8
11.6
11.4
11.2
11.0
10.8
14.0
12.0
11.0
10.0
9.80
9.60
9.40
9.20
9.00
10.0
9.00
8.00
7.80
7.60
7.40
7.20
7.00

0.0515
0.0451
0.0386
0.0322
0.221
0.166
0.110
0.0828
0.0552
0.0497
0.0442
0.0386
0.0331
0.0276
0.0221
0.138
0.0920
0.0690
0.0460
0.0414
0.0368
0.0322
0.0276
0.0230
0.0184
0.110
0.0736
0.0552
0.0368
0.0331
0.0294
0.0258
0.0221
0.0184
0.0552
0.0414
0.0276
0.0248
0.0221
0.0193
0.0166
0.0138

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook.

55

ALKROTHAL
Wire

Alloy

Diameter range
mm

Resistivity
mm2m-1

Density
gcm-3

ALKROTHAL

6.5-0.10

1.25

7.28

To obtain resistance at working temperature, multiply by the factor Ct in the following table:
C
Ct

20
1.00

Diameter
mm

Resistance
at 20 C
cm2/1)
/m
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

Diameter
mm

Resistance
at 20 C
cm2/1)
/m
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

6.5
6.0
5.5
5.0
4.75
4.5
4.25
4.0
3.75
3.5
3.25
3.0
2.8
2.6
2.5
2.2
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.95
0.90
0.85

0.0377
0.0442
0.0526
0.0637
0.0705
0.0786
0.0881
0.0995
0.113
0.130
0.151
0.177
0.203
0.235
0.255
0.329
0.398
0.441
0.491
0.551
0.622
0.707
0.812
0.942
1.11
1.32
1.59
1.76
1.96
2.20

242
206
173
143
129
116
103
91.5
80.4
70.0
60.4
51.5
44.8
38.7
35.7
27.7
22.9
20.6
18.5
16.5
14.6
12.9
11.2
9.66
8.23
6.92
5.72
5.16
4.63
4.13

204
188
173
157
149
141
134
126
118
110
102
94.2
88.0
81.7
78.5
69.1
62.8
59.7
56.5
53.4
50.3
47.1
44.0
40.8
37.7
34.6
31.4
29.8
28.3
26.7

33.2
28.3
23.8
19.6
17.7
15.9
14.2
12.6
11.0
9.62
8.30
7.07
6.16
5.31
4.91
3.80
3.14
2.84
2.54
2.27
2.01
1.77
1.54
1.33
1.13
0.95
0.785
0.709
0.636
0.567

0.80
0.75
0.70
0.65
0.60
0.55
0.50
0.475
0.45
0.425
0.40
0.375
0.35
0.32
0.30
0.28
0.26
0.25
0.24
0.23
0.22
0.21
0.20
0.19
0.18
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.13

2.49
2.83
3.25
3.77
4.42
5.26
6.37
7.05
7.86
8.81
9.95
11.3
13.0
15.5
17.7
20.3
23.5
25.5
27.6
30.1
32.9
36.1
39.8
44.1
49.1
55.1
62.2
70.7
81.2
94.2

3.66
3.22
2.80
2.42
2.06
1.73
1.43
1.29
1.16
1.03
0.915
0.804
0.700
0.585
0.515
0.448
0.387
0.357
0.329
0.302
0.277
0.252
0.229
0.206
0.185
0.165
0.146
0.129
0.112
0.0966

25.1
23.6
22.0
20.4
18.8
17.3
15.7
14.9
14.1
13.4
12.6
11.8
11.0
10.1
9.42
8.80
8.17
7.85
7.54
7.23
6.91
6.60
6.28
5.97
5.65
5.34
5.03
4.71
4.40
4.08

0.503
0.442
0.385
0.332
0.283
0.238
0.196
0.177
0.159
0.142
0.126
0.110
0.0962
0.0804
0.0707
0.0616
0.0531
0.0491
0.0452
0.0415
0.0380
0.0346
0.0314
0.0284
0.0254
0.0227
0.0201
0.0177
0.0154
0.0133

1)

100
1.00

5421
4264
3284
2467
2115
1799
1515
1263
1041
846
678
533
433
347
308
210
158
135
115
97.0
80.9
66.6
54.2
43.4
34.1
26.3
19.7
16.9
14.4
12.1

200
1.02

300
1.03

400
1.04

500
1.05

600
1.08

700
1.09

800
1.10

cm2/ = I2 Ct /p (I = Current, Ct = temperature factor, p = surface load W/cm2)

900
1.11

1000
1.11

10.1
8.33
6.77
5.42
4.26
3.28
2.47
2.12
1.80
1.52
1.26
1.04
0.846
0.647
0.533
0.433
0.347
0.308
0.273
0.240
0.210
0.183
0.158
0.135
0.115
0.0970
0.0809
0.0666
0.0542
0.0434

1100
1.12

56

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

ALKROTHAL
Ribbon

Alloy

Resistivity
mm2m-1

Density
gcm-3

ALKROTHAL

1.25

7.28

To obtain resistance at working temperature, multiply by the factor Ct in the following table:
C
Ct

20
1.00

100
1.00

ResisThick- tance
Width ness
at 20 C
mm
mm
/m

2.5

2.25

1)

1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20

0.340
0.377
0.425
0.485
0.566
0.679
0.849
1.13
1.70
2.26
3.40
0.453
0.503
0.566
0.647
0.755
0.906
1.13
1.51
2.26
3.02
4.53
0.543
0.604
0.679
0.776
0.906
1.09
1.36
1.81
2.72
3.62
5.43
0.604
0.671
0.755
0.863
1.006
1.208
1.510
2.013
3.019

200
1.02

300
1.03

400
1.04

500
1.05

600
1.08

700
1.09

cm2/1)
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

ResisThick- tance
Width ness
at 20 C
mm
mm
/m

294
260
226
194
163
132
103.6
76.0
49.5
36.7
24.1
177
155
134
114
95.4
77.3
60.1
43.7
28.3
20.9
13.7
129
113
97.2
82.4
68.4
55.2
42.7
30.9
19.9
14.6
9.57
107.6
93.9
80.8
68.4
56.6
45.5
35.1
25.3
16.2

26.8
24.1
21.4
18.8
16.1
13.4
10.7
8.04
5.36
4.02
2.67
20.1
18.1
16.1
14.1
12.1
10.0
8.0
6.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
16.7
15.1
13.4
11.7
10.0
8.37
6.70
5.02
3.35
2.51
1.67
15.1
13.6
12.1
10.5
9.0
7.5
6.0
4.5
3.0

100
98.0
96.0
94.0
92.0
90.0
88.0
86.0
84.0
83.0
82.0
80.0
78.0
76.0
74.0
72.0
70.0
68.0
66.0
64.0
63.0
62.0
70.0
68.0
66.0
64.0
62.0
60.0
58.0
56.0
54.0
53.0
52.0
65.0
63.0
61.0
59.0
57.0
55.0
53.0
51.0
49.0

3.68
3.31
2.94
2.58
2.21
1.84
1.47
1.10
0.736
0.552
0.368
2.76
2.48
2.21
1.93
1.66
1.38
1.10
0.828
0.552
0.414
0.276
2.30
2.07
1.84
1.61
1.38
1.15
0.920
0.690
0.460
0.345
0.230
2.07
1.86
1.66
1.45
1.24
1.04
0.828
0.621
0.414

2.25
2.0

1.75

1.5

1.25

800
1.10

0.15
0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090

cm2/ = I2 Ct /p (I = Current, Ct = temperature factor, p = surface load W/cm2)

900
1.11

4.026
6.52
0.679
0.755
0.849
0.970
1.13
1.36
1.70
2.26
3.40
4.53
7.34
0.776
0.863
0.970
1.11
1.29
1.55
1.94
2.59
3.88
5.18
8.39
1.29
1.51
1.81
2.26
3.02
4.53
6.04
9.06
10.1
11.3
1.81
2.17
2.72
3.62
5.43
7.25
10.9
12.1

1000
1.11

1100
1.12

cm2/1)
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

11.9
7.21
88.3
76.8
65.9
55.6
45.9
36.8
28.3
20.3
13.0
9.5
5.72
70.8
61.4
52.6
44.2
36.3
29.0
22.2
15.8
10.0
7.34
4.41
34.0
27.8
22.1
16.8
11.9
7.51
5.46
3.53
3.16
2.79
20.4
16.1
12.1
8.56
5.34
3.86
2.48
2.22

2.3
1.5
13.4
12.1
10.7
9.4
8.04
6.70
5.36
4.02
2.68
2.01
1.34
11.7
10.5
9.4
8.20
7.03
5.86
4.69
3.52
2.34
1.76
1.17
7.04
6.03
5.03
4.02
3.02
2.01
1.51
1.01
0.905
0.805
5.02
4.19
3.35
2.51
1.67
1.26
0.837
0.753

48.0
47.0
60.0
58.0
56.0
54.0
52.0
50.0
48.0
46.0
44.0
43.0
42.0
55.0
53.0
51.0
49.0
47.0
45.0
43.0
41.0
39.0
38.0
37.0
44.0
42.0
40.0
38.0
36.0
34.0
33.0
32.0
31.8
31.6
37.0
35.0
33.0
31.0
29.0
28.0
27.0
26.8

0.311
0.207
1.84
1.66
1.47
1.29
1.10
0.920
0.736
0.552
0.368
0.276
0.184
1.61
1.45
1.29
1.13
0.966
0.805
0.644
0.483
0.322
0.242
0.161
0.966
0.828
0.690
0.552
0.414
0.276
0.207
0.138
0.124
0.110
0.690
0.575
0.460
0.345
0.230
0.173
0.115
0.104

(cont.)

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook.

57

(cont.)

ALKROTHAL
Ribbon

Alloy

Resistivity
mm2m-1

Density
gcm-3

ALKROTHAL

1.25

7.28

To obtain resistance at working temperature, multiply by the factor Ct in the following table:
at working
the factor
the following
table:
C
20To obtain
100 resistance
200
300
400 temperature,
500
600 multiply
700 by800
900 Ct in
1000
1100
Ct

1.00

1.00

ResisThick- tance
Width ness
at 20 C
mm
mm
/m

1.25
1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

1)

0.080
0.070
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090

13.6
15.5
2.26
2.72
3.40
4.53
6.79
9.06
13.6
15.1
17.0
19.4
22.6
29.3
3.02
3.77
5.03
7.55
10.1
15.1
16.8
18.9
21.6
25.2
30.2
3.40
4.25
5.66
8.49
11.3
17.0
18.9
21.2
24.3
28.3
34.0
4.85
6.47
9.7
12.9
19.4
21.6

1.02

1.03

1.04

1.05

1.08

1.09

cm2/1)
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

ResisThick- tance
Width ness
at 20 C
mm
mm
/m

1.96
1.70
14.1
11.0
8.24
5.74
3.53
2.54
1.62
1.44
1.27
1.10
0.936
0.716
9.27
6.89
4.77
2.91
2.09
1.32
1.18
1.039
0.900
0.763
0.629
7.65
5.65
3.89
2.36
1.68
1.060
0.943
0.829
0.717
0.608
0.500
4.53
3.09
1.85
1.31
0.824
0.733

0.670
0.586
4.02
3.35
2.68
2.01
1.34
1.00
0.670
0.603
0.536
0.469
0.402
0.335
3.01
2.41
1.81
1.21
0.904
0.603
0.543
0.482
0.422
0.362
0.301
2.68
2.14
1.61
1.07
0.804
0.536
0.482
0.429
0.375
0.321
0.268
1.88
1.41
0.938
0.703
0.469
0.422

26.6
26.4
32.0
30.0
28.0
26.0
24.0
23.0
22.0
21.8
21.6
21.4
21.2
21.0
28.0
26.0
24.0
22.0
21.0
20.0
19.8
19.6
19.4
19.2
19.0
26.0
24.0
22.0
20.0
19.0
18.0
17.8
17.6
17.4
17.2
17.0
22.0
20.0
18.0
17.0
16.0
15.8

0.0920
0.0805
0.552
0.460
0.368
0.276
0.184
0.138
0.0920
0.0828
0.0736
0.0644
0.0552
0.0460
0.414
0.331
0.248
0.166
0.124
0.0828
0.0745
0.0662
0.0580
0.0497
0.0414
0.368
0.294
0.221
0.147
0.110
0.0736
0.0662
0.0589
0.0515
0.0442
0.0368
0.258
0.193
0.129
0.097
0.0644
0.0580

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

1.10

0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.040
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.040
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050

cm2/ = I2 Ct /p (I = Current, Ct = temperature factor, p = surface load W/cm2)

1.11

24.3
27.7
32.3
38.8
5.66
7.55
11.3
15.1
22.6
25.2
28.3
32.3
37.7
45.3
56.6
9.06
13.6
18.1
27.2
30.2
34.0
38.8
45.3
54.3
67.9
11.3
17.0
22.6
34.0
37.7
42.5
48.5
56.6
73.4
22.6
30.2
45.3
50.3
56.6
64.7
75.5
90.6

