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Badminton is a racquet sport played by either two opposing players (singles) or two opposing pairs (doubles), who take positions on opposite halves of a rectangular court divided by a net. It takes its name from Badminton House, the Duke of Beaufort's
residence in Gloucestershire (now Avon).

Players score points by striking a shuttlecock with their racquet so that it passes over the net and lands in their opponents' half of the court. Each side may only strike the shuttlecock once before it passes over the net. A rally ends once the shuttlecock has struck the floor, or if a fault has been called at any time during the rally. The shuttlecock (or shuttle) is a feathered projectile whose unique aerodynamic properties cause it to fly differently than the balls used in most racquet sports; in particular, the feathers create much higher drag, causing the shuttlecock to decelerate more rapidly than a ball. Shuttlecocks have a much higher top speed, when compared to other racquet sports. Because shuttlecock flight is affected by wind, competitive badminton is played indoors. Badminton is also played outdoors as a casual recreational activity, often as a garden or beach game. At high levels of play, especially in singles, the sport demands excellent fitness: players require aerobic stamina, agility, explosive strength, speed and precision. It is also a technical sport, requiring good motor coordination and the development of sophisticated racquet movements. Origins of the Game

The sport of badminton has its origins in ancient civilisations in Europe and Asia. The ancient game known as battledore (bat or paddle) and shuttlecock probably originated more than 2000 years and was played in Ancient Greece, China,
Japan, India and Siam.

In the 1600s Battledore and Shuttlecock became an upper class pastime and involved two people hitting a shuttlecock backwards and forwards with a simple bat as many times as they could without allowing it to hit the ground.
After the early 1870's, the picture of badminton's development becomes a little clearer. The British in India took the lead and the game became very popular as an outdoor amusement. The first rules were framed at Poona in 1873, but the game in India developed chiefly as a social pastime rather than a competitive indoor game. In England too it was chiefly a sociable garden recreation for its first two decades. This crude but entertaining form of badminton, sometimes known as "hit and scream", was the dominant form in the 1870's and 1880's. An early version of the rules was published in 1883 in a slim volume entitled, "Lawn Tennis, Croquet, Racquets, etc." More serious badminton developed very gradually as many of the Indian veterans returned to England and an officer's club was formed at Folkestone as early as 1875. The first clubs of the 1870's and 1880's grew up chiefly in the resort spas of southern England, but there were many obstacles to

satisfactory early inter-club competition as clubs made their own rules and there were many differences in court sizes. Singles was regarded as a selfish game and not all clubs played doubles - some played 'trebles' and 'quadruples'. To try to deal with some of these inconsistencies, a meeting was convened at Southsea in Hampshire in 1893 and the Badminton Association was consequently founded by representatives of 14 clubs who agreed on a uniform set of laws. In March 1898, the first Open Tournament was held at Guildford and the era of competitive badminton had begun. The fledgling sport of badminton proper was about to come of age.

Another milestone for world badminton was reached with the first open. adopting it as a national winter sport. with India affiliating with the IBF in 1936. and Malaysia which picked up one. The US won the Cup twice more before losing to Japan in 1966. Wales. The Danes in particular took to the game in a remarkable fashion.The first World (Thomas) Cup for men's teams was played.[10] . The 1920's and '30's .In the mid 1920's. Laws of Badminton. By 1937. Athletes competed in Mens and Womens singles and Mens and Womens Doubles. fully professional badminton tournament being played at Albert Hall in London. 1992 . New Zealand and France. Denmark. 1. Canada. North America and the East. Mixed doubles has been added for the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta. By the early 1930's. The advent of badminton to the Olympics proved a boon to Indonesia. Scotland.Badminton was admitted as a full medal sport at the games of the XXVth Olympiad in Barcelona in 1992. The Malayan men routed Denmark 8-1 in a dominance that was to last a decade before they in turn were engulfed by the Indonesians.The women's world team competition began in the mid-1950's with the introduction of the Uber Cup. 1979 . organised badminton began to take root in Northern Europe. But it was in Denmark and Canada that the game made its biggest strides in the 1930's. which has 114 member countries. Holland. 1950's and '60's .chiefly played out of doors had become immensely popular in the Malay States and the Malay Badminton Association was formed in 1934. badminton .1 RULES The following information is a simplified summary of badminton rules based on the BWF Statutes publication.Badminton – Key Milestones The 1900's . The IBF (International Badminton Federation) was formed in July 1934 with the founder members including England. the first US National Championships were held 1949 . 1966 -Badminton was introduced as a Commonwealth Games program sport in Kingston Jamaica in 1966. The decision was made in 1985 and recognised the world-wide status of the IBF.The first decade of the 20th century saw the number of clubs in the UK increase more than tenfold. The US won the first Uber Cup in the 1956/7 season. defeating Denmark 6-1. Ireland. Neither of these countries had won medals at an Olympics before. which picked up 5 medals. Japan won four of the next five and Indonesia once.

