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13-10-2013
7-11-2013

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17

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18

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noef;acgif,H (12)em&Dww
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d iG f &Sr;f ½d;k &mESpo
f pfuw
dk aysmfwyg;BudKqkMd uonf/ 'DZifbm
(3)&uf? eHeuf (7)em&DwiG f erfrh jrpfaus;&Gm? omoemh&u©w
d ausmif;wku
d üf yifo
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Yd m;vSLzG,0f w¬Kypön;f rsm;ESihf aeYqrG ;f qufuyfvLS 'gef;yGu
J v
dk nf;aumif;? eHeuf
(9)em&DwiG "f r®ygv"r®m½Hük &Sr;f wkid ;f &if;om;½d;k &mESpo
f pfu;l aeYtxdr;f trSwt
f crf;tem;ukd
xufolatmif
vnf;aumif; qufvufusif;ycJhaMumif;od&onf/

rEåav;awmif qkawmif;jynfUbk&m; a&TouFef;uyfvSL a&pufcsvSL'gef;
rEÅav;? 'DZifbm (23)
rEÅav;awmifawmfqkawmif;jynfhbk&m; pdefzl;awmf
iSufjrwfem;awmftxGwfwifvSLjcif;? xD;awmfa&TouFef;
uyfvSLjcif;? vkH;awmfjynfh a&TouFef;uyfvSL&ef Ak'¨gbd
aou bk&m;taeuZmwifr*Fvmudk 'DZifbm (19)
&uf? eHeuf (9)em&Du qkawmif;jynfhbk&m;&ifjyifawmf
ta&SUbufrkcftm½HkcHwefaqmif;twGif; usif;yonf/
tcrf;tem;okYd wdik ;f a'oBuD;tpd;k &tzGUJ rS wm0ef&o
dS l
rsm;? a*gyutzGUJ Ouú|ESihf tzGUJ 0ifrsm;? zdwMf um;xm;aom
yk*d¾Kvfrsm;? tvSL&Sifrsm;wufa&mufMuNyD; a&S;OD;pGm y&d
owfu rEÅav;awmifajcrd;k xdwu
kd f Edik if aH wmfMo0g'gp&d
,tbd"Zt*¾r[m o'´r®aZmwdu"Zpnfomausmif;
q&mawmfBuD;xHrS udk;yg;oDvcH,laqmufwnfMuNyD;
q&mawmfoHCmawmfrsm;tm; vSLzG,f0w¬Kypönf;rsm;
qufuyfvSL'gef;Muonf/
xkdYaemuf a*gyutzGJUOuú| OD;odef;xGef;u qk

awmif;jynfhapwDawmfBuD; a&TouFef;uyfvSLNyD;pD;rI jyKjyifvSL'gef;rIrsm;
avQmufxm;NyD; jyKjyKorQaumif;rItpkpkwkdYudk wuf a&mufMuaom
y&dowfESifhtvSL&Sifrsm;u a&T0g0if;ausmif;q&mawmf bk&m;BuD;xHrS
om"ktEkarm'emw&m;em,lNyD; a&pufoGef;cstrQ ay;a0Muonf/
ref ; BuD ;

19

vrf;yGifhrIpDrHudef;BuD;vnf;aoNyD
rmhu©0g'vnf;aoNyD
tvkyform;vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJvnf;aoNyD
. . . . .NyD;awmh pma&;q&m(ig)vnf;
aevkdYodyfraumif;bl;/
The Enlightemment is dead,
Marxism is dead,
The working class movement is dead,
--- and the author does not feel
very well either.

aMumif;uav;awmh enf;enf;jyefOD;rS/ tMurf;zsOf;yg/ tao;pdwfvnf;
uRefawmfrpGrf;aqmifEkdifbl;/ wu,fhyHkMurf;yg/
xxx

ae;vfprpf

owdjyKrdzkdYtcsufuawmh awmfawmfapmapmuwnf;u rmhufpf0g'
ukdjyKjyifajymif;vJvkdwJh yk*¾dKvfawG&SdcJhw,f/ taMumif;aemufcHtrsKd;rsKd;
awmh&Sdayraygh/ qkdMuygpkdY/ uRefawmfqkd&if q&mBuD;ocifpkd; &JUtawG;
tac:t,ltqawGpka0;&m tmPmopf*sme,f &JU&ifcGifrSm BuD;jyif;cJh
&wmyg/ q,fhav;ig;ESpfom;avmufuyJqkdygawmh/ i,fpOfuwnf;u
um;vfaumufpuD; Kautsky tuf'l0efbefpwkdif; Bernstain eJY
&JarBuD; ½dkqmvlZifbwf Luxemberg qkdwJhemrnfawGeJY&if;ESD;cJhw,f/