1.11

1.12

cm2/1)
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

0.643
0.555
0.470
0.386
3.53
2.38
1.41
0.994
0.618
0.548
0.480
0.414
0.350
0.287
0.226
1.77
1.030
0.718
0.442
0.391
0.342
0.294
0.247
0.202
0.159
1.24
0.707
0.486
0.294
0.260
0.226
0.194
0.163
0.123
0.442
0.298
0.177
0.155
0.134
0.114
0.0954
0.0773

0.375
0.328
0.281
0.234
1.61
1.21
0.804
0.603
0.402
0.362
0.321
0.281
0.241
0.201
0.161
1.00
0.670
0.502
0.335
0.301
0.268
0.234
0.201
0.167
0.134
0.804
0.536
0.402
0.268
0.241
0.214
0.188
0.161
0.134
0.402
0.301
0.201
0.181
0.161
0.141
0.121
0.100

15.6
15.4
15.2
15.0
20.0
18.0
16.0
15.0
14.0
13.8
13.6
13.4
13.2
13.0
12.8
16.0
14.0
13.0
12.0
11.8
11.6
11.4
11.2
11.0
10.8
14.0
12.0
11.0
10.0
9.80
9.60
9.40
9.20
9.00
10.0
9.00
8.00
7.80
7.60
7.40
7.20
7.00

0.0515
0.0451
0.0386
0.0322
0.221
0.166
0.110
0.0828
0.0552
0.0497
0.0442
0.0386
0.0331
0.0276
0.0221
0.138
0.0920
0.0690
0.0460
0.0414
0.0368
0.0322
0.0276
0.0230
0.0184
0.110
0.0736
0.0552
0.0368
0.0331
0.0294
0.0258
0.0221
0.0184
0.0552
0.0414
0.0276
0.0248
0.0221
0.0193
0.0166
0.0138

58

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

NIKROTHAL 80, 70
Wire

Standard
stock items

Alloy

Diameter range
mm

Resistivity
mm2m-1

Density
gcm-3

NIKROTHAL 80
NIKROTHAL 70

8.0-0.020
10.0-0.50

1.09
1.18

8.30
8.10

To obtain resistance at working temperature, multiply by the factor Ct in the following table:
C
20
N 80 Ct 1.00
N 70 Ct 1.00

100
1.01
1.01

200
1.02
1.02

300
1.03
1.03

400
1.04
1.04

500
1.05
1.05

600
1.04
1.05

700
1.04
1.04

800
1.04
1.04

900
1.04
1.04

1000
1.05
1.05

1100
1.06
1.06

1200
1.07
1.06

To get NIKROTHAL 70, multiply the figures in the table with:


Resistance
at 20 C
cm2/
/m
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

1.083

0.976

0.924

Diameter
mm

Resistance
at 20 C
cm2/1)
/m
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

10
9.5
9.0
8.25
8.0
7.5
7.0
6.5
6.0
5.83
5.5
5.0
4.75
4.5
4.25
4.0
3.75
3.65
3.5
3.25
3.0
2.8
2.6
2.5
2.3
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.5
1.4

0.0139
0.0154
0.0171
0.0204
0.0217
0.0247
0.0283
0.0328
0.0386
0.0408
0.0459
0.0555
0.0615
0.0685
0.0768
0.0867
0.0987
0.104
0.113
0.131
0.154
0.177
0.205
0.222
0.262
0.347
0.428
0.542
0.617
0.708

652
588
528
444
417
367
319
275
235
222
197
163
147
132
118
104
91.7
86.8
79.9
68.9
58.7
51.1
44.1
40.7
34.5
26.1
21.1
16.7
14.7
12.8

314
298
283
259
251
236
220
204
188
183
173
157
149
141
134
126
118
115
110
102
94.2
88.0
81.7
78.5
72.3
62.8
56.5
50.3
47.1
44.0

78.5
70.9
63.6
53.5
50.3
44.2
38.5
33.2
28.3
26.7
23.8
19.6
17.7
15.9
14.2
12.6
11.0
10.5
9.62
8.30
7.07
6.16
5.31
4.91
4.15
3.14
2.54
2.01
1.77
1.54

1)

22637
19408
16502
12711
11590
9550
7764
6217
4890
4486
3766
2830
2426
2063
1738
1449
1194
1101
971
777
611
497
398
354
275
181
132
92.7
76.4
62.1

Diameter
mm

Resistance
at 20 C
cm2/1)
/m
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Cross
Surface sectional
area
area
cm2/m mm2

1.3
1.2
1.0
0.95
0.90
0.85
0.80
0.75
0.70
0.65
0.60
0.55
0.50
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.32
0.30
0.28
0.25
0.22
0.20
0.19
0.18
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.13

0.821
0.964
1.39
1.54
1.71
1.92
2.17
2.47
2.83
3.28
3.86
4.59
5.55
6.85
8.67
11.3
13.6
15.4
17.7
22.2
28.7
34.7
38.4
42.8
48.0
54.2
61.7
70.8
82.1

11.0
9.39
6.52
5.88
5.28
4.71
4.17
3.67
3.19
2.75
2.35
1.97
1.63
1.32
1.04
0.799
0.668
0.587
0.511
0.407
0.316
0.261
0.235
0.211
0.188
0.167
0.147
0.128
0.110

40.8
37.7
31.4
29.8
28.3
26.7
25.1
23.6
22.0
20.4
18.8
17.3
15.7
14.1
12.6
11.0
10.1
9.42
8.80
7.85
6.91
6.28
5.97
5.65
5.34
5.03
4.71
4.40
4.08

cm2/ = I2 Ct /p (I = Current, Ct = temperature factor, p = surface load W/cm2)

49.7
39.1
22.6
19.4
16.5
13.9
11.6
9.55
7.76
6.22
4.89
3.77
2.83
2.06
1.45
0.971
0.742
0.611
0.497
0.354
0.241
0.181
0.155
0.132
0.111
0.0927
0.0764
0.0621
0.0497

1.33
1.13
0.785
0.709
0.636
0.567
0.503
0.442
0.385
0.332
0.283
0.238
0.196
0.159
0.126
0.0962
0.0804
0.0707
0.0616
0.0491
0.0380
0.0314
0.0284
0.0254
0.0227
0.0201
0.0177
0.0154
0.0133

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook.

59

NIKROTHAL 60
Wire

Alloy

Diameter range
mm

Resistivity
mm2m-1

Density
gcm-3

NIKROTHAL 60

6.0-0.015

1.11

8.20

To obtain resistance at working temperature, multiply by the factor Ct in the following table:
C
Ct

20
1.00

Diameter
mm

Resistance
at 20 C
cm2/1)
/m
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

6.0
5.5
5.0
4.75
4.5
4.25
4.0
3.75
3.5
3.25
3.0
2.8
2.6
2.5
2.2
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.95
0.90
0.85
0.80

0.0393
0.0467
0.0565
0.0626
0.0698
0.0782
0.0883
0.101
0.115
0.134
0.157
0.180
0.209
0.226
0.292
0.353
0.391
0.436
0.489
0.552
0.628
0.721
0.836
0.981
1.17
1.41
1.57
1.74
1.96
2.21

232
195
161
145
130
116
103
90.6
78.9
68.0
58.0
50.5
43.5
40.3
31.2
25.8
23.2
20.9
18.6
16.5
14.5
12.6
10.9
9.27
7.79
6.44
5.81
5.22
4.65
4.12

188
173
157
149
141
134
126
118
110
102
94.2
88.0
81.7
78.5
69.1
62.8
59.7
56.5
53.4
50.3
47.1
44.0
40.8
37.7
34.6
31.4
29.8
28.3
26.7
25.1

28.3
23.8
19.6
17.7
15.9
14.2
12.6
11.0
9.62
8.30
7.07
6.16
5.31
4.91
3.80
3.14
2.84
2.54
2.27
2.01
1.77
1.54
1.33
1.13
0.950
0.785
0.709
0.636
0.567
0.503

1)

100
1.02

4801
3698
2779
2382
2026
1706
1423
1172
953
763
600
488
391
347
237
178
152
130
109
91.0
75.0
61.0
48.8
38.4
29.6
22.2
19.1
16.2
13.7
11.4

200
1.04

300
1.05

400
1.06

500
1.08

600
1.09

700
1.09

800
1.10

900
1.10

1000
1.11

1100
1.12

1200
1.13

Diameter
mm

Resistance
at 20 C
cm2/1)
/m
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

0.75
0.70
0.65
0.60
0.55
0.50
0.475
0.45
0.425
0.40
0.375
0.35
0.32
0.30
0.28
0.26
0.25
0.24
0.23
0.22
0.21
0.20
0.19
0.18
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.13

2.51
2.88
3.35
3.93
4.67
5.65
6.26
6.98
7.82
8.83
10.1
11.5
13.8
15.7
18.0
20.9
22.6
24.5
26.7
29.2
32.0
35.3
39.1
43.6
48.9
55.2
62.8
72.1
83.6

3.62
3.16
2.72
2.32
1.95
1.61
1.45
1.30
1.16
1.03
0.906
0.789
0.659
0.580
0.505
0.435
0.403
0.371
0.341
0.312
0.284
0.258
0.232
0.209
0.186
0.165
0.145
0.126
0.109

23.6
22.0
20.4
18.8
17.3
15.7
14.9
14.1
13.4
12.6
11.8
11.0
10.1
9.42
8.80
8.17
7.85
7.54
7.23
6.91
6.60
6.28
5.97
5.65
5.34
5.03
4.71
4.40
4.08

cm2/ = I2 Ct /p (I = Current, Ct = temperature factor, p = surface load W/cm2)

9.38
7.62
6.10
4.80
3.70
2.78
2.38
2.03
1.71
1.42
1.17
0.953
0.728
0.600
0.488
0.391
0.347
0.307
0.270
0.237
0.206
0.178
0.152
0.130
0.109
0.0910
0.0750
0.0610
0.0488

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

0.442
0.385
0.332
0.283
0.238
0.196
0.177
0.159
0.142
0.126

60

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

NIKROTHAL 40, 20
Wire

Alloy

Diameter range
mm

Resistivity
mm2m-1

Density
gcm-3

NIKROTHAL 40
NIKROTHAL 20

6.0-0.10
6.0-0.10

1.04
0.95

7.90
7.80

To obtain resistance at working temperature, multiply by the factor Ct in the following table:
C
20
N40 Ct 1.00
N20 Ct 1.00

100
1.03
1.04

200
1.06
1.10

300
1.10
1.14

400
1.12
1.17

500
1.15
1.21

600
1.17
1.12

700
1.19
1.16

800
1.21
1.28

900
1.22
1.30

1000
1.23
1.32

1100
1.24
1.34

To get NIKROTHAL 20, multiply the figures in the table with:


Resistance
at 20 C
cm2/
/m
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

0.913

0.987

1.095

Diameter
mm

Resistance
at 20 C
cm2/1)
/m
at 20 C

6.0
5.5
5.0
4.75
4.5
4.25
4.0
3.75
3.5
3.25
3.0
2.8
2.6
2.5
2.2
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.95
0.90
0.85
0.80

0.0368
0.0438
0.0530
0.0587
0.0654
0.0733
0.0828
0.094
0.108
0.125
0.147
0.169
0.196
0.212
0.274
0.331
0.367
0.409
0.458
0.517
0.589
0.676
0.784
0.920
1.09
1.32
1.47
1.63
1.83
2.07

1)

5125
3947
2966
2543
2162
1821
1518
1251
1017
814
641
521
417
371
253
190
163
138
117
97.2
80.1
65.1
52.1
41.0
31.6
23.7
20.3
17.3
14.6
12.1

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

223
188
155
140
126
112
99.3
87.3
76.0
65.5
55.8
48.6
41.9
38.8
30.0
24.8
22.4
20.1
17.9
15.9
14.0
12.2
10.5
8.93
7.51
6.20
5.60
5.03
4.48
3.97

188
173
157
149
141
134
126
118
110
102
94.2
88.0
81.7
78.5
69.1
62.8
59.7
56.5
53.4
50.3
47.1
44.0
40.8
37.7
34.6
31.4
29.8
28.3
26.7
25.1

28.3
23.8
19.6
17.7
15.9
14.2
12.6
11.0
9.62
8.30
7.07
6.16
5.31
4.91
3.80
3.14
2.84
2.54
2.27
2.01
1.77
1.54
1.33
1.13
0.950
0.785
0.709
0.636
0.567
0.503

Diameter
mm

Resistance
at 20 C
cm2/1)
/m
at 20 C

0.75
0.70
0.65
0.60
0.55
0.50
0.475
0.45
0.425
0.40
0.375
0.35
0.32
0.30
0.28
0.26
0.25
0.24
0.23
0.22
0.21
0.20
0.19
0.18
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.13

2.35
2.70
3.13
3.68
4.38
5.30
5.87
6.54
7.33
8.28
9.4
10.8
12.9
14.7
16.9
19.6
21.2
23.0
25.0
27.4
30.0
33.1
36.7
40.9
45.8
51.7
58.9
67.6
78.4

cm2/ = I2 Ct /p (I = Current, Ct = temperature factor, p = surface load W/cm2)

10.01
8.14
6.52
5.12
3.95
2.97
2.54
2.16
1.82
1.52
1.25
1.017
0.777
0.641
0.521
0.417
0.371
0.328
0.289
0.253
0.220
0.190
0.163
0.138
0.117
0.0972
0.0801
0.0651
0.0521

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

3.49
3.04
2.62
2.23
1.88
1.55
1.40
1.26
1.12
0.993
0.873
0.760
0.635
0.558
0.486
0.419
0.388
0.357
0.328
0.300
0.274
0.248
0.224
0.201
0.179
0.159
0.140
0.122
0.105

23.6
22.0
20.4
18.8
17.3
15.7
14.9
14.1
13.4
12.6
11.8
11.0
10.1
9.42
8.80
8.17
7.85
7.54
7.23
6.91
6.60
6.28
5.97
5.65
5.34
5.03
4.71
4.40
4.08

0.442
0.385
0.332
0.283
0.238
0.196
0.177
0.159
0.142
0.126
0.110
0.0962
0.0804
0.0707
0.0616
0.0531
0.0491
0.0452
0.0415
0.0380
0.0346
0.0314
0.0284
0.0254
0.0227
0.0201
0.0177
0.0154
0.0133

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook.