Equipment rules Badminton rules restrict the design and size of racquets and shuttlecocks. isometric view The court is rectangular and divided into halves by a net. The doubles court is wider than the singles court. .18 metres (17 ft). Courts are usually marked for both singles and doubles play.524 metres (5 ft) high in the centre. The net posts are placed over the doubles sidelines. Badminton rules also provide for testing a shuttlecock for the correct speed. The full width of the court is 6. but both are of same length. The full length of the court is 13.4 metres (44 ft). and in singles this width is reduced to 5. even when singles is played.1 metres (20 ft). The net is 1.Playing court dimensions Badminton court.55 metres (5 ft 1 inch) high at the edges and 1.

. the server will be the player who did not serve last time. the players stand inside their service courts unlike tennis. the serve immediately passes to their opponent(s).1. the player in the right service court serves. if the serving side wins a rally. If the opponents win the rally and their new score is even. At the start of the rally. The server hits the shuttlecock so that it would land in the receiver's service court. the server stands in their right service court when their score is even. This is similar to tennis. each time a side regains the service. and in her/his left service court when her/his score is odd. The players' service courts are determined by their positions at the start of the previous rally. with players scoring a point whenever they win a rally regardless of whether they served [10] (this differs from the old system where players could only win a point on their serve and each game was played to 15 points). the same player continues to serve. not by where they were standing at the end of the rally. except that a badminton serve must be hit below waist height and with the racquet shaft pointing downwards. the player in the left service court serves. the shuttlecock is not allowed to bounce and in badminton. A match is the best of three games.1 Serving Each game is played to 21 points. the server and receiver stand in diagonally opposite service courts (see court dimensions). In singles. if odd. When the serving side loses a rally. but he/she changes service courts so that she/he serves to a different opponent each time.Scoring system and service 1. A consequence of this system is that. In doubles.1.

The side winning a game serves first in the next game. A to serve to C. When the server’s score is odd. Every time there is a serve – there is a point scored. In the third game. Singles o o o At the beginning of the game (0-0) and when the server’s score is even. The players do not change their respective service courts until they win a point when their side is serving. The service passes consecutively to the players as shown in the diagram. If the server wins a rally. If the receiving side wins a rally. the server serves from the left court. The receiving side becomes the new serving side. If the receiver wins a rally. A & B won the toss and decided to serve. If the serving side wins a rally. the side scoring the 30th point. the server serves from the right service court. and right if it is even. players have a 60 second interval. At 20 all. If players commit an error in the service court. Interval and Change of Ends o o o When the leading score reaches 11 points. wins that game. yet. A 2 minute interval between each game is allowed. he shall be judged to have been ready. players change ends when the leading score reaches 11 points. They serve from the appropriate service court – left if their score is odd. At 29 all. The side winning a rally adds a point to its score. the side which gains a 2 point lead first. the server scores a point and then serves again from the alternate service court. In a doubles match between A & B against C & D.Lets If a let is called. When it is odd. the receiving side scores a point. Lets may occur because of some unexpected disturbance such as a shuttlecock landing on court (having been hit there by players on an adjacent court) or in small halls the shuttle may touch an overhead rail which can be classed as a let. the error is corrected when the mistake is discovered. the server serves from the right service court. if the receiver attempts to return the shuttlecock. A shall be the initial server while C shall be the initial receiver . If the receiver is not ready when the service is delivered. the rally is stopped and replayed with no change to the score. a let shall be called. the receiver scores a point and becomes the new server. the serving side scores a point and the same server serves again from the alternate service court. At the beginning of the game and when the score is even. wins that game.\ Scoring System o o o o o o A match consists of the best of 3 games of 21 points. the server serves from the left service court. Doubles o o o o o o o o A side has only one ‘service’.