Neil Smith

'Dpmykd'fuav;oabmusvkdY ul;xm;wmMumNyD/ b,fuxJuvnf;
qdkwmawmif rrSwfrdawmhbl;/ oabmusw,fqkdwm ajymyHkqkdyHkuav;
uko
d abmuswmyg/ wjcm;[mawGrodygbl;/ 'gayr,fh rmhufpf0g'aoNyD
qkw
d mawmhowdjyKrdw,f/ tav;teufpOf;pm;rdw,f/ rmhufpf0g'rao
ao;ygbl;/ &Sdaeygao;w,f/ rmhuö0g'awmhr&Sdawmhbl;aygh/ (1883)?
rwf (14)&ufnaeapmif;rSmuG,v
f eG w
f ,f/ olUpma&;pm;yGrJ mS yJ uG,v
f eG f
w,fvkdYqkdMuw,f/ touf (65)ESpf/ olU&JabmfBuD;

xm0&vufwaJG zmfBuD;eJu
Y rÇmrSm yxrqH;k aom rmhupf 0f g'D Marxist jzpfwhJ
tdef*s,f Engels u ]]vlavmu&JUtBuD;jrwfqHk; awG;ac:ynm&SifBuD;
(1883)? rwf (14)&JU naeoHk;em&Drwfwif;rSm awG;ac:rI&yfqkdif;oGm;
NyD}}vkdYtokbtcrf;tem; olUtkwf*lab;rSmajymMum;cJhw,f/
(On the 14th of March, at a quarter to three in the afternoon, the greatest living thinker ceased to think . . . .)

rmhupf rf &Sad wmhb;l ? 'gayr,fh ]]rmhupf 0f g'0dÚmOf}}u&Sad ewke;f yJ/
uRefawmftJovkd ,HkMunfw,f/ 0dÚmOfqkdwm trsm;em;vnf
aewJh t"dyÜg,fr[kwfbl;/ ]]tawG;tac:t,ltq&JUMoZm}}
ukdqkdvkdw,f/ (wapäol&J? emembm00dÚmOfr[kwfbl;)/
xxx

(20)&mpkEpS t
f aESmif;ykid ;f rSm rmhupf 0f g'&JUt&Sed t
f 0g[m
taemufrmS odoo
d momusqif;vmw,f/ 'guk0d efc&H rSm
yJ/ ta&SUOa&mytkyfpkwGif;rSm qkdAD,uf½k&Sm;&JU Murf;
MuKwfpGmqufqHrIawG? AkdvfusrIawGeJY tm&SrSmawGUBuHK&
wJhawmfvSefa&;ratmifjrifrIawG? vufawGUbmrSjzpfrvm
wmawGaMumifh vuf0JurÇm? vuf0Javmu(vuf0Jukd,HkMunf
olawG)pdwfysufvufysuf jzpfvmMuw,f/ pdwfukefwJhtxd jzpfvmMu
w,f/ 'gayr,fh avmu&JU'd|"r®tajctae? vufawGUtajctaet&
vlawG[m rGJwkef;? iwfwkef;? rrQrwqufqHwmukd cHaeMu&wkef;?
vlUtcGifhta&;awG vufvGwfqHk;½IH;ae&wkef;yJjzpfaew,f/ wpfcGef;
wnf;ajym&&if qif;&JwiG ;f eufaeMuwke;f yJ/ 'DtajctaeawGrmS ykdYpfrmhufpf
0g'^ POST-MARXISM qkdwm wjznf;jznf;eJY ay:xGef;vmw,f/
vlUavmu&JUvufawGUb0eJ&Y if;NyD; ay:xGe;f vmwmukd ajym&rSmyJjzpfw,f/
xxx

pD;yGm;a&;t& vlwef;pm;wpf&yfu tjcm;vlwef;pm;trsm;pkBuD;ukd
zdESdyfcsKyfcs,faew,f/ aoG;pkyfaew,f/ acgif;yHkjzwf tjrwfBuD;pm;
aew,f/ txl;ojzifh pD;yGm;a&; (economic exploitation) yJjzpfw,f/
tay:pD;uae&m&xm;wJh t&if;&Sifvlwef;pm;eJY t&if;&Sifpepf (class/
system) awG[m tm;ykdBuD;vmw,f/ ykdrkdus,fjyefYvmw,f/ &yfwefYr,fh
t&dyfta,mifukdrjrif&bl;/ wpfzufuvnf; EkdifiHa&;t&zdESdyfrI (Political oppression) awGykdrsm;vmw,f/ txufuajymcJhovkd ]]qif;&J
wGif;}}ykdeufvmw,f/ uRefawmfwkdY&GmuvlawG em;,OfaewJhpum;eJY
ajym&&if vlxt
k rsm;pkBuD;[m (um,du'ku^© apwdou'ku)© (uk,
d q
f if;&J
jcif;^pdwfqif;&Jjcif;)awG ykdcHvm&w,f/
tJ't
D ajctaeqk;d BuD;u vGwaf jrmufzt
Ydk wGuf vGwaf jrmuf&mvrf;
ukjd yr,ft
h wG;tac:t,ltq (ideology)awGvt
dk yfvmw,f/ tJ't
D cgrSm
txufuajymcJhwJh ykdYpfrmhuö 0g'? Post Marxism ay:xGef;vmwmygyJ/
rmhufpf&JUtvGef^beyond Marxism vkv
Yd nf;ajymMuw,f/ New Marxism rmh u f p f 0 g'topf vkdYvnf; ac:Muw,f/
tcsdefumvacwfeJYtnD tqifajyEkdifr,fhtawG;tac: t,ltq
awGukd ynm&SifawGu awG;awmBuHqazmfxkwfvmMuw,f/ aemuf