61

NIKROTHAL 80, 60, 40


Ribbon

Alloy

Resistivity
mm2m-1

Density
gcm-3

NIKROTHAL 80
NIKROTHAL 60
NIKROTHAL 40

1.09
1.11
1.04

8.30
8.20
7.90

To obtain resistance at working temperature, multiply by the factor Ct in the following table:
C
N80 Ct
N60 Ct
N40 Ct

20
1.00
1.00
1.00

100
1.01
1.02
1.03

200
1.02
1.04
1.06

300
1.03
1.05
1.10

400
1.04
1.06
1.12

500
1.05
1.08
1.15

600
1.04
1.09
1.17

700
1.04
1.09
1.19

800
1.04
1.10
1.21

900
1.04
1.10
1.22

1000
1.05
1.11
1.23

1100
1.06
1.12
1.24

1200
1.07
1.13

To get N60 or N40, multiply the figures in the table with:

N60
N40

Resistance
at 20 C
cm2/
/m
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

1.018
0.954

0.988
0.952

ResisThick- tance
Width ness
at 20 C
mm
mm
/m

2.5

2.0

11)

1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80

0.296
0.329
0.370
0.423
0.494
0.592
0.740
0.987
1.48
1.97
2.96
0.395
0.439
0.494
0.564
0.658
0.790
0.987
1.32
1.97
2.63
3.95
0.474
0.527
0.592
0.677
0.790
0.948
1.18
1.58
2.37
3.16
4.74
0.592
0.658
0.740

0.982
1.048

cm2/1)
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

338
298
259
222
186
152
119
87.1
56.7
42.0
27.7
203
178
154
131
109
88.6
68.9
50.1
32.4
23.9
15.7
148
129
111
94.5
78.5
63.3
49.0
35.4
22.8
16.8
11.0
101
88.1
75.6

30.5
27.5
24.4
21.4
18.3
15.3
12.2
9.16
6.11
4.58
3.05
22.9
20.6
18.3
16.0
13.7
11.5
9.16
6.87
4.58
3.44
2.29
19.1
17.2
15.3
13.4
11.5
9.55
7.64
5.73
3.82
2.86
1.91
15.3
13.7
12.2

100
98.0
96.0
94.0
92.0
90.0
88.0
86.0
84.0
83.0
82.0
80.0
78.0
76.0
74.0
72.0
70.0
68.0
66.0
64.0
63.0
62.0
70.0
68.0
66.0
64.0
62.0
60.0
58.0
56.0
54.0
53.0
52.0
60.0
58.0
56.0

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

ResisThick- tance
Width ness
at 20 C
mm
mm
/m

3.68
3.31
2.94
2.58
2.21
1.84
1.47
1.10
0.736
0.552
0.368
2.76
2.48
2.21
1.93
1.66
1.38
1.10
0.828
0.552
0.414
0.276
2.30
2.07
1.84
1.61
1.38
1.15
0.920
0.690
0.460
0.345
0.230
1.84
1.66
1.47

2.0

1.8

1.5

1.2

0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50

cm2/ = I2 Ct /p (I = Current, Ct = temperature factor, p = surface load W/cm2)

0.846
0.987
1.18
1.48
1.97
2.96
3.95
5.92
0.658
0.731
0.823
0.940
1.10
1.32
1.65
2.19
3.29
4.39
6.58
0.790
0.878
0.987
1.13
1.32
1.58
1.97
2.63
3.95
5.27
7.90
8.78
9.87
1.23
1.41
1.65
1.97

cm2/1)
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

63.8
52.7
42.2
32.4
23.3
14.9
10.9
7.09
85.1
73.8
63.2
53.2
43.8
34.9
26.7
19.1
12.2
8.89
5.77
63.3
54.7
46.6
39.0
31.9
25.3
19.2
13.7
8.61
6.27
4.05
3.62
3.20
32.4
26.9
21.9
17.2

10.7
9.16
7.64
6.11
4.58
3.05
2.29
1.53
13.7
12.4
11.0
9.62
8.25
6.87
5.50
4.12
2.75
2.06
1.37
11.5
10.3
9.16
8.02
6.87
5.73
4.58
3.44
2.29
1.72
1.15
1.03
0.916
7.33
6.41
5.50
4.58

54.0
52.0
50.0
48.0
46.0
44.0
43.0
42.0
56.0
54.0
52.0
50.0
48.0
46.0
44.0
42.0
40.0
39.0
38.0
50.0
48.0
46.0
44.0
42.0
40.0
38.0
36.0
34.0
33.0
32.0
31.8
31.6
40.0
38.0
36.0
34.0

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

1.29
1.10
0.920
0.736
0.552
0.368
0.276
0.184
1.66
1.49
1.32
1.16
0.994
0.828
0.662
0.497
0.331
0.248
0.166
1.38
1.24
1.10
0.966
0.828
0.690
0.552
0.414
0.276
0.207
0.138
0.124
0.110
0.883
0.773
0.662
0.552

(cont.)

62

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

(cont.)

NIKROTHAL 80, 60, 40


Ribbon
ResisThick- tance
Width ness
at 20 C
mm
mm
/m

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7
1)

0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.60
0.50

2.47
3.29
4.94
6.58
9.87
11.0
12.3
14.1
1.48
1.69
1.97
2.37
2.96
3.95
5.92
7.90
11.8
13.2
14.8
16.9
19.7
23.7
1.88
2.19
2.63
3.29
4.39
6.58
8.78
13.2
14.6
16.5
18.8
21.9
26.3
2.12
2.47
2.96
3.70
4.94
7.40
9.87
14.8
16.5
18.5
21.2
24.7
29.6
2.82
3.39

cm /
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

13.0
9.12
5.67
4.10
2.63
2.35
2.07
1.80
24.3
20.1
16.2
12.7
9.45
6.58
4.05
2.91
1.86
1.66
1.46
1.26
1.07
0.886
17.0
13.7
10.6
7.90
5.47
3.34
2.39
1.52
1.35
1.19
1.03
0.875
0.722
14.2
11.3
8.78
6.48
4.46
2.70
1.92
1.22
1.08
0.951
0.822
0.697
0.574
9.22
7.09

3.67
2.75
1.83
1.37
0.916
0.825
0.733
0.641
6.11
5.35
4.58
3.82
3.05
2.29
1.53
1.15
0.764
0.687
0.611
0.535
0.458
0.382
4.81
4.12
3.44
2.75
2.06
1.37
1.03
0.687
0.619
0.550
0.481
0.412
0.344
4.28
3.67
3.05
2.44
1.83
1.22
0.916
0.611
0.550
0.489
0.428
0.367
0.305
3.21
2.67

32.0
30.0
28.0
27.0
26.0
25.8
25.6
25.4
36.0
34.0
32.0
30.0
28.0
26.0
24.0
23.0
22.0
21.8
21.6
21.4
21.2
21.0
32.0
30.0
28.0
26.0
24.0
22.0
21.0
20.0
19.8
19.6
19.4
19.2
19.0
30.0
28.0
26.0
24.0
22.0
20.0
19.0
18.0
17.8
17.6
17.4
17.2
17.0
26.0
24.0

1)

Alloy

Resistivity
mm2m-1

Density
gcm-3

NIKROTHAL 80
NIKROTHAL 60
NIKROTHAL 40

1.09
1.11
1.04

8.30
8.20
7.90

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

ResisThick- tance
Width ness
at 20 C
mm
mm
/m

0.442
0.331
0.221
0.166
0.110
0.099
0.088
0.077
0.736
0.644
0.552
0.460
0.368
0.276
0.184
0.138
0.0920
0.0828
0.0736
0.0644
0.0552
0.0460
0.580
0.497
0.414
0.331
0.248
0.166
0.124
0.0828
0.0745
0.0662
0.0580
0.0497
0.0414
0.515
0.442
0.368
0.294
0.221
0.147
0.110
0.0736
0.0662
0.0589
0.0515
0.0442
0.0368
0.386
0.322

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.040
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.040
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050

cm2/ = I2 Ct /p (I = Current, Ct = temperature factor, p = surface load W/cm2)

4.23
5.64
8.46
11.3
16.9
18.8
21.2
24.2
28.2
33.9
3.95
4.94
6.58
9.87
13.2
19.7
21.9
24.7
28.2
32.9
39.5
49.4
7.90
11.8
15.8
23.7
26.3
29.6
33.9
39.5
47.4
59.2
9.87
14.8
19.7
29.6
32.9
37.0
42.3
49.4
59.2
19.7
26.3
39.5
43.9
49.4
56.4
65.8
79.0

cm /
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

5.20
3.54
2.13
1.51
0.945
0.840
0.737
0.637
0.539
0.443
5.57
4.05
2.73
1.62
1.14
0.709
0.629
0.551
0.475
0.401
0.329
0.259
2.03
1.18
0.823
0.506
0.448
0.392
0.337
0.284
0.232
0.182
1.42
0.810
0.557
0.338
0.298
0.259
0.222
0.186
0.152
0.506
0.342
0.203
0.178
0.154
0.131
0.109
0.0886

2.14
1.60
1.07
0.802
0.535
0.481
0.428
0.374
0.321
0.267
2.29
1.83
1.37
0.916
0.687
0.458
0.412
0.367
0.321
0.275
0.229
0.183
1.15
0.764
0.573
0.382
0.344
0.305
0.267
0.229
0.191
0.153
0.916
0.611
0.458
0.305
0.275
0.244
0.214
0.183
0.153
0.458
0.344
0.229
0.206
0.183
0.160
0.137
0.115

22.0
20.0
18.0
17.0
16.0
15.8
15.6
15.4
15.2
15.0
22.0
20.0
18.0
16.0
15.0
14.0
13.8
13.6
13.4
13.2
13.0
12.8
16.0
14.0
13.0
12.0
11.8
11.6
11.4
11.2
11.0
10.8
14.0
12.0
11.0
10.0
9.80
9.60
9.40
9.20
9.00
10.0
9.00
8.00
7.80
7.60
7.40
7.20
7.00

1)

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

0.258
0.193
0.129
0.097
0.0644
0.0580
0.0515
0.0451
0.0386
0.0322
0.276
0.221
0.166
0.110
0.0828
0.0552
0.0497
0.0442
0.0386
0.0331
0.0276
0.0221
0.138
0.0920
0.0690
0.0460
0.0414
0.0368
0.0322
0.0276
0.0230
0.0184
0.110
0.0736
0.0552
0.0368
0.0331
0.0294
0.0258
0.0221
0.0184
0.0552
0.0414
0.0276
0.0248
0.0221
0.0193
0.0166
0.0138

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook.