They are composed of many different materials ranging from carbon fibre composite (graphite reinforced plastic) to solid steel. but wooden racquets are no longer manufactured for the ordinary market. Different racquets have playing characteristics that appeal to different players.1. for a higher string tension can cause the shuttle to slide off the racquet and hence make it harder to hit a shot accurately. There is a wide variety of racquet designs. but an isometric head shape is increasingly common in new racquets. It is often argued that high string tensions improve control. typically between 80 and 110 N (18 and 25 lbf).73 mm thickness. the higher the tension for maximum power.72mm. An alternative view suggests that the optimum tension for power depends on the player:[11] the faster and more accurately a player can swing their racquet. racquets were made of wood. Professionals string between about 110 and 160 N (25 and 36 lbf). is stiff. but many players prefer the feel of thinner strings. Thicker strings are more durable. Recreational players generally string at lower tensions than professionals. . nor is there clear evidence in favour of one or the other. Before the adoption of carbon fibre composite. which may be augmented by a variety of materials. The most effective way for a player to find a good string tension is to experiment. Some string manufacturers measure the thickness of their strings under tension so they are actually thicker than specified when slack. whereas low string tensions increase power. and gives excellent kinetic energy transfer. String tension is normally in the range of 80 to 160 N (18 to 36 lbf). high performing strings in the range of about 0. Carbon fibre has an excellent strength to weight ratio. Ashaway Micropower is actually 0.2 EQUIPMENT Badminton racquets Racquets Badminton rackets are lightweight.[13] The arguments for this generally rely on crude mechanical reasoning.62 to 0. racquets were made of light metals such as aluminium.3 ounces) not including grip or strings. with top quality racquets weighing between 70 and 95 grams (2.7mm but Yonex BG-66 is about 0. Strings Badminton strings are thin. such as claiming that a lower tension string bed is more bouncy and therefore provides more power. This is in fact incorrect. The traditional oval head shape is still available. Neither view has been subjected to a rigorous mechanical analysis. Earlier still. because of their excessive mass and cost. although the laws limit the racquet size and shape. Cheap racquets are still often made of metals such as steel.4 to 3.

. sweatbands may be used.Grip The choice of grip allows a player to increase the thickness of his racquet handle and choose a comfortable surface to hold. with an open conical shape: the cone is formed from sixteen overlapping feathers embedded into a rounded cork base. and are often used as the final layer. Players often find that sweat becomes a problem. Grip choice is a matter of personal preference. There are two main types of grip: replacement grips and overgrips. overgrips are more convenient for players who change grips frequently. Replacement grips are thicker. and a plastic skirt. because they may be removed more rapidly without damaging the underlying material. in this case. Synthetic shuttles are often used by recreational players to reduce their costs as feathered shuttles break easily. The most common choices are PU synthetic grips or towelling grips. also called a birdie) is a high-drag projectile. whereas overgrips have only a small patch of adhesive at the start of the tape and must be applied under tension. and are often used to increase the size of the handle. A player may build up the handle with one or several grips before applying the final layer. Towelling grips are always replacement grips. Players may choose between a variety of grip materials. however. the player may choose another grip material or change his/her grip more frequently. Shuttlecocks with feathers A shuttlecock with a plastic skirt Shuttlecock Main article: Shuttlecock A shuttlecock (often abbreviated to shuttle. prefer to use replacement grips as the final layer. Many players. These nylon shuttles may be constructed with either natural cork or synthetic foam base. The cork is covered with thin leather or synthetic material. a drying agent may be applied to the grip or hands. Replacement grips have an adhesive backing. Overgrips are thinner (less than 1 mm).