20

rmhuö0g'ukdqefYusifwJh opömazmufavmufpuD;? opömazmufqefpukdif;?
opömazmuf½kdqmvlZifbwfvkdYyJ pGJrSwfcJhw,f/ touft&G,fBuD;&ifhvm
wmeJt
Y rQ pmzwfwmvnf; enf;enf;pHv
k mw,f/ jynf0h vmw,fvrYdk ajym
vkdygbl;/ enf;enf;pmpHkvmawmhrS rmhufpf0g'ukd pdwf&if;apwemrSefeJY
jyKjyifajymif;vJcsifoal wG&cdS w
hJ ,fqw
dk m enf;enf;oabmaygufvmw,f/
t&ifu tvum;vlBuD;awGqkdwJhtxd xifjrif,lqcJhwJh yk*¾dKvfawGukd
vnf; jyefpOf;pm;vmrdw,f/ yrmtm;jzifh vD,Gefxa&mhpuD; Leon
Trotsky eJY tvGefxufjrufxif&Sm;cJhwJh [efa*&DvlrsKd; rmhufpf0g'D vl ;
uyf pf George Lukacs (toHxu
G t
f rSeu
f vl;aumh&w
fS )hJ qkw
d yhJ *k Kd¾ vfBuD;
ESpfa,mufqkd&if (rmhufpf0g'avhvmol student of Marxism)awGtaeeJY
b,fvrdk S ypfy,fausmfvmT ;vkrYd &wJyh *k Kd¾ vfawGjzpfw,f/ wjcm;aomyk*Kd¾ vf
awG(uRefawmfwkdYqDrSm rmhufpf0g'avhvmolawG? uRefawmfhxuf ykduRrf;
usifem;vnfoal wGtygt0if) rmhupf 0f g'avhvmolawG&ydS gw,f/ olweYdk YJ
ywfoufvkdY b,fokdYb,fyHk uRefawmfra0zefvkdyg/ uRefawmfhudpövnf;
r[kwfyg/ uRefawmf tckajymvkd&if;uawmh rmhuö0g'ukd jyKjyifajymif;vJ
zkBYd udK;pm;cJMh uwJyh *k Kd¾ vfBuD;awGudk a,bk,stm;jzifh av;pm;vsuf&w
dS ,fqdk
wmygyJ/
xxx

arhusefvkdYrjzpfwJh aemufyk*¾dKvfwpfOD;uawmh tefwkdeD,kd*&GrfcsD
Antonio Gramci jzpfygw,f/ ausmfMum;vSwJh tDwvDrmhuö0g'DBuD;jzpf
ygw,f/ ajrxJyifv,fxJu ]]qm'DeD;,m; Sardinia uRef;rSmarG;zGm;cJh
w,f/ tmPmykdifawG&JU tusOf;axmifxJrSmyJ toufqHk;½IH;cJhw,f/
olvnf;yJ vl;uyfpfvkd aESmif;acwfrmhufpf0g'DawGtay:rSm MoZmouf

a&mufrIBuD;rm;cJhwJhyk*¾dKvfjzpfw,f/ axmifxJrSma&;cJhwJh ]]axmifrSwfpk
rsm;}} Prison Notebooks pmtkyf[m rmhuö0g'DawGrvGJraoGzwf&r,fh
usrf;pmtkyfjzpfygw,f/
xxx

tckqufajym&rSmuawmh tvGefausmfMum;vSwJh z&if h z wf * k d P f ;
The Frankfurt School jzpfygw,f/ qufvufyGm;rsm;vdkufpm;vkdwJh
vli,fav;rsm; tvG,w
f ul tpysKd;Ekid zf Ydk ed'gef;oabmavmufyJ &nf&,
G f
ygw,f/ qufvufyGm;rsm;avhvmMuapvkdygw,f/
(1923)ckEpS af vmufu *smreDEidk if ?H z&ifzh wf Frankfurt NrdKUrSm *smref
rmhuö0g'Dwpfpku ]]vlrIokawoetzGJUwpfzGJUukd zGJUvdkufMuw,f/ InYd c:w,f/ &ufpt
JG wdtusuawmh (1923)
stitute of Social Research vka
ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv (3)&ufaeYjzpfw,f/
Y zJG uf
rlvuawmh z&ifhzwfwuúokdvf University of Frankfurt eJw
xm;w,f/ wnfaxmifumpuawmh pD;yGm;a&;(abm*aA')taMumif;jcif;
&mawGukd tav;ay;tm½HkpdkufNyD; avhvmokawoejyKMuw,f/ (1930)