63

NIFETHAL 70 and 52
Wire

Alloy

Diameter range
mm

Resistivity
mm2m-1

Density
gcm-3

NIFETHAL 70
NIFETHAL 52

4.0-0.10
4.0-0.10

0.20
0.43

8.45
8.20

To obtain resistance at working temperature, multiply by the factor Ct in the following table:
C
NIFETHAL 70 Ct
NIFETHAL 52 Ct

20
1.00
1.00

100
1.42
1.33

150
1.68
1.53

200
1.91
1.73

250
2.19
1.93

300
2.47
2.13

350
2.75
2.32

400
3.03
2.49

450
3.34
2.64

500
3.66
2.77

NIFETHAL 70
DiaResistance
meter
at 20 C
cm2/1)
mm
/m
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

NIFETHAL 52
DiaResistance
meter
at 20 C
cm2/1)
mm
/m
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.95
0.90
0.85
0.80
0.75
0.70
0.65
0.60
0.55
0.50
0.475
0.45
0.425
0.40
0.375
0.35
0.32
0.30
0.28
0.26
0.25
0.24
0.23
0.22
0.21
0.20
0.19
0.18
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.10

21.5
19.2
17.0
14.9
13.0
11.2
9.56
8.03
6.64
5.99
5.38
4.79
4.25
3.73
3.25
2.80
2.39
2.01
1.66
1.50
1.34
1.20
1.06
0.933
0.813
0.680
0.597
0.520
0.449
0.415
0.382
0.351
0.321
0.293
0.265
0.240
0.215
0.192
0.170
0.149
0.130
0.112
0.0956
0.0803
0.0664

56.5
53.4
50.3
47.1
44.0
40.8
37.7
34.6
31.4
29.8
28.3
26.7
25.1
23.6
22.0
20.4
18.8
17.3
15.7
14.9
14.1
13.4
12.6
11.8
11.0
10.1
9.42
8.80
8.17
7.85
7.54
7.23
6.91
6.60
6.28
5.97
5.65
5.34
5.03
4.71
4.40
4.08
3.77
3.46
3.14

2.54
2.27
2.01
1.77
1.54
1.33
1.13
0.950
0.785
0.709
0.636
0.567
0.503
0.442
0.385
0.332
0.283
0.238
0.196
0.177
0.159
0.142
0.126
0.110
0.0962
0.0804
0.0707
0.0616
0.0531
0.0491
0.0452
0.0415
0.0380
0.0346
0.0314
0.0284
0.0254
0.0227
0.0201
0.0177
0.0154
0.0133
0.0113
0.00950
0.00785

1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.95
0.90
0.85
0.80
0.75
0.70
0.65
0.60
0.55
0.50
0.475
0.45
0.425
0.40
0.375
0.35
0.32
0.30
0.28
0.26
0.25
0.24
0.23
0.22
0.21
0.20
0.19
0.18
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.10

20.9
18.6
16.5
14.5
12.6
10.9
9.27
7.79
6.44
5.81
5.22
4.65
4.12
3.62
3.16
2.72
2.32
1.95
1.61
1.45
1.30
1.16
1.030
0.906
0.789
0.659
0.580
0.505
0.435
0.403
0.371
0.341
0.312
0.284
0.258
0.232
0.209
0.186
0.165
0.145
0.126
0.1088
0.0927
0.0779
0.0644

56.5
53.4
50.3
47.1
44.0
40.8
37.7
34.6
31.4
29.8
28.3
26.7
25.1
23.6
22.0
20.4
18.8
17.3
15.7
14.9
14.1
13.4
12.6
11.8
11.0
10.1
9.42
8.80
8.17
7.85
7.54
7.23
6.91
6.60
6.28
5.97
5.65
5.34
5.03
4.71
4.40
4.08
3.77
3.46
3.14

2.54
2.27
2.01
1.77
1.54
1.33
1.13
0.950
0.785
0.709
0.636
0.567
0.503
0.442
0.385
0.332
0.283
0.238
0.196
0.177
0.159
0.142
0.126
0.110
0.0962
0.0804
0.0707
0.0616
0.0531
0.0491
0.0452
0.0415
0.0380
0.0346
0.0314
0.0284
0.0254
0.0227
0.0201
0.0177
0.0154
0.0133
0.0113
0.00950
0.00785

1)

0.0786
0.0881
0.0995
0.113
0.130
0.151
0.177
0.210
0.255
0.282
0.314
0.352
0.398
0.453
0.520
0.603
0.707
0.842
1.02
1.13
1.26
1.41
1.59
1.81
2.08
2.49
2.83
3.25
3.77
4.07
4.42
4.81
5.26
5.77
6.37
7.05
7.86
8.81
9.95
11.3
13.0
15.1
17.7
21.0
25.5

719
606
505
416
339
271
213
164
123
106
89.9
75.8
63.2
52.0
42.3
33.9
26.6
20.5
15.4
13.2
11.2
9.47
7.90
6.51
5.29
4.04
3.33
2.71
2.17
1.93
1.71
1.50
1.31
1.14
0.987
0.846
0.719
0.606
0.505
0.416
0.339
0.271
0.213
0.164
0.123

0.169
0.189
0.214
0.243
0.279
0.324
0.380
0.452
0.547
0.607
0.676
0.758
0.855
0.973
1.12
1.30
1.52
1.81
2.19
2.43
2.70
3.03
3.42
3.89
4.47
5.35
6.08
6.98
8.10
8.76
9.51
10.3
11.3
12.4
13.7
15.2
16.9
18.9
21.4
24.3
27.9
32.4
38.0
45.2
54.7

cm2/ = I2 Ct /p (I = Current, Ct = temperature factor, p = surface load W/cm2)

335
282
235
194
157
126
99.2
76.4
57.4
49.2
41.8
35.2
29.4
24.2
19.7
15.8
12.4
9.55
7.17
6.15
5.23
4.40
3.67
3.03
2.46
1.88
1.55
1.26
1.01
0.897
0.793
0.698
0.611
0.531
0.459
0.394
0.335
0.282
0.235
0.194
0.157
0.126
0.0992
0.0764
0.0574

64

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Copper-Nickel
Wire

Alloy

Diameter range
mm

Resistivity
mm2m-1

Density
gcm-3

CUPROTHAL 49
MANGANINA 43
CUPROTHAL 30
CUPROTHAL 15
CUPROTHAL 10
CUPROTHAL 05

4.0-0.10
8.0-0.10
4.0-0.10
4.0-0.10
4.0-0.10
4.0-0.10

0.49
0.43
0.30
0.15
0.10
0.05

8.90
8.40
8.90
8.90
8.90
8.90

To obtain resistance at working temperature, multiply by the factor Ct in the following table:
20 C
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000

Alloy
CUPROTHAL 49
MANGANINA 43*
CUPROTHAL 30
CUPROTHAL 15
CUPROTHAL 10
CUPROTHAL 05

100 C
1.002
1.020
1.035
1.060
1.110

200 C
1.002
1.030
1.070
1.110
1.250

300 C
1.001
1.040
1.110
1.190
1.400

400 v
1.005
1.060
1.150
-

500 C
1.017
-

600 C
1.037
-

* The use of this alloy is limited to the range 15-35 C.


Multiply the figures in the table with:
Resistance
at 20 C
cm2/
/m
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

1.0
0.877
0.612
0.306
0.204
0.102

1.0
0.94
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

1.0
1.15
1.63
3.29
4.93
9.86

Diameter
mm

Resistance
at 20 C
cm2/1)
/m
at 20 C

10
9.5
9.0
8.25
8.0
7.5
7.35
7.0
6.5
6.0
5.5
5.0
4.75
4.5
4.25
4.0
3.75
3.5
3.25
3.0
2.8
2.6
2.5
2.2
2.0
1.9
1.8

0.0062
0.0069
0.0077
0.0092
0.0097
0.0111
0.0115
0.0127
0.0148
0.0173
0.0206
0.0250
0.0277
0.0308
0.0345
0.0390
0.0444
0.0509
0.0591
0.0693
0.0796
0.0923
0.100
0.129
0.156
0.173
0.193

1)

50355
43173
36709
28275
25782
21244
19994
17272
13829
10877
8378
6294
5397
4589
3866
3223
2655
2159
1729
1360
1105
885
787
536
403
345
294

CUPROTHAL 49
MANGANINA 43
CUPROTHAL 30
CUPROTHAL 15
CUPROTHAL 10
CUPROTHAL 05

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

Diameter
mm

Resistance
at 20 C
cm2/1)
/m
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

699
631
566
476
447
393
378
343
295
252
211
175
158
142
126
112
98.3
85.6
73.8
62.9
54.8
47.3
43.7
33.8
28.0
25.2
22.6

314
298
283
259
251
236
231
220
204
188
173
157
149
141
134
126
118
110
102
94.2
88.0
81.7
78.5
69.1
62.8
59.7
56.5

78.5
70.9
63.6
53.5
50.3
44.2
42.4
38.5
33.2
28.3
23.8
19.6
17.7
15.9
14.2
12.6
11.0
9.62
8.30
7.07
6.16
5.31
4.91
3.80
3.14
2.84
2.54

1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.95
0.90
0.85
0.80
0.75
0.70
0.65
0.60
0.55
0.50
0.475
0.45
0.425
0.40
0.375
0.35
0.32
0.30
0.28

0.216
0.244
0.277
0.318
0.369
0.433
0.516
0.624
0.691
0.770
0.864
0.975
1.11
1.27
1.48
1.73
2.06
2.50
2.77
3.08
3.45
3.90
4.44
5.09
6.09
6.93
7.96

20.2
17.9
15.7
13.7
11.8
10.1
8.46
6.99
6.31
5.66
5.05
4.47
3.93
3.43
2.95
2.52
2.11
1.75
1.58
1.42
1.26
1.12
0.983
0.856
0.716
0.629
0.548

53.4
50.3
47.1
44.0
40.8
37.7
34.6
31.4
29.8
28.3
26.7
25.1
23.6
22.0
20.4
18.8
17.3
15.7
14.9
14.1
13.4
12.6
11.8
11.0
10.1
9.42
8.80

cm2/ = I2 Ct /p (I = Current, Ct = temperature factor, p = surface load W/cm2)

247
206
170
138
111
87.0
67.0
50.4
43.2
36.7
30.9
25.8
21.2
17.3
13.8
10.9
8.38
6.29
5.40
4.59
3.87
3.22
2.66
2.16
1.65
1.36
1.11

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

2.27
2.01
1.77
1.54
1.33
1.13
0.950
0.785
0.709
0.636
0.567
0.503
0.442
0.385
0.332
0.283
0.238
0.196
0.177
0.159
0.142
0.126

(cont.)

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook.

65

(cont.)

Copper-Nickel
Wire

Alloy

Diameter range
mm

Resistivity
mm2m-1

Density
gcm-3

CUPROTHAL 49
MANGANINA 43
CUPROTHAL 30
CUPROTHAL 15
CUPROTHAL 10
CUPROTHAL 05

4,0-0.10
8.0-0.10
4.0-0.10
4.0-0.10
4.0-0.10
4.0-0.10

0.49
0.43
0.30
0.15
0.10
0.05

8.90
8.40
8.90
8.90
8.90
8.90

To obtain resistance at working temperature, multiply by the factor Ct in the following table:
20 C
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000

Alloy
CUPROTHAL 49
MANGANINA 43*
CUPROTHAL 30
CUPROTHAL 15
CUPROTHAL 10
CUPROTHAL 05

100 C
1.002
1.020
1.035
1.060
1.110

200 C
1.002
1.030
1.070
1.110
1.250

300 C
1.001
1.040
1.110
1.190
1.400

400 v
1.005
1.060
1.150
-

500 C
1.017
-

600 C
1.037
-

* The use of this alloy is limited to the range 15-35 C.


Multiply the figures in the table with:
Resistance
at 20 C
cm2/
/m
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

1.0
0.877
0.612
0.306
0.204
0.102

1.0
0.94
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

1.0
1.15
1.63
3.29
4.93
9.86

CUPROTHAL 49
MANGANINA 43
CUPROTHAL 30
CUPROTHAL 15
CUPROTHAL 10
CUPROTHAL 05

Diameter
mm

Resistance
at 20 C
cm2/1)
/m
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

0.26
0.25
0.24
0.23
0.22
0.21
0.20

9.23
10.0
10.8
11.8
12.9
14.1
15.6

0.473
0.437
0.403
0.370
0.338
0.308
0.280

8.17
7.85
7.54
7.23
6.91
6.60
6.28

0.885
0.787
0.696
0.613
0.536
0.466
0.403

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

Diameter
mm

Resistance
at 20 C
cm2/1)
/m
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

0.19
0.18
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.13

17.3
19.3
21.6
24.4
27.7
31.8
36.9

0.252
0.226
0.202
0.179
0.157
0.137
0.118

5.97
5.65
5.34
5.03
4.71
4.40
4.08

0.345
0.294
0.247
0.2063
0.1699
0.1382
0.1106

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

1)

cm2/ = I2 Ct /p (I = Current, Ct = temperature factor, p = surface load W/cm2)

66

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Copper-Nickel
Ribbon

Alloy

Resistivity
mm2m-1

Density
gcm-3

CUPROTHAL 49

0.49

8.90

To obtain resistance at working temperature, multiply by the factor Ct in the following table:
Alloy
CUPROTHAL 49

ResisThick- tance
Width ness
at 20 C
mm
mm
/m

2.5

2.0

1)

1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10

0.133
0.148
0.166
0.190
0.222
0.266
0.333
0.444
0.666
0.888
1.33
0.178
0.197
0.222
0.254
0.296
0.355
0.444
0.592
0.888
1.18
1.78
0.213
0.237
0.266
0.304
0.355
0.426
0.533
0.710
1.07
1.42
2.13
0.266
0.296
0.333
0.380
0.444
0.533
0.666
0.888
1.33
1.78
2.66

20 C
1.000

100 C
1.002

200 C
1.002

cm /
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

751
662
577
494
415
338
264
193.8
126.2
93.5
61.6
451
395
342
292
243
197
153
112
72.1
53.2
34.9
329
287
248
210
175
141
109
78.9
50.7
37.3
24.4
225
196.0
168
142
117
93.9
72.1
51.8
33.0
24.2
15.77

32.8
29.5
26.2
22.9
19.7
16.4
13.1
9.83
6.55
4.91
3.28
24.6
22.1
19.7
17.2
14.7
12.3
9.83
7.37
4.91
3.68
2.46
20.5
18.4
16.4
14.3
12.3
10.2
8.19
6.14
4.09
3.07
2.05
16.4
14.7
13.1
11.5
9.83
8.19
6.55
4.91
3.28
2.46
1.64