it will encourage catastrophic collapse at the point where the shoe's support fails. nonmarking materials. requires powerful lateral movements. and players require a high level of skill to perform all of them effectively. 2006 Forehand and backhand Badminton offers a wide variety of basic strokes. lower a person's centre of gravity. players should choose badminton shoes rather than general trainers or running shoes. instead. Badminton. High levels of lateral support are useful for activities where lateral motion is undesirable and unexpected. 1.Shoes Badminton shoes are lightweight with soles of rubber or similar high-grip. and the player's ankles are not ready for the sudden loading. and therefore result in fewer injuries. badminton shoes have little lateral support. Forehand strokes are hit with the front of the hand leading (like hitting with the palm). Compared to running shoes. the forehand side is their right side and the backhand side is their left side. whereas backhand strokes are hit with the back of the hand leading (like hitting with . A player's forehand side is the same side as their playing hand: for a right-handed player. For this reason. because proper badminton shoes will have a very thin sole. All strokes can be played either forehand or backhand. which can cause sprains.3 STROKES A player flies high at the Golden Gate Badminton Club (GGBC) in Menlo Park. however. A highly built-up lateral support will not be able to protect the foot in badminton.

but in the rear court. and vice versa.the knuckles). a high shuttlecock will usually be met with a powerful smash. most strokes can be played equally effectively on either the forehand or backhand side. Second. The backhand clear is considered by most players and coaches to be the most difficult basic stroke in the game. If the shuttlecock has dropped lower. also hitting downwards and hoping for an outright winner or a weak reply. often preferring to play a round-the-head forehand overhead (a forehand "on the backhand side") rather than attempt a backhand overhead. hitting it steeply downwards and attempting to win the rally immediately. clears (hitting the shuttlecock high and to the back of the opponents' court). Philadelphia. restricting their view of them and the court. are a common and spectacular element of elite men's doubles play. high clear is difficult. 2009. The choice of stroke depends on how near the shuttlecock is to the net. players will attempt to play as many strokes as possible on their forehands. whether it is above net height. In the forecourt. then a smash is impossible and a full-length. backhand smashes tend to be weak. In the forecourt and midcourt. especially if it is also close to the net. backhand overheads cannot be hit with as much power as forehands: the hitting action is limited by the shoulder joint. and where an opponent is currently positioned: players have much better attacking options if they can reach the shuttlecock well above net height. This overhead hitting allows them to play smashes. In the rearcourt. players strive to hit the shuttlecock while it is still above them. a high shuttlecock will be met with a net kill. rather than allowing it to drop lower. For the same reason. where players jump upwards for a steeper smash angle. In the midcourt. the player must turn their back to their opponents. since precise technique is needed in order to muster enough power for the shuttlecock to travel the full length of the court. Athletic jump smashes. This is why it is best to drop the shuttlecock just over the net in this situation. First. Position of the shuttlecock and receiving player A player does a forehand service. and dropshots (hitting the shuttlecock so that it falls softly downwards into the opponents' forecourt). Players frequently play certain strokes on the forehand side with a backhand hitting action. which permits a much greater range of movement for a forehand overhead than for a backhand. . Playing a backhand overhead has two main disadvantages.