0ef;usifavmufrSm Max Horkheimer (1895-1973) qkdwJh
yk*¾dKvfu ñTefMum;a&;rSL;tjzpf wm0ef,laqmif&Gufw,f/
olUvufxufrmS tEkynm&oavhvmrIudk tm½Hk
pdkufvmw,f/ (1933)rSm ]]emZD}}Nazi awG
tmPm&vmw,f / ol w k d Y t zG J U aevk d Y r &Ek d i f
avmufatmif jzpfvmw,f/ 'gaMumifholwkdY
tzGJUukd qGpfZmvefEkdifiHukda&TUcJhw,f/ aemuf
wpfESpfrSm tar&duefjynfaxmifpkukd a&TUcJhw,f/
tJ'DrSmukdvHAD,m Columbia wuúokdvfeJYwGJzuf
xm;w,f / (1933)avmuf u pNyD ; (1950)
avmuftxd tar&duefrSm&SdaepOf wpfv
twGif; z&ifhzwf*kdPf;&JU okawoeavh
vmrIpwmawGrSm tvIyf&Sm;qHk;vkdYowf
rSwfMuw,f/ (1950)rSm *smreDukdjyefNyD; z&ifh
zwfNrdKUrSmtajccsw,f/ tJ'DtcsdefupNyD; z&ifh
zwf*kdPf;[mausmf Mum;rItxGwftxdyfa&mufcJhw,fvkdY qkdMuw,f/
txl;ojzifh urÇmUpmayavmueJY tawG;tac:avmurSm a0zefa&;oD
0&D Critical Theory, CT qkw
d hJ ynm&yfoabmw&m;rsm; azmfxw
k jf zpf
xGef;vmMuw,f/ csKyfajym&&if (1956)ckESpfaemufykdif; tar&duef
vuf 0 J o pf NEW LEFT tay:rSm rsm;pGmMoZmoufa&mufcJhw,f/
*smrefrmhufpf0g'D [m;Awf r musL Herbert Mercuse qkdwJhyk*¾dKvfBuD;
&JUMoZm[m tvGefBuD;rm;cJhw,f/ olUukd vuf0JopfwkdY&JUzcif^*k½kBuD;
Guru tjzpf owfrw
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d mMuw,f/ 'Dorkid ;f eJ'Y jD zpfpOfawG? 'Dy*k Kd¾ vf
awG[m rmhufpf0g'ukdacwfeJY avsmfnDpGmjyKjyifajymif;vJcsifwJh yk*¾dKvfawG
jzpfw,f/ wpfckaocsmwmu olwkdY[mrmhufpf0g'tajccHukd rpGefYy,fMu
bl;/ tar&duefrSm&SdpOfu olwkdYtvIyf&Sm;qHk;vkdYajymcJhygw,f/ olwkdYukd
vGwfvyfaomrmhuö0g'Drsm; vkYd ynmavmurSmac:qkMd uw,f/ qkv
d w
dk m
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ukd&JUwynfhtjzpfrcH,lMubl;/ tar&duefa&mufawmhvJ olwkdY[mvGwf
vyfaomrmhufpf0g'DawGtjzpf &yfwnfcJhMuw,f/
qufygrnf/
aZmf a Zmf a tmif
'DZifbm? (2013)

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quf wGJowif;&&Sdonf/
xufolatmif

25

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yk * d ¾ K vf r sm;? pd w f y nm&S i f r sm;? tif * sif e D

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qdkcsuftwGuf tusOf;axmifOya'udk jyifqifa&;qGJNyD;jzpfaMumif;ESifh
a&SUaecsKyf½kH;odkY ay;ydkYxm;aMumif;ajzMum;xm;onf[k rSwfom;rdygonf/

26

,mrsm;? vlrI0efxrf;tzGJUtpnf;rsm;? &Jt&m&SdBuD;rsm;? toufarG;0rf;
ausmif;ynm&Sifrsm;? tkyfcsKyfa&;t&m&SdBuD;rsm;? bmomjyefaumfr&Sif?
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tvkyf vkyf&aom tusOf;om;twef;tpm;wpfckwnf;tjzpfom xm;&Sd
cJhygonf/
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27

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Ref. Sett Maw
December 24
Via Dennis Tun

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