100
98.0
96.0
94.0
92.0
90.0
88.0
86.0
84.0
83.0
82.0
80.0
78.0
76.0
74.0
72.0
70.0
68.0
66.0
64.0
63.0
62.0
70.0
68.0
66.0
64.0
62.0
60.0
58.0
56.0
54.0
53.0
52.0
60.0
58.0
56.0
54.0
52.0
50.0
48.0
46.0
44.0
43.0
42.0

1)

300 C
1.001

400 C
1.005

500 C
1.017

600 C
1.037

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

ResisThick- tance
Width ness
at 20 C
mm
mm
/m

3.68
3.31
2.94
2.58
2.21
1.84
1.47
1.10
0.736
0.552
0.368
2.76
2.48
2.21
1.93
1.66
1.38
1.10
0.828
0.552
0.414
0.276
2.30
2.07
1.84
1.61
1.38
1.15
0.920
0.690
0.460
0.345
0.230
1.84
1.66
1.47
1.29
1.10
0.920
0.736
0.552
0.368
0.276
0.184

1.8

1.5

1.2

1.0

1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
1.0
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15

cm2/ = I2 Ct /p (I = Current, Ct = temperature factor, p = surface load W/cm2)

0.296
0.329
0.370
0.423
0.493
0.592
0.740
0.986
1.48
1.97
2.96
0.355
0.395
0.444
0.507
0.592
0.710
0.888
1.18
1.78
2.37
3.55
3.95
4.44
0.555
0.634
0.740
0.888
1.11
1.48
2.22
2.96
4.44
4.93
5.55
6.34
0.67
0.76
0.89
1.1
1.3
1.8
2.7
3.6

cm /
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

189
164
141
118
97.3
77.7
59.5
42.6
27.0
19.77
12.84
141
122
104
86.7
71.0
56.3
42.8
30.4
19.2
13.9
9.01
8.06
7.12
72.1
59.9
48.7
38.3
28.8
20.3
12.6
9.12
5.86
5.23
4.61
4.01
54.1
44.7
36.0
28.2
21.0
14.6
9.01
6.48

14.7
13.3
11.8
10.3
8.84
7.37
5.90
4.42
2.95
2.21
1.47
12.3
11.1
9.83
8.60
7.37
6.14
4.91
3.68
2.46
1.84
1.23
1.11
0.983
7.86
6.88
5.90
4.91
3.93
2.95
1.97
1.47
0.983
0.884
0.786
0.688
6.55
5.73
4.91
4.09
3.28
2.46
1.64
1.23

56.0
54.0
52.0
50.0
48.0
46.0
44.0
42.0
40.0
39.0
38.0
50.0
48.0
46.0
44.0
42.0
40.0
38.0
36.0
34.0
33.0
32.0
31.8
31.6
40.0
38.0
36.0
34.0
32.0
30.0
28.0
27.0
26.0
25.8
25.6
25.4
36.0
34.0
32.0
30.0
28.0
26.0
24.0
23.0

1)

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

1.66
1.49
1.32
1.16
0.994
0.828
0.662
0.497
0.331
0.248
0.166
1.38
1.24
1.10
0.966
0.828
0.690
0.552
0.414
0.276
0.207
0.138
0.124
0.110
0.883
0.773
0.662
0.552
0.442
0.331
0.221
0.166
0.110
0.099
0.088
0.077
0.736
0.644
0.552
0.460
0.368
0.276
0.184
0.138

(cont.)

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook.

67

(cont.)

Copper-Nickel
Ribbon

Alloy

Resistivity
mm2m-1

Density
gcm-3

CUPROTHAL 49

0.49

8.90

To obtain resistance at working temperature, multiply by the factor Ct in the following table:
Alloy
CUPROTHAL 49

ResisThick- tance
Width ness
at 20 C
mm
mm
/m

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

1)

0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070

5.3
5.9
6.7
7.6
8.9
10.7
0.85
0.99
1.2
1.5
2.0
3.0
3.9
5.9
6.6
7.4
8.5
9.9
11.8
0.951
1.11
1.33
1.66
2.22
3.33
4.44
6.66
7.40
8.32
9.51
11.1
13.3
1.27
1.52
1.90
2.54
3.80
5.07
7.61
8.45
9.51
10.9

20 C
1.000

100 C
1.002

200 C
1.002

cm /
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

4.13
3.68
3.24
2.81
2.39
1.97
37.9
30.4
23.7
17.6
12.2
7.44
5.32
3.38
3.01
2.65
2.29
1.95
1.61
31.5
25.2
19.53
14.42
9.91
6.01
4.28
2.70
2.41
2.11
1.83
1.55
1.28
20.50
15.77
11.57
7.89
4.73
3.35
2.10
1.87
1.64
1.42

0.819
0.737
0.655
0.573
0.491
0.409
5.16
4.42
3.68
2.95
2.21
1.47
1.11
0.737
0.663
0.590
0.516
0.442
0.368
4.59
3.93
3.28
2.62
1.97
1.31
0.983
0.655
0.590
0.524
0.459
0.393
0.328
3.44
2.87
2.29
1.72
1.15
0.860
0.573
0.516
0.459
0.401

22.0
21.8
21.6
21.4
21.2
21.0
32.0
30.0
28.0
26.0
24.0
22.0
21.0
20.0
19.8
19.6
19.4
19.2
19.0
30.0
28.0
26.0
24.0
22.0
20.0
19.0
18.0
17.8
17.6
17.4
17.2
17.0
26.0
24.0
22.0
20.0
18.0
17.0
16.0
15.8
15.6
15.4

1)

300 C
1.001

400 C
1.005

500 C
1.017

600 C
1.037

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

ResisThick- tance
Width ness
at 20 C
mm
mm
/m

0.0920
0.0828
0.0736
0.0644
0.0552
0.0460
0.580
0.497
0.414
0.331
0.248
0.166
0.124
0.0828
0.0745
0.0662
0.0580
0.0497
0.0414
0.515
0.442
0.368
0.294
0.221
0.147
0.110
0.0736
0.0662
0.0589
0.0515
0.0442
0.0368
0.386
0.322
0.258
0.193
0.129
0.0966
0.0644
0.0580
0.0515
0.0451

0.7
0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.060
0.050
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.040
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.040
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.090
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050

cm2/ = I2 Ct /p (I = Current, Ct = temperature factor, p = surface load W/cm2)

12.7
15.2
1.78
2.22
2.96
4.44
5.92
8.88
9.86
11.1
12.7
14.8
17.8
22.2
3.55
5.33
7.10
10.7
11.8
13.3
15.2
17.8
21.3
26.6
4.44
6.66
8.88
13.3
14.8
16.6
19.0
22.2
26.6
8.88
11.8
17.8
19.7
22.2
25.4
29.6
35.5

cm /
at 20 C

Weight
g/m

Surface
area
cm2/m

1.20
0.986
12.4
9.01
6.08
3.60
2.53
1.58
1.40
1.23
1.06
0.892
0.732
0.577
4.51
2.63
1.83
1.13
0.997
0.871
0.749
0.631
0.516
0.406
3.15
1.80
1.24
0.751
0.662
0.577
0.494
0.415
0.338
1.13
0.760
0.451
0.395
0.342
0.292
0.243
0.197

0.344
0.287
2.46
1.97
1.47
0.983
0.737
0.491
0.442
0.393
0.344
0.295
0.246
0.197
1.23
0.819
0.614
0.409
0.368
0.328
0.287
0.246
0.205
0.164
0.983
0.655
0.491
0.328
0.295
0.262
0.229
0.197
0.164
0.491
0.368
0.246
0.221
0.197
0.172
0.147
0.123

15.2
15.0
22.0
20.0
18.0
16.0
15.0
14.0
13.8
13.6
13.4
13.2
13.0
12.8
16.0
14.0
13.0
12.0
11.8
11.6
11.4
11.2
11.0
10.8
14.0
12.0
11.0
10.0
9.80
9.60
9.40
9.20
9.00
10.0
9.00
8.00
7.80
7.60
7.40
7.20
7.00

1)

Cross
sectional
area
mm2

0.0386
0.0322
0.276
0.221
0.166
0.110
0.0828
0.0552
0.0497
0.0442
0.0386
0.0331
0.0276
0.0221
0.138
0.0920
0.0690
0.0460
0.0414
0.0368
0.0322
0.0276
0.0230
0.0184
0.110
0.0736
0.0552
0.0368
0.0331
0.0294
0.0258
0.0221
0.0184
0.0552
0.0414
0.0276
0.0248
0.0221
0.0193
0.0166
0.0138

68

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

10. Appendix
1. List of symbols
The symbols used comply as far as
possible with internationally approved
standards.
The following symbols are used:

Symbol

Meaning

Metric

Unit for
Calculation
Imperial

AC

Surface area of heating conductor

cm2

in2

Width (ribbon or strip)

mm

in

Ct

Temperature factor (ratio of resistivity at operating


temperature to resistivity at room temperature)

Wire diameter

mm

in

Outer coil diameter

mm

in

Current

Length of heating conductor

ft

Le

Coil length

mm

in

Surface load of heating element

W/cm

Power

W/in2
W

in2

Cross-sectional area of heating conductor

mm

RT

Resistance at working temperature

R20

Resistance at room temperature (20 C, 68 F)

Pitch

mm

in

Thickness (ribbon or strip)

mm

in

T.

Temperature

K, C

K, F

Voltage

Temperature coefficient of resistivity

F -1

Density (old marking)

g/cm3

lb/in3

Resistivity

mm2m-1

/smf*/cmf

10

Balancing factor used in the formulas makes possible that the values can be
used with units of section 1:

-1

e.g. wire diameter, d, in [mm] or [in] is different from length of heating


conductor,L in [m] or [ft].

smf = square mil-foot


cmf = circular mil-foot

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

69

2. Formulas and Definitions


The following formulas and definitions are
applied to all applications.
Definition :
Resistivity R

[mm2/m] or [/cmf ]

The resistance of a conductor, R20, is


directly proportional to its length, L and
inversely proportional to its cross-sectional
area, q:
R20 =

L
q

[1]

[]

The proportional constant, is defined as


the resistivity of the material and is
temperature dependent. The unit of is in
metric system [mm2/m] respectively for
imperial system [/cmf ].
Definition :
Temperature factor Ct

[--]

Resistivity or change in resistance with


temperature, is non-linear for most resistance heating alloys. Hence, the temperature
factor, Ct, is often used instead of temperature coefficient. Ct is defined as the ratio
between the resistivity or resistance at some
selected temperature C and the resistivity
or resistance at 20 C (68 F).
RT = Ct R20 []

[2]

Ct =

RT
[--]
R20

[3]

Ct = 1 + ( 20) (Where is in C) [4]

Ct = 1 + ( 68) (Where is in F) [5]


Definition :
Surface load p

[W/cm2] or [W/in2]

The surface load of a heating conductor, p, is


its power, P, divided by its surface area, AC.
p=

P
[W/cm2] or [W/in2]
Ac

[6]

metric / imperial
Wire
AC = d L 10
AC = d L 12

[7]

strip / ribbon
AC = 2 (b + t) L 10
AC = 2 (b + t) L 12

[8]

10

70

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

General formulas

Definition:
Cross sectional area q

U = RT I [V]

[9]

A) Round wire
q=

[W]

P=UI

[10]

[mm2] or [in2]

d2 [mm2] or [in2]
4

[12]

Combining equations [1], [6], [7] and [12]


gives the wire diameter, d:
Combining equations [9] and [10] gives:

U2
R

Rating
I

2.

U
R

U.I
P.R
P
I
Voltage

I.R

P
I2

Current
P
U
P
R
U
I
U2
P
Resistance

Combining equations [2], [6], [9] and [10]


gives:
AC
I2 Ct
=
R20
p

[cm2/] or [in2/] [11]

AC
, used for determining wire,
R20
strip or ribbon size, is tabulated for all alloys
in the Kanthal Handbook.
The ratio

d= 3

P
4

2 p R20

[13]

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

71

metric
L
P
4
[mm]

2 p R20 10

d= 3

[13]

P
L
4

[in] [13]

2
p

R
15.28 106

20

Example:
According to section 2
= 1.35 mm2/m = (812 /cmf ) for
Kanthal D
P = 1000 W
p = 8 W/cm2 (51.6 W/in2)
R = 40

d= 3

(D d) 2
L
+1=
Le
s
s=

L
4 812 1000

=
15.28 106
2 51.6 40

metric

= 0.022 inch

(D d)
L
Le

s=

[15]

[14]

C) Ribbon:
Since ribbons are made by flattening round
wires, the cross-sectional area is somewhat
smaller depending on size, than equation
[14] indicates. As a rule of thumb, a factor
0.92 is used.
[15]

[16]

(D d)
L 1000
Le

B) Strip :

q = 0.92 b t

bt

(Equation [15] is, however, used throughout


this Handbook).