rather than choosing to lift the shuttlecock and defend against smashes. or a lift to the back of the service court. After a successful drive or push. In doubles. Lifted serves may be either high serves. Beyond the basics. In singles.A player prepares for a vertical jump smash Vertical position of the shuttlecock When the shuttlecock is well below net height. his only remaining option is to push the shuttlecock softly back to the net: in the forecourt this is called a netshot. the opponents will often be forced to lift the shuttlecock. but may be intercepted by the smasher's partner. and are most often used in doubles: they are an attempt to regain the attack. or flick serves. badminton offers rich potential for advanced stroke skills that provide a competitive advantage. If a player does not lift. which travel flat and rapidly over the net into the opponents' rear midcourt and rearcourt. block. powerfully and softly as required. Drives and pushes may be played from the midcourt or forecourt. Other factors When defending against a smash. however. because backhands are more effective than forehands at covering smashes directed to the body. Unlike in tennis. Lifts. When the shuttlecock is near to net height. Deception Once players have mastered these basic strokes. Hard shots directed towards the body are difficult to defend. or a flat drive serve. The service is restricted by the Laws and presents its own array of stroke choices. players have no choice but to hit upwards. players have three basic options: lift. a lift is the safest option but it usually allows the opponents to continue smashing. they can hit the shuttlecock from and to any part of the court. where the shuttlecock is hit upwards to the back of the opponents' court. or drive. where the shuttlecock is lifted to a lesser height but falls sooner. blocks and drives are counter-attacking strokes. placing the shuttlecock into the front midcourt. where the shuttlecock is lifted so high that it falls almost vertically at the back of the court. the server's racket must be pointing in a downward direction to deliver the serve so normally the shuttle must be hit upwards to pass over the net. Because badminton players have to cover a short distance as . can be played from all parts of the court. Many players use a backhand hitting action for returning smashes on both the forehand and backhand sides. players can hit drives. in the midcourt or rearcourt. The server can choose a low serve into the forecourt (like a push). Pushes may also be hit flatter. a block to the net is the most common reply. it is often called a push or block.

or he is forced to delay his movement until he actually sees the shuttle's direction. so that either he is tricked into believing that a different stroke is being played. A short hitting action is not only useful for deception: it also allows the player to hit powerful strokes when he has no time for a big arm swing. a singles player may hold his racquet ready for a netshot. sometimes the shuttlecock remains inverted instead of tumbling. For example. The main advantage of a spinning netshot is that the opponent will be unwilling to address the shuttlecock until it has stopped tumbling. Deception is not limited to slicing and short hitting actions. thereby maintaining the option to hit a powerful or a soft stroke until the last possible moment. Experienced players will be aware of the trick and cautious not to move too early. anticipating the stroke to gain an advantage. The use of grip tightening is crucial to these techniques.quickly as possible. In general. The racquet movement is typically used to suggest . a good crosscourt sliced dropshot will use a hitting action that suggests a straight clear or smash. he will often lose the point immediately because he cannot change his direction quickly enough to reach the shuttlecock. since hitting the feathers will result in an unpredictable stroke. a sliced low serve can travel slightly faster than a normal low serve. Spinning the shuttlecock is also used to create spinning netshots (also called tumbling netshots). whereas the former style is more common in the forecourt and midcourt (for example. obvious swing. for example. A big arm swing is also usually not advised in badminton because bigger swings make it more difficult to recover for the next shot in fast exchanges. The lightness of modern racquets allows players to use a very short hitting action for many strokes. an experienced player may move before the shuttlecock has been hit. in which the shuttlecock turns over itself several times (tumbles) before stabilizing. Slicing and using a shortened hitting action are the two main technical devices that facilitate deception. Against weaker players whose intended strokes are obvious. but the attempted deception is still useful because it forces the opponent to delay his movement slightly. For example. Players will often do this to send opponents in the wrong direction. A shallow lift takes less time to reach the ground and as mentioned above a rally is over when the shuttlecock touches the ground. deceiving the opponent about both the power and direction of the shuttlecock. "Deception" in badminton is often used in both of these senses. by making it dip more rapidly as it passes the net. by suggesting a powerful stroke before slowing down the hitting action to play a soft stroke. A more sophisticated slicing action involves brushing the strings around the shuttlecock during the hit. this latter style of deception is more common in the rearcourt (for example. This can be used to improve the shuttle's trajectory. Players may also use double motion. the purpose of many advanced strokes is to deceive the opponent. causing it to travel in a different direction than suggested by the body or arm movement. This makes the opponent's task of covering the whole court much more difficult than if the lift was hit higher and with a bigger. It is also possible to reverse this style of deception. Slicing also causes the shuttlecock to travel more slowly than the arm movement suggests. lifts disguised as netshots). but then flick the shuttlecock to the back instead with a shallow lift when she or he notices the opponent has moved before the actual shot was played. When a player is genuinely deceived. Elite players develop finger power to the extent that they can hit some power strokes. and is often described as finger power. where they make an initial racquet movement in one direction before withdrawing the racquet to hit in another direction. with less than a 10 cm (4 in) racquet swing. Slicing involves hitting the shuttlecock with an angled racquet face. yet land on the same spot. in order to make the shuttlecock spin. Spinning netshots are especially important for high level singles players. dropshots disguised as smashes). such as net kills.