4
1.35 1000 L

= 0.55 mm
2

8 40
10

q=bt

Definition:
Coil pitch, s
[mm] or [in]
A round wire is often wound as a coil. For
calculating coil pitch, s, the equation [16]
applies:

According to equation [13]:


d= 3

t
2b

q = 0.985

imperial
d= 3

Lately, investigations have shown that a


more correct way of expressing the crosssectional area of ribbon is:

[16]

imperial
s=

(D d)
L 12
Le

[16]

When the pitch, s, is small relatively to coil


diameter, D, and wire diameter, d.
s
Than
<< L , so that equation [16]
(D d)
can be simplified to:

10

72

s=

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

(D d) Le
L

[17]

Relative pitch s/d


The ratio s/d is often used. It is called the
relative pitch or the stretch factor, and may
affect the heat dissipation from the coil.
s
[--]
r=
d
The ratio D/d is essential for the coiling
operation, as well as the mechanical stability
of the coil in a hot state.
Example wire calculation:
Calculate the resistance of a 3-foot-long
KANTHAL D wire, 22 B & S (0.02535 in
diameter).
Combining equation [1] and [12]:
R20 =
R20 =

L
d2
and q =
q
4

L4
d2

= 1.35 mm2/m = 812 /cmf =


= 637.79 /smf
L = 3 foot = 3 0.305 m
d = 0.02535 in = 25.35 mil = 0.644 mm
Metric units:
1.35 3 0.305 4
R20 =
= 3.79
0.6442
Imperial units (cmf ):
812 3
R20 =
(0.02535)2
R20 =

812 3
25.352

= 3.79

The unit /smf is used principally for conductors with rectangular cross sections. Even
here length is given in feet and width and
thickness in mils.
Example ribbon calculation:
Calculate the resistance of a KANTHAL D
ribbon 10 feet long, where t = 0.04 in and b
= 0.5 in.
Combining equation [1] and [14]:
R20 =
R20 =

L
q

and q = 0.92 b t

L
0.92 b t

= 1.35 mm2/m = 812 cmf


L = 10 foot = 10 12 in = 10 0.305 m
t = 0.04 in = 40 mil = 0.04 25.4 mm =
= 1.016 mm
b = 0.5 in = 500 mil = 0.5 25.4 mm =
= 12.7 mm
Metric units:
1.35 10 0.305
R20 =
= 0.346
0.92 12.7 1.016
Imperial units (smf ):
R20 =

812 10
0.92 500 40 1.2732

= 0.346

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

73

3. Formulas for Values in Chapter 9, Tables


In the Kanthal handbook values per meter
of the material in each dimension are calculated and presented in the table as surface
area, weight, resistance.
Furthermore are the cross sectional area
and area / calculated.
Below you can see formulas used (formulas
include the unit correction)
Metric units:
Cross sectional area q [mm2]
Based on equation [12] [14] res. [15]

mm =

d2
4

Strip

[12]

[14]

[15]
[cm2/m]

[1]

4
d2

[1]

bt

[1]

Strip

Wire

R20/m =
[7]

Strip/Ribbon
AC/m = 2 (b + t) 10

Wire
R20/m =

AC/m = d 10

[18]

Resistance per meter R20/m [/m]


Based on equation [1]

Ribbon

Surface area per meter AC/m


Based on equation [7] res. [8]

[18]

mm = 0.92 b t

R20/m =
q = 0.92 b t

[18]

Ribbon

Strip
q=bt

Wire

mm = b t

Wire
q = d2
4

Weigth per meter, mm [g/m]


Wire
m = volume = q l mm = q

Ribbon
R20/m =

[8]

0.92 b t

[1]

10

74

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Surface area per [cm2/ ]


Combining [1] and [7] respectively [1]
and [8]
Wire
AC/m d q 10 2 d3 10
=
=

4
R20/m
Strip
AC/m
R20/m
=

R20/m
=

R20/m 1000 1000 1000


=
=
qq
q2
mm

Wire

2 (b + t) b t 10
=

Strip

Rkg =

Rkg =

Other equations which could be helpful


Length per kilo, Lkg [m/kg]
1000
Based on equation [18] Lkg =
mm
Wire
4000
Lkg = 1000 4 =
[18]
2
d
d2
Strip
Lkg = 1000
bt

[18]

Ribbon
1000
= 1087
0.92 b t b t

1000
d2
4

1000
2 d4
16

1000
b2 t2

Ribbon

2 (b + t) 0.92 b t 10
=

18.4 (b + t) b t

Lkg =

Rkg =

Rkg =

20 (b + t) b t

Ribbon
AC/m

Resistance per kilo, Rkg


[/kg]
Combining [1] and [18]

[18]

1181.5
1000
= 2 2
2
b t
0.92

b2 t2

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

75

Ribbon

Imperial units
wire = /cir.mil foot respectively
strip/ribbon= /square mil foot.

mft = 0.92 b t 12 = 11.04 b t [18]

Cross sectional area q [in2]


Based on equation [12] [14] res. [15]

Resistance per foot R20 / ft

Wire

Based on equation [1] R20 / ft =

q=

d2
4

[12]

q= b t

[14]

q = 0.92 b t

[15]

Surface area per foot AC / ft [in /ft]


Based on equation [7] res. [8]
Wire
AC / ft = d 12

[7]

Strip/ribbon
AC / ft = 2 (b + t) 12 = 24 (b + t)

[8]

b t 10 6

[1]

0.92 b t 10 6

[1]

Surface area per [in2/]


Combining [1] and [7] respectively [1]
and [8]
Wire
AC / ft d 2 q 12 10 6 2 d 3 3 10 6
=
=

R20 / ft

Strip

Wire
[18]

Strip
mft = b t 12

[1]

AC / ft 2 (b + t) b t 12 10 6
=
=

R20 / ft

Weigth per foot [lb/ft]


m = volume = q l mft = q

d 2 12 = d 2 3
4

d 10 6
2

Ribbon
R20 / ft =

Strip
R20 / ft =

Ribbon

mft =

Wire
R20 / ft =

Strip

[/ft]

[18]

= 24 (b + t) b t 10

Ribbon
AC / ft 2 (b + t) 0.92 b t 12 10 6
=
=
R20 / ft

22.08 (b + t) b t 10 6

10

76

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Other equations which could be helpful


Length per lb llb [ft/lb]
1
Based on equation [18] llb =
mft
Wire
4
1
llb =
=
[18]
2 3
2

d
d 12
Strip
llb =

1
b t 12

[18]

1
1
=
0.92 b t 12 b t 11.04

Wire

=
d 210 6 d 2 3

=
4
6
d 10 3
Rlb =

Strip

Ribbon
llb =

Resistance per lb Rlb


[/lb]
Combining [1] and [18]
R

Rlb = 20 / ft =
= 2
m ft
q q q

Rlb =
[18]

b 2 t 2 12 10 6

Ribbon

=
b t 0.922 12 10 6

=
b 2 t 2 10.16 10 6
Rlb =

4. Relationship between metric and imperial units


Metric and imperial sytem conversion table
1 mm2m-1 (m)
= 601.54 /cmf
1 mm2m-1 (m)
= 472.44 /smf
1 /smf
= 1.2732 /cmf
1 inch [in]
1 foot
1 mil
1 W/cm2
1 W/in2

= 1000 mil = 0.0254 m


= 12 in
= 0.3048 m
= 0.001 inch = 0.0254 mm
= 6.45 W/in2
= 0.155 W/cm2

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

77

5. Design Calculations for Heating Elements


In this section an element is defined as the
combination of heating wire and any
supporting and connecting materials.
Electrical appliances equipped with a heating
element are being used in domestic as well as
industrial applications. Domestic applications are e.g. cooking, heating of
fluids, drying, ironing, space heating and
special purposes such as heating of beds,
aquariums, saunas, soldering irons and paint
strippers. Industrial applications are such as
heat treatment, hardening and drying of
inks, paints and lacquers. In vehicles, seats,
motors and rear view mirrors are frequently
electrically heated.
The appliance and the element must meet
requirements regarding performance, cost of
raw material and manufacture, life and
safety. The requirements may be opposed to
each other. A long life and a high degree of
safety means a low wire temperature, which
results in a long heating up time and often
also high raw material costs.
Domestic heating appliances must not
cause harm to individuals or damage to
property. Safety specifications for each
market may influence the design of the
appliance and the element and limit their
temperature.
The life of a well designed element depends upon the make and the type of wire
used. Our FeCrAl and NiCr(Fe) wires have
excellent properties at high temperature and
provide the best possible life. It should be
kept in mind that the life of a wire increases
with wire diameter and decreasing wire temperature.

Wire Temperature
For embedded and supported element types
the wire temperature depends upon both the
wire and the element surface load. For the
suspended element types the element surface
load in most cases cannot be defined. In
addition to the surface load, ambient temperature, heating dissipating conditions and
presence and location of other elements will
influence the wire temperature and therefore
also the choice of wire surface load and element surface load.

Life test of elements.

10

78

Surface Load
When calculating an element, voltage and
rating are normally known. The element
surface load means the rating divided by
that part of element surface, which is close
to the energised wire and therefore has an
elevated temperature. Usually a range of
surface loads and not one single figure
is listed in the mentioned tables. The choice
within the range depends upon the requirements for the element. It also depends upon
voltage, rating and dimensions available. A
high voltage and a low rating will result in a
thin wire, which at the same temperature
has a shorter life than a thick wire and will
therefore require a low wire surface load.
The wire surface is then found as the
ratio between rating and wire surface load.

Life test of 4 mm wire.

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Surface and Resistance


After having calculated the resistance in cold
state, the ratio between the surface and the
resistance is found. This ratio is listed for all
wire types and wire dimensions in the
Kanthal handbook, and the correct wire size
can therefore easily be found from these
tables.

Bash test of alloys.

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Coil Parameters
The ratio between coil and wire diameter
(D/d) must be calculated in order to check
that the coil can easily be made. This ratio
(D/d) should be in the range 5-12 if possible. In case of supported elements, this ratio
must be compared with the deformation
curve in Figure 3, page 23. When the coil
length and diameter are known, the coil
pitch (s) can be estimated by formula [17] in
the Appendix. Coil pitch (s) is normally 2-4
times the wire diameter (d). For quartz tube
heaters a smaller pitch is normally used.
Preoxidised coils from KANTHAL FeCrAl
in such elements can be used tightly coiled.
For a straight wire on a threaded ceramic
rod and for many elements of the suspended
type the wire length is fixed. The resistance
per meter can then be calculated and the
wire size found from the tables of the
Kanthal handbook. If this results in too high
a surface load in case of a ribbon, a wider
and thinner ribbon having the same cross
section can be chosen.

79

Metal Sheathed Tubular Element


The calculation of a metal sheathed tubular
element is more complicated since the resistance is reduced 10 to 30 % as a result of the
compression of the element. For such elements, the tube surface load is first determined according to the use of the element.
The wire surface load is normally 2 to 4
times greater. After calculating the resistance
from rating and voltage, it has to be increased 10 to 30 % in order to arrive at the
resistance after coiling. The wire surface will
become 2 to 7 % smaller when the element
has been reduced. Since the tube length is
increased through compression by rolling,
the tube surface often remains unaltered.

Glowing coil inside tubular heating element.

10

80

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Examples
Tubular Element for a Flat Iron
Rating, P
Voltage. U
Final tube diameter:
Final tube length:

1000 W
220 V
8 mm (0.315 in)
300 mm (11.8 in)

If the terminal length inside the tube is 2 x


25 mm (2 x 1 in) the coil length (Le) will be
Le = 300 mm (2 x 25 mm) = 250 mm
(9.8 in). Combining equation [9] and [10]
gives as hot resistance
U2 2202 48.4
=
=
R=
P 1000
According to equation [6] tubes surface load
becomes
P =
P
=
ptube =
Atube dtube Le 0.01

According to equation [6] the wire surface


can be calculated to
P
p=
Ac
P = 1000 = 20.83 21 cm2 (3.3 in2)
Ac =
p
48
KANTHAL D is a sensible choice and an
average wire temperature of 700 C
(1290 F) likely. Due to temperature factor
of resistance (Ct for Kanthal D, table
chapter 2, = 1.05 ) the resistance at room
temperature is based on [2] calculated to:
RT 48.4
=
= 46.09
RT = Ct R20 R20 =
Ct 1.05
46.1
The ratio wire surface to resistance is
cm2
AC
21
,
=
= 0.455
R20 46.1

W
1000
= (103 W/in2)
= 15.91
cm2
8 250 0.01
corresponding to a wire size of about
0.3 mm (0.012 in), based on the table for
If we aim at three times higher wire surface
KANTHAL D in chapter 9.
load:
W
pwire = 3 ptube = 3 15.91 = 47.74 48 2
cm
(309 W/in2)

Coils in grooved metal plates.

Metal sheathed tubular element.

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

We assume that a steel tube of initially


9.5 mm (0.37 in) diameter is being used and
can then expect a resistance reduction of
about 30 % upon rolling. The resistance of
the coil should therefore be about 65.3 .
The wire surface prior to compression is
7 % bigger, or 22.5 cm2 (3.49 in2), and the
ratio between wire surface and resistance
0.34 cm2/ (0.053 in2/).
The corresponding wire size is 0.26 mm
(0.01 in). Tests with this wire size have to be
made in order to check the resistance reduction as a result of compression.
Coil suspended on a Mica-cross, element
for a hair dryer
Rating, P
Voltage, U
Length of coil, l
Coil outer diameter, D

350W
55 V
250 mm
6 mm

For this application a surface load, p, of


7 W/cm2 is reasonable, using equation [6]
gives a wire surface of:
p=

P 350 = 50 cm2
P
Ac = p =
Ac
7

Assuming a wire temperature of 600 C and


choosing Kanthal D with an Ct value of
1.04. Next step is to calculate hot- and cold
resistance, according to combining equation
[9], [10] and [2]:
552
U
= 8.64
RT = 2 =
P 350
R20 =

RT
= 8.31
Ct

By calculating the surface area to cold


resistance ratio, a suitable wire dimension
is found:

81

Combining [1] and [7], [8]


Wire
cm2
AC 50 cm2
=
= 6.01

R20 8.31
According to the table in chapter 9, Kanthal
D 0.70 mm has an area to resistance ratio
of 6.27 cm2/.
Verifying the geometry of the coil, suitable
values for the D/d ratio are between 6-12.
D/d ratio has to be considered since too
low as well as too high values will create
problems in the coiling process. In this case:
6 mm
D
= 8.6 which is within limits
=
0.7 mm
d
To get the length of wire we have to calculate the ratio between resistance needed
and resistance per meter according to table
chapter 9, KANTHAL D, d = 0.7 mm
R20/m = 3.51 /m.
The length of the wire becomes:
R20
8.31 m
=
L=
= 2.367 m
R20 / m
3.51
Based on [17] the coil pitch, s, is calculated
to:
(D d) Le (7 0.7) 250
= 2.09 mm
=
s=
2370
L
and subsequently a relative pitch:
s 2.09
= 2.98
r= =
d 0.7
Finally the actual surface load is based on [6]
calculated to:
p=

P
Ac/m L

350
22 2.37

= 6.7 W/cm2

10

82

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

6. Wire Gauge Conversion Table


Gauge
no.

AWG or B&S
inch
mm

SWG
inch

mm

Gauge
no.

AWG or B&S
inch
mm

SWG
inch

mm

4-0
3-0
2-0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

0.4600
0.4096
0.3648
0.3249
0.2893
0.2576
0.2294
0.2043
0.1819
0.1620
0.1443
0.1285
0.1144
0.1019
0.09074
0.08081
0.07196
0.06408
0.05707
0.05082
0.04526
0.04030
0.03589
0.03196
0.02846
0.02535
0.02257
0.02010
0.01790
0.01594
0.01420
0.01264

0.4000
0.3720
0.3480
0.3240
0.3000
0.2760
0.2520
0.2320
0.2120
0.1920
0.1760
0.1600
0.1440
0.1280
0.1160
0.1040
0.0920
0.0800
0.0720
0.0640
0.0560
0.0480
0.0400
0.0360
0.0320
0.0280
0.0240
0.0220
0.0200
0.0180
0.0164
0.0148

10.1600
9.4488
8.8392
8.2296
7.6200
7.0104
6.4008
5.8928
5.3848
4.8768
4.4704
4.0640
3.6576
3.251
2.946
2.642
2.337
2.032
1.829
1.626
1.422
1.219
1.016
0.914
0.813
0.711
0.610
0.559
0.508
0.457
0.417
0.376

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

0.01126
0.01003
0.008928
0.007950
0.007080
0.006305
0.005615
0.005000
0.004453
0.003965
0.003531
0.003145
0.002800
0.002494
0.002221
0.001978
0.001761
0.001568
0.001397
0.001244
0.001108
0.000986
0.000800
0.000600
0.000500
0.000400
0.000300

0.0136
0.0124
0.0116
0.0108
0.0100
0.00920
0.00840
0.00760
0.00680
0.00600
0.00520
0.00480
0.00440
0.00400
0.00360
0.00320
0.00280
0.00240
0.00200
0.00160
0.00120
0.00100
0.000878
0.000782
0.000697
0.000620
0.000552
0.000492
0.000438
0.000390
0.000347
0.000309

0.345
0.315
0.295
0.274
0.254
0.234
0.213
0.193
0.173
0.152
0.132
0.122
0.112
0.102
0.0914
0.0813
0.0711
0.0610
0.0508
0.0406
0.0305
0.0254
0.0223
0.0199
0.0177
0.0157
0.0140
0.0125
0.0111
0.00991
0.00881
0.00785

11.684
10.404
9.266
8.252
7.348
6.543
5.827
5.189
4.620
4.115
3.665
3.264
2.906
2.588
2.305
2.053
1.828
1.628
1.450
1.291
1.150
1.024
0.912
0.812
0.723
0.644
0.573
0.511
0.455
0.405
0.361
0.321

0.286
0.255
0.227
0.202
0.180
0.160
0.143
0.127
0.113
0.101
0.0897
0.0799
0.0711
0.0633
0.0564
0.0502
0.0447
0.0398
0.0355
0.0316
0.0281
0.0250
0.0203
0.0152
0.0127
0.0102
0.0076

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

83

7. Temperature Conversion Table


If 10 degrees are read in Celsius, look in the
right column and convert it to 50 F. If 10
degrees F is read, look in the left column
and convert it to -12,2 C.

The numbers in the light shaded area indicate the temperatures as read. The corresponding temperatures in Fahrenheit are
given on the right and those in Celsius on
the left.
C
17.8
17.2
16.7
16.1
15.6
15.0
14.4
13.9
13.3
12.8
12.2
11.7
11.1
10.6
10.0
9.44
8.89
8.33
7.78
7.22
6.67
6.11
5.56
5.00
4.44
3.89
3.33
2.78
2.22
1.67
1.11
0.56
0
0.56
1.11
1.67
2.22
2.78
3.33
3.89
4.44
5.00
5.56

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42

F
32
33.8
35.6
37.4
39.2
41.0
42.8
44.6
46.4
48.2
50.0
51.8
53.6
55.4
57.2
59.0
60.8
62.6
64.4
66.2
68.0
69.8
71.6
73.4
75.2
77.0
78.8
80.6
82.4
84.2
86.0
87.8
89.6
91.4
93.2
95.0
96.8
98.6
100.4
102.2
104.0
105.8
107.6

C
6.11
6.67
7.22
7.78
8.33
8.89
9.44
10.0
10.6
11.1
11.7
12.2
12.8
13.3
13.9
14.4
15.0
15.6
16.1
16.7
17.2
17.8
18.3
18.9
19.4
20.0
21.1
21.7
22.2
22.8
23.3
23.9
24.4
25.0
25.6
26.1
26.7
27.2
27.8
28.3
28.9
29.4
30.0

43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86

F
109.4
111.2
113.0
114.8
116.6
118.4
120.2
122.0
123.8
125.6
127.4
129.2
131.0
132.8
134.6
136.4
138.2
140.0
141.8
143.6
145.4
147.2
149.0
150.8
152.6
154.4
158.0
159.8
161.6
163.4
165.2
167.0
168.8
170.6
172.4
174.2
176.0
177.8
179.6
181.4
183.2
185.0
186.8

C
30.6
31.1
31.7
32.2
32.8
33.3
33.9
34.4
35.0
35.6
36.1
36.7
37.2
38
43
49
54
60
66
71
77
82
88
93
99
100
104
110
116
121
127
132
138
143
149
154
160
166
171
177
182
188
193

87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
212
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350
360
370
380

F
188.6
190.4
192.2
194.0
195.8
197.6
199.4
201.2
203.0
204.8
206.6
208.4
210.2
212
230
248
266
284
302
320
338
356
374
392
410
413
428
446
464
482
500
518
536
554
572
590
608
626
644
662
680
698
716

cont.

10

84

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

cont.
C
199
204
210
216
221
227
232
238
243
254
260
266
271
277
282
288
293
299
304
310
316
321
327
332
338
343
349
354
360
366
371
377
382
388
393
399
404
410
416
421
427
432
438
443
449
454
460
468
471
477

390
400
410
420
430
440
450
460
470
490
500
510
520
530
540
550
560
570
580
590
600
610
620
630
640
650
660
670
680
690
700
710
720
730
740
750
760
770
780
790
800
810
820
830
840
850
860
870
880
890

F
734
752
770
788
806
824
842
860
878
914
932
950
968
986
1004
1022
1040
1058
1076
1094
1112
1130
1148
1166
1184
1202
1220
1238
1256
1274
1292
1310
1328
1346
1364
1382
1400
1418
1436
1454
1472
1490
1508
1526
1544
1562
1580
1598
1816
1634

C
482
488
493
499
504
510
516
521
527
532
538
543
549
554
560
566
571
577
582
588
593
599
604
610
616
621
627
632
643
649
654
660
666
671
677
682
688
693
699
704
710
716
721
727
732
738
743
749
754
760

900
910
920
930
940
950
960
970
980
990
1000
1010
1020
1030
1040
1050
1060
1070
1080
1090
1100
1110
1120
1130
1140
1150
1160
1170
1190
1200
1210
1220
1230
1240
1250
1260
1270
1280
1290
1300
1310
1320
1330
1340
1350
1360
1370
1380
1390
1400

F
1652
1670
1688
1706
1724
1742
1760
1778
1796
1814
1832
1850
1868
1886
1904
1922
1940
1958
1976
1994
2012
2030
2048
2066
2084
2102
2120
2138
2174
2192
2210
2228
2246
2264
2282
2300
2318
2336
2354
2372
2390
2408
2426
2444
2462
2480
2498
2516
2534
2552

C
766
771
777
782
788
793
799
804
810
816
821
827
832
838
843
849
854
860
866
871
877
882
888
893
899
904
910
916
921
927
932
938
943
949
954
960
966
971
977
982
988
993
999
1004
1010
1016
1021
1032
1038
1043

F
1410
1420
1430
1440
1450
1460
1470
1480
1490
1500
1510
1520
1530
1540
1550
1560
1570
1580
1590
1600
1610
1820
1630
1640
1650
1660
1670
1680
1690
1700
1710
1720
1730
1740
1750
1760
1770
1780
1790
1800
1810
1820
1830
1840
1850
1860
1870
1890
1900
1910

2570
2588
2606
2624
2842
2660
2678
2696
2714
2732
2750
2768
2786
2804
2822
2840
2858
2876
2894
2912
2930
2948
2966
2984
3002
3020
3038
3058
3074
3092
3110
3128
3146
3164
3182
3200
3218
3236
3254
3272
3290
3308
3326
3344
3362
3380
3398
3434
3452
3470

cont.

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

85

cont.
C
1049
1054
1060
1066
1071
1077
1082
1088
1093
1099
1104
1110
1116
1121
1127
1132
1138
1143
1149
1154
1160
1166
1171
1177
1182
1188
1193
1199
1204
1210
1216
1221
1227
1232
1238
1243

F
1920
1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
2020
2030
2040
2050
2060
2070
2080
2090
2100
2110
2120
2130
2140
2150
2160
2170
2180
2190
2200
2210
2220
2230
2240
2250
2260
2270

3488
3506
3524
3542
3560
3578
3596
3614
3632
3650
3668
3686
3704
3722
3740
3758
3776
3794
3812
3830
3848
3866
3884
3902
3920
3938
3956
3974
3992
4010
4028
4046
4064
4082
4100
4118

C
1249
1254
1260
1266
1271
1277
1282
1288
1293
1299
1304
1310
1316
1321
1327
1332
1338
1343
1349
1354
1360
1366
1371
1377
1382
1388
1393
1399
1404
1410
1421
1427
1432
1438
1443
1449

2280
2290
2300
2310
2320
2330
2340
2350
2360
2370
2380
2390
2400
2410
2420
2430
2440
2450
2460
2470
2480
2490
2500
2510
2520
2530
2540
2550
2560
2570
2590
2600
2610
2620
2630
2640

F
4138
4154
4172
4190
4208
4226
4244
4262
4280
4298
4316
4334
4352
4370
4388
4406
4424
4442
4460
4478
4496
4514
4532
4550
4568
4586
4604
4622
4640
4658
4694
4712
4730
4748
4766
4784

C
1454
1460
1466
1471
1477
1482
1488
1493
1499
1504
1510
1516
1521
1527
1532
1538
1543
1549
1554
1560
1566
1571
1577
1582
1588
1593
1599
1604
1610
1616
1621
1627
1632
1638
1643
1649

2650
2660
2670
2680
2690
2700
2710
2720
2730
2740
2750
2760
2770
2780
2790
2800
2810
2820
2830
2840
2850
2860
2870
2880
2890
2900
2910
2920
2930
2940
2950
2960
2970
2980
2990
3000

F
4802
4820
4838
4856
4874
4892
4910
4928
4946
4964
4982
5000
5018
5036
5054
5072
5090
5108
5126
5144
5162
5180
5198
5216
5234
5252
5270
5288
5306
5324
5342
5360
5376
5396
5414
5432

Interpolation table
C
0.56
1.11
1.67
2.22
2.78
3.33
3.89
4.44
5.00
5.56

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

F
1.8
3.6
5.4
7.2
9.0
10.8
12.6
14.4
16.2
18.0

10

86

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

8. Miscellaneous Conversion Factors


To Convert from:
ampere-turns
atmospheres
btus
btus
btus
btus
btus
btus
btus
btus
btus/hour
btus/minute
btus/minute
btus/sq ft
btus/(sq ft)(min)
btus/(hr)(sq ft)
btus/(hr)(sq ft)(F)
calories
Centigrade
centipoise
circular mils
circular mils
circular mils
cubic cm
degrees (angle)
degrees/sec
dynes
dynes
dynes
dynes/sq cm
dynes/sq cm
dynes/sq cm
Fahrenheit
fathoms
foot-pounds
foot-pounds
foot-pounds
foot-pounds
foot-pounds
foot-pounds
foot-pounds/min
foot-pounds/min
foot-pounds/sec
foot-pounds/sec