This produces a smaller change in direction. . or vice versa. but does not require as much time. Triple motion is also possible. An alternative to double motion is to use a racquet head fake.a straight angle but then play the stroke cross court. where the initial motion is continued but the racquet is turned during the hit. but this is very rare in actual play.

they will use flat strokes in an attempt to gain the attack. which gives an opportunity to smash. he may move in the wrong direction and may be unable to change his body momentum in time to reach the shuttlecock. Deception is also important.4 STRATEGY To win in badminton. then the opponent's lift will not reach the back of the court. his partner will move into the forecourt to threaten the net reply. Flick serves are used to prevent the opponent from anticipating the low serve and attacking it decisively. and use slicing to deceive their opponents about the speed or direction of the stroke. in an attempt to prevent the opponents gaining the attack immediately. If an opponent tries to anticipate the stroke. to cover the full width of their court against the opponents' smashes. At high levels of play. which makes the subsequent smash much harder to return. May 2002 . Men's doubles is the most aggressive form of badminton. but setting up the smash requires subtler strokes. players need to employ a wide variety of strokes in the right situations. Whenever possible. A mixed doubles game – Scottish Schools under 12s tournament. and his partner in the midcourt intercepting all smash returns except the lift. If a pair is forced to lift or clear the shuttlecock. players generally smash to the middle ground between two players in order to take advantage of confusion and clashes. Doubles Both pairs will try to gain and maintain the attack.1. with a high proportion of powerful jump smashes. Tranent. a pair will adopt an ideal attacking formation with one player hitting down from the rearcourt. These range from powerful jumping smashes to delicate tumbling net returns. Expert players prepare for many different strokes that look identical. In doubles. a netshot can force the opponent to lift the shuttlecock. For example. the backhand serve has become popular to the extent that forehand serves have become fairly rare at a high level of play. The straight low serve is used most frequently. If the rearcourt attacker plays a dropshot. If a pair cannot hit downwards. If the netshot is tight and tumbling. At high levels of play. doubles rallies are extremely fast. Often rallies finish with a smash. smashing downwards when possible. then they must defend: they will adopt a side-by-side position in the rear midcourt.