To:
gilberts
torr
kilogram-calories
foot-pounds
horsepower-hours
joules
kilogram-meters
kilowatt-hours
gram-calories
watt-hours
watts
watts
foot-pounds/sec
watt-hours/sq meter
watts/sq inch
watts/sq meter
gm-cals/(sec)(sq m)(oC)
joules
Fahrenheit
pascal-seconds
square centimeters
square inches
square mils
cubic inches
radians
revolutions/min
grams
newtons
pounds
kgs/sq meter
pounds/sq foot
pounds/sq inch
Centigrade
feet
horsepower-hours
joules
newton-meters
kilogram-calories
kilogram-meters
kilowatt-hours
horsepower
kilowatts
horsepower
kg-calories/min

Multiply by:
1.2566
760.00
0.25200
778.17
0.00039308
1054.0
107.59
0.00029307
252.00
0.29307
0.29307
17.584
12.961
3.1546
0.12203
3.1525
1.3562
4.1840
1.8 x (C+32)
0.001
0.000005067
0.0000007854
0.78540
0.061024
0.017453
0.16667
0.0010197
0.00001
0.0000022481
0.010197
0.0020885
0.000014503
0.555 x (F - 32)
6
0.00000050505
1.3558
1.3558
0.00032383
0.13826
0.00000037662
0.000030303
0.000022597
0.0018182
0.019443

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

To Convert from:
foot-pounds/sec
furlongs
gallons (U.S.)
gallons
gallons
gallons
gallons/min
gallons/min
gauss
gauss
grams
grams
grams
grams
gram-centimeters
gram-centimeters
gram-centimeters
gram-centimeters
grams/cm
grams/cu cm
grams/cu cm
grams/cu cm
horsepower (electric)
horsepower
horsepower
horsepower
horsepower
horsepower-hours
horsepower-hours
horsepower-hours
hours
inches
inches
inches
joules
joules
joules
joules
kilograms
kilograms
kilograms
kilograms
kilograms
kilograms
kilogram-calories

To:
kilowatts
miles
gallons (Brit.)
liters
pints (liquid)
quarts (liquid)
cubic feet/sec
liters/sec
lines/sq inch
webers/sq meter
ounces
ounces (troy)
poundals
pounds
btus
foot-pounds
joules
kilogram-meters
pounds/inch
pounds/cu foot
pounds/cu inch
pounds/circ mil foot
horsepower (metric)
kg-calories/min
horsepower (metric)
kilowatts
watts
joules
kilogram-calories
kilogram-meters
seconds
centimeters
mils
millimeters
kilogram-calories
volt-coulombs
watt-hours
watt-seconds
dynes
poundals
pounds
pounds (troy)
tons (short)
tons (long)
kilogram-meters

87

Multiply by:
0.0013558
0.125
0.83267
3.7854
8
4
0.0022280
0.063090
6.4516
0.0001
0.035274
0.032151
0.070932
0.0022046
0.00000009301
0.000072330
0.000098067
0.00001
0.0055997
62.428
0.036127
0.00000034049
1.0143
10.686
1.0139
0.7457
745.7
2684520
641.19
273745
3600
2.54
1000
25.4
0.00023866
0.99984
0.00027778
1
980665
70.932
2.2046
2.6792
0.0011023
0.00098421
426.93

10

88

To Convert from:
kilogram-calories
kg-cals/minute
kilogram-meters
kgs/cu meter
kgs/cu meter
kgs/cu meter
kgs/meter
kgs/sq centimeter
kgs/sq meter
kgs/sq meter
kilopascals
kilowatt
kilowatt-hours
kilowatt-hours
kilowatt-hours
kilowatt-hours
liter
liter
liters
liters/minute
liters/minute
meters
meters
meters
meter-kilograms
meters/second
meters/second
meters/second
meters/second
micrograms
microhms
microinches
microinches
microinches
microliters
microns
microns
microns
miles
millibars
millibars
millihenries
millimeters
nautical miles
newtons

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

To:
kilowatt-hours
kilowatts
kilowatt-hours
grams/cu cm
pounds/cu foot
pounds/cu inch
pounds/foot
pounds/sq inch
pounds/sq foot
pounds/sq inch
pounds/sq in
btus/min
btus
horsepower-hours
kilogram-calories
joules
cubic cm
cubic inches
quarts (liquid)
cubic feet/sec
gallons/sec
inches
kilometers
yards
pound-feet
miles/hour
feet/minute
kilometers/hour
miles/minute
grams
ohms
inches
microns
millimeters
liters
inches
meters
millimeters
feet
torr
pascals
henries
mils
kilometers
pounds

Multiply by:
0.001163
0.06978
0.0000027241
0.001
0.062428
0.000036127
0.67197
14.223
0.20482
0.0014223
0.14504
56.878
3413
1.3410
860
3600000
1000
61.023
1.0567
0.00058858
0.0044029
39.370
0.001
1.0936
7.2330
2.2369
196.85
3.6
0.037282
0.000001
0.000001
0.000001
25.4
0.0254
0.000001
0.000039370
0.000001
0.001
5280
0.75006
100
0.001
39.370
1.852
0.22481

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

To Convert from:
oersteds
ohm - circular mil/foot
ohm - circular mil/foot
ohm - circular mil/foot
ohms/foot
ounces
ounces (fluid)
ounces (fluid)
ounces (troy)
ounces (troy)
pound
pound
pound
pounds (troy)
pounds/sq foot
pounds/sq inch
pounds/cubic foot
pounds/cubic inch
radians
radians/sec
slugs
square centimeters
square feet
square millimeters
square mils
square mils
square mils
stones
watts
watts
watts
watts
watt-hours
watt-hours

To:
amperes/meter
ohm - square mil/foot
ohm - square mm/meter
microhm cm
ohms/meter
pounds
cubic inches
liters
grains
pounds (troy)
grams
grains
kilograms
pounds (avdp)
pounds/sq inch
newton/sq meter
kilograms/cubic meter
grams/cubic cm
revolutions
revolutions/min
kilograms
square inches
square meters
circular mils
circular mils
square centimeters
square inches
pounds
ergs/second
foot-pounds/min
foot-pounds/sec
kg-calories/min
foot-pounds
kilogram-calories

89

Multiply by:
79.577
1.273
0.00166
0.16624
3.2808
0.0625
1.8047
0.02957
480
0.083333
453.59
7000
0.45359
0.82286
0.0069444
6894.8
16.019
27.680
0.15915
9.5493
14.594
0.15500
0.092903
1973.5
1.2732
0.0000064516
0.000001
14
10000000
44.254
0.73756
0.014331
2655.2
0.85985

10

90

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

11. The Kanthal Product Range


Heating Alloys

Precision Wire

Appliance Wire 0.12-2 mm 0.00468-0.078 in


Ribbon
The heating source in most electric household appliances such as ovens, toasters, hair
dryers, washing machines etc.

Precision Wire
0.015-0.12 mm 0.000585-0.00468 in
Is used in electronic components such as
resistors and potentiometers and for low
temperature heating.

Industrial Wire 1-10 mm 0.039-0.47 in


Strip
For heating elements in industrial furnaces
and processes.
Alloy
KANTHAL APM
KANTHAL A-1
KANTHAL A
KANTHAL AE
KANTHAL AF
KANTHAL D
ALKROTHAL
NIKROTHAL 80
NIKROTHAL 70
NIKROTHAL 60
NIKROTHAL 40
NIFETHAL 70
NIFETHAL 52

Max temperature
1425 C 2595 F
1400 C 2550 F
1350 C 2460 F
1300 C 2370 F
1300 C 2370 F
1300 C 2370 F
1100 C 2010 F
1200 C 2190 F
1250 C 2280 F
1150 C 2100 F
1100 C 2010 F
600 C 1110 F
600 C 1110 F

Special Alloys
Alloys for thermocouples, extension
and compensating cables.
Nickel-iron.
Controlled expansion alloys.
High temperature alloys for
mechanical applications.
Copper-nickel alloys for special
applications.

Precision wire 0.015 mm in the eye of a meedle.

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

91

Thermostatic Bimetal

Kanthal Super

Bimetal consists of two or more metallic


strips with different thermal expansion
bonded together. When heated up it bends
in a pre-determined manner and can be used
to monitor, measure or regulate heat. Its
main applications are in thermostats for
room heaters or water mixing but they are
also used to control toasters and indicators
in automobiles.
Kanthal offers a wide range of some 30
standard types of thermostatic Bimetal with
different specific deflection, manufactured in
widths ranging between 170 and 1.0 mm
6.63 - 0.039 in and in thickness between
2.5 and 0.10 mm 0.097 - 0.0039 in.
Bimetal is also manufactured to specifications suitable for the snap action disc applications.

High power and long life electric heating


elements for use up to very high temperatures. Manufactured as ready-made elements, straight or bent in a broad range of
standard dimensions. Used mainly in laboratory furnaces and production furnaces in the
glass-, electronics-, steel-, ceramics and heat
treatment industry.
Quality
Kanthal Super 1700
Kanthal Super 1800
Kanthal Super 1900
Kanthal Super HT
Kanthal Super RA
Kanthal Super ER
Kanthal Super NC

Max temperature
1700 C 3090 F
1800 C 3270 F
1850 C 3360 F
1830 C 3330 F
1700 C 3090 F
1600 C 2910 F
1800 C 3270 F

SUPERTHAL
Heating modules with Kanthal Super elements and ceramic fibre in the form of halfcylinders, cylinders, panels or completely
tailor made for use up to 1550 C 2820 F.
Superthal is used wherever concentrated heat
is needed, for example in the electronicsand the glass industry as well as in dental
furnaces.
Thermostatic Bimetal.

Kanthal Super and Superthal

11

92

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Metallic Elements

FIBROTHAL

Ready-made furnace elements manufactured


in Kanthal workshops from KANTHAL or
NIKROTHAL alloys for
furnace temperatures between 50 C 1350
C 120 2460 F.

A complete modular system comprising


heating elements and insulation for furnaces
and processes up to 1200 C 2190 F.

FIBROTHAL.
Metallic elements manufacturing.

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

93

TUBOTHAL

Tubes

Powerful metallic element heaters for use


inside all types of radiant tubes, ideally
KANTHAL APM. Available in standard
dimensions from 68 to 170 mm diameter
2.6 - 6.6 in.

KANTHAL APM and SANDVIK 253/353


MA extruded radiant tubes for gas- or electrically heated furnaces. Complete assemblies
with inner tubes (gas) or suitable electric heating elements. Standard dimensions from 26
to 260 mm outer diameter 1.02- 10.2 in.

ECOTHAL
Ecothal is the worlds cleanest recuperative
radiant heater. With electronically-controlled
gas/air supply and double catalytic converters,
nitrogen oxide emissions can be reduced by
around 75 %.
APM tube and Tubothal.

APM tubes.

Ecothal

Bild nr 539 Saknas


original

11

94

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Heating Elements

Silicon Carbide

Furnace systems and complete heating elements for semiconductor wafer processing.
Furnace rebuilds, upgrades and new replacement rnace systems to provide larger wafer
processing capabilities.

Heating elements in a broad range for use up


to 1650 C 3000 F. Manufactured in
straight, spiralled, single or multi-shank designs for a variety of heat treatment and
melting furnaces. Kanthal SiC is the standard element for production of float-glass.
GLOBAR
FLOAT

Helix heating element.


Silicon carbide elements.

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

95

Kanthal Machinery

Customer Service

Kanthal Machinery offers a complete range


of machines for manufacturing of tubes and
metal sheathed tubular elements. Available as
either standard or custom built stand-alone
machines to complete turnkey factory production lines.

Kanthal not only offers a complete range


of products to generate or protect against
heat, but of equal importance is the technical and commercial service we extend to
our customers. Examples of this includes;
advice on choice of material, design of
ements, trouble-shooting, design and manufacturing of complete heating systems,
development of new elements and alloys,
installation service and follow-up.

Coiling machine.
Electron Scanning Microscope.

11

96

Kanthal Appliance Alloys Handbook

Visit www.kanthal.com

You will always find the latest information about Kanthal and our products on the web.
Brochures, handbooks and data-sheets can be downloaded to your computer. You will find
address, e-mail, fax- and telephone numbers to all Kanthal subsidiaries and representatives,
press releases and other news.

Kanthal is a Sandvik Company.


Sandvik is a high-technology engineering Group with advanced products and
a world-leading position within selected niches tools for metalworking, machinery
and tools for rock-excavation, products in stainless steel, special alloys and high temperature
materials. World-wide business activities are conducted through 300 companies
and representation in 130 countries.

KANTHAL HANDBOOK
KANTHAL HEATING ALLOYS Handbook

KANTHAL AB
Box 502, SE-734 27 Hallstahammar, Sweden
www.kanthal.com
Tel +46 220 210 00
Fax +46 220 211 66
A Sandvik Company

Heating Alloys for


Electric Household Appliances