singles demands extraordinary fitness. both pairs typically try to maintain an attacking formation with the woman at the front and the man at the back. Since one person needs to cover the entire court. As a result. but the same length. by forcing the woman towards the back or the man towards the front. and can therefore produce smashes that are more powerful. However. singles tactics are based on forcing the opponent to move as much as possible.[14] At high levels of play.5 GOVERNING BODIES The Badminton World Federation (BWF) is the internationally recognized governing body of the sport. unlike the all-out aggression of doubles. frequent smashing can be exhausting in singles where the conservation of a player's energy is at a premium. with the woman in front and men in the back. 1. Drive serves are rare. players will often start the rally with a forehand high serve or with a flick serve. Low serves are also used frequently. Players exploit the length of the court by combining lifts and clears with drop shots and net shots. In order to protect against this danger. Moreover. When the opportunity arises. Smashing tends to be less prominent in singles than in doubles because the smasher has no partner to follow up his effort and is thus vulnerable to a skillfully placed return. either forehand or backhand. Singles is a game of patient positional manoeuvring. the pair will switch back to the standard mixed attacking position. this means that singles strokes are normally directed to the corners of the court. the formations will generally be more flexible: the top women players are capable of playing powerfully from the back-court. This is because the male players are usually substantially stronger. and will happily do so if required. In singles. At high levels of play. Five regional confederations are associated with the BWF:      Asia: Badminton Asia Confederation (BAC) Africa: Badminton Confederation of Africa (BCA) Americas: Badminton Pan Am (North America and South America belong to the same confederation. and players commonly smash weak returns to try to end rallies. however. Clever opponents will try to reverse the ideal position. Mixed doubles In mixed doubles.Singles The singles court is narrower than the doubles court. mixed players must be careful and systematic in their shot selection. mixed doubles require greater tactical awareness and subtler positional play. players with strong smashes will sometimes use the shot to create openings. BPA) Europe: Badminton Europe (BE) Oceania: Badminton Oceania (BO) .

the women's equivalent first held in 1956–1957. Uber. the Olympics. women's doubles and singles. first held in 1900. first held in 1977. More than 50 national teams compete in qualifying tournaments within continental confederations for a place in the finals. which was once considered the unofficial world championships of the sport. In the BWF World Championships. began in 1989. and the Uber Cup. The final tournament involves 12 teams. and Sudirman Cups. including the Thomas Cup. following an increase from eight teams in 2004. the premier men's international team event first held in 1948–1949. currently only the highest ranked 64 players in the world. a gender-mixed international team event held once every two years. Teams are divided into seven levels based on the performance of each country. The other coloured lines denote uses for other sports – such complexity being common in multi-use sports halls. The Thomas. In both the Olympic and BWF World competitions restrictions on the number of participants from any one country have caused some controversy because they sometimes result in excluding elite world level players from the strongest badminton nations. At the start of 2007. It became an official Summer Olympic sport at the Barcelona Olympics in 1992 and its gold medals now generally rate as the sport's most coveted prizes for individual players. a tour for the world's elite players. The Sudirman Cup. This level two tournament series. Among the tournaments in this series is the venerable All-England Championships.1. The BWF organizes several international competitions. Badminton was a demonstration event in the 1972 and 1988 Summer Olympics. and the BWF World (and World Junior Championships). The blue lines are those for the badminton court.6 COMPETITIONS A men's doubles match. stages twelve open tournaments around the world with 32 players (half the previous limit). can participate in any category. The competitions take place once every two years. The players collect points that determine whether they can play in Super Series Final held at the year end. and mixed doubles). the BWF introduced a new tournament structure for the highest level tournaments aside from those in level one: the BWF Super Series. it features a promotion and relegation system in every level. and a maximum of four from each country. a country must perform well across all five disciplines (men's doubles and singles. are all categorized as level one tournaments.[15] . Like association football (soccer). To win the tournament.

[16] . The level four tournaments. known as International Challenge. encourage participation by junior players.Level three tournaments consist of Grand Prix Gold and Grand Prix event. Top players can collect the world ranking points and enable them to play in the BWF Super Series open tournaments. These include the regional competitions in Asia (Badminton Asia Championships) and Europe (European Badminton Championships). which produce the world's best players as well as the Pan America Badminton Championships. International Series and Future Series.

an elite player's swing may be less than 5 cm (2 in). If both team are tied for "game point". However. For strokes that require more power.7 COMPARISONS WITH OTHER RACQUET SPORTS Badminton is frequently compared to tennis. In tennis. This is a misconception and may be criticised for two reasons. the ball may bounce once before the player hits it.[24] . In badminton a server has far less advantage. 57 grams versus 5 grams.[21] whereas the fastest badminton stroke during gameplay was Fu Haifeng's 206 mph (332 km/h) recorded smash. but the badminton racket swing will rarely be as long as a typical tennis swing. if we assume both players are scoring "deuces". the forearm muscles control its movement. badminton players can generate power from a short racket swing: for some strokes such as net kills. not a muscle. the maximum point that a badminton game can go up to is 30 points. The tennis court is larger than the badminton court. For the same reasons.1.[17][18] Tennis balls are more than eleven times heavier than shuttlecocks. and indicate that the major contributions to power come from internal and external rotations of the upper and lower arm. is of major importance in a match. The following is a list of uncontentious comparisons:  In badminton a match consist of 3 games and each game is played up to 21 points. wrist movements are weak when compared to forearm or upper arm movements. but some studies confirm the minor role of the wrist in power generation. a break of service. In tennis. Tennis racquets are about four times as heavy as badminton racquets. the server is allowed two attempts to make a correct serve. the rally ends once the shuttlecock touches the floor. and playing with a mobile wrist may lead to injury.[23] Modern coaching resources such as the Badminton England Technique DVD reflect these ideas by emphasising forearm rotation rather than wrist movements.4 mph (263 km/h) serve. they must play until one team achieves a two point advantage. the server is allowed only one attempt. in badminton. then there is no maximum point. it is strictly speaking a category error: the wrist is a joint. In tennis. and is unlikely to score an 'ace' (unreturnable serve).[22]       Comparisons of technique Badminton and tennis techniques differ substantially. It is often asserted that power in badminton strokes comes mainly from the wrist. as the game must continue until a player receives a two point advantage to be declared the winner. in badminton. in tennis the wrist is normally held stable. the serve is dominant to the extent that the server is expected to win most of his service games (at advanced level & onwards). 10 – 12 ounces (approximately 284–340 grams) versus 2–3 ounces (70– 105 grams). First. Second. In tennis. The lightness of the shuttlecock and of badminton rackets allow badminton players to make use of the wrist and fingers much more than tennis players. Badminton biomechanics have not been the subject of extensive scientific study. In tennis a match consist of 6 games and each game is played up to 4 points. a longer swing will typically be used.[19][20] The fastest recorded tennis stroke is Samuel Groth's 163. where the server loses the game.

and some are particular to badminton. 1. since the shuttlecock is not allowed to bounce. it will turn to fly cork-first.7. (See Basic strokes for an explanation of technical terms. This can be used to create dropshots and smashes that dip more steeply after they pass the net. Slicing the shuttlecock from the side may cause it to follow a slightly curved path (as seen from above). The shuttlecock is also extremely aerodynamically stable: regardless of initial orientation. topspin and backspin in tennis). but. a shuttlecock also has a slight natural spin about its axis of rotational symmetry.7. slicing underneath the shuttlecock may cause it to turn over itself (tumble) several times as it passes the net. causing the shuttlecock to decelerate greatly over distance. When playing a netshot.1 Aerodynamic drag and stability The feathers impart substantial drag. This is used to deceive opponents.  Due to the way that its feathers overlap. which is not the case for most racquet sports.1. 1.2 Spin Balls may be spun to alter their bounce (for example. and the deceleration imparted by the spin causes sliced strokes to slow down more suddenly towards the end of their flight path. the shuttlecock may even fall vertically. The spin is in a counter-clockwise direction as seen from above when dropping a shuttlecock. The drag also influences the flight path of a lifted (lobbed) shuttlecock: the parabola of its flight is heavily skewed so that it falls at a steeper angle than it rises. This is called a spinning netshot or tumbling netshot. does have applications. and remain in the cork-first orientation. The opponent will be unwilling to address the shuttlecock until it has corrected its orientation. One consequence of the shuttlecock's drag is that it requires considerable skill to hit it the full length of the court.1. this does not apply to badminton. however. Slicing the shuttlecock so that it spins. With very high serves. and players may slice the ball (strike it with an angled racket face) to produce such spin.Distinctive characteristics of the shuttlecock The shuttlecock differs greatly from the balls used in most other racquet sports.)   Slicing the shuttlecock from the side may cause it to travel in a different direction from the direction suggested by the player's racket or body movement. .